Abstract

We report the development and implementation of an intraoperative polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) system for enhancing breast cancer detection. A total of 3440 PS-OCT images were intraoperatively acquired from 9 human breast specimens diagnosed by H&E histology as healthy fibro-adipose tissue (n = 2), healthy stroma (n = 2), or invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC, n = 5). A standard OCT-based metric (coefficient of variation (CV)) and PS-OCT-based metrics sensitive to biological tissue from birefringence (i.e., retardation and degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU)) were derived from 398 statistically different and independent images selected by correlation coefficient analysis. We found the standard OCT-based metric and PS-OCT-based metrics were complementary for the differentiation of healthy fibro-adipose tissue, healthy stroma, and IDC. While the CV of fibro-adipose tissue was significantly higher (p<0.001) than those of either stroma or IDC, the CV difference between stroma and IDC was minimal. On the other hand, stroma was associated with significantly higher (p<0.001) retardation and significantly lower (p<0.001) DOPU as compared to IDC. By leveraging the complementary information acquired by the intraoperative PS-OCT system, healthy fibro-adipose tissue, healthy stroma, and IDC can be differentiated with an accuracy of 89.4%, demonstrating the potential of PS-OCT as an adjunct modality for enhanced intraoperative differentiation of human breast cancer.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Differentiation of ex vivo human breast tissue using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

Fredrick A. South, Eric J. Chaney, Marina Marjanovic, Steven G. Adie, and Stephen A. Boppart
Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10) 3417-3426 (2014)

Auto-fluorescence lifetime and light reflectance spectroscopy for breast cancer diagnosis: potential tools for intraoperative margin detection

Vikrant Sharma, Shivaranjani Shivalingaiah, Yan Peng, David Euhus, Zygmunt Gryczynski, and Hanli Liu
Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8) 1825-1840 (2012)

Wide-field imaging of fluorescent deoxy-glucose in ex vivo malignant and normal breast tissue

R. J. Langsner, L. P. Middleton, J. Sun, F. Meric-Bernstam, K. K. Hunt, R. A. Drezek, and T. K. Yu
Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6) 1514-1523 (2011)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. American Cancer Society, “Breast Cancer Facts & Figures,” (2017–2018).
  3. S. E. Singletary, “Surgical margins in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy,” Am. J. Surg. 184(5), 383–393 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. E. S. Hwang, D. Y. Lichtensztajn, S. L. Gomez, B. Fowble, and C. A. Clarke, “Survival after lumpectomy and mastectomy for early stage invasive breast cancer: the effect of age and hormone receptor status,” Cancer 119(7), 1402–1411 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. B. Chagpar, B. K. Killelea, T. N. Tsangaris, M. Butler, K. Stavris, F. Li, X. Yao, V. Bossuyt, M. Harigopal, D. R. Lannin, L. Pusztai, and N. R. Horowitz, “A randomized, controlled trial of cavity shave margins in breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 373(6), 503–510 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. M. Jorns, D. Visscher, M. Sabel, T. Breslin, P. Healy, S. Daignaut, J. L. Myers, and A. J. Wu, “Intraoperative frozen section analysis of margins in breast conserving surgery significantly decreases reoperative rates: one-year experience at an ambulatory surgical center,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 138(5), 657–669 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. F. D’Halluin, P. Tas, S. Rouquette, C. Bendavid, F. Foucher, H. Meshba, J. Blanchot, O. Coué, and J. Levêque, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology following lumpectomy for breast cancer: a series of 400 procedures,” Breast 18(4), 248–253 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. E. L. Rosenthal, J. M. Warram, K. I. Bland, and K. R. Zinn, “The status of contemporary image-guided modalities in oncologic surgery,” Ann. Surg. 261(1), 46–55 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. E. K. Valdes, S. K. Boolbol, I. Ali, S. M. Feldman, and J.-M. Cohen, “Intraoperative touch preparation cytology for margin assessment in breast-conservation surgery: does it work for lobular carcinoma?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2940–2945 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. Thill, “MarginProbe: intraoperative margin assessment during breast conserving surgery by using radiofrequency spectroscopy,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 10(3), 301–315 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, “Imaging in breast cancer: diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumors in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res. 7(6), 279–285 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061227 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. de Matos Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Development of a spatially offset Raman spectroscopy probe for breast tumor surgical margin evaluation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077006 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer (March 2003),” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50(11), 1233–1242 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84(2), 85–97 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. A. M. Zysk and S. A. Boppart, “Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054015 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, “Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28771 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. Wang, Y. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Review of optical coherence tomography in oncology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–23 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. F. A. South, E. J. Chaney, M. Marjanovic, S. G. Adie, and S. A. Boppart, “Differentiation of ex vivo human breast tissue using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3417–3426 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. D. P. Arps, P. Healy, L. Zhao, C. G. Kleer, and J. C. Pang, “Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features: a comparison study to invasive ductal and invasive lobular carcinomas of the breast,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 138(3), 719–726 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. M. K. Al-Qaisi and T. Akkin, “Swept-source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography based on polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3392–3403 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22(12), 934–936 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. M. J. Ju, Y.-J. Hong, S. Makita, Y. Lim, K. Kurokawa, L. Duan, M. Miura, S. Tang, and Y. Yasuno, “Advanced multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19412–19436 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. K. J. Mesa, L. E. Selmic, P. Pande, G. L. Monroy, J. Reagan, J. Samuelson, E. Driskell, J. Li, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative optical coherence tomography for soft tissue sarcoma differentiation and margin identification,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 240–248 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. C. Luparello, “Minireview: Aspects of collagen changes in breast cancer,” J. Carcinog. Mutagen. 13, 7 (2013).

2017 (2)

J. Wang, Y. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Review of optical coherence tomography in oncology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–23 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Mesa, L. E. Selmic, P. Pande, G. L. Monroy, J. Reagan, J. Samuelson, E. Driskell, J. Li, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative optical coherence tomography for soft tissue sarcoma differentiation and margin identification,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 240–248 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, “Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28771 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Chagpar, B. K. Killelea, T. N. Tsangaris, M. Butler, K. Stavris, F. Li, X. Yao, V. Bossuyt, M. Harigopal, D. R. Lannin, L. Pusztai, and N. R. Horowitz, “A randomized, controlled trial of cavity shave margins in breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 373(6), 503–510 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Rosenthal, J. M. Warram, K. I. Bland, and K. R. Zinn, “The status of contemporary image-guided modalities in oncologic surgery,” Ann. Surg. 261(1), 46–55 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. South, E. J. Chaney, M. Marjanovic, S. G. Adie, and S. A. Boppart, “Differentiation of ex vivo human breast tissue using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3417–3426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

M. J. Ju, Y.-J. Hong, S. Makita, Y. Lim, K. Kurokawa, L. Duan, M. Miura, S. Tang, and Y. Yasuno, “Advanced multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19412–19436 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Luparello, “Minireview: Aspects of collagen changes in breast cancer,” J. Carcinog. Mutagen. 13, 7 (2013).

D. P. Arps, P. Healy, L. Zhao, C. G. Kleer, and J. C. Pang, “Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features: a comparison study to invasive ductal and invasive lobular carcinomas of the breast,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 138(3), 719–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Thill, “MarginProbe: intraoperative margin assessment during breast conserving surgery by using radiofrequency spectroscopy,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 10(3), 301–315 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Hwang, D. Y. Lichtensztajn, S. L. Gomez, B. Fowble, and C. A. Clarke, “Survival after lumpectomy and mastectomy for early stage invasive breast cancer: the effect of age and hormone receptor status,” Cancer 119(7), 1402–1411 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. M. Jorns, D. Visscher, M. Sabel, T. Breslin, P. Healy, S. Daignaut, J. L. Myers, and A. J. Wu, “Intraoperative frozen section analysis of margins in breast conserving surgery significantly decreases reoperative rates: one-year experience at an ambulatory surgical center,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 138(5), 657–669 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. de Matos Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Development of a spatially offset Raman spectroscopy probe for breast tumor surgical margin evaluation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. D’Halluin, P. Tas, S. Rouquette, C. Bendavid, F. Foucher, H. Meshba, J. Blanchot, O. Coué, and J. Levêque, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology following lumpectomy for breast cancer: a series of 400 procedures,” Breast 18(4), 248–253 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

E. K. Valdes, S. K. Boolbol, I. Ali, S. M. Feldman, and J.-M. Cohen, “Intraoperative touch preparation cytology for margin assessment in breast-conservation surgery: does it work for lobular carcinoma?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2940–2945 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. M. Zysk and S. A. Boppart, “Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054015 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, “Imaging in breast cancer: diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumors in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res. 7(6), 279–285 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer (March 2003),” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50(11), 1233–1242 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. E. Singletary, “Surgical margins in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy,” Am. J. Surg. 184(5), 383–393 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

Abeytunge, S.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. South, E. J. Chaney, M. Marjanovic, S. G. Adie, and S. A. Boppart, “Differentiation of ex vivo human breast tissue using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3417–3426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akbari, S.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akkin, T.

Ali, I.

E. K. Valdes, S. K. Boolbol, I. Ali, S. M. Feldman, and J.-M. Cohen, “Intraoperative touch preparation cytology for margin assessment in breast-conservation surgery: does it work for lobular carcinoma?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2940–2945 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allweis, T.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Qaisi, M. K.

Arps, D. P.

D. P. Arps, P. Healy, L. Zhao, C. G. Kleer, and J. C. Pang, “Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features: a comparison study to invasive ductal and invasive lobular carcinomas of the breast,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 138(3), 719–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barry, W. T.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellafiore, F. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bendavid, C.

F. D’Halluin, P. Tas, S. Rouquette, C. Bendavid, F. Foucher, H. Meshba, J. Blanchot, O. Coué, and J. Levêque, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology following lumpectomy for breast cancer: a series of 400 procedures,” Breast 18(4), 248–253 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanchot, J.

F. D’Halluin, P. Tas, S. Rouquette, C. Bendavid, F. Foucher, H. Meshba, J. Blanchot, O. Coué, and J. Levêque, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology following lumpectomy for breast cancer: a series of 400 procedures,” Breast 18(4), 248–253 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bland, K. I.

E. L. Rosenthal, J. M. Warram, K. I. Bland, and K. R. Zinn, “The status of contemporary image-guided modalities in oncologic surgery,” Ann. Surg. 261(1), 46–55 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boolbol, S. K.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. K. Valdes, S. K. Boolbol, I. Ali, S. M. Feldman, and J.-M. Cohen, “Intraoperative touch preparation cytology for margin assessment in breast-conservation surgery: does it work for lobular carcinoma?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2940–2945 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

J. Wang, Y. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Review of optical coherence tomography in oncology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–23 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Mesa, L. E. Selmic, P. Pande, G. L. Monroy, J. Reagan, J. Samuelson, E. Driskell, J. Li, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative optical coherence tomography for soft tissue sarcoma differentiation and margin identification,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 240–248 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. South, E. J. Chaney, M. Marjanovic, S. G. Adie, and S. A. Boppart, “Differentiation of ex vivo human breast tissue using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3417–3426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk and S. A. Boppart, “Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054015 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bossuyt, V.

A. B. Chagpar, B. K. Killelea, T. N. Tsangaris, M. Butler, K. Stavris, F. Li, X. Yao, V. Bossuyt, M. Harigopal, D. R. Lannin, L. Pusztai, and N. R. Horowitz, “A randomized, controlled trial of cavity shave margins in breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 373(6), 503–510 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, “Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28771 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bray, F.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breslin, T.

J. M. Jorns, D. Visscher, M. Sabel, T. Breslin, P. Healy, S. Daignaut, J. L. Myers, and A. J. Wu, “Intraoperative frozen section analysis of margins in breast conserving surgery significantly decreases reoperative rates: one-year experience at an ambulatory surgical center,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 138(5), 657–669 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breslin, T. M.

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer (March 2003),” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50(11), 1233–1242 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, J. Q.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butler, J.

B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, “Imaging in breast cancer: diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumors in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res. 7(6), 279–285 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butler, M.

A. B. Chagpar, B. K. Killelea, T. N. Tsangaris, M. Butler, K. Stavris, F. Li, X. Yao, V. Bossuyt, M. Harigopal, D. R. Lannin, L. Pusztai, and N. R. Horowitz, “A randomized, controlled trial of cavity shave margins in breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 373(6), 503–510 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bydlon, T. M.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caldwell, M. L.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canner, J. K.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carmon, M.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A.

B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, “Imaging in breast cancer: diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumors in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res. 7(6), 279–285 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chagpar, A. B.

A. B. Chagpar, B. K. Killelea, T. N. Tsangaris, M. Butler, K. Stavris, F. Li, X. Yao, V. Bossuyt, M. Harigopal, D. R. Lannin, L. Pusztai, and N. R. Horowitz, “A randomized, controlled trial of cavity shave margins in breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 373(6), 503–510 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaney, E. J.

K. J. Mesa, L. E. Selmic, P. Pande, G. L. Monroy, J. Reagan, J. Samuelson, E. Driskell, J. Li, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative optical coherence tomography for soft tissue sarcoma differentiation and margin identification,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 240–248 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. South, E. J. Chaney, M. Marjanovic, S. G. Adie, and S. A. Boppart, “Differentiation of ex vivo human breast tissue using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3417–3426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cittadine, A. J.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clarke, C. A.

E. S. Hwang, D. Y. Lichtensztajn, S. L. Gomez, B. Fowble, and C. A. Clarke, “Survival after lumpectomy and mastectomy for early stage invasive breast cancer: the effect of age and hormone receptor status,” Cancer 119(7), 1402–1411 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, J.-M.

E. K. Valdes, S. K. Boolbol, I. Ali, S. M. Feldman, and J.-M. Cohen, “Intraoperative touch preparation cytology for margin assessment in breast-conservation surgery: does it work for lobular carcinoma?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2940–2945 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Compton, M.

B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, “Imaging in breast cancer: diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumors in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res. 7(6), 279–285 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coué, O.

F. D’Halluin, P. Tas, S. Rouquette, C. Bendavid, F. Foucher, H. Meshba, J. Blanchot, O. Coué, and J. Levêque, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology following lumpectomy for breast cancer: a series of 400 procedures,” Breast 18(4), 248–253 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cradock, K. A.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curatolo, A.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

D’Halluin, F.

F. D’Halluin, P. Tas, S. Rouquette, C. Bendavid, F. Foucher, H. Meshba, J. Blanchot, O. Coué, and J. Levêque, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology following lumpectomy for breast cancer: a series of 400 procedures,” Breast 18(4), 248–253 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daignaut, S.

J. M. Jorns, D. Visscher, M. Sabel, T. Breslin, P. Healy, S. Daignaut, J. L. Myers, and A. J. Wu, “Intraoperative frozen section analysis of margins in breast conserving surgery significantly decreases reoperative rates: one-year experience at an ambulatory surgical center,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 138(5), 657–669 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Darga, D.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

de Matos Granja, N.

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. de Matos Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Development of a spatially offset Raman spectroscopy probe for breast tumor surgical margin evaluation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Driskell, E.

K. J. Mesa, L. E. Selmic, P. Pande, G. L. Monroy, J. Reagan, J. Samuelson, E. Driskell, J. Li, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative optical coherence tomography for soft tissue sarcoma differentiation and margin identification,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 240–248 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, L.

Durkin, A.

B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, “Imaging in breast cancer: diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumors in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res. 7(6), 279–285 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erickson-Bhatt, S. J.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Estabrook, A.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldman, S.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldman, S. M.

E. K. Valdes, S. K. Boolbol, I. Ali, S. M. Feldman, and J.-M. Cohen, “Intraoperative touch preparation cytology for margin assessment in breast-conservation surgery: does it work for lobular carcinoma?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2940–2945 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferlay, J.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernandez, K.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foucher, F.

F. D’Halluin, P. Tas, S. Rouquette, C. Bendavid, F. Foucher, H. Meshba, J. Blanchot, O. Coué, and J. Levêque, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology following lumpectomy for breast cancer: a series of 400 procedures,” Breast 18(4), 248–253 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fowble, B.

E. S. Hwang, D. Y. Lichtensztajn, S. L. Gomez, B. Fowble, and C. A. Clarke, “Survival after lumpectomy and mastectomy for early stage invasive breast cancer: the effect of age and hormone receptor status,” Cancer 119(7), 1402–1411 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frazier, T.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, N. B.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gabrielson, E.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallagher, J. E.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geradts, J.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilchrist, K. W.

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer (March 2003),” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50(11), 1233–1242 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gittleman, M.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gomez, S. L.

E. S. Hwang, D. Y. Lichtensztajn, S. L. Gomez, B. Fowble, and C. A. Clarke, “Survival after lumpectomy and mastectomy for early stage invasive breast cancer: the effect of age and hormone receptor status,” Cancer 119(7), 1402–1411 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guerra, L.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harigopal, M.

A. B. Chagpar, B. K. Killelea, T. N. Tsangaris, M. Butler, K. Stavris, F. Li, X. Yao, V. Bossuyt, M. Harigopal, D. R. Lannin, L. Pusztai, and N. R. Horowitz, “A randomized, controlled trial of cavity shave margins in breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 373(6), 503–510 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harness, J.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Healy, P.

D. P. Arps, P. Healy, L. Zhao, C. G. Kleer, and J. C. Pang, “Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features: a comparison study to invasive ductal and invasive lobular carcinomas of the breast,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 138(3), 719–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Jorns, D. Visscher, M. Sabel, T. Breslin, P. Healy, S. Daignaut, J. L. Myers, and A. J. Wu, “Intraoperative frozen section analysis of margins in breast conserving surgery significantly decreases reoperative rates: one-year experience at an ambulatory surgical center,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 138(5), 657–669 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holmes, D.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, Y.-J.

Horowitz, N. R.

A. B. Chagpar, B. K. Killelea, T. N. Tsangaris, M. Butler, K. Stavris, F. Li, X. Yao, V. Bossuyt, M. Harigopal, D. R. Lannin, L. Pusztai, and N. R. Horowitz, “A randomized, controlled trial of cavity shave margins in breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 373(6), 503–510 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsiang, D.

B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, “Imaging in breast cancer: diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumors in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res. 7(6), 279–285 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, E. S.

E. S. Hwang, D. Y. Lichtensztajn, S. L. Gomez, B. Fowble, and C. A. Clarke, “Survival after lumpectomy and mastectomy for early stage invasive breast cancer: the effect of age and hormone receptor status,” Cancer 119(7), 1402–1411 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobs, L. K.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jemal, A.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. A.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jorns, J. M.

J. M. Jorns, D. Visscher, M. Sabel, T. Breslin, P. Healy, S. Daignaut, J. L. Myers, and A. J. Wu, “Intraoperative frozen section analysis of margins in breast conserving surgery significantly decreases reoperative rates: one-year experience at an ambulatory surgical center,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 138(5), 657–669 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, M. J.

Junker, M.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karlan, S.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karni, T.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, M. D.

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. de Matos Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Development of a spatially offset Raman spectroscopy probe for breast tumor surgical margin evaluation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelley, M. C.

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. de Matos Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Development of a spatially offset Raman spectroscopy probe for breast tumor surgical margin evaluation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kennedy, S. A.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Killelea, B. K.

A. B. Chagpar, B. K. Killelea, T. N. Tsangaris, M. Butler, K. Stavris, F. Li, X. Yao, V. Bossuyt, M. Harigopal, D. R. Lannin, L. Pusztai, and N. R. Horowitz, “A randomized, controlled trial of cavity shave margins in breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 373(6), 503–510 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirk, R. W.

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, “Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28771 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kleer, C. G.

D. P. Arps, P. Healy, L. Zhao, C. G. Kleer, and J. C. Pang, “Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features: a comparison study to invasive ductal and invasive lobular carcinomas of the breast,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 138(3), 719–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kotynek, J. G.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurokawa, K.

Lane, K.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lannin, D. R.

A. B. Chagpar, B. K. Killelea, T. N. Tsangaris, M. Butler, K. Stavris, F. Li, X. Yao, V. Bossuyt, M. Harigopal, D. R. Lannin, L. Pusztai, and N. R. Horowitz, “A randomized, controlled trial of cavity shave margins in breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 373(6), 503–510 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larson, B.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levêque, J.

F. D’Halluin, P. Tas, S. Rouquette, C. Bendavid, F. Foucher, H. Meshba, J. Blanchot, O. Coué, and J. Levêque, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology following lumpectomy for breast cancer: a series of 400 procedures,” Breast 18(4), 248–253 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, F.

A. B. Chagpar, B. K. Killelea, T. N. Tsangaris, M. Butler, K. Stavris, F. Li, X. Yao, V. Bossuyt, M. Harigopal, D. R. Lannin, L. Pusztai, and N. R. Horowitz, “A randomized, controlled trial of cavity shave margins in breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 373(6), 503–510 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

K. J. Mesa, L. E. Selmic, P. Pande, G. L. Monroy, J. Reagan, J. Samuelson, E. Driskell, J. Li, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative optical coherence tomography for soft tissue sarcoma differentiation and margin identification,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 240–248 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lichtensztajn, D. Y.

E. S. Hwang, D. Y. Lichtensztajn, S. L. Gomez, B. Fowble, and C. A. Clarke, “Survival after lumpectomy and mastectomy for early stage invasive breast cancer: the effect of age and hormone receptor status,” Cancer 119(7), 1402–1411 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, Y.

Liu, Z. G.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lorenser, D.

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, “Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28771 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lortet-Tieulent, J.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, W.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luparello, C.

C. Luparello, “Minireview: Aspects of collagen changes in breast cancer,” J. Carcinog. Mutagen. 13, 7 (2013).

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. de Matos Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Development of a spatially offset Raman spectroscopy probe for breast tumor surgical margin evaluation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Marjanovic, M.

K. J. Mesa, L. E. Selmic, P. Pande, G. L. Monroy, J. Reagan, J. Samuelson, E. Driskell, J. Li, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative optical coherence tomography for soft tissue sarcoma differentiation and margin identification,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 240–248 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. South, E. J. Chaney, M. Marjanovic, S. G. Adie, and S. A. Boppart, “Differentiation of ex vivo human breast tissue using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3417–3426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

May Gonzalez, E. A.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCormick, D. T.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, “Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28771 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mehta, R.

B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, “Imaging in breast cancer: diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumors in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res. 7(6), 279–285 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mesa, K. J.

K. J. Mesa, L. E. Selmic, P. Pande, G. L. Monroy, J. Reagan, J. Samuelson, E. Driskell, J. Li, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative optical coherence tomography for soft tissue sarcoma differentiation and margin identification,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 240–248 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meshba, H.

F. D’Halluin, P. Tas, S. Rouquette, C. Bendavid, F. Foucher, H. Meshba, J. Blanchot, O. Coué, and J. Levêque, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology following lumpectomy for breast cancer: a series of 400 procedures,” Breast 18(4), 248–253 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Miura, M.

Monroy, G. L.

K. J. Mesa, L. E. Selmic, P. Pande, G. L. Monroy, J. Reagan, J. Samuelson, E. Driskell, J. Li, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative optical coherence tomography for soft tissue sarcoma differentiation and margin identification,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 240–248 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mycek, M. A.

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. de Matos Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Development of a spatially offset Raman spectroscopy probe for breast tumor surgical margin evaluation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myers, J. L.

J. M. Jorns, D. Visscher, M. Sabel, T. Breslin, P. Healy, S. Daignaut, J. L. Myers, and A. J. Wu, “Intraoperative frozen section analysis of margins in breast conserving surgery significantly decreases reoperative rates: one-year experience at an ambulatory surgical center,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 138(5), 657–669 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

Nguyen, F. T.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nolan, R. M.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oliphant, U. J.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer (March 2003),” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50(11), 1233–1242 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pande, P.

K. J. Mesa, L. E. Selmic, P. Pande, G. L. Monroy, J. Reagan, J. Samuelson, E. Driskell, J. Li, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative optical coherence tomography for soft tissue sarcoma differentiation and margin identification,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 240–248 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pang, J. C.

D. P. Arps, P. Healy, L. Zhao, C. G. Kleer, and J. C. Pang, “Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features: a comparison study to invasive ductal and invasive lobular carcinomas of the breast,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 138(3), 719–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peterson, G.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Police, A.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pusztai, L.

A. B. Chagpar, B. K. Killelea, T. N. Tsangaris, M. Butler, K. Stavris, F. Li, X. Yao, V. Bossuyt, M. Harigopal, D. R. Lannin, L. Pusztai, and N. R. Horowitz, “A randomized, controlled trial of cavity shave margins in breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 373(6), 503–510 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Putney, J.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quirk, B. C.

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, “Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28771 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer (March 2003),” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50(11), 1233–1242 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ray, P. S.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reagan, J.

K. J. Mesa, L. E. Selmic, P. Pande, G. L. Monroy, J. Reagan, J. Samuelson, E. Driskell, J. Li, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative optical coherence tomography for soft tissue sarcoma differentiation and margin identification,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 240–248 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robbins, P. D.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rosenthal, E. L.

E. L. Rosenthal, J. M. Warram, K. I. Bland, and K. R. Zinn, “The status of contemporary image-guided modalities in oncologic surgery,” Ann. Surg. 261(1), 46–55 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rouquette, S.

F. D’Halluin, P. Tas, S. Rouquette, C. Bendavid, F. Foucher, H. Meshba, J. Blanchot, O. Coué, and J. Levêque, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology following lumpectomy for breast cancer: a series of 400 procedures,” Breast 18(4), 248–253 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rowland, K. M.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabel, M.

J. M. Jorns, D. Visscher, M. Sabel, T. Breslin, P. Healy, S. Daignaut, J. L. Myers, and A. J. Wu, “Intraoperative frozen section analysis of margins in breast conserving surgery significantly decreases reoperative rates: one-year experience at an ambulatory surgical center,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 138(5), 657–669 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, “Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28771 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

Samuelson, J.

K. J. Mesa, L. E. Selmic, P. Pande, G. L. Monroy, J. Reagan, J. Samuelson, E. Driskell, J. Li, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative optical coherence tomography for soft tissue sarcoma differentiation and margin identification,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 240–248 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saunders, C. M.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sawyer, K.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schnabel, F.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneider, E. B.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scolaro, L.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scott Carney, P.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Selmic, L. E.

K. J. Mesa, L. E. Selmic, P. Pande, G. L. Monroy, J. Reagan, J. Samuelson, E. Driskell, J. Li, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative optical coherence tomography for soft tissue sarcoma differentiation and margin identification,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 240–248 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seltzer, E.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, N.

B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, “Imaging in breast cancer: diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumors in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res. 7(6), 279–285 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shemonski, N. D.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegel, R. L.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simmons, R. M.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singletary, K. W.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singletary, S. E.

S. E. Singletary, “Surgical margins in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy,” Am. J. Surg. 184(5), 383–393 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

South, F. A.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. South, E. J. Chaney, M. Marjanovic, S. G. Adie, and S. A. Boppart, “Differentiation of ex vivo human breast tissue using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3417–3426 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stavris, K.

A. B. Chagpar, B. K. Killelea, T. N. Tsangaris, M. Butler, K. Stavris, F. Li, X. Yao, V. Bossuyt, M. Harigopal, D. R. Lannin, L. Pusztai, and N. R. Horowitz, “A randomized, controlled trial of cavity shave margins in breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 373(6), 503–510 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sundaram, M.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tafra, L.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, S.

Tas, P.

F. D’Halluin, P. Tas, S. Rouquette, C. Bendavid, F. Foucher, H. Meshba, J. Blanchot, O. Coué, and J. Levêque, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology following lumpectomy for breast cancer: a series of 400 procedures,” Breast 18(4), 248–253 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thill, M.

M. Thill, “MarginProbe: intraoperative margin assessment during breast conserving surgery by using radiofrequency spectroscopy,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 10(3), 301–315 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toledo-Crow, R.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torre, L. A.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, “Imaging in breast cancer: diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumors in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res. 7(6), 279–285 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsangaris, T. N.

A. B. Chagpar, B. K. Killelea, T. N. Tsangaris, M. Butler, K. Stavris, F. Li, X. Yao, V. Bossuyt, M. Harigopal, D. R. Lannin, L. Pusztai, and N. R. Horowitz, “A randomized, controlled trial of cavity shave margins in breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 373(6), 503–510 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsuchiya, K.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valdes, E. K.

E. K. Valdes, S. K. Boolbol, I. Ali, S. M. Feldman, and J.-M. Cohen, “Intraoperative touch preparation cytology for margin assessment in breast-conservation surgery: does it work for lobular carcinoma?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2940–2945 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J.

Vargis, E.

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. de Matos Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Development of a spatially offset Raman spectroscopy probe for breast tumor surgical margin evaluation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villiger, M.

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, “Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28771 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Visscher, D.

J. M. Jorns, D. Visscher, M. Sabel, T. Breslin, P. Healy, S. Daignaut, J. L. Myers, and A. J. Wu, “Intraoperative frozen section analysis of margins in breast conserving surgery significantly decreases reoperative rates: one-year experience at an ambulatory surgical center,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 138(5), 657–669 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, Y. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Review of optical coherence tomography in oncology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–23 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warram, J. M.

E. L. Rosenthal, J. M. Warram, K. I. Bland, and K. R. Zinn, “The status of contemporary image-guided modalities in oncologic surgery,” Ann. Surg. 261(1), 46–55 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilke, L. G.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willey, S. C.

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, R. H.

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. de Matos Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Development of a spatially offset Raman spectroscopy probe for breast tumor surgical margin evaluation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, B. A.

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, A. J.

J. M. Jorns, D. Visscher, M. Sabel, T. Breslin, P. Healy, S. Daignaut, J. L. Myers, and A. J. Wu, “Intraoperative frozen section analysis of margins in breast conserving surgery significantly decreases reoperative rates: one-year experience at an ambulatory surgical center,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 138(5), 657–669 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, F.

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer (March 2003),” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50(11), 1233–1242 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

J. Wang, Y. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Review of optical coherence tomography in oncology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–23 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, X.

A. B. Chagpar, B. K. Killelea, T. N. Tsangaris, M. Butler, K. Stavris, F. Li, X. Yao, V. Bossuyt, M. Harigopal, D. R. Lannin, L. Pusztai, and N. R. Horowitz, “A randomized, controlled trial of cavity shave margins in breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 373(6), 503–510 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

Zhao, L.

D. P. Arps, P. Healy, L. Zhao, C. G. Kleer, and J. C. Pang, “Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features: a comparison study to invasive ductal and invasive lobular carcinomas of the breast,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 138(3), 719–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, C.

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer (March 2003),” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50(11), 1233–1242 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zinn, K. R.

E. L. Rosenthal, J. M. Warram, K. I. Bland, and K. R. Zinn, “The status of contemporary image-guided modalities in oncologic surgery,” Ann. Surg. 261(1), 46–55 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zysk, A. M.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk and S. A. Boppart, “Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054015 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1)

J. M. Jorns, D. Visscher, M. Sabel, T. Breslin, P. Healy, S. Daignaut, J. L. Myers, and A. J. Wu, “Intraoperative frozen section analysis of margins in breast conserving surgery significantly decreases reoperative rates: one-year experience at an ambulatory surgical center,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 138(5), 657–669 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Surg. (1)

S. E. Singletary, “Surgical margins in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy,” Am. J. Surg. 184(5), 383–393 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. (1)

E. L. Rosenthal, J. M. Warram, K. I. Bland, and K. R. Zinn, “The status of contemporary image-guided modalities in oncologic surgery,” Ann. Surg. 261(1), 46–55 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. Oncol. (3)

E. K. Valdes, S. K. Boolbol, I. Ali, S. M. Feldman, and J.-M. Cohen, “Intraoperative touch preparation cytology for margin assessment in breast-conservation surgery: does it work for lobular carcinoma?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2940–2945 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Schnabel, S. K. Boolbol, M. Gittleman, T. Karni, L. Tafra, S. Feldman, A. Police, N. B. Friedman, S. Karlan, D. Holmes, S. C. Willey, M. Carmon, K. Fernandez, S. Akbari, J. Harness, L. Guerra, T. Frazier, K. Lane, R. M. Simmons, A. Estabrook, and T. Allweis, “A randomized prospective study of lumpectomy margin assessment with use of MarginProbe in patients with nonpalpable breast malignancies,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(5), 1589–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Breast (1)

F. D’Halluin, P. Tas, S. Rouquette, C. Bendavid, F. Foucher, H. Meshba, J. Blanchot, O. Coué, and J. Levêque, “Intra-operative touch preparation cytology following lumpectomy for breast cancer: a series of 400 procedures,” Breast 18(4), 248–253 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breast Cancer Res. (1)

B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, “Imaging in breast cancer: diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumors in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Breast Cancer Res. 7(6), 279–285 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (2)

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, “Optical coherence tomography: feasibility for basic research and image-guided surgery of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84(2), 85–97 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Arps, P. Healy, L. Zhao, C. G. Kleer, and J. C. Pang, “Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features: a comparison study to invasive ductal and invasive lobular carcinomas of the breast,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 138(3), 719–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer (1)

E. S. Hwang, D. Y. Lichtensztajn, S. L. Gomez, B. Fowble, and C. A. Clarke, “Survival after lumpectomy and mastectomy for early stage invasive breast cancer: the effect of age and hormone receptor status,” Cancer 119(7), 1402–1411 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (2)

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Expert Rev. Med. Devices (1)

M. Thill, “MarginProbe: intraoperative margin assessment during breast conserving surgery by using radiofrequency spectroscopy,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 10(3), 301–315 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, P. D. Robbins, B. A. Wood, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging of breast cancer with optical coherence tomography needle probes: feasibility and initial results,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1184–1191 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer (March 2003),” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50(11), 1233–1242 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

J. Wang, Y. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Review of optical coherence tomography in oncology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–23 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk and S. A. Boppart, “Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054015 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Keller, E. Vargis, N. de Matos Granja, R. H. Wilson, M. A. Mycek, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Development of a spatially offset Raman spectroscopy probe for breast tumor surgical margin evaluation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Carcinog. Mutagen. (1)

C. Luparello, “Minireview: Aspects of collagen changes in breast cancer,” J. Carcinog. Mutagen. 13, 7 (2013).

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

K. J. Mesa, L. E. Selmic, P. Pande, G. L. Monroy, J. Reagan, J. Samuelson, E. Driskell, J. Li, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative optical coherence tomography for soft tissue sarcoma differentiation and margin identification,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(3), 240–248 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

A. B. Chagpar, B. K. Killelea, T. N. Tsangaris, M. Butler, K. Stavris, F. Li, X. Yao, V. Bossuyt, M. Harigopal, D. R. Lannin, L. Pusztai, and N. R. Horowitz, “A randomized, controlled trial of cavity shave margins in breast cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 373(6), 503–510 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

PLoS One (1)

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, R. W. Kirk, B. E. Bouma, and D. D. Sampson, “Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28771 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, P. A. Johnson, K. M. Rowland, and S. A. Boppart, “Clinical feasibility of microscopically-guided breast needle biopsy using a fiber-optic probe with computer-aided detection,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 8(5), 315–321 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

American Cancer Society, “Breast Cancer Facts & Figures,” (2017–2018).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Intraoperative PS-OCT system. (a) Schematic showing optical hardware components. (b) Intraoperative PS-OCT system integrated in a portable cart for easy transportation into the operating room and positioning near the sterile surgical field. SLD: superluminescent diode; SMF: single mode fiber; PMF: polarization maintaining fiber.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Representative structural OCT images (a, f, k), coefficient of variation (CV) (b, g, l), degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU) (c, h, m), retardation (d, i, n) and H&E-stained histology (e, j, o) of fibro-adipose tissue (a-e), stroma (f-j), and invasive ductal carcinoma (k-o), respectively. Scale bar: 500 μm. Note, CV (b, g, l) is shown on a base 10 logarithmic scale.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Bar diagrams ± 1 SD showing the (a) CV, (b) DOPU, and (c) retardation of different tissue types (i.e., adipose, stroma, and IDC) interrogated by the intraoperative PS-OCT system. * p<0.001
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Posterior probabilities of 398 statistically different PS-OCT measurements belonging to fibro-adipose tissue (n = 70), stroma (n = 263), and IDC (n = 65), based on the PS-OCT and standard OCT techniques.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Confusion matrix detailing the multiclass classification results of PS-OCT measurements of different breast tissues using LDA with leave-one tissue site-out, cross-validation methodology.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I= | E out,1 | 2 + | E out,2 | 2
δ=atan(| E out,1 |/| E out,2 |)
I= E out,1 E out,1 * + E out,2 E out,2 *
Q= E out,1 E out,1 * E out,2 E out,2 *
U=2| E out,1 |/| E out,2 |cos(arg( E out,1 E out,2 * ))
V=2| E out,1 |/| E out,2 |sin(arg( E out,1 E out,2 * ))
DOPU= Q ¯ 2 + U ¯ 2 + V ¯ 2
( Q ¯ , U ¯ , V ¯ )=( i Q i I i , i U i I i , i V i I i )
CV= i ( I i μ) 2 N1 μ
μ= i I i N