Abstract

Label-free visualization of nerves and nervous plexuses will improve the preservation of neurological functions in nerve-sparing robot-assisted surgery. We have developed a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) rigid endoscope to distinguish nerves from other tissues during surgery. The developed endoscope, which has a tube with a diameter of 12 mm and a length of 270 mm, achieved 0.91% image distortion and 8.6% non-uniformity of CARS intensity in the whole field of view (650 μm diameter). We demonstrated CARS imaging of a rat sciatic nerve and visualization of the fine structure of nerve fibers.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (2)

Y. Kumamoto, Y. Harada, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Rapid and accurate peripheral nerve imaging by multipoint Raman spectroscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Lukic, S. Dochow, H. Bae, G. Matz, I. Latka, B. Messerschmidt, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Endoscopic fiber probe for nonlinear spectroscopic imaging,” Optica 4(5), 496–501 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

B. H. Bochner, G. Dalbagni, D. D. Sjoberg, J. Silberstein, Gal E. Keren Paz, S. M. Donat, J. A. Coleman, S. Mathew, A. Vickers, G. C. Schnorr, M. A. Feuerstein, B. Rapkin, R. O. Parra, H. W. Herr, and V. P. Laudone, “Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.,” European Urology 67(6), 1042–1050 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Minamikawa, Y. Harada, and T. Takamatsu, “Ex vivo peripheral nerve detection of rats by spontaneous Raman spectroscopy,” Scientific Reports 5, 17165 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cheng, X. Xu, D. T. McCormick, K. Wong, and S. T.C. Wong, “Multimodal nonlinear endo-microscopy probe design for high resolution, label-free intraoperative imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2283–2293 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

B. Smith, M. Naji, S. Murugkar, E. Alarcon, C. Brideau, P. Stys, and H. Anis, “Portable, miniaturized, fibre delivered, multimodal CARS exoscope,” Opt. Express 21(14), 17161–17175 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cahyadi, J. Iwatsuka, T. Minamikawa, H. Niioka, T. Araki, and M. Hashimoto, “Fast spectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with high-speed tunable picosecond laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, Y. Harada, N. Koizumi, K. Okihara, K. Kamoi, A. Yanagisawa, and T. Takamatsu, “Label-free detection of peripheral nerve tissues against adjacent tissues by spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy,” Histochemistry and Cell Biology 139(1), 181–193 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nature Photonics 6, 845–851 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

B. G. Saar, R. S. Johnston, C. W. Freudiger, X. S. Xie, and E. J. Seibel, “Coherent Raman scanning fiber endoscopy,” Optics Letters 36(13), 2396–2398 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gao, H. Zhou, M. J. Thrall, F. Li, Y. Yang, Z. Wang, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, G. S. Palapattu, and S. T. C. Wong, “Label-free high-resolution imaging of prostate glands and cavernous nerves using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 915–926 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Whitney, J. L. Crisp, L. T. Nguyen, B. Friedman, L. A. Gross, P. Steinbach, R. Y. Tsien, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Fluorescent peptides highlight peripheral nerves during surgery in mice,” Nature Biotechnology 29(4), 352–356 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer Using Image-Guided Raman Endoscopy and Biomolecular Modeling,” Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. Balu, G. Liu, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Fiber delivered probe for efficient CARS imaging of tissues,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2380–2388 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-Rate Molecular Imaging in Vivo with Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

T. Minamikawa, M. Hashimoto, K. Fujita, S. Kawata, and T. Araki, “Multi-focus excitation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and its applications for real-time imaging,” Optics Express 17(12), 9526–9536 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Bélanger, S. Bégin, S. Laffray, Y. D. Koninck, R. Vallée, and D. C. Côté, “Quantitative myelin imaging with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: alleviating the excitation polarization dependence with circularly polarized laser beams,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18419–18432 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. D. Sievert, J. Hennenlotter, I. A. Laible, B. Amend, U. Nagele, and A. Stenzl, “The Commonly Performed Nerve Sparing Total Prostatectomy Does Not Acknowledge the Actual Nerve Courses,” The Journal of Urology 181(3), 1076–1081 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

A. Takenaka, A. Tewari, R. Hara, R.A. Leung, K. Kurokawa, G. Murakami, and M. Fujisawa, “Pelvic autonomic nerve mapping around the prostate by intraoperative electrical stimulation with simultaneous measurement of intracavernous and intraurethral pressure,” Journal of Urology 177(1), 225–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. B. Huff and J. X. Cheng, “In vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of sciatic nerve tissue,” Journal of Microscopy 225(2), 175–182 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

F. Légaré, C. L. Evans, F. Ganikhanov, and X. S. Xie, “Toward CARS Endoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4427–4432 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimoto, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Applied Physics Letters 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Menon, S. Kaul, A. Bhandari, A. Shrivastava, A. Tewari, and A. Hemal, “Potency Following Robotic Radical Prostatectomy: A questionnaire Based Analysis of Outcomes After Conventional Nerve Sparing and Prostatic Fascia Sparing Techniques,” The Journal of Urology 174(6), 2291–2296 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Tewari, A. Srivastava, and M. Menon, “A prospective comparison of radical retropubic and robot-assisted prostatectomy: experience in one institution,” BJU International 92(3), 205–210 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. Kaminaka, T. Ito, H. Yamazaki, E. Kohda, and H. Hamaguchi, “Near-infrared multichannel Raman spectroscopy toward real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis,” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 33(7), 498–502 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. T. Sung and I. S. Gill, “Robotic laparoscopic surgery: a comparison of the da Vinci and Zeus systems,” Urology 58(6), 893–898 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

H. Becker, A. Melzer, M. Oliver Schurr, and G. Buess, “3-D video techniques in endoscopic surgery,” Endoscopic surgery and allied technologies 1(1), 40–46 (1993).
[PubMed]

1992 (1)

Ahyai, S.

U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alarcon, E.

Amend, B.

K. D. Sievert, J. Hennenlotter, I. A. Laible, B. Amend, U. Nagele, and A. Stenzl, “The Commonly Performed Nerve Sparing Total Prostatectomy Does Not Acknowledge the Actual Nerve Courses,” The Journal of Urology 181(3), 1076–1081 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anis, H.

Araki, T.

H. Cahyadi, J. Iwatsuka, T. Minamikawa, H. Niioka, T. Araki, and M. Hashimoto, “Fast spectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with high-speed tunable picosecond laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, M. Hashimoto, K. Fujita, S. Kawata, and T. Araki, “Multi-focus excitation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and its applications for real-time imaging,” Optics Express 17(12), 9526–9536 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimoto, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Applied Physics Letters 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bae, H.

Balu, M.

Becker, H.

H. Becker, A. Melzer, M. Oliver Schurr, and G. Buess, “3-D video techniques in endoscopic surgery,” Endoscopic surgery and allied technologies 1(1), 40–46 (1993).
[PubMed]

Bégin, S.

Bélanger, E.

Bergholt, M. S.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer Using Image-Guided Raman Endoscopy and Biomolecular Modeling,” Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bhandari, A.

M. Menon, S. Kaul, A. Bhandari, A. Shrivastava, A. Tewari, and A. Hemal, “Potency Following Robotic Radical Prostatectomy: A questionnaire Based Analysis of Outcomes After Conventional Nerve Sparing and Prostatic Fascia Sparing Techniques,” The Journal of Urology 174(6), 2291–2296 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bianchi, M.

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bochner, B. H.

B. H. Bochner, G. Dalbagni, D. D. Sjoberg, J. Silberstein, Gal E. Keren Paz, S. M. Donat, J. A. Coleman, S. Mathew, A. Vickers, G. C. Schnorr, M. A. Feuerstein, B. Rapkin, R. O. Parra, H. W. Herr, and V. P. Laudone, “Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.,” European Urology 67(6), 1042–1050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Cambridge university press, 1980), Chap. 8.

Brideau, C.

Budäus, L.

U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
[Crossref]

Buess, G.

H. Becker, A. Melzer, M. Oliver Schurr, and G. Buess, “3-D video techniques in endoscopic surgery,” Endoscopic surgery and allied technologies 1(1), 40–46 (1993).
[PubMed]

Cahyadi, H.

H. Cahyadi, J. Iwatsuka, T. Minamikawa, H. Niioka, T. Araki, and M. Hashimoto, “Fast spectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with high-speed tunable picosecond laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cheng, J. X.

T. B. Huff and J. X. Cheng, “In vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of sciatic nerve tissue,” Journal of Microscopy 225(2), 175–182 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, X.

Chew, J.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chun, F. K.H.

U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. A.

B. H. Bochner, G. Dalbagni, D. D. Sjoberg, J. Silberstein, Gal E. Keren Paz, S. M. Donat, J. A. Coleman, S. Mathew, A. Vickers, G. C. Schnorr, M. A. Feuerstein, B. Rapkin, R. O. Parra, H. W. Herr, and V. P. Laudone, “Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.,” European Urology 67(6), 1042–1050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Côté, D.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Côté, D. C.

Crisp, J. L.

M. A. Whitney, J. L. Crisp, L. T. Nguyen, B. Friedman, L. A. Gross, P. Steinbach, R. Y. Tsien, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Fluorescent peptides highlight peripheral nerves during surgery in mice,” Nature Biotechnology 29(4), 352–356 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalbagni, G.

B. H. Bochner, G. Dalbagni, D. D. Sjoberg, J. Silberstein, Gal E. Keren Paz, S. M. Donat, J. A. Coleman, S. Mathew, A. Vickers, G. C. Schnorr, M. A. Feuerstein, B. Rapkin, R. O. Parra, H. W. Herr, and V. P. Laudone, “Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.,” European Urology 67(6), 1042–1050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dochow, S.

Donat, S. M.

B. H. Bochner, G. Dalbagni, D. D. Sjoberg, J. Silberstein, Gal E. Keren Paz, S. M. Donat, J. A. Coleman, S. Mathew, A. Vickers, G. C. Schnorr, M. A. Feuerstein, B. Rapkin, R. O. Parra, H. W. Herr, and V. P. Laudone, “Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.,” European Urology 67(6), 1042–1050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eggan, K.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, C. L.

F. Légaré, C. L. Evans, F. Ganikhanov, and X. S. Xie, “Toward CARS Endoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4427–4432 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldmeier, L.

U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feuerstein, M. A.

B. H. Bochner, G. Dalbagni, D. D. Sjoberg, J. Silberstein, Gal E. Keren Paz, S. M. Donat, J. A. Coleman, S. Mathew, A. Vickers, G. C. Schnorr, M. A. Feuerstein, B. Rapkin, R. O. Parra, H. W. Herr, and V. P. Laudone, “Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.,” European Urology 67(6), 1042–1050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Freudiger, C. W.

B. G. Saar, R. S. Johnston, C. W. Freudiger, X. S. Xie, and E. J. Seibel, “Coherent Raman scanning fiber endoscopy,” Optics Letters 36(13), 2396–2398 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-Rate Molecular Imaging in Vivo with Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, B.

M. A. Whitney, J. L. Crisp, L. T. Nguyen, B. Friedman, L. A. Gross, P. Steinbach, R. Y. Tsien, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Fluorescent peptides highlight peripheral nerves during surgery in mice,” Nature Biotechnology 29(4), 352–356 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujisawa, M.

A. Takenaka, A. Tewari, R. Hara, R.A. Leung, K. Kurokawa, G. Murakami, and M. Fujisawa, “Pelvic autonomic nerve mapping around the prostate by intraoperative electrical stimulation with simultaneous measurement of intracavernous and intraurethral pressure,” Journal of Urology 177(1), 225–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fujita, K.

T. Minamikawa, M. Hashimoto, K. Fujita, S. Kawata, and T. Araki, “Multi-focus excitation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and its applications for real-time imaging,” Optics Express 17(12), 9526–9536 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fukui, K.

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nature Photonics 6, 845–851 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

Ganikhanov, F.

Gao, L.

Ghani, K. R.

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gill, I. S.

G. T. Sung and I. S. Gill, “Robotic laparoscopic surgery: a comparison of the da Vinci and Zeus systems,” Urology 58(6), 893–898 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graefen, M.

U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gross, L. A.

M. A. Whitney, J. L. Crisp, L. T. Nguyen, B. Friedman, L. A. Gross, P. Steinbach, R. Y. Tsien, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Fluorescent peptides highlight peripheral nerves during surgery in mice,” Nature Biotechnology 29(4), 352–356 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haese, A.

U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hamaguchi, H.

S. Kaminaka, T. Ito, H. Yamazaki, E. Kohda, and H. Hamaguchi, “Near-infrared multichannel Raman spectroscopy toward real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis,” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 33(7), 498–502 (2002).
[Crossref]

Han, S. S.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansen, J.

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hara, R.

A. Takenaka, A. Tewari, R. Hara, R.A. Leung, K. Kurokawa, G. Murakami, and M. Fujisawa, “Pelvic autonomic nerve mapping around the prostate by intraoperative electrical stimulation with simultaneous measurement of intracavernous and intraurethral pressure,” Journal of Urology 177(1), 225–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Harada, Y.

Y. Kumamoto, Y. Harada, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Rapid and accurate peripheral nerve imaging by multipoint Raman spectroscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, Y. Harada, and T. Takamatsu, “Ex vivo peripheral nerve detection of rats by spontaneous Raman spectroscopy,” Scientific Reports 5, 17165 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, Y. Harada, N. Koizumi, K. Okihara, K. Kamoi, A. Yanagisawa, and T. Takamatsu, “Label-free detection of peripheral nerve tissues against adjacent tissues by spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy,” Histochemistry and Cell Biology 139(1), 181–193 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, H.

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nature Photonics 6, 845–851 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, M.

H. Cahyadi, J. Iwatsuka, T. Minamikawa, H. Niioka, T. Araki, and M. Hashimoto, “Fast spectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with high-speed tunable picosecond laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, M. Hashimoto, K. Fujita, S. Kawata, and T. Araki, “Multi-focus excitation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and its applications for real-time imaging,” Optics Express 17(12), 9526–9536 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimoto, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Applied Physics Letters 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Heinzer, H.

U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hemal, A.

M. Menon, S. Kaul, A. Bhandari, A. Shrivastava, A. Tewari, and A. Hemal, “Potency Following Robotic Radical Prostatectomy: A questionnaire Based Analysis of Outcomes After Conventional Nerve Sparing and Prostatic Fascia Sparing Techniques,” The Journal of Urology 174(6), 2291–2296 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hennenlotter, J.

K. D. Sievert, J. Hennenlotter, I. A. Laible, B. Amend, U. Nagele, and A. Stenzl, “The Commonly Performed Nerve Sparing Total Prostatectomy Does Not Acknowledge the Actual Nerve Courses,” The Journal of Urology 181(3), 1076–1081 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herr, H. W.

B. H. Bochner, G. Dalbagni, D. D. Sjoberg, J. Silberstein, Gal E. Keren Paz, S. M. Donat, J. A. Coleman, S. Mathew, A. Vickers, G. C. Schnorr, M. A. Feuerstein, B. Rapkin, R. O. Parra, H. W. Herr, and V. P. Laudone, “Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.,” European Urology 67(6), 1042–1050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ho, K. Y.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer Using Image-Guided Raman Endoscopy and Biomolecular Modeling,” Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Holtom, G. R.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-Rate Molecular Imaging in Vivo with Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer Using Image-Guided Raman Endoscopy and Biomolecular Modeling,” Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huff, T. B.

T. B. Huff and J. X. Cheng, “In vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of sciatic nerve tissue,” Journal of Microscopy 225(2), 175–182 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huland, H.

U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
[Crossref]

Imamura, S.

Ito, T.

S. Kaminaka, T. Ito, H. Yamazaki, E. Kohda, and H. Hamaguchi, “Near-infrared multichannel Raman spectroscopy toward real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis,” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 33(7), 498–502 (2002).
[Crossref]

Itoh, K.

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nature Photonics 6, 845–851 (2012).
[Crossref]

Iwatsuka, J.

H. Cahyadi, J. Iwatsuka, T. Minamikawa, H. Niioka, T. Araki, and M. Hashimoto, “Fast spectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with high-speed tunable picosecond laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeldres, C.

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jeong, W.

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ji, M.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnston, R. S.

B. G. Saar, R. S. Johnston, C. W. Freudiger, X. S. Xie, and E. J. Seibel, “Coherent Raman scanning fiber endoscopy,” Optics Letters 36(13), 2396–2398 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaminaka, S.

S. Kaminaka, T. Ito, H. Yamazaki, E. Kohda, and H. Hamaguchi, “Near-infrared multichannel Raman spectroscopy toward real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis,” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 33(7), 498–502 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kamoi, K.

T. Minamikawa, Y. Harada, N. Koizumi, K. Okihara, K. Kamoi, A. Yanagisawa, and T. Takamatsu, “Label-free detection of peripheral nerve tissues against adjacent tissues by spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy,” Histochemistry and Cell Biology 139(1), 181–193 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karakiewicz, P. I.

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kaul, S.

M. Menon, S. Kaul, A. Bhandari, A. Shrivastava, A. Tewari, and A. Hemal, “Potency Following Robotic Radical Prostatectomy: A questionnaire Based Analysis of Outcomes After Conventional Nerve Sparing and Prostatic Fascia Sparing Techniques,” The Journal of Urology 174(6), 2291–2296 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

T. Minamikawa, M. Hashimoto, K. Fujita, S. Kawata, and T. Araki, “Multi-focus excitation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and its applications for real-time imaging,” Optics Express 17(12), 9526–9536 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keren Paz, Gal E.

B. H. Bochner, G. Dalbagni, D. D. Sjoberg, J. Silberstein, Gal E. Keren Paz, S. M. Donat, J. A. Coleman, S. Mathew, A. Vickers, G. C. Schnorr, M. A. Feuerstein, B. Rapkin, R. O. Parra, H. W. Herr, and V. P. Laudone, “Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.,” European Urology 67(6), 1042–1050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

Kohda, E.

S. Kaminaka, T. Ito, H. Yamazaki, E. Kohda, and H. Hamaguchi, “Near-infrared multichannel Raman spectroscopy toward real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis,” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 33(7), 498–502 (2002).
[Crossref]

Koizumi, N.

T. Minamikawa, Y. Harada, N. Koizumi, K. Okihara, K. Kamoi, A. Yanagisawa, and T. Takamatsu, “Label-free detection of peripheral nerve tissues against adjacent tissues by spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy,” Histochemistry and Cell Biology 139(1), 181–193 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koninck, Y. D.

Kumamoto, Y.

Y. Kumamoto, Y. Harada, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Rapid and accurate peripheral nerve imaging by multipoint Raman spectroscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurokawa, K.

A. Takenaka, A. Tewari, R. Hara, R.A. Leung, K. Kurokawa, G. Murakami, and M. Fujisawa, “Pelvic autonomic nerve mapping around the prostate by intraoperative electrical stimulation with simultaneous measurement of intracavernous and intraurethral pressure,” Journal of Urology 177(1), 225–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laffray, S.

Laible, I. A.

K. D. Sievert, J. Hennenlotter, I. A. Laible, B. Amend, U. Nagele, and A. Stenzl, “The Commonly Performed Nerve Sparing Total Prostatectomy Does Not Acknowledge the Actual Nerve Courses,” The Journal of Urology 181(3), 1076–1081 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Latka, I.

Laudone, V. P.

B. H. Bochner, G. Dalbagni, D. D. Sjoberg, J. Silberstein, Gal E. Keren Paz, S. M. Donat, J. A. Coleman, S. Mathew, A. Vickers, G. C. Schnorr, M. A. Feuerstein, B. Rapkin, R. O. Parra, H. W. Herr, and V. P. Laudone, “Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.,” European Urology 67(6), 1042–1050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Légaré, F.

Leno-Duran, E.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leung, R.A.

A. Takenaka, A. Tewari, R. Hara, R.A. Leung, K. Kurokawa, G. Murakami, and M. Fujisawa, “Pelvic autonomic nerve mapping around the prostate by intraoperative electrical stimulation with simultaneous measurement of intracavernous and intraurethral pressure,” Journal of Urology 177(1), 225–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

Lin, C. P.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, K.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer Using Image-Guided Raman Endoscopy and Biomolecular Modeling,” Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

Liu, Y.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, F. K.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lukic, A.

Luo, P.

Mandel, P.

U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
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Mathew, S.

B. H. Bochner, G. Dalbagni, D. D. Sjoberg, J. Silberstein, Gal E. Keren Paz, S. M. Donat, J. A. Coleman, S. Mathew, A. Vickers, G. C. Schnorr, M. A. Feuerstein, B. Rapkin, R. O. Parra, H. W. Herr, and V. P. Laudone, “Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.,” European Urology 67(6), 1042–1050 (2015).
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Matz, G.

McCormick, D. T.

Melzer, A.

H. Becker, A. Melzer, M. Oliver Schurr, and G. Buess, “3-D video techniques in endoscopic surgery,” Endoscopic surgery and allied technologies 1(1), 40–46 (1993).
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Menon, M.

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
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M. Menon, S. Kaul, A. Bhandari, A. Shrivastava, A. Tewari, and A. Hemal, “Potency Following Robotic Radical Prostatectomy: A questionnaire Based Analysis of Outcomes After Conventional Nerve Sparing and Prostatic Fascia Sparing Techniques,” The Journal of Urology 174(6), 2291–2296 (2005).
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A. Tewari, A. Srivastava, and M. Menon, “A prospective comparison of radical retropubic and robot-assisted prostatectomy: experience in one institution,” BJU International 92(3), 205–210 (2003).
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Messerschmidt, B.

Michl, U.

U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
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Minamikawa, T.

T. Minamikawa, Y. Harada, and T. Takamatsu, “Ex vivo peripheral nerve detection of rats by spontaneous Raman spectroscopy,” Scientific Reports 5, 17165 (2015).
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T. Minamikawa, Y. Harada, N. Koizumi, K. Okihara, K. Kamoi, A. Yanagisawa, and T. Takamatsu, “Label-free detection of peripheral nerve tissues against adjacent tissues by spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy,” Histochemistry and Cell Biology 139(1), 181–193 (2013).
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H. Cahyadi, J. Iwatsuka, T. Minamikawa, H. Niioka, T. Araki, and M. Hashimoto, “Fast spectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with high-speed tunable picosecond laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096009 (2013).
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T. Minamikawa, M. Hashimoto, K. Fujita, S. Kawata, and T. Araki, “Multi-focus excitation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and its applications for real-time imaging,” Optics Express 17(12), 9526–9536 (2009).
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T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimoto, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Applied Physics Letters 89(19), 191101 (2006).
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Mok, J.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
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Montorsi, F.

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
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Mordes, D. A.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
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Murakami, G.

A. Takenaka, A. Tewari, R. Hara, R.A. Leung, K. Kurokawa, G. Murakami, and M. Fujisawa, “Pelvic autonomic nerve mapping around the prostate by intraoperative electrical stimulation with simultaneous measurement of intracavernous and intraurethral pressure,” Journal of Urology 177(1), 225–229 (2007).
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Murugkar, S.

Nagele, U.

K. D. Sievert, J. Hennenlotter, I. A. Laible, B. Amend, U. Nagele, and A. Stenzl, “The Commonly Performed Nerve Sparing Total Prostatectomy Does Not Acknowledge the Actual Nerve Courses,” The Journal of Urology 181(3), 1076–1081 (2009).
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Naji, M.

Nguyen, L. T.

M. A. Whitney, J. L. Crisp, L. T. Nguyen, B. Friedman, L. A. Gross, P. Steinbach, R. Y. Tsien, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Fluorescent peptides highlight peripheral nerves during surgery in mice,” Nature Biotechnology 29(4), 352–356 (2011).
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Nguyen, Q. T.

M. A. Whitney, J. L. Crisp, L. T. Nguyen, B. Friedman, L. A. Gross, P. Steinbach, R. Y. Tsien, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Fluorescent peptides highlight peripheral nerves during surgery in mice,” Nature Biotechnology 29(4), 352–356 (2011).
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Niioka, H.

H. Cahyadi, J. Iwatsuka, T. Minamikawa, H. Niioka, T. Araki, and M. Hashimoto, “Fast spectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with high-speed tunable picosecond laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096009 (2013).
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Nishizawa, N.

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nature Photonics 6, 845–851 (2012).
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U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
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Okihara, K.

T. Minamikawa, Y. Harada, N. Koizumi, K. Okihara, K. Kamoi, A. Yanagisawa, and T. Takamatsu, “Label-free detection of peripheral nerve tissues against adjacent tissues by spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy,” Histochemistry and Cell Biology 139(1), 181–193 (2013).
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Oliver Schurr, M.

H. Becker, A. Melzer, M. Oliver Schurr, and G. Buess, “3-D video techniques in endoscopic surgery,” Endoscopic surgery and allied technologies 1(1), 40–46 (1993).
[PubMed]

Otsuka, Y.

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nature Photonics 6, 845–851 (2012).
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Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nature Photonics 6, 845–851 (2012).
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Palapattu, G. S.

Parra, R. O.

B. H. Bochner, G. Dalbagni, D. D. Sjoberg, J. Silberstein, Gal E. Keren Paz, S. M. Donat, J. A. Coleman, S. Mathew, A. Vickers, G. C. Schnorr, M. A. Feuerstein, B. Rapkin, R. O. Parra, H. W. Herr, and V. P. Laudone, “Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.,” European Urology 67(6), 1042–1050 (2015).
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Peabody, J. O.

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
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Petrucelli, L.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
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Popp, J.

Potma, E. O.

M. Balu, G. Liu, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Fiber delivered probe for efficient CARS imaging of tissues,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2380–2388 (2010).
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C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
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Ranka, J. K.

Rapkin, B.

B. H. Bochner, G. Dalbagni, D. D. Sjoberg, J. Silberstein, Gal E. Keren Paz, S. M. Donat, J. A. Coleman, S. Mathew, A. Vickers, G. C. Schnorr, M. A. Feuerstein, B. Rapkin, R. O. Parra, H. W. Herr, and V. P. Laudone, “Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.,” European Urology 67(6), 1042–1050 (2015).
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Ravi, P.

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
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Reichman, J.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-Rate Molecular Imaging in Vivo with Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
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Rogers, C. G.

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saar, B. G.

B. G. Saar, R. S. Johnston, C. W. Freudiger, X. S. Xie, and E. J. Seibel, “Coherent Raman scanning fiber endoscopy,” Optics Letters 36(13), 2396–2398 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-Rate Molecular Imaging in Vivo with Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
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Salameh, J. S.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
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Salomon, G.

U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sammon, J.

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
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Satoh, S.

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nature Photonics 6, 845–851 (2012).
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Schlomm, T.

U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schmitges, J.

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, M.

Schnorr, G. C.

B. H. Bochner, G. Dalbagni, D. D. Sjoberg, J. Silberstein, Gal E. Keren Paz, S. M. Donat, J. A. Coleman, S. Mathew, A. Vickers, G. C. Schnorr, M. A. Feuerstein, B. Rapkin, R. O. Parra, H. W. Herr, and V. P. Laudone, “Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.,” European Urology 67(6), 1042–1050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Seibel, E. J.

B. G. Saar, R. S. Johnston, C. W. Freudiger, X. S. Xie, and E. J. Seibel, “Coherent Raman scanning fiber endoscopy,” Optics Letters 36(13), 2396–2398 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shariat, S. F.

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sharma, A.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shneider, N. A.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shrivastava, A.

M. Menon, S. Kaul, A. Bhandari, A. Shrivastava, A. Tewari, and A. Hemal, “Potency Following Robotic Radical Prostatectomy: A questionnaire Based Analysis of Outcomes After Conventional Nerve Sparing and Prostatic Fascia Sparing Techniques,” The Journal of Urology 174(6), 2291–2296 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sievert, K. D.

K. D. Sievert, J. Hennenlotter, I. A. Laible, B. Amend, U. Nagele, and A. Stenzl, “The Commonly Performed Nerve Sparing Total Prostatectomy Does Not Acknowledge the Actual Nerve Courses,” The Journal of Urology 181(3), 1076–1081 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silberstein, J.

B. H. Bochner, G. Dalbagni, D. D. Sjoberg, J. Silberstein, Gal E. Keren Paz, S. M. Donat, J. A. Coleman, S. Mathew, A. Vickers, G. C. Schnorr, M. A. Feuerstein, B. Rapkin, R. O. Parra, H. W. Herr, and V. P. Laudone, “Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.,” European Urology 67(6), 1042–1050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sjoberg, D. D.

B. H. Bochner, G. Dalbagni, D. D. Sjoberg, J. Silberstein, Gal E. Keren Paz, S. M. Donat, J. A. Coleman, S. Mathew, A. Vickers, G. C. Schnorr, M. A. Feuerstein, B. Rapkin, R. O. Parra, H. W. Herr, and V. P. Laudone, “Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.,” European Urology 67(6), 1042–1050 (2015).
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Smith, B.

So, J. B. Y.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer Using Image-Guided Raman Endoscopy and Biomolecular Modeling,” Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
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Srivastava, A.

A. Tewari, A. Srivastava, and M. Menon, “A prospective comparison of radical retropubic and robot-assisted prostatectomy: experience in one institution,” BJU International 92(3), 205–210 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stanley, C. M.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-Rate Molecular Imaging in Vivo with Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinbach, P.

M. A. Whitney, J. L. Crisp, L. T. Nguyen, B. Friedman, L. A. Gross, P. Steinbach, R. Y. Tsien, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Fluorescent peptides highlight peripheral nerves during surgery in mice,” Nature Biotechnology 29(4), 352–356 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stenzl, A.

K. D. Sievert, J. Hennenlotter, I. A. Laible, B. Amend, U. Nagele, and A. Stenzl, “The Commonly Performed Nerve Sparing Total Prostatectomy Does Not Acknowledge the Actual Nerve Courses,” The Journal of Urology 181(3), 1076–1081 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steuber, T.

U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
[Crossref]

Strominger, J.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stys, P.

Sumimura, K.

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nature Photonics 6, 845–851 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, M.

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
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G. T. Sung and I. S. Gill, “Robotic laparoscopic surgery: a comparison of the da Vinci and Zeus systems,” Urology 58(6), 893–898 (2001).
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Suzuki, N.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
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Takagi, Y.

Takamatsu, T.

Y. Kumamoto, Y. Harada, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Rapid and accurate peripheral nerve imaging by multipoint Raman spectroscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, Y. Harada, and T. Takamatsu, “Ex vivo peripheral nerve detection of rats by spontaneous Raman spectroscopy,” Scientific Reports 5, 17165 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, Y. Harada, N. Koizumi, K. Okihara, K. Kamoi, A. Yanagisawa, and T. Takamatsu, “Label-free detection of peripheral nerve tissues against adjacent tissues by spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy,” Histochemistry and Cell Biology 139(1), 181–193 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takenaka, A.

A. Takenaka, A. Tewari, R. Hara, R.A. Leung, K. Kurokawa, G. Murakami, and M. Fujisawa, “Pelvic autonomic nerve mapping around the prostate by intraoperative electrical stimulation with simultaneous measurement of intracavernous and intraurethral pressure,” Journal of Urology 177(1), 225–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, H.

Y. Kumamoto, Y. Harada, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Rapid and accurate peripheral nerve imaging by multipoint Raman spectroscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanimoto, N.

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimoto, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Applied Physics Letters 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Teh, M.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer Using Image-Guided Raman Endoscopy and Biomolecular Modeling,” Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tennstedt, P.

U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tewari, A.

A. Takenaka, A. Tewari, R. Hara, R.A. Leung, K. Kurokawa, G. Murakami, and M. Fujisawa, “Pelvic autonomic nerve mapping around the prostate by intraoperative electrical stimulation with simultaneous measurement of intracavernous and intraurethral pressure,” Journal of Urology 177(1), 225–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Menon, S. Kaul, A. Bhandari, A. Shrivastava, A. Tewari, and A. Hemal, “Potency Following Robotic Radical Prostatectomy: A questionnaire Based Analysis of Outcomes After Conventional Nerve Sparing and Prostatic Fascia Sparing Techniques,” The Journal of Urology 174(6), 2291–2296 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tewari, A. Srivastava, and M. Menon, “A prospective comparison of radical retropubic and robot-assisted prostatectomy: experience in one institution,” BJU International 92(3), 205–210 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thrall, M. J.

Tian, F.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tilki, D.

U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
[Crossref]

Trinh, Q. D.

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tromberg, B. J.

Tsien, R. Y.

M. A. Whitney, J. L. Crisp, L. T. Nguyen, B. Friedman, L. A. Gross, P. Steinbach, R. Y. Tsien, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Fluorescent peptides highlight peripheral nerves during surgery in mice,” Nature Biotechnology 29(4), 352–356 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uematsu, S. S.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Umemura, W.

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nature Photonics 6, 845–851 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vallée, R.

Vickers, A.

B. H. Bochner, G. Dalbagni, D. D. Sjoberg, J. Silberstein, Gal E. Keren Paz, S. M. Donat, J. A. Coleman, S. Mathew, A. Vickers, G. C. Schnorr, M. A. Feuerstein, B. Rapkin, R. O. Parra, H. W. Herr, and V. P. Laudone, “Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.,” European Urology 67(6), 1042–1050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. Y.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Whitney, M. A.

M. A. Whitney, J. L. Crisp, L. T. Nguyen, B. Friedman, L. A. Gross, P. Steinbach, R. Y. Tsien, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Fluorescent peptides highlight peripheral nerves during surgery in mice,” Nature Biotechnology 29(4), 352–356 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Cambridge university press, 1980), Chap. 8.

Wong, K.

Wong, K. K.

Wong, S. T. C.

Wong, S. T.C.

Xie, X. S.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, R. S. Johnston, C. W. Freudiger, X. S. Xie, and E. J. Seibel, “Coherent Raman scanning fiber endoscopy,” Optics Letters 36(13), 2396–2398 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-Rate Molecular Imaging in Vivo with Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Légaré, C. L. Evans, F. Ganikhanov, and X. S. Xie, “Toward CARS Endoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4427–4432 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

Yamazaki, H.

S. Kaminaka, T. Ito, H. Yamazaki, E. Kohda, and H. Hamaguchi, “Near-infrared multichannel Raman spectroscopy toward real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis,” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 33(7), 498–502 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yanagisawa, A.

T. Minamikawa, Y. Harada, N. Koizumi, K. Okihara, K. Kamoi, A. Yanagisawa, and T. Takamatsu, “Label-free detection of peripheral nerve tissues against adjacent tissues by spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy,” Histochemistry and Cell Biology 139(1), 181–193 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Yeoh, K. G.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer Using Image-Guided Raman Endoscopy and Biomolecular Modeling,” Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoshihara, K.

Zhang, R.

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, W.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer Using Image-Guided Raman Endoscopy and Biomolecular Modeling,” Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

Applied Physics Letters (1)

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimoto, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Applied Physics Letters 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

BJU International (1)

A. Tewari, A. Srivastava, and M. Menon, “A prospective comparison of radical retropubic and robot-assisted prostatectomy: experience in one institution,” BJU International 92(3), 205–210 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endoscopic surgery and allied technologies (1)

H. Becker, A. Melzer, M. Oliver Schurr, and G. Buess, “3-D video techniques in endoscopic surgery,” Endoscopic surgery and allied technologies 1(1), 40–46 (1993).
[PubMed]

European Urology (3)

Q. D. Trinh, J. Sammon, M. Sun, P. Ravi, K. R. Ghani, M. Bianchi, W. Jeong, S. F. Shariat, J. Hansen, J. Schmitges, C. Jeldres, C. G. Rogers, J. O. Peabody, F. Montorsi, M. Menon, and P. I. Karakiewicz, “Perioperative Outcomes of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Compared With Open Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample,” European Urology 61(4), 679–685 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. H. Bochner, G. Dalbagni, D. D. Sjoberg, J. Silberstein, Gal E. Keren Paz, S. M. Donat, J. A. Coleman, S. Mathew, A. Vickers, G. C. Schnorr, M. A. Feuerstein, B. Rapkin, R. O. Parra, H. W. Herr, and V. P. Laudone, “Comparing Open Radical Cystectomy and Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.,” European Urology 67(6), 1042–1050 (2015).
[Crossref]

U. Michl, P. Tennstedt, L. Feldmeier, P. Mandel, S. J. Oh, S. Ahyai, L. Budäus, F. K.H. Chun, A. Haese, H. Heinzer, G. Salomon, T. Schlomm, T. Steuber, H. Huland, M. Graefen, and D. Tilki, “Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy,” European Urology 69(4), 584–589 (2016).
[Crossref]

Histochemistry and Cell Biology (1)

T. Minamikawa, Y. Harada, N. Koizumi, K. Okihara, K. Kamoi, A. Yanagisawa, and T. Takamatsu, “Label-free detection of peripheral nerve tissues against adjacent tissues by spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy,” Histochemistry and Cell Biology 139(1), 181–193 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

H. Cahyadi, J. Iwatsuka, T. Minamikawa, H. Niioka, T. Araki, and M. Hashimoto, “Fast spectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with high-speed tunable picosecond laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Journal of Microscopy (1)

T. B. Huff and J. X. Cheng, “In vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of sciatic nerve tissue,” Journal of Microscopy 225(2), 175–182 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Journal of Raman Spectroscopy (1)

S. Kaminaka, T. Ito, H. Yamazaki, E. Kohda, and H. Hamaguchi, “Near-infrared multichannel Raman spectroscopy toward real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis,” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 33(7), 498–502 (2002).
[Crossref]

Journal of Urology (1)

A. Takenaka, A. Tewari, R. Hara, R.A. Leung, K. Kurokawa, G. Murakami, and M. Fujisawa, “Pelvic autonomic nerve mapping around the prostate by intraoperative electrical stimulation with simultaneous measurement of intracavernous and intraurethral pressure,” Journal of Urology 177(1), 225–229 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature Biotechnology (1)

M. A. Whitney, J. L. Crisp, L. T. Nguyen, B. Friedman, L. A. Gross, P. Steinbach, R. Y. Tsien, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Fluorescent peptides highlight peripheral nerves during surgery in mice,” Nature Biotechnology 29(4), 352–356 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Communications (1)

F. Tian, W. Yang, D. A. Mordes, J. Y. Wang, J. S. Salameh, J. Mok, J. Chew, A. Sharma, E. Leno-Duran, S. S. Uematsu, N. Suzuki, S. S. Han, F. K. Lu, M. Ji, R. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Strominger, N. A. Shneider, L. Petrucelli, X. S. Xie, and K. Eggan, “Monitoring peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS by label-free stimulated Raman scattering imaging,” Nature Communications 7, 13283 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Photonics (1)

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nature Photonics 6, 845–851 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Optics Express (1)

T. Minamikawa, M. Hashimoto, K. Fujita, S. Kawata, and T. Araki, “Multi-focus excitation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and its applications for real-time imaging,” Optics Express 17(12), 9526–9536 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Optics Letters (1)

B. G. Saar, R. S. Johnston, C. W. Freudiger, X. S. Xie, and E. J. Seibel, “Coherent Raman scanning fiber endoscopy,” Optics Letters 36(13), 2396–2398 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-Rate Molecular Imaging in Vivo with Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scientific Reports (2)

T. Minamikawa, Y. Harada, and T. Takamatsu, “Ex vivo peripheral nerve detection of rats by spontaneous Raman spectroscopy,” Scientific Reports 5, 17165 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kumamoto, Y. Harada, H. Tanaka, and T. Takamatsu, “Rapid and accurate peripheral nerve imaging by multipoint Raman spectroscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment (1)

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “In Vivo Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer Using Image-Guided Raman Endoscopy and Biomolecular Modeling,” Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 10(2), 103–112 (2011).
[Crossref]

The Journal of Urology (2)

K. D. Sievert, J. Hennenlotter, I. A. Laible, B. Amend, U. Nagele, and A. Stenzl, “The Commonly Performed Nerve Sparing Total Prostatectomy Does Not Acknowledge the Actual Nerve Courses,” The Journal of Urology 181(3), 1076–1081 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Menon, S. Kaul, A. Bhandari, A. Shrivastava, A. Tewari, and A. Hemal, “Potency Following Robotic Radical Prostatectomy: A questionnaire Based Analysis of Outcomes After Conventional Nerve Sparing and Prostatic Fascia Sparing Techniques,” The Journal of Urology 174(6), 2291–2296 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urology (1)

G. T. Sung and I. S. Gill, “Robotic laparoscopic surgery: a comparison of the da Vinci and Zeus systems,” Urology 58(6), 893–898 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Cambridge university press, 1980), Chap. 8.

A. Lombardini, V. Mytskaniuk, S. Sivankutty, E. R. Andresen, X. Chen, J. Wenger, M. Fabert, N. Joly, F. Louradour, A. Kudlinski, and H. Rigneault, “High-resolution multimodal flexible coherent Raman endoscope,” https://arxiv.org/abs/1708.04149 .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The CARS rigid endoscope system. (a) Schematic optical design of the CARS rigid endoscope system. Two synchronized picosecond mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser pulses are delivered by a single-mode fiber (SMF) and collimated by a reflective fiber collimator 2 (FC2). The two pulses are focused on the sample and are scanned by a galvanometer scanner. The generated CARS light is detected by a photomultiplier tube (PMT). PD, photodiode; BS, beam splitter; DM, dichroic mirror; F, filter; RL, relay lens; and OB, objective lens. (b) Photograph of the CARS rigid endoscope. (c) Photograph of the assembled rigid endoscope tube. (d) Exploded endoscope tube. The tube consists of outer cylinders, inner cylinders, a cap cylinder, a pair of relay lenses, and an objective lens. The pair of relay lenses is fixed by the inner cylinders. (e) The objective lens is screwed into the cap cylinder.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Cross-correlation signals between two color laser pulses (709 and 888 nm) before (blue line) and after (red line) traveling through 2 m of single-mode fiber.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Field of view of the rigid endoscope. (a) A transmission image of a micrometer scale. (b) A transmission image of a micrometer grid scale for evaluating the distortion of the imaging system. (c) A CARS image of 45 μm polystyrene beads. (d) A CARS image of 2 μm polystyrene beads. (e) A CARS intensity profile along the line in (d). The measured lateral profile (dots) and Gaussian fit (solid line) of a 2 μm polystyrene bead.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Label-free imaging of rat sciatic nerve. (a) Photograph of prepared rat sciatic nerve. The sample was cut along the axis (yellow dotted circle). (b) Transmission and (c) CARS images inside of yellow dotted circle in (a). Fibrous (arrow) and circular (asterisk) structures of myelin sheaths are clearly shown.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Longitudinal focus positions of pump (709 nm) and Stokes (888 nm) laser beams. The focus difference between the two laser beams was 21 μm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The effect of beam radius (a) and longitudinal focus difference (z′) on CARS intensity using an f = 7.5 mm objective lens (a) and an f = 5.0 mm objective lens (b).

Equations (1)

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I CARS ( a , z , z ) 2 π ϕ f p ( a , r , z ) 2 f s ( a , r , z , z ) r d r .

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