Abstract

The optical clearing method has been widely used for different spectral ranges where it provides tissue transparency. In this work, we observed the enhanced penetration of the terahertz waves inside biological samples (skin, kidney, and cornea) treated with glycerol solutions inducing changes of optical and dielectric properties. It was supported by the observed trend of free-to-bound water ratio measured by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method. The terahertz clearing efficiency was found to be less for diabetic samples than for normal ones. Results of the numerical simulation proved that pulse deformation is due to bigger penetration depth caused by the reduction of absorption and refraction at optical clearing.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (7)

O. A. Smolyanskaya, O. V. Kravtsenyuk, A. V. Panchenko, E. L. Odlyanitskiy, J. P. Guillet, O. P. Cherkasova, and M. K. Khodzitsky, “Study of blood plasma optical properties in mice grafted with Ehrlich carcinoma in the frequency range 0.1–1.0 THz,” Quantum Electron. 47(11), 1031–1040 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Carneiro, S. Carvalho, R. Henrique, L. Oliveira, and V. V. Tuchin, “Simple multimodal optical technique for evaluation of free/bound water and dispersion of human liver tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. He, K. Liu, C. Au, Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. PickWell-MacPherson, “Determination of terahertz permittivity of dehydrated biological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 62(23), 8882–8893 (2017).
[PubMed]

D. K. Tuchina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. B. Bucharskaya, E. A. Genina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Study of glycerol diffusion in skin and myocardium ex vivo under the conditions of developing alloxan-induced diabetes,” J Biomed Photonics Eng. 3(2), 020302 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kulya, N. S. Balbekin, I. V. Gredyuhina, M. V. Uspenskaya, A. P. Nechiporenko, and N. V. Petrov, “Computational terahertz imaging with dispersive objects,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(13), 1283–1288 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. S. Balbekin, M. S. Kulya, and N. V. Petrov, “Terahertz pulse time-domain holography in dispersive media,” Comput. Opt. 41(3), 348–355 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (9)

N. V. Petrov, M. S. Kulya, A. N. Tsypkin, V. G. Bespalov, and A. A. Gorodetsky, “Application of terahertz pulse time-domain holography for phase imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(3), 464–472 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. B. Perraud, J. Bou Sleiman, B. Recur, H. Balacey, F. Simoens, J. P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “Liquid index matching for 2D and 3D terahertz imaging,” Appl. Opt. 55(32), 9185–9192 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chawla, R. Chawla, and S. Jaggi, “Microvasular and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus: Distinct or continuum?” Indian J. Endocrinol. Metab. 20(4), 546–551 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Dutta, A. S. Bhalla, and R. Guo, “THz Imaging of Skin Burn: Seeing the Unseen-An Overview,” Adv. Wound Care (New Rochelle) 5(8), 338–348 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Nazarov, O. P. Cherkasova, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Study of the dielectric function of aqueous solutions of glucose and albumin by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Quantum Electron. 46(6), 488–495 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Shi, P. Shumyatsky, A. Rodríguez-Contreras, and R. Alfano, “Terahertz spectroscopy of brain tissue from a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 015014 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S. G. Kang, J. Heo, S. H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y. M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J. S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouchi, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-wave sensing of corneal tissue water content: In vivo sensing and imaging results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, Yu. P. Sinichkin, I. Yu. Yanina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical clearing of biological tissues: prospects of application in medical diagnostics and phototherapy,” Jour. Biomed. Photon. En. 1(1), 22–58 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. I. Zaytsev, A. A. Gavdush, N. V. Chernomyrdin, and S. O. Yurchenko, “Highly Accurate in Vivo Terahertz Spectroscopy of Healthy Skin: Variation of Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient Along the Human Body,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(5), 817–827 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. K. Tuchina, R. Shi, A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, D. Zhu, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Ex vivo optical measurements of glucose diffusion kinetics in native and diabetic mouse skin,” J. Biophotonics 8(4), 332–346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. S. Balbekin, M. S. Kulya, P. Yu. Rogov, and N. V. Petrov, “The modeling peculiarities of diffractive propagation of the broadband terahertz two-dimensional field,” Phys. Procedia 73, 49–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

A. A. Angeluts, A. V. Balakin, M. G. Evdokimov, M. N. Esaulkov, M. M. Nazarov, I. A. Ozheredov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, P. M. Solyankin, O. P. Cherkasova, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Characteristic responses of biological and nanoscale systems in the terahertz frequency range,” Quantum Electron. 44(7), 614–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kolesnikov, E. A. Kolesnikova, K. N. Kolesnikova, D. K. Tuchina, A. P. Popov, A. A. Skaptsov, M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. G. Terentyuk, and V. V. Tuchin, “THz monitoring of the dehydration of biological tissues affected by hyperosmotic agents,” Phys. Wave Phenom. 22(3), 169–176 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kolesnikov, E. A. Kolesnikova, A. P. Popov, M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vitro terahertz monitoring of muscle tissue dehydration under the action of hyperosmotic agents,” Quantum Electron. 44(7), 633–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, S. A. Koroleva, I. N. Fokina, S. I. Volodarskaya, E. V. Novitskaya, A. N. Perov, V. E. Karasik, and S. O. Yurchenko, “Medical diagnostics using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 486, 012014 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Petrov, A. A. Gorodetsky, and V. G. Bespalov, “Holography and phase retrieval in terahertz imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8846, 88460S (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

I. Schelkanova and V. Toronov, “Analysis of independent components obtained from functional near infrared data,” Proc. SPIE 8222, 82220V (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

E. P. J. Parrott, S. M. Y. Sy, T. Blu, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo: measurements and processing methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for Terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

G. Wolf, N. Müller, M. Busch, G. Eidner, C. Kloos, W. Hunger-Battefeld, and U. A. Müller, “Diabetic foot syndrome and renal function in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus show close association,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 24(6), 1896–1901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

V. G. Bespalov, A. A. Gorodetskiĭ, I. Yu. Denisyuk, S. A. Kozlov, V. N. Krylov, G. V. Lukomskiĭ, N. V. Petrov, and S. É. Putilin, “Methods of generating superbroadband terahertz pulses with femtosecond lasers,” J. Opt. Technol. 75(10), 636–642 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Fowler, “Microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes,” Clin. Diabetes 26(2), 77–82 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, E. A. Kuleshov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Quantum Electron. 38(7), 647–654 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, E. A. Kuleshov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Quantum Electron. 38(7), 647–654 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

C. A. Grillo, K. L. Tamashiro, G. G. Piroli, S. Melhorn, J. T. Gass, R. J. Newsom, L. R. Reznikov, A. Smith, S. P. Wilson, R. R. Sakai, and L. P. Reagan, “Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of hypothalamic insulin receptor expression,” Physiol. Behav. 92(4), 691–701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wolf, N. Müller, A. Mandecka, and U. A. Müller, “Association of diabetic retinopathy and renal function in patients with types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus,” Clin. Nephrol. 68(08), 81–86 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

Q. Wu and X.-Ch. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(24), 3523–3525 (1995).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

T. Conlon and R. Outhred, “Water diffusion permeability of erythrocytes using an NMR technique,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 288(2), 354–361 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abbott, D.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alfano, R.

L. Shi, P. Shumyatsky, A. Rodríguez-Contreras, and R. Alfano, “Terahertz spectroscopy of brain tissue from a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 015014 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angeluts, A. A.

A. A. Angeluts, A. V. Balakin, M. G. Evdokimov, M. N. Esaulkov, M. M. Nazarov, I. A. Ozheredov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, P. M. Solyankin, O. P. Cherkasova, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Characteristic responses of biological and nanoscale systems in the terahertz frequency range,” Quantum Electron. 44(7), 614–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appleby, R.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Au, C.

Y. He, K. Liu, C. Au, Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. PickWell-MacPherson, “Determination of terahertz permittivity of dehydrated biological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 62(23), 8882–8893 (2017).
[PubMed]

Axel Zeitler, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bajwa, N.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-wave sensing of corneal tissue water content: In vivo sensing and imaging results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balacey, H.

Balakin, A. V.

A. A. Angeluts, A. V. Balakin, M. G. Evdokimov, M. N. Esaulkov, M. M. Nazarov, I. A. Ozheredov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, P. M. Solyankin, O. P. Cherkasova, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Characteristic responses of biological and nanoscale systems in the terahertz frequency range,” Quantum Electron. 44(7), 614–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Balbekin, N. S.

M. S. Kulya, N. S. Balbekin, I. V. Gredyuhina, M. V. Uspenskaya, A. P. Nechiporenko, and N. V. Petrov, “Computational terahertz imaging with dispersive objects,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(13), 1283–1288 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. S. Balbekin, M. S. Kulya, and N. V. Petrov, “Terahertz pulse time-domain holography in dispersive media,” Comput. Opt. 41(3), 348–355 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. S. Balbekin, M. S. Kulya, P. Yu. Rogov, and N. V. Petrov, “The modeling peculiarities of diffractive propagation of the broadband terahertz two-dimensional field,” Phys. Procedia 73, 49–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bartels, A.

Bashkatov, A. N.

D. K. Tuchina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. B. Bucharskaya, E. A. Genina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Study of glycerol diffusion in skin and myocardium ex vivo under the conditions of developing alloxan-induced diabetes,” J Biomed Photonics Eng. 3(2), 020302 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. K. Tuchina, R. Shi, A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, D. Zhu, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Ex vivo optical measurements of glucose diffusion kinetics in native and diabetic mouse skin,” J. Biophotonics 8(4), 332–346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, Yu. P. Sinichkin, I. Yu. Yanina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical clearing of biological tissues: prospects of application in medical diagnostics and phototherapy,” Jour. Biomed. Photon. En. 1(1), 22–58 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bastian, G.

Bauer, T.

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beck, M.

Bennett, D. B.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-wave sensing of corneal tissue water content: In vivo sensing and imaging results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for Terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bespalov, V. G.

N. V. Petrov, M. S. Kulya, A. N. Tsypkin, V. G. Bespalov, and A. A. Gorodetsky, “Application of terahertz pulse time-domain holography for phase imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(3), 464–472 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. V. Petrov, A. A. Gorodetsky, and V. G. Bespalov, “Holography and phase retrieval in terahertz imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8846, 88460S (2013).
[Crossref]

V. G. Bespalov, A. A. Gorodetskiĭ, I. Yu. Denisyuk, S. A. Kozlov, V. N. Krylov, G. V. Lukomskiĭ, N. V. Petrov, and S. É. Putilin, “Methods of generating superbroadband terahertz pulses with femtosecond lasers,” J. Opt. Technol. 75(10), 636–642 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bhalla, A. S.

M. Dutta, A. S. Bhalla, and R. Guo, “THz Imaging of Skin Burn: Seeing the Unseen-An Overview,” Adv. Wound Care (New Rochelle) 5(8), 338–348 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blu, T.

E. P. J. Parrott, S. M. Y. Sy, T. Blu, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo: measurements and processing methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booske, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bou Sleiman, J.

Brown, E. R.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-wave sensing of corneal tissue water content: In vivo sensing and imaging results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for Terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bucharskaya, A. B.

D. K. Tuchina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. B. Bucharskaya, E. A. Genina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Study of glycerol diffusion in skin and myocardium ex vivo under the conditions of developing alloxan-induced diabetes,” J Biomed Photonics Eng. 3(2), 020302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Busch, M.

G. Wolf, N. Müller, M. Busch, G. Eidner, C. Kloos, W. Hunger-Battefeld, and U. A. Müller, “Diabetic foot syndrome and renal function in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus show close association,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 24(6), 1896–1901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carneiro, I.

I. Carneiro, S. Carvalho, R. Henrique, L. Oliveira, and V. V. Tuchin, “Simple multimodal optical technique for evaluation of free/bound water and dispersion of human liver tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carvalho, S.

I. Carneiro, S. Carvalho, R. Henrique, L. Oliveira, and V. V. Tuchin, “Simple multimodal optical technique for evaluation of free/bound water and dispersion of human liver tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro-Camus, E.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chang, J. H.

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S. G. Kang, J. Heo, S. H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y. M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J. S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chawla, A.

A. Chawla, R. Chawla, and S. Jaggi, “Microvasular and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus: Distinct or continuum?” Indian J. Endocrinol. Metab. 20(4), 546–551 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chawla, R.

A. Chawla, R. Chawla, and S. Jaggi, “Microvasular and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus: Distinct or continuum?” Indian J. Endocrinol. Metab. 20(4), 546–551 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. N.

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cherkasova, O. P.

O. A. Smolyanskaya, O. V. Kravtsenyuk, A. V. Panchenko, E. L. Odlyanitskiy, J. P. Guillet, O. P. Cherkasova, and M. K. Khodzitsky, “Study of blood plasma optical properties in mice grafted with Ehrlich carcinoma in the frequency range 0.1–1.0 THz,” Quantum Electron. 47(11), 1031–1040 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. M. Nazarov, O. P. Cherkasova, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Study of the dielectric function of aqueous solutions of glucose and albumin by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Quantum Electron. 46(6), 488–495 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. A. Angeluts, A. V. Balakin, M. G. Evdokimov, M. N. Esaulkov, M. M. Nazarov, I. A. Ozheredov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, P. M. Solyankin, O. P. Cherkasova, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Characteristic responses of biological and nanoscale systems in the terahertz frequency range,” Quantum Electron. 44(7), 614–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chernomyrdin, N. V.

K. I. Zaytsev, A. A. Gavdush, N. V. Chernomyrdin, and S. O. Yurchenko, “Highly Accurate in Vivo Terahertz Spectroscopy of Healthy Skin: Variation of Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient Along the Human Body,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(5), 817–827 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. W.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S. G. Kang, J. Heo, S. H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y. M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J. S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clarke, R.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cocker, T. L.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conlon, T.

T. Conlon and R. Outhred, “Water diffusion permeability of erythrocytes using an NMR technique,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 288(2), 354–361 (1972).
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Itsuji, T.

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouchi, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
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Klatt, G.

Kloos, C.

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Kubota, O.

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S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Lukomskii, G. V.

Luo, Q.

D. K. Tuchina, R. Shi, A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, D. Zhu, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Ex vivo optical measurements of glucose diffusion kinetics in native and diabetic mouse skin,” J. Biophotonics 8(4), 332–346 (2015).
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D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 732–757 (2013).
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Luo, Y.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macpherson, E. P.

Q. Sun, Y. He, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. P. Macpherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 1–2 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mandecka, A.

G. Wolf, N. Müller, A. Mandecka, and U. A. Müller, “Association of diabetic retinopathy and renal function in patients with types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus,” Clin. Nephrol. 68(08), 81–86 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mao, Z.

X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markelz, A. G.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Melhorn, S.

C. A. Grillo, K. L. Tamashiro, G. G. Piroli, S. Melhorn, J. T. Gass, R. J. Newsom, L. R. Reznikov, A. Smith, S. P. Wilson, R. R. Sakai, and L. P. Reagan, “Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of hypothalamic insulin receptor expression,” Physiol. Behav. 92(4), 691–701 (2007).
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K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
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Mickan, S. P.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mounaix, P.

Müller, N.

G. Wolf, N. Müller, M. Busch, G. Eidner, C. Kloos, W. Hunger-Battefeld, and U. A. Müller, “Diabetic foot syndrome and renal function in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus show close association,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 24(6), 1896–1901 (2009).
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G. Wolf, N. Müller, A. Mandecka, and U. A. Müller, “Association of diabetic retinopathy and renal function in patients with types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus,” Clin. Nephrol. 68(08), 81–86 (2007).
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Müller, U. A.

G. Wolf, N. Müller, M. Busch, G. Eidner, C. Kloos, W. Hunger-Battefeld, and U. A. Müller, “Diabetic foot syndrome and renal function in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus show close association,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 24(6), 1896–1901 (2009).
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G. Wolf, N. Müller, A. Mandecka, and U. A. Müller, “Association of diabetic retinopathy and renal function in patients with types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus,” Clin. Nephrol. 68(08), 81–86 (2007).
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Naftaly, M.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Nahar, N. K.

W. G. Yeo, N. K. Nahar, C. L. Hitchcock, S. Park, O. Gurel, and K. Sertel, “Real-time THz imaging of human tissue characteristics and cancer margins,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 1–2 (2013).
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Nazarov, M. M.

M. M. Nazarov, O. P. Cherkasova, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Study of the dielectric function of aqueous solutions of glucose and albumin by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Quantum Electron. 46(6), 488–495 (2016).
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A. S. Kolesnikov, E. A. Kolesnikova, A. P. Popov, M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vitro terahertz monitoring of muscle tissue dehydration under the action of hyperosmotic agents,” Quantum Electron. 44(7), 633–640 (2014).
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A. S. Kolesnikov, E. A. Kolesnikova, K. N. Kolesnikova, D. K. Tuchina, A. P. Popov, A. A. Skaptsov, M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. G. Terentyuk, and V. V. Tuchin, “THz monitoring of the dehydration of biological tissues affected by hyperosmotic agents,” Phys. Wave Phenom. 22(3), 169–176 (2014).
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A. A. Angeluts, A. V. Balakin, M. G. Evdokimov, M. N. Esaulkov, M. M. Nazarov, I. A. Ozheredov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, P. M. Solyankin, O. P. Cherkasova, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Characteristic responses of biological and nanoscale systems in the terahertz frequency range,” Quantum Electron. 44(7), 614–632 (2014).
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M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, E. A. Kuleshov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Quantum Electron. 38(7), 647–654 (2008).
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M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, E. A. Kuleshov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Quantum Electron. 38(7), 647–654 (2008).
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Nechiporenko, A. P.

M. S. Kulya, N. S. Balbekin, I. V. Gredyuhina, M. V. Uspenskaya, A. P. Nechiporenko, and N. V. Petrov, “Computational terahertz imaging with dispersive objects,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(13), 1283–1288 (2017).
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Newsom, R. J.

C. A. Grillo, K. L. Tamashiro, G. G. Piroli, S. Melhorn, J. T. Gass, R. J. Newsom, L. R. Reznikov, A. Smith, S. P. Wilson, R. R. Sakai, and L. P. Reagan, “Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of hypothalamic insulin receptor expression,” Physiol. Behav. 92(4), 691–701 (2007).
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Ng, B. W.-H.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
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Novitskaya, E. V.

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, S. A. Koroleva, I. N. Fokina, S. I. Volodarskaya, E. V. Novitskaya, A. N. Perov, V. E. Karasik, and S. O. Yurchenko, “Medical diagnostics using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 486, 012014 (2014).
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Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-wave sensing of corneal tissue water content: In vivo sensing and imaging results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
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Odlyanitskiy, E. L.

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Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S. G. Kang, J. Heo, S. H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y. M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J. S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
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Oliveira, L.

I. Carneiro, S. Carvalho, R. Henrique, L. Oliveira, and V. V. Tuchin, “Simple multimodal optical technique for evaluation of free/bound water and dispersion of human liver tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–10 (2017).
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Ouchi, T.

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouchi, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
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T. Conlon and R. Outhred, “Water diffusion permeability of erythrocytes using an NMR technique,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 288(2), 354–361 (1972).
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Ozheredov, I. A.

A. A. Angeluts, A. V. Balakin, M. G. Evdokimov, M. N. Esaulkov, M. M. Nazarov, I. A. Ozheredov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, P. M. Solyankin, O. P. Cherkasova, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Characteristic responses of biological and nanoscale systems in the terahertz frequency range,” Quantum Electron. 44(7), 614–632 (2014).
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Panchenko, A. V.

O. A. Smolyanskaya, O. V. Kravtsenyuk, A. V. Panchenko, E. L. Odlyanitskiy, J. P. Guillet, O. P. Cherkasova, and M. K. Khodzitsky, “Study of blood plasma optical properties in mice grafted with Ehrlich carcinoma in the frequency range 0.1–1.0 THz,” Quantum Electron. 47(11), 1031–1040 (2017).
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Paoloni, C.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Pardo, D.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, S.

W. G. Yeo, N. K. Nahar, C. L. Hitchcock, S. Park, O. Gurel, and K. Sertel, “Real-time THz imaging of human tissue characteristics and cancer margins,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 1–2 (2013).
[Crossref]

Parrott, E. P. J.

Y. He, K. Liu, C. Au, Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. PickWell-MacPherson, “Determination of terahertz permittivity of dehydrated biological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 62(23), 8882–8893 (2017).
[PubMed]

E. P. J. Parrott, S. M. Y. Sy, T. Blu, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo: measurements and processing methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Sun, Y. He, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. P. Macpherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 1–2 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pepper, M.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perov, A. N.

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, S. A. Koroleva, I. N. Fokina, S. I. Volodarskaya, E. V. Novitskaya, A. N. Perov, V. E. Karasik, and S. O. Yurchenko, “Medical diagnostics using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 486, 012014 (2014).
[Crossref]

Perraud, J. B.

Petrov, N. V.

M. S. Kulya, N. S. Balbekin, I. V. Gredyuhina, M. V. Uspenskaya, A. P. Nechiporenko, and N. V. Petrov, “Computational terahertz imaging with dispersive objects,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(13), 1283–1288 (2017).
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N. S. Balbekin, M. S. Kulya, and N. V. Petrov, “Terahertz pulse time-domain holography in dispersive media,” Comput. Opt. 41(3), 348–355 (2017).
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N. V. Petrov, M. S. Kulya, A. N. Tsypkin, V. G. Bespalov, and A. A. Gorodetsky, “Application of terahertz pulse time-domain holography for phase imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(3), 464–472 (2016).
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N. S. Balbekin, M. S. Kulya, P. Yu. Rogov, and N. V. Petrov, “The modeling peculiarities of diffractive propagation of the broadband terahertz two-dimensional field,” Phys. Procedia 73, 49–53 (2015).
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N. V. Petrov, A. A. Gorodetsky, and V. G. Bespalov, “Holography and phase retrieval in terahertz imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8846, 88460S (2013).
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V. G. Bespalov, A. A. Gorodetskiĭ, I. Yu. Denisyuk, S. A. Kozlov, V. N. Krylov, G. V. Lukomskiĭ, N. V. Petrov, and S. É. Putilin, “Methods of generating superbroadband terahertz pulses with femtosecond lasers,” J. Opt. Technol. 75(10), 636–642 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PickWell-MacPherson, E.

Y. He, K. Liu, C. Au, Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. PickWell-MacPherson, “Determination of terahertz permittivity of dehydrated biological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 62(23), 8882–8893 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. P. J. Parrott, S. M. Y. Sy, T. Blu, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo: measurements and processing methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piroli, G. G.

C. A. Grillo, K. L. Tamashiro, G. G. Piroli, S. Melhorn, J. T. Gass, R. J. Newsom, L. R. Reznikov, A. Smith, S. P. Wilson, R. R. Sakai, and L. P. Reagan, “Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of hypothalamic insulin receptor expression,” Physiol. Behav. 92(4), 691–701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Png, G. M.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popov, A. P.

A. S. Kolesnikov, E. A. Kolesnikova, A. P. Popov, M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vitro terahertz monitoring of muscle tissue dehydration under the action of hyperosmotic agents,” Quantum Electron. 44(7), 633–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kolesnikov, E. A. Kolesnikova, K. N. Kolesnikova, D. K. Tuchina, A. P. Popov, A. A. Skaptsov, M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. G. Terentyuk, and V. V. Tuchin, “THz monitoring of the dehydration of biological tissues affected by hyperosmotic agents,” Phys. Wave Phenom. 22(3), 169–176 (2014).
[Crossref]

Putilin, S. É.

Qiao, W.

Rea, S.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Reagan, L. P.

C. A. Grillo, K. L. Tamashiro, G. G. Piroli, S. Melhorn, J. T. Gass, R. J. Newsom, L. R. Reznikov, A. Smith, S. P. Wilson, R. R. Sakai, and L. P. Reagan, “Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of hypothalamic insulin receptor expression,” Physiol. Behav. 92(4), 691–701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Recur, B.

Renaud, C.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Reshetov, I. V.

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
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Reznikov, L. R.

C. A. Grillo, K. L. Tamashiro, G. G. Piroli, S. Melhorn, J. T. Gass, R. J. Newsom, L. R. Reznikov, A. Smith, S. P. Wilson, R. R. Sakai, and L. P. Reagan, “Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of hypothalamic insulin receptor expression,” Physiol. Behav. 92(4), 691–701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ridler, N.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rodríguez-Contreras, A.

L. Shi, P. Shumyatsky, A. Rodríguez-Contreras, and R. Alfano, “Terahertz spectroscopy of brain tissue from a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 015014 (2016).
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Rogov, P. Yu.

N. S. Balbekin, M. S. Kulya, P. Yu. Rogov, and N. V. Petrov, “The modeling peculiarities of diffractive propagation of the broadband terahertz two-dimensional field,” Phys. Procedia 73, 49–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

Roskos, H. G.

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, R. R.

C. A. Grillo, K. L. Tamashiro, G. G. Piroli, S. Melhorn, J. T. Gass, R. J. Newsom, L. R. Reznikov, A. Smith, S. P. Wilson, R. R. Sakai, and L. P. Reagan, “Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of hypothalamic insulin receptor expression,” Physiol. Behav. 92(4), 691–701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sapozhnikov, D. A.

A. A. Angeluts, A. V. Balakin, M. G. Evdokimov, M. N. Esaulkov, M. M. Nazarov, I. A. Ozheredov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, P. M. Solyankin, O. P. Cherkasova, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Characteristic responses of biological and nanoscale systems in the terahertz frequency range,” Quantum Electron. 44(7), 614–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sayre, J. W.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-wave sensing of corneal tissue water content: In vivo sensing and imaging results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schelkanova, I.

I. Schelkanova and V. Toronov, “Analysis of independent components obtained from functional near infrared data,” Proc. SPIE 8222, 82220V (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Seeds, A.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Sertel, K.

W. G. Yeo, N. K. Nahar, C. L. Hitchcock, S. Park, O. Gurel, and K. Sertel, “Real-time THz imaging of human tissue characteristics and cancer margins,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 1–2 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shams, H.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shi, L.

L. Shi, P. Shumyatsky, A. Rodríguez-Contreras, and R. Alfano, “Terahertz spectroscopy of brain tissue from a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 015014 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, R.

D. K. Tuchina, R. Shi, A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, D. Zhu, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Ex vivo optical measurements of glucose diffusion kinetics in native and diabetic mouse skin,” J. Biophotonics 8(4), 332–346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shkurinov, A. P.

M. M. Nazarov, O. P. Cherkasova, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Study of the dielectric function of aqueous solutions of glucose and albumin by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Quantum Electron. 46(6), 488–495 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kolesnikov, E. A. Kolesnikova, A. P. Popov, M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vitro terahertz monitoring of muscle tissue dehydration under the action of hyperosmotic agents,” Quantum Electron. 44(7), 633–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kolesnikov, E. A. Kolesnikova, K. N. Kolesnikova, D. K. Tuchina, A. P. Popov, A. A. Skaptsov, M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. G. Terentyuk, and V. V. Tuchin, “THz monitoring of the dehydration of biological tissues affected by hyperosmotic agents,” Phys. Wave Phenom. 22(3), 169–176 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. A. Angeluts, A. V. Balakin, M. G. Evdokimov, M. N. Esaulkov, M. M. Nazarov, I. A. Ozheredov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, P. M. Solyankin, O. P. Cherkasova, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Characteristic responses of biological and nanoscale systems in the terahertz frequency range,” Quantum Electron. 44(7), 614–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, E. A. Kuleshov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Quantum Electron. 38(7), 647–654 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, E. A. Kuleshov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Quantum Electron. 38(7), 647–654 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shumyatsky, P.

L. Shi, P. Shumyatsky, A. Rodríguez-Contreras, and R. Alfano, “Terahertz spectroscopy of brain tissue from a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 015014 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sibik, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Siebert, K.

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simoens, F.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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J. B. Perraud, J. Bou Sleiman, B. Recur, H. Balacey, F. Simoens, J. P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “Liquid index matching for 2D and 3D terahertz imaging,” Appl. Opt. 55(32), 9185–9192 (2016).
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Singh, R. S.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sinichkin, Yu. P.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, Yu. P. Sinichkin, I. Yu. Yanina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical clearing of biological tissues: prospects of application in medical diagnostics and phototherapy,” Jour. Biomed. Photon. En. 1(1), 22–58 (2015).
[Crossref]

Skaptsov, A. A.

A. S. Kolesnikov, E. A. Kolesnikova, K. N. Kolesnikova, D. K. Tuchina, A. P. Popov, A. A. Skaptsov, M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. G. Terentyuk, and V. V. Tuchin, “THz monitoring of the dehydration of biological tissues affected by hyperosmotic agents,” Phys. Wave Phenom. 22(3), 169–176 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smith, A.

C. A. Grillo, K. L. Tamashiro, G. G. Piroli, S. Melhorn, J. T. Gass, R. J. Newsom, L. R. Reznikov, A. Smith, S. P. Wilson, R. R. Sakai, and L. P. Reagan, “Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of hypothalamic insulin receptor expression,” Physiol. Behav. 92(4), 691–701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smolyanskaya, O. A.

O. A. Smolyanskaya, O. V. Kravtsenyuk, A. V. Panchenko, E. L. Odlyanitskiy, J. P. Guillet, O. P. Cherkasova, and M. K. Khodzitsky, “Study of blood plasma optical properties in mice grafted with Ehrlich carcinoma in the frequency range 0.1–1.0 THz,” Quantum Electron. 47(11), 1031–1040 (2017).
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Solyankin, P. M.

A. A. Angeluts, A. V. Balakin, M. G. Evdokimov, M. N. Esaulkov, M. M. Nazarov, I. A. Ozheredov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, P. M. Solyankin, O. P. Cherkasova, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Characteristic responses of biological and nanoscale systems in the terahertz frequency range,” Quantum Electron. 44(7), 614–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Son, H. Y.

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S. G. Kang, J. Heo, S. H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y. M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J. S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
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Song, S.

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S. G. Kang, J. Heo, S. H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y. M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J. S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stöhr, A.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Stojadinovic, A.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suh, J. S.

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S. G. Kang, J. Heo, S. H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y. M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J. S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Q.

Y. He, K. Liu, C. Au, Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. PickWell-MacPherson, “Determination of terahertz permittivity of dehydrated biological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 62(23), 8882–8893 (2017).
[PubMed]

Q. Sun, Y. He, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. P. Macpherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 1–2 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sung, S.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-wave sensing of corneal tissue water content: In vivo sensing and imaging results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sy, S. M. Y.

E. P. J. Parrott, S. M. Y. Sy, T. Blu, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo: measurements and processing methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamashiro, K. L.

C. A. Grillo, K. L. Tamashiro, G. G. Piroli, S. Melhorn, J. T. Gass, R. J. Newsom, L. R. Reznikov, A. Smith, S. P. Wilson, R. R. Sakai, and L. P. Reagan, “Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of hypothalamic insulin receptor expression,” Physiol. Behav. 92(4), 691–701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, Z. D.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-wave sensing of corneal tissue water content: In vivo sensing and imaging results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for Terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terentyuk, A. G.

A. S. Kolesnikov, E. A. Kolesnikova, K. N. Kolesnikova, D. K. Tuchina, A. P. Popov, A. A. Skaptsov, M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. G. Terentyuk, and V. V. Tuchin, “THz monitoring of the dehydration of biological tissues affected by hyperosmotic agents,” Phys. Wave Phenom. 22(3), 169–176 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tewari, P.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-wave sensing of corneal tissue water content: In vivo sensing and imaging results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toronov, V.

I. Schelkanova and V. Toronov, “Analysis of independent components obtained from functional near infrared data,” Proc. SPIE 8222, 82220V (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsypkin, A. N.

N. V. Petrov, M. S. Kulya, A. N. Tsypkin, V. G. Bespalov, and A. A. Gorodetsky, “Application of terahertz pulse time-domain holography for phase imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(3), 464–472 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tuchin, V. V.

D. K. Tuchina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. B. Bucharskaya, E. A. Genina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Study of glycerol diffusion in skin and myocardium ex vivo under the conditions of developing alloxan-induced diabetes,” J Biomed Photonics Eng. 3(2), 020302 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Carneiro, S. Carvalho, R. Henrique, L. Oliveira, and V. V. Tuchin, “Simple multimodal optical technique for evaluation of free/bound water and dispersion of human liver tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Tuchina, R. Shi, A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, D. Zhu, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Ex vivo optical measurements of glucose diffusion kinetics in native and diabetic mouse skin,” J. Biophotonics 8(4), 332–346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, Yu. P. Sinichkin, I. Yu. Yanina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical clearing of biological tissues: prospects of application in medical diagnostics and phototherapy,” Jour. Biomed. Photon. En. 1(1), 22–58 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kolesnikov, E. A. Kolesnikova, K. N. Kolesnikova, D. K. Tuchina, A. P. Popov, A. A. Skaptsov, M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. G. Terentyuk, and V. V. Tuchin, “THz monitoring of the dehydration of biological tissues affected by hyperosmotic agents,” Phys. Wave Phenom. 22(3), 169–176 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kolesnikov, E. A. Kolesnikova, A. P. Popov, M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vitro terahertz monitoring of muscle tissue dehydration under the action of hyperosmotic agents,” Quantum Electron. 44(7), 633–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, E. A. Kuleshov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Quantum Electron. 38(7), 647–654 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, E. A. Kuleshov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Quantum Electron. 38(7), 647–654 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tuchina, D. K.

D. K. Tuchina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. B. Bucharskaya, E. A. Genina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Study of glycerol diffusion in skin and myocardium ex vivo under the conditions of developing alloxan-induced diabetes,” J Biomed Photonics Eng. 3(2), 020302 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. K. Tuchina, R. Shi, A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, D. Zhu, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Ex vivo optical measurements of glucose diffusion kinetics in native and diabetic mouse skin,” J. Biophotonics 8(4), 332–346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Kolesnikov, E. A. Kolesnikova, K. N. Kolesnikova, D. K. Tuchina, A. P. Popov, A. A. Skaptsov, M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. G. Terentyuk, and V. V. Tuchin, “THz monitoring of the dehydration of biological tissues affected by hyperosmotic agents,” Phys. Wave Phenom. 22(3), 169–176 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ung, B. S.

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
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Uspenskaya, M. V.

M. S. Kulya, N. S. Balbekin, I. V. Gredyuhina, M. V. Uspenskaya, A. P. Nechiporenko, and N. V. Petrov, “Computational terahertz imaging with dispersive objects,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(13), 1283–1288 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vitiello, M. S.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Volodarskaya, S. I.

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, S. A. Koroleva, I. N. Fokina, S. I. Volodarskaya, E. V. Novitskaya, A. N. Perov, V. E. Karasik, and S. O. Yurchenko, “Medical diagnostics using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 486, 012014 (2014).
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Wallace, V. P.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. P. J. Parrott, S. M. Y. Sy, T. Blu, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo: measurements and processing methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weightman, P.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
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S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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C. A. Grillo, K. L. Tamashiro, G. G. Piroli, S. Melhorn, J. T. Gass, R. J. Newsom, L. R. Reznikov, A. Smith, S. P. Wilson, R. R. Sakai, and L. P. Reagan, “Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of hypothalamic insulin receptor expression,” Physiol. Behav. 92(4), 691–701 (2007).
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Wolf, G.

G. Wolf, N. Müller, M. Busch, G. Eidner, C. Kloos, W. Hunger-Battefeld, and U. A. Müller, “Diabetic foot syndrome and renal function in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus show close association,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 24(6), 1896–1901 (2009).
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G. Wolf, N. Müller, A. Mandecka, and U. A. Müller, “Association of diabetic retinopathy and renal function in patients with types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus,” Clin. Nephrol. 68(08), 81–86 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-Ch. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(24), 3523–3525 (1995).
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S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouchi, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
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S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouchi, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
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X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
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Yang, X.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
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Yanina, I. Yu.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, Yu. P. Sinichkin, I. Yu. Yanina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical clearing of biological tissues: prospects of application in medical diagnostics and phototherapy,” Jour. Biomed. Photon. En. 1(1), 22–58 (2015).
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Yeo, W. G.

W. G. Yeo, N. K. Nahar, C. L. Hitchcock, S. Park, O. Gurel, and K. Sertel, “Real-time THz imaging of human tissue characteristics and cancer margins,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 1–2 (2013).
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Yurchenko, S. O.

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
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K. I. Zaytsev, A. A. Gavdush, N. V. Chernomyrdin, and S. O. Yurchenko, “Highly Accurate in Vivo Terahertz Spectroscopy of Healthy Skin: Variation of Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient Along the Human Body,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(5), 817–827 (2015).
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K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, S. A. Koroleva, I. N. Fokina, S. I. Volodarskaya, E. V. Novitskaya, A. N. Perov, V. E. Karasik, and S. O. Yurchenko, “Medical diagnostics using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 486, 012014 (2014).
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K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
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K. I. Zaytsev, A. A. Gavdush, N. V. Chernomyrdin, and S. O. Yurchenko, “Highly Accurate in Vivo Terahertz Spectroscopy of Healthy Skin: Variation of Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient Along the Human Body,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(5), 817–827 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, S. A. Koroleva, I. N. Fokina, S. I. Volodarskaya, E. V. Novitskaya, A. N. Perov, V. E. Karasik, and S. O. Yurchenko, “Medical diagnostics using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 486, 012014 (2014).
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Zhang, X.-C.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
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Zhang, X.-Ch.

Q. Wu and X.-Ch. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(24), 3523–3525 (1995).
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K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
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Zhao, X.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
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Zhong, S. C.

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
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Zhu, D.

D. K. Tuchina, R. Shi, A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, D. Zhu, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Ex vivo optical measurements of glucose diffusion kinetics in native and diabetic mouse skin,” J. Biophotonics 8(4), 332–346 (2015).
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D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 732–757 (2013).
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X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
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Zhu, L. G.

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
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Adv. Wound Care (New Rochelle) (1)

M. Dutta, A. S. Bhalla, and R. Guo, “THz Imaging of Skin Burn: Seeing the Unseen-An Overview,” Adv. Wound Care (New Rochelle) 5(8), 338–348 (2016).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Q. Wu and X.-Ch. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(24), 3523–3525 (1995).
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K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
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T. Conlon and R. Outhred, “Water diffusion permeability of erythrocytes using an NMR technique,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 288(2), 354–361 (1972).
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Clin. Diabetes (1)

M. J. Fowler, “Microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes,” Clin. Diabetes 26(2), 77–82 (2008).
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G. Wolf, N. Müller, A. Mandecka, and U. A. Müller, “Association of diabetic retinopathy and renal function in patients with types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus,” Clin. Nephrol. 68(08), 81–86 (2007).
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Comput. Opt. (1)

N. S. Balbekin, M. S. Kulya, and N. V. Petrov, “Terahertz pulse time-domain holography in dispersive media,” Comput. Opt. 41(3), 348–355 (2017).
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IEEE Sens. J. (1)

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for Terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
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IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (4)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
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K. I. Zaytsev, A. A. Gavdush, N. V. Chernomyrdin, and S. O. Yurchenko, “Highly Accurate in Vivo Terahertz Spectroscopy of Healthy Skin: Variation of Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient Along the Human Body,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(5), 817–827 (2015).
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Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-wave sensing of corneal tissue water content: In vivo sensing and imaging results,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
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N. V. Petrov, M. S. Kulya, A. N. Tsypkin, V. G. Bespalov, and A. A. Gorodetsky, “Application of terahertz pulse time-domain holography for phase imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(3), 464–472 (2016).
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Indian J. Endocrinol. Metab. (1)

A. Chawla, R. Chawla, and S. Jaggi, “Microvasular and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus: Distinct or continuum?” Indian J. Endocrinol. Metab. 20(4), 546–551 (2016).
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J Biomed Photonics Eng. (1)

D. K. Tuchina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. B. Bucharskaya, E. A. Genina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Study of glycerol diffusion in skin and myocardium ex vivo under the conditions of developing alloxan-induced diabetes,” J Biomed Photonics Eng. 3(2), 020302 (2017).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

K. Meng, T. N. Chen, T. Chen, L. G. Zhu, Q. Liu, Z. Li, F. Li, S. C. Zhong, Z. R. Li, H. Feng, and J. H. Zhao, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shi, P. Shumyatsky, A. Rodríguez-Contreras, and R. Alfano, “Terahertz spectroscopy of brain tissue from a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 015014 (2016).
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E. P. J. Parrott, S. M. Y. Sy, T. Blu, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo: measurements and processing methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106010 (2011).
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I. Carneiro, S. Carvalho, R. Henrique, L. Oliveira, and V. V. Tuchin, “Simple multimodal optical technique for evaluation of free/bound water and dispersion of human liver tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–10 (2017).
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J. Biophotonics (2)

D. K. Tuchina, R. Shi, A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, D. Zhu, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Ex vivo optical measurements of glucose diffusion kinetics in native and diabetic mouse skin,” J. Biophotonics 8(4), 332–346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. S. Kulya, N. S. Balbekin, I. V. Gredyuhina, M. V. Uspenskaya, A. P. Nechiporenko, and N. V. Petrov, “Computational terahertz imaging with dispersive objects,” J. Mod. Opt. 64(13), 1283–1288 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, S. A. Koroleva, I. N. Fokina, S. I. Volodarskaya, E. V. Novitskaya, A. N. Perov, V. E. Karasik, and S. O. Yurchenko, “Medical diagnostics using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 486, 012014 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (2)

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
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Jour. Biomed. Photon. En. (1)

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, Yu. P. Sinichkin, I. Yu. Yanina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical clearing of biological tissues: prospects of application in medical diagnostics and phototherapy,” Jour. Biomed. Photon. En. 1(1), 22–58 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (1)

G. Wolf, N. Müller, M. Busch, G. Eidner, C. Kloos, W. Hunger-Battefeld, and U. A. Müller, “Diabetic foot syndrome and renal function in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus show close association,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 24(6), 1896–1901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
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E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. He, K. Liu, C. Au, Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. PickWell-MacPherson, “Determination of terahertz permittivity of dehydrated biological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 62(23), 8882–8893 (2017).
[PubMed]

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Procedia (1)

N. S. Balbekin, M. S. Kulya, P. Yu. Rogov, and N. V. Petrov, “The modeling peculiarities of diffractive propagation of the broadband terahertz two-dimensional field,” Phys. Procedia 73, 49–53 (2015).
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Phys. Wave Phenom. (1)

A. S. Kolesnikov, E. A. Kolesnikova, K. N. Kolesnikova, D. K. Tuchina, A. P. Popov, A. A. Skaptsov, M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. G. Terentyuk, and V. V. Tuchin, “THz monitoring of the dehydration of biological tissues affected by hyperosmotic agents,” Phys. Wave Phenom. 22(3), 169–176 (2014).
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Physiol. Behav. (1)

C. A. Grillo, K. L. Tamashiro, G. G. Piroli, S. Melhorn, J. T. Gass, R. J. Newsom, L. R. Reznikov, A. Smith, S. P. Wilson, R. R. Sakai, and L. P. Reagan, “Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of hypothalamic insulin receptor expression,” Physiol. Behav. 92(4), 691–701 (2007).
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Proc. SPIE (2)

N. V. Petrov, A. A. Gorodetsky, and V. G. Bespalov, “Holography and phase retrieval in terahertz imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8846, 88460S (2013).
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I. Schelkanova and V. Toronov, “Analysis of independent components obtained from functional near infrared data,” Proc. SPIE 8222, 82220V (2012).
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Quantum Electron. (6)

A. S. Kolesnikov, E. A. Kolesnikova, A. P. Popov, M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vitro terahertz monitoring of muscle tissue dehydration under the action of hyperosmotic agents,” Quantum Electron. 44(7), 633–640 (2014).
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O. A. Smolyanskaya, O. V. Kravtsenyuk, A. V. Panchenko, E. L. Odlyanitskiy, J. P. Guillet, O. P. Cherkasova, and M. K. Khodzitsky, “Study of blood plasma optical properties in mice grafted with Ehrlich carcinoma in the frequency range 0.1–1.0 THz,” Quantum Electron. 47(11), 1031–1040 (2017).
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M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, E. A. Kuleshov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Quantum Electron. 38(7), 647–654 (2008).
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M. M. Nazarov, A. P. Shkurinov, E. A. Kuleshov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Quantum Electron. 38(7), 647–654 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. M. Nazarov, O. P. Cherkasova, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Study of the dielectric function of aqueous solutions of glucose and albumin by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Quantum Electron. 46(6), 488–495 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. A. Angeluts, A. V. Balakin, M. G. Evdokimov, M. N. Esaulkov, M. M. Nazarov, I. A. Ozheredov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, P. M. Solyankin, O. P. Cherkasova, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Characteristic responses of biological and nanoscale systems in the terahertz frequency range,” Quantum Electron. 44(7), 614–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S. G. Kang, J. Heo, S. H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y. M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J. S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Nazarov, A. Shkurinov, V. V. Tuchin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz Tissue Spectroscopy and Imaging,” in Handbook of Photonics for Biomedical Science, V. V. Tuchin, ed. (CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, 2010).

B. Karagoz, H. Altan, K. Kamburoglu, “Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries,” in Proceedings of Medical Laser Applications and Laser-Tissue Interactions VII, 95420N (2015).

W. G. Yeo, N. K. Nahar, C. L. Hitchcock, S. Park, O. Gurel, and K. Sertel, “Real-time THz imaging of human tissue characteristics and cancer margins,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 1–2 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Sun, Y. He, E. P. J. Parrott, and E. P. Macpherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 1–2 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. K. Tuchina, A. N. Bashkatov, E.A. Genina, V.V. Tuchin, Biosensor for non-invasive optical monitoring of the pathology of biological tissues, Patent, Russian Federation No. 2633494, 12.10.2017.

X.-C. Zhang and J. Xu, Introduction to THz Wave Photonics, p. 246 (Academic, 2010).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental scheme of the THz time-domain spectrometer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Reference THz signals in time-domain (setup TDS 1 with InAs generator – black line, setup TDS 2 with Mg:LiNbO3 generator – red line with offset to 1.75 level for convenience). Insets represent the enlarged area before THz pulses (zero amplitude area) to show the detection system noise.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reference THz signals in frequency-domain (setup TDS 1 with InAs generator – black line, setup TDS 2 with Mg:LiNbO3 generator – red line). Water vapor absorption lines are clearly seen at frequencies 0.56, 0.75, 0.99, 1.12, 1.17, 1.41 THz at both signals. Spectral amplitudes |G| are different due to different humidity at the measurement rooms. Range from 0.2 to 1.1 THz has high power spectral density |G| and low noise for both setups.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The bar chart displaying percentage of the total water before and after each mouse normal skin sample was kept in glycerol for 5 min (a), the change of the total water in percentages TWchange (Eq. (7) (b). The data graphed from the Table 3.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The concentration dependence of optical and dielectric properties of the mouse skin samples (from the control mouse group) under the action of 30%-, 50%-, and 70%-glycerol solutions in the THz frequency range: a) absorption coefficient, b) index of refraction (real part). The standard deviation is shown as error bars.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The concentration dependence of optical and dielectric properties of the mouse skin samples (from the control mouse group) under the action of 30%-, 50%-, and 70%-glycerol solutions in the THz frequency range: a) imaginary and b) real part of dielectric permittivity. The standard deviation is shown as error bars.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Kinetics of the transmitted signal of the rat diabetic and non-diabetic kidney and cornea tissues treated with glycerol (70%) at the maximum of THz pulse. The inset figure corresponds to the THz signal passed through the sample not to have been treated with glycerol (diabetic and non-diabetic kidney and cornea samples). Each symbol on the graph are the experimental measured data, lines are fitting curves.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 2D spatial temporal evolution of THz pulse propagated through mouse skin before (a) and after (b) dehydration.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Numerically simulated incident and transmitted THz pulses before and after dehydration in temporal (a) and spectral (b) domain. “Incident radiation” (black line) corresponds to the cross-section at z = 0 mm in Fig. 8(a). “No agent” case (green line) corresponds to the cross-section at z = 430 µm in Fig. 8(a) and “Gly 70% (orange line)” is the cross-section at z = 435 µm in Fig. 8(b).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Experimental and numerically simulated THz pulses propagated through the mouse skin for non-dehydrated (a) and dehydrated (b) cases (70% glycerol solution).

Tables (6)

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Table 1 Flow chart of sample preparation time

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Table 2 The parameters for setups “THz TDS 1” and “THz TDS 2”.

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Table 3 Mouse normal skin sample parameters before (0%) and after glycerol treatment:

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Table 4 Mouse normal skin sample parameters before (0%) and after glycerol treatment.

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Table 5 Rat non-diabetic and diabetic kidney sample parameters before (0%) and after glycerol treatment:

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Table 6 Rat diabetic and non-diabetic sample (kidney and cornea) parameters before (0%) and after glycerol treatment:

Equations (15)

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n r e ( f ) = 1 + [ ϕ S ( f ) ϕ R ( f ) ] 2 π f d ,
α ( f ) = 1 d ln A R ( f ) A S ( f ) ,
n i m ( f ) = λ α ( f ) 4 π ,
ε r e ( f ) = n r e 2 ( f ) n i m 2 ( f ) ,
ε i m ( f ) = 2 n r e ( f ) n i m ( f ) ,
T W % = T W g M g 100 % ,
T W change = [ ( T W initial   T W Glycerol ) / T W initial ] × 1 00 % ,
H = ( T W g F W g ) / L M g ,
M c a l c ( Sample Weight ) = L M g ( Lean ) + F a t g ( Fat ) + F W g ( Free Water ) +   + ( Undetectable substances ) + ( Systematic Errors ) ,
U ( x , y , z ) = e α z + + u ( f x , f y ) exp [ 2 π i ( f x x + f y y ) ] exp [ 2 π i Δ z n r e ( λ ) 1 λ 2 ( f x ) 2 ( f y ) 2 ] d f x d f y
u ( f x , f y ) = + + exp [ 2 π i ( x ' f x + y ' f y ) ] u ( x ' , y ' , 0 ) d x ' d y '
U ( x , y , z ) = e α z u ( x ' , y ' , 0 ) * h ( x , y , z ) ,
h ( x , y , z ) = exp [ 2 π i r λ n r e ( λ ) ] i λ r z r ,
r = z 2 + ( x x ' ) 2 + ( y y ' ) 2 .
v v 0 = c z n r e ( λ ) N Δ x 2 ,

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