Abstract

We present the first full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) device capable of in vivo imaging of the human cornea. We obtained images of the epithelial structures, Bowman’s layer, sub-basal nerve plexus (SNP), anterior and posterior stromal keratocytes, stromal nerves, Descemet’s membrane and endothelial cells with visible nuclei. Images were acquired with a high lateral resolution of 1.7 µm and relatively large field-of-view of 1.26 mm x 1.26 mm – a combination, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been possible with other in vivo human eye imaging methods. The latter together with a contactless operation, make FFOCT a promising candidate for becoming a new tool in ophthalmic diagnostics.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (5)

2016 (2)

2015 (4)

E. Auksorius and A. C. Boccara, “Fingerprint imaging from the inside of a finger with full-field optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(11), 4465–4471 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tankam, Z. He, Y. J. Chu, J. Won, C. Canavesi, T. Lepine, H. B. Hindman, D. J. Topham, P. Gain, G. Thuret, and J. P. Rolland, “Assessing microstructures of the cornea with Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy: pathway for corneal physiology and diseases,” Opt. Lett. 40(6), 1113–1116 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ghouali, K. Grieve, S. Bellefqih, O. Sandali, F. Harms, L. Laroche, M. Paques, and V. Borderie, “Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography of Human Donor and Pathological Corneas,” Curr. Eye Res. 40(5), 526–534 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Schindelin, C. T. Rueden, M. C. Hiner, and K. W. Eliceiri, “The ImageJ ecosystem: An open platform for biomedical image analysis,” Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82(7-8), 518–529 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

R. Tahiri Joutei Hassani, H. Liang, M. El Sanharawi, E. Brasnu, S. Kallel, A. Labbé, and C. Baudouin, “En-face Optical Coherence Tomography as a Novel Tool for Exploring the Ocular Surface: A Pilot Comparative Study to Conventional B-Scans and in Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Ocul. Surf. 12(4), 285–306 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Villani, C. Baudouin, N. Efron, P. Hamrah, T. Kojima, S. V. Patel, S. C. Pflugfelder, A. Zhivov, and M. Dogru, “In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of the Ocular Surface: From Bench to Bedside,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(3), 213–231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Villani, C. Baudouin, N. Efron, P. Hamrah, T. Kojima, S. V. Patel, S. C. Pflugfelder, A. Zhivov, and M. Dogru, “In vivo confocal microscopy of the ocular surface: from bench to bedside,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(3), 213–231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

D. Hillmann, G. Franke, L. Hinkel, T. Bonin, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Off-axis full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography using holographic refocusing,” Proc. SPIE 8571, 857104 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

R. L. Niederer and C. N. McGhee, “Clinical in vivo confocal microscopy of the human cornea in health and disease,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 29(1), 30–58 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J. M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal Nonlinear Imaging of the Human Cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of corneal surface and epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 667–672 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Guthoff, A. Zhivov, and O. Stachs, “In vivo confocal microscopy, an inner vision of the cornea - a major review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 100–117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Labiau, G. David, S. Gigan, and A. C. Boccara, “Defocus test and defocus correction in full-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1576–1578 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Akiba, N. Maeda, K. Yumikake, T. Soma, K. Nishida, Y. Tano, and K. P. Chan, “Ultrahigh-resolution imaging of human donor cornea using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041202 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In Vivo Corneal High-Speed, Ultra High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kałuzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczyńska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Technique for Cornea Imaging,” Cornea 25(8), 960–965 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dubois, G. Moneron, and C. Boccara, “Thermal-light full-field optical coherence tomography in the 1.2μm wavelength region,” Opt. Commun. 266(2), 738–743 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

K. Grieve, M. Paques, A. Dubois, J. Sahel, C. Boccara, and J. F. Le Gargasson, “Ocular Tissue Imaging Using Ultrahigh-Resolution, Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(11), 4126–4131 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

A. Podoleanu, J. Rogers, G. Dobre, R. Cucu, and D. Jackson, “En-face OCT imaging of the anterior chamber,” Proc. SPIE 4619, 9 (2002).

J. Stave, G. Zinser, G. Grümmer, and R. Guthoff, “Der modifizierte Heidelberg-Retina-Tomograph HRT. Erste Ergebnisse einer In-vivo-Darstellung von kornealen Strukturen,” Ophthalmologe 99(4), 276–280 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Whitcher, M. Srinivasan, and M. P. Upadhyay, “Corneal blindness: a global perspective,” Bull. World Health Organ. 79(3), 214–221 (2001).
[PubMed]

1998 (2)

J. Stave and R. Guthoff, “First results of in-vivo visualization of the tear film and structures of the cornea with a modified confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Ophthalmologe 95(2), 104–109 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Beaurepaire, A. C. Boccara, M. Lebec, L. Blanchot, and H. Saint-Jalmes, “Full-field optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23(4), 244–246 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 157–173 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-Scale Resolution Imaging of the Anterior Eye In Vivo With Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

Aptel, F.

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J. M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal Nonlinear Imaging of the Human Cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aquavella, J. V.

Aranha Dos Santos, V.

Aschinger, G. C.

Auksorius, E.

Bajraszewski, T.

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kałuzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczyńska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Technique for Cornea Imaging,” Cornea 25(8), 960–965 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balland, M.

Q. Tseng, E. Duchemin-Pelletier, A. Deshiere, M. Balland, H. Guillou, O. Filhol, and M. Théry, “Spatial organization of the extracellular matrix regulates cell-cell junction positioning,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(5), 1506–1511 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bardenstein, D. S.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baudouin, C.

E. Villani, C. Baudouin, N. Efron, P. Hamrah, T. Kojima, S. V. Patel, S. C. Pflugfelder, A. Zhivov, and M. Dogru, “In vivo confocal microscopy of the ocular surface: from bench to bedside,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(3), 213–231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Tahiri Joutei Hassani, H. Liang, M. El Sanharawi, E. Brasnu, S. Kallel, A. Labbé, and C. Baudouin, “En-face Optical Coherence Tomography as a Novel Tool for Exploring the Ocular Surface: A Pilot Comparative Study to Conventional B-Scans and in Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Ocul. Surf. 12(4), 285–306 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Villani, C. Baudouin, N. Efron, P. Hamrah, T. Kojima, S. V. Patel, S. C. Pflugfelder, A. Zhivov, and M. Dogru, “In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of the Ocular Surface: From Bench to Bedside,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(3), 213–231 (2014).
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S. Chen, X. Liu, N. Wang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, E. Bo, X. Yu, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Visualizing Micro-anatomical Structures of the Posterior Cornea with Micro-optical Coherence Tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10752 (2017).
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Boccara, C.

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D. Hillmann, G. Franke, L. Hinkel, T. Bonin, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Off-axis full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography using holographic refocusing,” Proc. SPIE 8571, 857104 (2013).
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M. Borderie, K. Grieve, K. Irsch, D. Ghoubay, C. Georgeon, C. De Sousa, L. Laroche, and V. M. Borderie, “New parameters in assessment of human donor corneal stroma,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e297–e306 (2017).
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Borderie, V.

W. Ghouali, K. Grieve, S. Bellefqih, O. Sandali, F. Harms, L. Laroche, M. Paques, and V. Borderie, “Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography of Human Donor and Pathological Corneas,” Curr. Eye Res. 40(5), 526–534 (2015).
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M. Borderie, K. Grieve, K. Irsch, D. Ghoubay, C. Georgeon, C. De Sousa, L. Laroche, and V. M. Borderie, “New parameters in assessment of human donor corneal stroma,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e297–e306 (2017).
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R. Tahiri Joutei Hassani, H. Liang, M. El Sanharawi, E. Brasnu, S. Kallel, A. Labbé, and C. Baudouin, “En-face Optical Coherence Tomography as a Novel Tool for Exploring the Ocular Surface: A Pilot Comparative Study to Conventional B-Scans and in Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Ocul. Surf. 12(4), 285–306 (2014).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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S. Chen, X. Liu, N. Wang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, E. Bo, X. Yu, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Visualizing Micro-anatomical Structures of the Posterior Cornea with Micro-optical Coherence Tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10752 (2017).
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S. Chen, X. Liu, N. Wang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, E. Bo, X. Yu, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Visualizing Micro-anatomical Structures of the Posterior Cornea with Micro-optical Coherence Tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10752 (2017).
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Cucu, R.

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David, G.

De Sousa, C.

M. Borderie, K. Grieve, K. Irsch, D. Ghoubay, C. Georgeon, C. De Sousa, L. Laroche, and V. M. Borderie, “New parameters in assessment of human donor corneal stroma,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e297–e306 (2017).
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F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J. M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal Nonlinear Imaging of the Human Cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
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Q. Tseng, E. Duchemin-Pelletier, A. Deshiere, M. Balland, H. Guillou, O. Filhol, and M. Théry, “Spatial organization of the extracellular matrix regulates cell-cell junction positioning,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(5), 1506–1511 (2012).
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V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In Vivo Corneal High-Speed, Ultra High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
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A. Podoleanu, J. Rogers, G. Dobre, R. Cucu, and D. Jackson, “En-face OCT imaging of the anterior chamber,” Proc. SPIE 4619, 9 (2002).

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E. Villani, C. Baudouin, N. Efron, P. Hamrah, T. Kojima, S. V. Patel, S. C. Pflugfelder, A. Zhivov, and M. Dogru, “In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of the Ocular Surface: From Bench to Bedside,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(3), 213–231 (2014).
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E. Villani, C. Baudouin, N. Efron, P. Hamrah, T. Kojima, S. V. Patel, S. C. Pflugfelder, A. Zhivov, and M. Dogru, “In vivo confocal microscopy of the ocular surface: from bench to bedside,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(3), 213–231 (2014).
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Dua, H.

Dubois, A.

A. Dubois, G. Moneron, and C. Boccara, “Thermal-light full-field optical coherence tomography in the 1.2μm wavelength region,” Opt. Commun. 266(2), 738–743 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Grieve, A. Dubois, M. Simonutti, M. Paques, J. Sahel, J. F. Le Gargasson, and C. Boccara, “In vivo anterior segment imaging in the rat eye with high speed white light full-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6286–6295 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Grieve, M. Paques, A. Dubois, J. Sahel, C. Boccara, and J. F. Le Gargasson, “Ocular Tissue Imaging Using Ultrahigh-Resolution, Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(11), 4126–4131 (2004).
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Q. Tseng, E. Duchemin-Pelletier, A. Deshiere, M. Balland, H. Guillou, O. Filhol, and M. Théry, “Spatial organization of the extracellular matrix regulates cell-cell junction positioning,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(5), 1506–1511 (2012).
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I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
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V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In Vivo Corneal High-Speed, Ultra High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
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E. Villani, C. Baudouin, N. Efron, P. Hamrah, T. Kojima, S. V. Patel, S. C. Pflugfelder, A. Zhivov, and M. Dogru, “In vivo confocal microscopy of the ocular surface: from bench to bedside,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(3), 213–231 (2014).
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E. Villani, C. Baudouin, N. Efron, P. Hamrah, T. Kojima, S. V. Patel, S. C. Pflugfelder, A. Zhivov, and M. Dogru, “In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of the Ocular Surface: From Bench to Bedside,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(3), 213–231 (2014).
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R. Tahiri Joutei Hassani, H. Liang, M. El Sanharawi, E. Brasnu, S. Kallel, A. Labbé, and C. Baudouin, “En-face Optical Coherence Tomography as a Novel Tool for Exploring the Ocular Surface: A Pilot Comparative Study to Conventional B-Scans and in Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Ocul. Surf. 12(4), 285–306 (2014).
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J. Schindelin, C. T. Rueden, M. C. Hiner, and K. W. Eliceiri, “The ImageJ ecosystem: An open platform for biomedical image analysis,” Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82(7-8), 518–529 (2015).
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Q. Tseng, E. Duchemin-Pelletier, A. Deshiere, M. Balland, H. Guillou, O. Filhol, and M. Théry, “Spatial organization of the extracellular matrix regulates cell-cell junction positioning,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(5), 1506–1511 (2012).
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Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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D. Hillmann, G. Franke, L. Hinkel, T. Bonin, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Off-axis full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography using holographic refocusing,” Proc. SPIE 8571, 857104 (2013).
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I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
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V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In Vivo Corneal High-Speed, Ultra High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
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M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
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E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In Vivo Corneal High-Speed, Ultra High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
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W. Ghouali, K. Grieve, S. Bellefqih, O. Sandali, F. Harms, L. Laroche, M. Paques, and V. Borderie, “Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography of Human Donor and Pathological Corneas,” Curr. Eye Res. 40(5), 526–534 (2015).
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M. Borderie, K. Grieve, K. Irsch, D. Ghoubay, C. Georgeon, C. De Sousa, L. Laroche, and V. M. Borderie, “New parameters in assessment of human donor corneal stroma,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e297–e306 (2017).
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Gopinathan, U.

P. Garg, P. V. Krishna, A. K. Stratis, and U. Gopinathan, “The value of corneal transplantation in reducing blindness,” Eye (Lond.) 19(10), 1106–1114 (2005).
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M. Borderie, K. Grieve, K. Irsch, D. Ghoubay, C. Georgeon, C. De Sousa, L. Laroche, and V. M. Borderie, “New parameters in assessment of human donor corneal stroma,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e297–e306 (2017).
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W. Ghouali, K. Grieve, S. Bellefqih, O. Sandali, F. Harms, L. Laroche, M. Paques, and V. Borderie, “Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography of Human Donor and Pathological Corneas,” Curr. Eye Res. 40(5), 526–534 (2015).
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K. Grieve, A. Dubois, M. Simonutti, M. Paques, J. Sahel, J. F. Le Gargasson, and C. Boccara, “In vivo anterior segment imaging in the rat eye with high speed white light full-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6286–6295 (2005).
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K. Grieve, M. Paques, A. Dubois, J. Sahel, C. Boccara, and J. F. Le Gargasson, “Ocular Tissue Imaging Using Ultrahigh-Resolution, Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(11), 4126–4131 (2004).
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Guthoff, R.

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Hajialamdari, M.

Hamrah, P.

E. Villani, C. Baudouin, N. Efron, P. Hamrah, T. Kojima, S. V. Patel, S. C. Pflugfelder, A. Zhivov, and M. Dogru, “In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of the Ocular Surface: From Bench to Bedside,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(3), 213–231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Villani, C. Baudouin, N. Efron, P. Hamrah, T. Kojima, S. V. Patel, S. C. Pflugfelder, A. Zhivov, and M. Dogru, “In vivo confocal microscopy of the ocular surface: from bench to bedside,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(3), 213–231 (2014).
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Harms, F.

W. Ghouali, K. Grieve, S. Bellefqih, O. Sandali, F. Harms, L. Laroche, M. Paques, and V. Borderie, “Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography of Human Donor and Pathological Corneas,” Curr. Eye Res. 40(5), 526–534 (2015).
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Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-Scale Resolution Imaging of the Anterior Eye In Vivo With Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Hileeto, D.

Hillmann, D.

D. Hillmann, G. Franke, L. Hinkel, T. Bonin, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Off-axis full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography using holographic refocusing,” Proc. SPIE 8571, 857104 (2013).
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Hindman, H. B.

Hiner, M. C.

J. Schindelin, C. T. Rueden, M. C. Hiner, and K. W. Eliceiri, “The ImageJ ecosystem: An open platform for biomedical image analysis,” Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82(7-8), 518–529 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hinkel, L.

D. Hillmann, G. Franke, L. Hinkel, T. Bonin, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Off-axis full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography using holographic refocusing,” Proc. SPIE 8571, 857104 (2013).
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Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Huber, R.

Hüttmann, G.

D. Hillmann, G. Franke, L. Hinkel, T. Bonin, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Off-axis full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography using holographic refocusing,” Proc. SPIE 8571, 857104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Irsch, K.

M. Borderie, K. Grieve, K. Irsch, D. Ghoubay, C. Georgeon, C. De Sousa, L. Laroche, and V. M. Borderie, “New parameters in assessment of human donor corneal stroma,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e297–e306 (2017).
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Izatt, J. A.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
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M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
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J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-Scale Resolution Imaging of the Anterior Eye In Vivo With Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
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E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
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A. Podoleanu, J. Rogers, G. Dobre, R. Cucu, and D. Jackson, “En-face OCT imaging of the anterior chamber,” Proc. SPIE 4619, 9 (2002).

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Jiang, J.

Kagemann, L.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In Vivo Corneal High-Speed, Ultra High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
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R. Tahiri Joutei Hassani, H. Liang, M. El Sanharawi, E. Brasnu, S. Kallel, A. Labbé, and C. Baudouin, “En-face Optical Coherence Tomography as a Novel Tool for Exploring the Ocular Surface: A Pilot Comparative Study to Conventional B-Scans and in Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Ocul. Surf. 12(4), 285–306 (2014).
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B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kałuzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczyńska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Technique for Cornea Imaging,” Cornea 25(8), 960–965 (2006).
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E. Villani, C. Baudouin, N. Efron, P. Hamrah, T. Kojima, S. V. Patel, S. C. Pflugfelder, A. Zhivov, and M. Dogru, “In vivo confocal microscopy of the ocular surface: from bench to bedside,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(3), 213–231 (2014).
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Kowalczyk, A.

Kralj, O.

Krishna, P. V.

P. Garg, P. V. Krishna, A. K. Stratis, and U. Gopinathan, “The value of corneal transplantation in reducing blindness,” Eye (Lond.) 19(10), 1106–1114 (2005).
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R. Tahiri Joutei Hassani, H. Liang, M. El Sanharawi, E. Brasnu, S. Kallel, A. Labbé, and C. Baudouin, “En-face Optical Coherence Tomography as a Novel Tool for Exploring the Ocular Surface: A Pilot Comparative Study to Conventional B-Scans and in Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Ocul. Surf. 12(4), 285–306 (2014).
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M. Borderie, K. Grieve, K. Irsch, D. Ghoubay, C. Georgeon, C. De Sousa, L. Laroche, and V. M. Borderie, “New parameters in assessment of human donor corneal stroma,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(4), e297–e306 (2017).
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W. Ghouali, K. Grieve, S. Bellefqih, O. Sandali, F. Harms, L. Laroche, M. Paques, and V. Borderie, “Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography of Human Donor and Pathological Corneas,” Curr. Eye Res. 40(5), 526–534 (2015).
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Le Gargasson, J. F.

K. Grieve, A. Dubois, M. Simonutti, M. Paques, J. Sahel, J. F. Le Gargasson, and C. Boccara, “In vivo anterior segment imaging in the rat eye with high speed white light full-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6286–6295 (2005).
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K. Grieve, M. Paques, A. Dubois, J. Sahel, C. Boccara, and J. F. Le Gargasson, “Ocular Tissue Imaging Using Ultrahigh-Resolution, Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(11), 4126–4131 (2004).
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F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J. M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal Nonlinear Imaging of the Human Cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
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Liang, H.

R. Tahiri Joutei Hassani, H. Liang, M. El Sanharawi, E. Brasnu, S. Kallel, A. Labbé, and C. Baudouin, “En-face Optical Coherence Tomography as a Novel Tool for Exploring the Ocular Surface: A Pilot Comparative Study to Conventional B-Scans and in Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Ocul. Surf. 12(4), 285–306 (2014).
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M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
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M. Akiba, N. Maeda, K. Yumikake, T. Soma, K. Nishida, Y. Tano, and K. P. Chan, “Ultrahigh-resolution imaging of human donor cornea using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041202 (2007).
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F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J. M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal Nonlinear Imaging of the Human Cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
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Paques, M.

W. Ghouali, K. Grieve, S. Bellefqih, O. Sandali, F. Harms, L. Laroche, M. Paques, and V. Borderie, “Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography of Human Donor and Pathological Corneas,” Curr. Eye Res. 40(5), 526–534 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Grieve, A. Dubois, M. Simonutti, M. Paques, J. Sahel, J. F. Le Gargasson, and C. Boccara, “In vivo anterior segment imaging in the rat eye with high speed white light full-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6286–6295 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Grieve, M. Paques, A. Dubois, J. Sahel, C. Boccara, and J. F. Le Gargasson, “Ocular Tissue Imaging Using Ultrahigh-Resolution, Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(11), 4126–4131 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Pascolini and S. P. Mariotti, “Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96(5), 614–618 (2012).
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E. Villani, C. Baudouin, N. Efron, P. Hamrah, T. Kojima, S. V. Patel, S. C. Pflugfelder, A. Zhivov, and M. Dogru, “In vivo confocal microscopy of the ocular surface: from bench to bedside,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(3), 213–231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Villani, C. Baudouin, N. Efron, P. Hamrah, T. Kojima, S. V. Patel, S. C. Pflugfelder, A. Zhivov, and M. Dogru, “In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of the Ocular Surface: From Bench to Bedside,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(3), 213–231 (2014).
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E. Villani, C. Baudouin, N. Efron, P. Hamrah, T. Kojima, S. V. Patel, S. C. Pflugfelder, A. Zhivov, and M. Dogru, “In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of the Ocular Surface: From Bench to Bedside,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(3), 213–231 (2014).
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E. Villani, C. Baudouin, N. Efron, P. Hamrah, T. Kojima, S. V. Patel, S. C. Pflugfelder, A. Zhivov, and M. Dogru, “In vivo confocal microscopy of the ocular surface: from bench to bedside,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(3), 213–231 (2014).
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Pircher, N.

Plamann, K.

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J. M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal Nonlinear Imaging of the Human Cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
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A. Podoleanu, J. Rogers, G. Dobre, R. Cucu, and D. Jackson, “En-face OCT imaging of the anterior chamber,” Proc. SPIE 4619, 9 (2002).

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-Scale Resolution Imaging of the Anterior Eye In Vivo With Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
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A. Podoleanu, J. Rogers, G. Dobre, R. Cucu, and D. Jackson, “En-face OCT imaging of the anterior chamber,” Proc. SPIE 4619, 9 (2002).

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Rollins, A. M.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
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S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
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J. Schindelin, C. T. Rueden, M. C. Hiner, and K. W. Eliceiri, “The ImageJ ecosystem: An open platform for biomedical image analysis,” Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82(7-8), 518–529 (2015).
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Sahel, J.

K. Grieve, A. Dubois, M. Simonutti, M. Paques, J. Sahel, J. F. Le Gargasson, and C. Boccara, “In vivo anterior segment imaging in the rat eye with high speed white light full-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6286–6295 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Grieve, M. Paques, A. Dubois, J. Sahel, C. Boccara, and J. F. Le Gargasson, “Ocular Tissue Imaging Using Ultrahigh-Resolution, Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(11), 4126–4131 (2004).
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Saint-Jalmes, H.

Sakai, T.

Sandali, O.

W. Ghouali, K. Grieve, S. Bellefqih, O. Sandali, F. Harms, L. Laroche, M. Paques, and V. Borderie, “Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography of Human Donor and Pathological Corneas,” Curr. Eye Res. 40(5), 526–534 (2015).
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Schanne-Klein, M. C.

G. Latour, I. Gusachenko, L. Kowalczuk, I. Lamarre, and M. C. Schanne-Klein, “In vivo structural imaging of the cornea by polarization-resolved second harmonic microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(1), 1–15 (2012).
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F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J. M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal Nonlinear Imaging of the Human Cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
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Schindelin, J.

J. Schindelin, C. T. Rueden, M. C. Hiner, and K. W. Eliceiri, “The ImageJ ecosystem: An open platform for biomedical image analysis,” Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82(7-8), 518–529 (2015).
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Schmetterer, L.

Schmidinger, G.

Schmidl, D.

Schuman, J. S.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, “In Vivo Corneal High-Speed, Ultra High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(8), 1027–1035 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-Scale Resolution Imaging of the Anterior Eye In Vivo With Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Simonutti, M.

Soma, T.

M. Akiba, N. Maeda, K. Yumikake, T. Soma, K. Nishida, Y. Tano, and K. P. Chan, “Ultrahigh-resolution imaging of human donor cornea using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041202 (2007).
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P. Garg, P. V. Krishna, A. K. Stratis, and U. Gopinathan, “The value of corneal transplantation in reducing blindness,” Eye (Lond.) 19(10), 1106–1114 (2005).
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M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Retina,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 113(3), 325–332 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-Scale Resolution Imaging of the Anterior Eye In Vivo With Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kałuzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczyńska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Technique for Cornea Imaging,” Cornea 25(8), 960–965 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tahiri Joutei Hassani, R.

R. Tahiri Joutei Hassani, H. Liang, M. El Sanharawi, E. Brasnu, S. Kallel, A. Labbé, and C. Baudouin, “En-face Optical Coherence Tomography as a Novel Tool for Exploring the Ocular Surface: A Pilot Comparative Study to Conventional B-Scans and in Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Ocul. Surf. 12(4), 285–306 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, B.

Tankam, P.

Tano, Y.

M. Akiba, N. Maeda, K. Yumikake, T. Soma, K. Nishida, Y. Tano, and K. P. Chan, “Ultrahigh-resolution imaging of human donor cornea using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041202 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Targowski, P.

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kałuzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczyńska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Technique for Cornea Imaging,” Cornea 25(8), 960–965 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Théry, M.

Q. Tseng, E. Duchemin-Pelletier, A. Deshiere, M. Balland, H. Guillou, O. Filhol, and M. Théry, “Spatial organization of the extracellular matrix regulates cell-cell junction positioning,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(5), 1506–1511 (2012).
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Thuret, G.

Topham, D. J.

Tseng, Q.

Q. Tseng, E. Duchemin-Pelletier, A. Deshiere, M. Balland, H. Guillou, O. Filhol, and M. Théry, “Spatial organization of the extracellular matrix regulates cell-cell junction positioning,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(5), 1506–1511 (2012).
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Wartak, A.

Werkmeister, R. M.

Westphal, V.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
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S. Chen, X. Liu, N. Wang, X. Wang, Q. Xiong, E. Bo, X. Yu, S. Chen, and L. Liu, “Visualizing Micro-anatomical Structures of the Posterior Cornea with Micro-optical Coherence Tomography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10752 (2017).
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R. M. Werkmeister, S. Sapeta, D. Schmidl, G. Garhöfer, G. Schmidinger, V. Aranha Dos Santos, G. C. Aschinger, I. Baumgartner, N. Pircher, F. Schwarzhans, A. Pantalon, H. Dua, and L. Schmetterer, “Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1221–1239 (2017).
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E. Auksorius and A. C. Boccara, “Fingerprint imaging from the inside of a finger with full-field optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(11), 4465–4471 (2015).
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A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of corneal surface and epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 667–672 (2009).
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R. F. Guthoff, A. Zhivov, and O. Stachs, “In vivo confocal microscopy, an inner vision of the cornea - a major review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 100–117 (2009).
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B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kałuzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczyńska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Technique for Cornea Imaging,” Cornea 25(8), 960–965 (2006).
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E. Villani, C. Baudouin, N. Efron, P. Hamrah, T. Kojima, S. V. Patel, S. C. Pflugfelder, A. Zhivov, and M. Dogru, “In vivo confocal microscopy of the ocular surface: from bench to bedside,” Curr. Eye Res. 39(3), 213–231 (2014).
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Ophthalmologe (2)

J. Stave, G. Zinser, G. Grümmer, and R. Guthoff, “Der modifizierte Heidelberg-Retina-Tomograph HRT. Erste Ergebnisse einer In-vivo-Darstellung von kornealen Strukturen,” Ophthalmologe 99(4), 276–280 (2002).
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Opt. Express (3)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Q. Tseng, E. Duchemin-Pelletier, A. Deshiere, M. Balland, H. Guillou, O. Filhol, and M. Théry, “Spatial organization of the extracellular matrix regulates cell-cell junction positioning,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(5), 1506–1511 (2012).
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Science (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of the FFOCT set-up. Illumination: NIR LED; BS: beam splitter; PZT: piezoelectric stage actuator. A precision motorized translation stage (yellow) can change the reference arm length by moving altogether the reference arm components (air objective, mirror and PZT) nearer and farther from the BS along the X axis. Two orthogonal motorized translation stages (blue) underneath the entire set-up can move the interferometer along the X and Z axes. Translation along the Z axis nearer and farther from the eye allows to focus at different layers of the cornea, while translation along the X axis helps to find an optimal imaging position near the corneal apex.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 In vivo anterior human cornea images, obtained with FFOCT and CM. Due to the curvature of the human eye and relatively large field-of-view of FFOCT, imaging planes often cut through several layers, giving an annular shape to them. A, B: FFOCT images of anterior cornea at different depths. 1 – strong reflection on air-tear film interface, 2 – epithelium, 3 – SNP with nerves clearly seen, 4 – Bowman’s layer, 5 – anterior stroma. Bright band between SNP and Bowman’s layer corresponds to their interface. C, E: zoomed areas (300 µm x 300 µm) of images A and B, corresponding to SNP and stromal keratocyte nuclei. D, F: confocal microscopy images (300 µm x 300 µm) of SNP and anterior stroma.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 In vivo human corneal images of mid and posterior stroma, obtained with FFOCT and CM. A, B: FFOCT images from mid and posterior stromal layers, respectively. Yellow arrows point at a large network of stromal keratocytes. C, E: zoomed areas (300 µm x 300 µm) of A and B, corresponding to the branching stromal nerve and dense population of stromal keratocyte nuclei, with their surrounding cytoplasm. D, F: confocal microscopy images (300 µm x 300 µm) of stromal nerve and keratocyte network.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 In vivo human corneal images of posterior stroma and endothelium, obtained with FFOCT and CM. Due to the curvature of the human eye and relatively large field-of-view of FFOCT, the imaging plane cut through several layers, giving an annular shape to the appearing layers. A: FFOCT image of the posterior cornea. 1 – posterior stromal keratocytes, 2 – Descemet’s membrane; 3 – endothelium. A nerve is shown by the red arrows. B: zoomed area (300 µm x 300 µm) of image A, corresponding to the posterior corneal surface. G: CM image (300 µm x 300 µm), depicting posterior corneal surface. C, H: zoomed endothelial areas of B and G. E: image C after fringe filtering in the Fourier domain. D, F: Fourier transforms of images C and E. Dashed yellow outline traces a hexagonal endothelial cell contour, and yellow arrows indicate centered endothelial cell nuclei.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E retinal exposure = 380 1400 E λ × R ( λ ) × Δ λ = 49 m W c m 2 < 700 m W c m 2 = M P E .
E corneal exposure = 380 1200 E λ × Δ λ = 2.6 W c m 2 < 4 W c m 2 = M P E .
E average corneal exposure = 770 2500 E λ × Δ λ = 86 m W c m 2 < 100 m W c m 2 = M P E .
δ ( z ) = z [ 1.376 2 1 1.376 ] .

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