Abstract

The optic nerve head (ONH) is affected by many neurodegenerative and autoimmune inflammatory conditions. Optical coherence tomography can acquire high-resolution 3D ONH scans. However, the ONH’s complex anatomy and pathology make image segmentation challenging. This paper proposes a robust approach to segment the inner limiting membrane (ILM) in ONH volume scans based on an active contour method of Chan-Vese type, which can work in challenging topological structures. A local intensity fitting energy is added in order to handle very inhomogeneous image intensities. A suitable boundary potential is introduced to avoid structures belonging to outer retinal layers being detected as part of the segmentation. The average intensities in the inner and outer region are then rescaled locally to account for different brightness values occurring among the ONH center. The appropriate values for the parameters used in the complex computational model are found using an optimization based on the differential evolution algorithm. The evaluation of results showed that the proposed framework significantly improved segmentation results compared to the commercial solution.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
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P. Albrecht, C. Blasberg, M. Ringelstein, A.-K. Müller, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, E.-M. Kadas, W. Lagreze, O. Aktas, H.-P. Hartung, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and A. Methner, “Optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis and monitoring of idiopathic intracranial hypertension,” J. Neurol. 264, 1370–1380 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Chauhan, V. M. Danthurebandara, G. P. Sharpe, S. Demirel, C. A. Girkin, C. Y. Mardin, A. F. Scheuerle, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Bruch’s membrane opening minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in a normal white population,” Ophthalmology. 122, 1786–1794 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. S. Miri, V. A. Robles, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Incorporation of gradient vector flow field in a multimodal graph-theoretic approach for segmenting the internal limiting membrane from glaucomatous optic nerve head-centered SD-OCT volumes,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 55, 87–94 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Novosel, K. A. Vermeer, J. H. de Jong, Z. Wang, and L. J. van Vliet, “Joint segmentation of retinal layers and focal lesions in 3-D OCT data of topologically disrupted retinas,” IEEE Transactions on Med. Imaging 36, 1276–1286 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurol. - Neuroimmunol. Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. C. Oertel, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, M. Weinhold, E. M. Kadas, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Pache, J. Bellmann-Strobl, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Contribution of blood vessels to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in NMOSD,” Neurol. - Neuroimmunol. Neuroinflammation 4, e338 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Lui Cheung, M. K. Ikram, C. Chen, and T. Y. Wong, “Imaging retina to study dementia and stroke,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 57, 89–107 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Fang, D. Cunefare, C. Wang, R. H. Guymer, S. Li, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of nine retinal layer boundaries in OCT images of non-exudative AMD patients using deep learning and graph search,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8, 2732 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Roy, S. Conjeti, S. P. K. Karri, D. Sheet, A. Katouzian, C. Wachinger, and N. Navab, “ReLayNet: retinal layer and fluid segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography using fully convolutional networks,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8, 3627 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

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[Crossref]

B. Keller, D. Cunefare, D. S. Grewal, T. H. Mahmoud, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Length-adaptive graph search for automatic segmentation of pathological features in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.  21, 076015 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Enders, W. Adler, F. Schaub, M. M. Hermann, T. Dietlein, C. Cursiefen, and L. M. Heindl, “Novel Bruch’s membrane opening minimum rim area equalizes disc size dependency and offers high diagnostic power for glaucoma,” Investig. Opthalmology & Vis. Sci. 57, 6596 (2016).

E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, S. Arnow, J. A. Wilson, S. Saidha, J. L. Preiningerova, T. Oberwahrenbrock, A. U. Brandt, L. E. Pablo, S. Guerrieri, I. Gonzalez, O. Outteryck, A.-K. Mueller, P. Albrecht, W. Chan, S. Lukas, L. J. Balk, C. Fraser, J. L. Frederiksen, J. Resto, T. Frohman, C. Cordano, I. Zubizarreta, M. Andorra, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, A. Saiz, R. Bermel, A. Klistorner, A. Petzold, S. Schippling, F. Costello, O. Aktas, P. Vermersch, C. Oreja-Guevara, G. Comi, L. Leocani, E. Garcia-Martin, F. Paul, E. Havrdova, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, A. J. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and P. Villoslada, “Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study,” The Lancet Neurol. 15, 574–584 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cruz-Herranz, L. J. Balk, T. Oberwahrenbrock, S. Saidha, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, W. A. Lagreze, J. S. Schuman, P. Villoslada, P. Calabresi, L. Balcer, A. Petzold, A. J. Green, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and P. Albrecht, “The APOSTEL recommendations for reporting quantitative optical coherence tomography studies,” Neurology. 86, 2303–2309 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

S. L. Galetta, P. Villoslada, N. Levin, K. Shindler, H. Ishikawa, E. Parr, D. Cadavid, and L. J. Balcer, “Acute optic neuritis,” Neurol. - Neuroimmunol. Neuroinflammation 2, e135 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Novosel, G. Thepass, H. G. Lemij, J. F. de Boer, K. A. Vermeer, and L. J. van Vliet, “Loosely coupled level sets for simultaneous 3D retinal layer segmentation in optical coherence tomography,” Med. Image Analysis 26, 146–158 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ringelstein, P. Albrecht, I. Kleffner, B. Bühn, J. Harmel, A.-K. Müller, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, R. Bergholz, T. Duning, M. Krämer, F. Paul, A. Brandt, T. Oberwahrenbrock, J. Mikolajczak, B. Wildemann, S. Jarius, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, and J. Dörr, “Retinal pathology in susac syndrome detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Neurology 85, 610–618 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Taha and A. Hanbury, “Metrics for evaluating 3d medical image segmentation: analysis, selection, and tool,” BMC Med. Imaging 15, 29 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from sd-oct and color fundus photographs using a machine-learning graph-based approach,” IEEE Transactions on Med. Imaging 34, 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Albrecht, C. Blasberg, S. Lukas, M. Ringelstein, A.-K. Müller, J. Harmel, E.-M. Kadas, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, O. Aktas, H.-P. Hartung, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, P. Berlit, A. Methner, and M. Kraemer, “Retinal pathology in idiopathic moyamoya angiopathy detected by optical coherence tomography,” Neurology 85, 521–527 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

B. J. Antony, M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3d segmentation of multiple surfaces with a shared hole: Segmentation of the neural canal opening in SD-OCT volumes,” Med Image Comput. Comput. Assist. Interv 17, 739–746 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. Carass, A. Lang, M. Hauser, P. A. Calabresi, H. S. Ying, and J. L. Prince, “Multiple-object geometric deformable model for segmentation of macular OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 1062 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Roth, S. Saidha, H. Zimmermann, A. U. Brandt, J. Isensee, A. Benkhellouf-Rutkowska, M. Dornauer, A. A. Kühn, T. Müller, P. A. Calabresi, and F. Paul, “Photoreceptor layer thinning in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease,” Mov. Disord. 29, 1163–1170 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pollet-Villard, C. Chiquet, J.-P. Romanet, C. Noel, and F. Aptel, “Structure-function relationships with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head measurements structure-function relationships with SD-OCT,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.  55, 2953 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. A. Almobarak, N. O’Leary, A. S. C. Reis, G. P. Sharpe, D. M. Hutchison, M. T. Nicolela, and B. C. Chauhan, “Automated segmentation of optic nerve head structures with optical coherence tomography segmentation of optic nerve head structures,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.  55, 1161 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Petzold, M. P. Wattjes, F. Costello, J. Flores-Rivera, C. L. Fraser, K. Fujihara, J. Leavitt, R. Marignier, F. Paul, S. Schippling, C. Sindic, P. Villoslada, B. Weinshenker, and G. T. Plant, “The investigation of acute optic neuritis: a review and proposed protocol,” Nat. Rev. Neurol. 10, 447–458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Scler. J. 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. S. Miri, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images, Proc. SPIE 8669, 86690 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Lang, A. Carass, M. Hauser, E. S. Sotirchos, P. A. Calabresi, H. S. Ying, and J. L. Prince, “Retinal layer segmentation of macular OCT images using boundary classification,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 1133 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, M. M. Harper, W. Jeong, E. H. Sohn, Y. H. Kwon, R. Kardon, and M. K. Garvin, “A combined machine-learning and graph-based framework for the segmentation of retinal surfaces in SD-OCT volumes,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2712 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

T. Oberwahrenbrock, S. Schippling, M. Ringelstein, F. Kaufhold, H. Zimmermann, N. Keser, K. L. Young, J. Harmel, H.-P. Hartung, R. Martin, F. Paul, O. Aktas, and A. U. Brandt, “Retinal damage in multiple sclerosis disease subtypes measured by high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Multiple Scler. Int. 2012, 530305 (2012).

F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, C. Schmidt, H. Kunte, J. Hoffmann, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, L. Harms, K. Polthier, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optic nerve head quantification in idiopathic intracranial hypertension by spectral domain oct,” PLOS ONE 7, 1–6 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. London, I. Benhar, and M. Schwartz, “The retina as a window to the brain—from eye research to CNS disorders,” Nat. Rev. Neurol. 9, 44–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. B. Syc, C. V. Warner, S. Saidha, S. K. Farrell, A. Conger, E. R. Bisker, J. Wilson, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, and P. A. Calabresi, “Cup to disc ratio by optical coherence tomography is abnormal in multiple sclerosis,” J. Neurolog. Sci. 302, 19–24 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

M. Bock, A. U. Brandt, J. Dörr, C. F. Pfueller, S. Ohlraun, F. Zipp, and F. Paul, “Time domain and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a comparative cross-sectional study,” Multiple Scler. J. 16, 893–896 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Hu, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, K. Lee, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated segmentation of neural canal opening and optic cup in 3d spectral optical coherence tomography volumes of the optic nerve head,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 5708 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans Med Imaging 29, 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. J. Anthony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Neimeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

L. Wang, C. Li, Q.-S. Sun, D.-S. Xia, and C.-Y. Kao, “Active contours driven by local and global intensity fitting energy with application to brain MR image segmentation,” Comp. Med. Imag. Graph. 33, 520–531 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Das, A. Abraham, U. K. Chakraborty, and A. Konar, “Differential Evolution Using a Neighborhood-Based Mutation Operator,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 13, 526–553 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Transactions on Med. Imaging 28, 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. C. Chen, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomography in glaucoma: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (an AOS thesis),” Transactions Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 107, 254–281 (2009).

2001 (1)

T. F. Chan and L. A. Vese, “Active contours without edges,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 266–277 (2001).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

D. Mumford and J. Shah, “Optimal approximations by piecewise smooth functions and associated variational problems,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 42, 577–685 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, “Snakes: Active contour models,” International Journal of Computer Vision 1, 321–331 (1988).
[Crossref]

Abraham, A.

S. Das, A. Abraham, U. K. Chakraborty, and A. Konar, “Differential Evolution Using a Neighborhood-Based Mutation Operator,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 13, 526–553 (2009).
[Crossref]

Abramoff, M. D.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Transactions on Med. Imaging 28, 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref]

Abràmoff, M. D.

M. S. Miri, V. A. Robles, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Incorporation of gradient vector flow field in a multimodal graph-theoretic approach for segmenting the internal limiting membrane from glaucomatous optic nerve head-centered SD-OCT volumes,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 55, 87–94 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, J. K. Wang, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from sd-oct and color fundus photographs using a machine-learning graph-based approach,” IEEE Transactions on Med. Imaging 34, 1854–1866 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. J. Antony, M. S. Miri, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3d segmentation of multiple surfaces with a shared hole: Segmentation of the neural canal opening in SD-OCT volumes,” Med Image Comput. Comput. Assist. Interv 17, 739–746 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. S. Miri, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images, Proc. SPIE 8669, 86690 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, M. M. Harper, W. Jeong, E. H. Sohn, Y. H. Kwon, R. Kardon, and M. K. Garvin, “A combined machine-learning and graph-based framework for the segmentation of retinal surfaces in SD-OCT volumes,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2712 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Hu, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, K. Lee, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated segmentation of neural canal opening and optic cup in 3d spectral optical coherence tomography volumes of the optic nerve head,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 5708 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans Med Imaging 29, 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. J. Anthony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Neimeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adler, W.

P. Enders, W. Adler, F. Schaub, M. M. Hermann, T. Dietlein, C. Cursiefen, and L. M. Heindl, “Novel Bruch’s membrane opening minimum rim area equalizes disc size dependency and offers high diagnostic power for glaucoma,” Investig. Opthalmology & Vis. Sci. 57, 6596 (2016).

Aktas, O.

P. Albrecht, C. Blasberg, M. Ringelstein, A.-K. Müller, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, E.-M. Kadas, W. Lagreze, O. Aktas, H.-P. Hartung, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and A. Methner, “Optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis and monitoring of idiopathic intracranial hypertension,” J. Neurol. 264, 1370–1380 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, S. Arnow, J. A. Wilson, S. Saidha, J. L. Preiningerova, T. Oberwahrenbrock, A. U. Brandt, L. E. Pablo, S. Guerrieri, I. Gonzalez, O. Outteryck, A.-K. Mueller, P. Albrecht, W. Chan, S. Lukas, L. J. Balk, C. Fraser, J. L. Frederiksen, J. Resto, T. Frohman, C. Cordano, I. Zubizarreta, M. Andorra, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, A. Saiz, R. Bermel, A. Klistorner, A. Petzold, S. Schippling, F. Costello, O. Aktas, P. Vermersch, C. Oreja-Guevara, G. Comi, L. Leocani, E. Garcia-Martin, F. Paul, E. Havrdova, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, A. J. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and P. Villoslada, “Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study,” The Lancet Neurol. 15, 574–584 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Albrecht, C. Blasberg, S. Lukas, M. Ringelstein, A.-K. Müller, J. Harmel, E.-M. Kadas, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, O. Aktas, H.-P. Hartung, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, P. Berlit, A. Methner, and M. Kraemer, “Retinal pathology in idiopathic moyamoya angiopathy detected by optical coherence tomography,” Neurology 85, 521–527 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ringelstein, P. Albrecht, I. Kleffner, B. Bühn, J. Harmel, A.-K. Müller, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, R. Bergholz, T. Duning, M. Krämer, F. Paul, A. Brandt, T. Oberwahrenbrock, J. Mikolajczak, B. Wildemann, S. Jarius, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, and J. Dörr, “Retinal pathology in susac syndrome detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Neurology 85, 610–618 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Scler. J. 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, S. Schippling, M. Ringelstein, F. Kaufhold, H. Zimmermann, N. Keser, K. L. Young, J. Harmel, H.-P. Hartung, R. Martin, F. Paul, O. Aktas, and A. U. Brandt, “Retinal damage in multiple sclerosis disease subtypes measured by high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Multiple Scler. Int. 2012, 530305 (2012).

Albrecht, P.

P. Albrecht, C. Blasberg, M. Ringelstein, A.-K. Müller, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, E.-M. Kadas, W. Lagreze, O. Aktas, H.-P. Hartung, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and A. Methner, “Optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis and monitoring of idiopathic intracranial hypertension,” J. Neurol. 264, 1370–1380 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, S. Arnow, J. A. Wilson, S. Saidha, J. L. Preiningerova, T. Oberwahrenbrock, A. U. Brandt, L. E. Pablo, S. Guerrieri, I. Gonzalez, O. Outteryck, A.-K. Mueller, P. Albrecht, W. Chan, S. Lukas, L. J. Balk, C. Fraser, J. L. Frederiksen, J. Resto, T. Frohman, C. Cordano, I. Zubizarreta, M. Andorra, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, A. Saiz, R. Bermel, A. Klistorner, A. Petzold, S. Schippling, F. Costello, O. Aktas, P. Vermersch, C. Oreja-Guevara, G. Comi, L. Leocani, E. Garcia-Martin, F. Paul, E. Havrdova, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, A. J. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and P. Villoslada, “Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study,” The Lancet Neurol. 15, 574–584 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cruz-Herranz, L. J. Balk, T. Oberwahrenbrock, S. Saidha, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, W. A. Lagreze, J. S. Schuman, P. Villoslada, P. Calabresi, L. Balcer, A. Petzold, A. J. Green, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and P. Albrecht, “The APOSTEL recommendations for reporting quantitative optical coherence tomography studies,” Neurology. 86, 2303–2309 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ringelstein, P. Albrecht, I. Kleffner, B. Bühn, J. Harmel, A.-K. Müller, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, R. Bergholz, T. Duning, M. Krämer, F. Paul, A. Brandt, T. Oberwahrenbrock, J. Mikolajczak, B. Wildemann, S. Jarius, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, and J. Dörr, “Retinal pathology in susac syndrome detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Neurology 85, 610–618 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Albrecht, C. Blasberg, S. Lukas, M. Ringelstein, A.-K. Müller, J. Harmel, E.-M. Kadas, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, O. Aktas, H.-P. Hartung, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, P. Berlit, A. Methner, and M. Kraemer, “Retinal pathology in idiopathic moyamoya angiopathy detected by optical coherence tomography,” Neurology 85, 521–527 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almobarak, F. A.

F. A. Almobarak, N. O’Leary, A. S. C. Reis, G. P. Sharpe, D. M. Hutchison, M. T. Nicolela, and B. C. Chauhan, “Automated segmentation of optic nerve head structures with optical coherence tomography segmentation of optic nerve head structures,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.  55, 1161 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andorra, M.

E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, S. Arnow, J. A. Wilson, S. Saidha, J. L. Preiningerova, T. Oberwahrenbrock, A. U. Brandt, L. E. Pablo, S. Guerrieri, I. Gonzalez, O. Outteryck, A.-K. Mueller, P. Albrecht, W. Chan, S. Lukas, L. J. Balk, C. Fraser, J. L. Frederiksen, J. Resto, T. Frohman, C. Cordano, I. Zubizarreta, M. Andorra, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, A. Saiz, R. Bermel, A. Klistorner, A. Petzold, S. Schippling, F. Costello, O. Aktas, P. Vermersch, C. Oreja-Guevara, G. Comi, L. Leocani, E. Garcia-Martin, F. Paul, E. Havrdova, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, A. J. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and P. Villoslada, “Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study,” The Lancet Neurol. 15, 574–584 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anthony, B. J.

B. J. Anthony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Neimeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260 (2010).
[Crossref]

Antony, B. J.

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Farrell, S. K.

S. B. Syc, C. V. Warner, S. Saidha, S. K. Farrell, A. Conger, E. R. Bisker, J. Wilson, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, and P. A. Calabresi, “Cup to disc ratio by optical coherence tomography is abnormal in multiple sclerosis,” J. Neurolog. Sci. 302, 19–24 (2011).
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Fielden, M.

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Finis, D.

P. Albrecht, C. Blasberg, M. Ringelstein, A.-K. Müller, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, E.-M. Kadas, W. Lagreze, O. Aktas, H.-P. Hartung, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and A. Methner, “Optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis and monitoring of idiopathic intracranial hypertension,” J. Neurol. 264, 1370–1380 (2017).
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P. Albrecht, C. Blasberg, S. Lukas, M. Ringelstein, A.-K. Müller, J. Harmel, E.-M. Kadas, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, O. Aktas, H.-P. Hartung, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, P. Berlit, A. Methner, and M. Kraemer, “Retinal pathology in idiopathic moyamoya angiopathy detected by optical coherence tomography,” Neurology 85, 521–527 (2015).
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Finke, C.

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
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Fischer, P.

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Flores-Rivera, J.

A. Petzold, M. P. Wattjes, F. Costello, J. Flores-Rivera, C. L. Fraser, K. Fujihara, J. Leavitt, R. Marignier, F. Paul, S. Schippling, C. Sindic, P. Villoslada, B. Weinshenker, and G. T. Plant, “The investigation of acute optic neuritis: a review and proposed protocol,” Nat. Rev. Neurol. 10, 447–458 (2014).
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Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
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Fraser, C.

E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, S. Arnow, J. A. Wilson, S. Saidha, J. L. Preiningerova, T. Oberwahrenbrock, A. U. Brandt, L. E. Pablo, S. Guerrieri, I. Gonzalez, O. Outteryck, A.-K. Mueller, P. Albrecht, W. Chan, S. Lukas, L. J. Balk, C. Fraser, J. L. Frederiksen, J. Resto, T. Frohman, C. Cordano, I. Zubizarreta, M. Andorra, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, A. Saiz, R. Bermel, A. Klistorner, A. Petzold, S. Schippling, F. Costello, O. Aktas, P. Vermersch, C. Oreja-Guevara, G. Comi, L. Leocani, E. Garcia-Martin, F. Paul, E. Havrdova, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, A. J. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and P. Villoslada, “Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study,” The Lancet Neurol. 15, 574–584 (2016).
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Fraser, C. L.

A. Petzold, M. P. Wattjes, F. Costello, J. Flores-Rivera, C. L. Fraser, K. Fujihara, J. Leavitt, R. Marignier, F. Paul, S. Schippling, C. Sindic, P. Villoslada, B. Weinshenker, and G. T. Plant, “The investigation of acute optic neuritis: a review and proposed protocol,” Nat. Rev. Neurol. 10, 447–458 (2014).
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Frederiksen, J.

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
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Frederiksen, J. L.

E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, S. Arnow, J. A. Wilson, S. Saidha, J. L. Preiningerova, T. Oberwahrenbrock, A. U. Brandt, L. E. Pablo, S. Guerrieri, I. Gonzalez, O. Outteryck, A.-K. Mueller, P. Albrecht, W. Chan, S. Lukas, L. J. Balk, C. Fraser, J. L. Frederiksen, J. Resto, T. Frohman, C. Cordano, I. Zubizarreta, M. Andorra, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, A. Saiz, R. Bermel, A. Klistorner, A. Petzold, S. Schippling, F. Costello, O. Aktas, P. Vermersch, C. Oreja-Guevara, G. Comi, L. Leocani, E. Garcia-Martin, F. Paul, E. Havrdova, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, A. J. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and P. Villoslada, “Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study,” The Lancet Neurol. 15, 574–584 (2016).
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Frohman, E.

E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, S. Arnow, J. A. Wilson, S. Saidha, J. L. Preiningerova, T. Oberwahrenbrock, A. U. Brandt, L. E. Pablo, S. Guerrieri, I. Gonzalez, O. Outteryck, A.-K. Mueller, P. Albrecht, W. Chan, S. Lukas, L. J. Balk, C. Fraser, J. L. Frederiksen, J. Resto, T. Frohman, C. Cordano, I. Zubizarreta, M. Andorra, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, A. Saiz, R. Bermel, A. Klistorner, A. Petzold, S. Schippling, F. Costello, O. Aktas, P. Vermersch, C. Oreja-Guevara, G. Comi, L. Leocani, E. Garcia-Martin, F. Paul, E. Havrdova, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, A. J. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and P. Villoslada, “Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study,” The Lancet Neurol. 15, 574–584 (2016).
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Frohman, E. M.

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
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Frohman, T.

E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, S. Arnow, J. A. Wilson, S. Saidha, J. L. Preiningerova, T. Oberwahrenbrock, A. U. Brandt, L. E. Pablo, S. Guerrieri, I. Gonzalez, O. Outteryck, A.-K. Mueller, P. Albrecht, W. Chan, S. Lukas, L. J. Balk, C. Fraser, J. L. Frederiksen, J. Resto, T. Frohman, C. Cordano, I. Zubizarreta, M. Andorra, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, A. Saiz, R. Bermel, A. Klistorner, A. Petzold, S. Schippling, F. Costello, O. Aktas, P. Vermersch, C. Oreja-Guevara, G. Comi, L. Leocani, E. Garcia-Martin, F. Paul, E. Havrdova, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, A. J. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and P. Villoslada, “Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study,” The Lancet Neurol. 15, 574–584 (2016).
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Frohman, T. C.

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
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S. B. Syc, C. V. Warner, S. Saidha, S. K. Farrell, A. Conger, E. R. Bisker, J. Wilson, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, and P. A. Calabresi, “Cup to disc ratio by optical coherence tomography is abnormal in multiple sclerosis,” J. Neurolog. Sci. 302, 19–24 (2011).
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Fujihara, K.

A. Petzold, M. P. Wattjes, F. Costello, J. Flores-Rivera, C. L. Fraser, K. Fujihara, J. Leavitt, R. Marignier, F. Paul, S. Schippling, C. Sindic, P. Villoslada, B. Weinshenker, and G. T. Plant, “The investigation of acute optic neuritis: a review and proposed protocol,” Nat. Rev. Neurol. 10, 447–458 (2014).
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Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
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A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
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E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, S. Arnow, J. A. Wilson, S. Saidha, J. L. Preiningerova, T. Oberwahrenbrock, A. U. Brandt, L. E. Pablo, S. Guerrieri, I. Gonzalez, O. Outteryck, A.-K. Mueller, P. Albrecht, W. Chan, S. Lukas, L. J. Balk, C. Fraser, J. L. Frederiksen, J. Resto, T. Frohman, C. Cordano, I. Zubizarreta, M. Andorra, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, A. Saiz, R. Bermel, A. Klistorner, A. Petzold, S. Schippling, F. Costello, O. Aktas, P. Vermersch, C. Oreja-Guevara, G. Comi, L. Leocani, E. Garcia-Martin, F. Paul, E. Havrdova, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, A. J. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and P. Villoslada, “Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study,” The Lancet Neurol. 15, 574–584 (2016).
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Gertz, K.

A. U. Brandt, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Costello, M. Fielden, K. Gertz, I. Kleffner, F. Paul, R. Bergholz, and J. Dörr, “Retinal lesion evolution in Susac syndrome,” Retina 36, 366–374 (2016).
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Girkin, C. A.

B. C. Chauhan, V. M. Danthurebandara, G. P. Sharpe, S. Demirel, C. A. Girkin, C. Y. Mardin, A. F. Scheuerle, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Bruch’s membrane opening minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in a normal white population,” Ophthalmology. 122, 1786–1794 (2017).
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Gonzalez, I.

E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, S. Arnow, J. A. Wilson, S. Saidha, J. L. Preiningerova, T. Oberwahrenbrock, A. U. Brandt, L. E. Pablo, S. Guerrieri, I. Gonzalez, O. Outteryck, A.-K. Mueller, P. Albrecht, W. Chan, S. Lukas, L. J. Balk, C. Fraser, J. L. Frederiksen, J. Resto, T. Frohman, C. Cordano, I. Zubizarreta, M. Andorra, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, A. Saiz, R. Bermel, A. Klistorner, A. Petzold, S. Schippling, F. Costello, O. Aktas, P. Vermersch, C. Oreja-Guevara, G. Comi, L. Leocani, E. Garcia-Martin, F. Paul, E. Havrdova, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, A. J. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and P. Villoslada, “Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study,” The Lancet Neurol. 15, 574–584 (2016).
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E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jedynak, B. M.

Y. He, A. Carass, Y. Yun, C. Zhao, B. M. Jedynak, S. D. Solomon, S. Saidha, P. A. Calabresi, and J. L. Prince, “Towards topological correct segmentation of macular OCT from cascaded FCNs,” in Fetal, Infant and Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis (SpringerInternational Publishing, 2017), pp. 202–209.
[Crossref]

Jentschke, S.

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Scler. J. 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jeong, W.

Jiang, H.

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
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Kadas, E. M.

F. C. Oertel, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, M. Weinhold, E. M. Kadas, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Pache, J. Bellmann-Strobl, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Contribution of blood vessels to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in NMOSD,” Neurol. - Neuroimmunol. Neuroinflammation 4, e338 (2017).
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E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, C. Schmidt, H. Kunte, J. Hoffmann, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, L. Harms, K. Polthier, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optic nerve head quantification in idiopathic intracranial hypertension by spectral domain oct,” PLOS ONE 7, 1–6 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. M. Kadas, F. Kaufhold, C. Schulz, F. Paul, K. Polthier, and A. U. Brandt, 3D Optic Nerve Head Segmentation in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension(SpringerBerlin Heidelberg, 2012), pp. 262–267.

Kadas, E.-M.

P. Albrecht, C. Blasberg, M. Ringelstein, A.-K. Müller, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, E.-M. Kadas, W. Lagreze, O. Aktas, H.-P. Hartung, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and A. Methner, “Optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis and monitoring of idiopathic intracranial hypertension,” J. Neurol. 264, 1370–1380 (2017).
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P. Albrecht, C. Blasberg, S. Lukas, M. Ringelstein, A.-K. Müller, J. Harmel, E.-M. Kadas, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, O. Aktas, H.-P. Hartung, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, P. Berlit, A. Methner, and M. Kraemer, “Retinal pathology in idiopathic moyamoya angiopathy detected by optical coherence tomography,” Neurology 85, 521–527 (2015).
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Kao, C.-Y.

L. Wang, C. Li, Q.-S. Sun, D.-S. Xia, and C.-Y. Kao, “Active contours driven by local and global intensity fitting energy with application to brain MR image segmentation,” Comp. Med. Imag. Graph. 33, 520–531 (2009).
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Kardon, R.

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
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B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, M. M. Harper, W. Jeong, E. H. Sohn, Y. H. Kwon, R. Kardon, and M. K. Garvin, “A combined machine-learning and graph-based framework for the segmentation of retinal surfaces in SD-OCT volumes,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2712 (2013).
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Karri, S. P. K.

Kass, M.

M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, “Snakes: Active contour models,” International Journal of Computer Vision 1, 321–331 (1988).
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Katouzian, A.

Kaufhold, F.

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, S. Schippling, M. Ringelstein, F. Kaufhold, H. Zimmermann, N. Keser, K. L. Young, J. Harmel, H.-P. Hartung, R. Martin, F. Paul, O. Aktas, and A. U. Brandt, “Retinal damage in multiple sclerosis disease subtypes measured by high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Multiple Scler. Int. 2012, 530305 (2012).

F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, C. Schmidt, H. Kunte, J. Hoffmann, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, L. Harms, K. Polthier, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optic nerve head quantification in idiopathic intracranial hypertension by spectral domain oct,” PLOS ONE 7, 1–6 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. M. Kadas, F. Kaufhold, C. Schulz, F. Paul, K. Polthier, and A. U. Brandt, 3D Optic Nerve Head Segmentation in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension(SpringerBerlin Heidelberg, 2012), pp. 262–267.

Keegan, D.

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
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Keller, B.

B. Keller, D. Cunefare, D. S. Grewal, T. H. Mahmoud, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Length-adaptive graph search for automatic segmentation of pathological features in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt.  21, 076015 (2016).
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Keser, N.

T. Oberwahrenbrock, S. Schippling, M. Ringelstein, F. Kaufhold, H. Zimmermann, N. Keser, K. L. Young, J. Harmel, H.-P. Hartung, R. Martin, F. Paul, O. Aktas, and A. U. Brandt, “Retinal damage in multiple sclerosis disease subtypes measured by high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Multiple Scler. Int. 2012, 530305 (2012).

Kildebeck, E.

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
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Kleffner, I.

A. U. Brandt, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Costello, M. Fielden, K. Gertz, I. Kleffner, F. Paul, R. Bergholz, and J. Dörr, “Retinal lesion evolution in Susac syndrome,” Retina 36, 366–374 (2016).
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M. Ringelstein, P. Albrecht, I. Kleffner, B. Bühn, J. Harmel, A.-K. Müller, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, R. Bergholz, T. Duning, M. Krämer, F. Paul, A. Brandt, T. Oberwahrenbrock, J. Mikolajczak, B. Wildemann, S. Jarius, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, and J. Dörr, “Retinal pathology in susac syndrome detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Neurology 85, 610–618 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klistorner, A.

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurol. - Neuroimmunol. Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
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E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, S. Arnow, J. A. Wilson, S. Saidha, J. L. Preiningerova, T. Oberwahrenbrock, A. U. Brandt, L. E. Pablo, S. Guerrieri, I. Gonzalez, O. Outteryck, A.-K. Mueller, P. Albrecht, W. Chan, S. Lukas, L. J. Balk, C. Fraser, J. L. Frederiksen, J. Resto, T. Frohman, C. Cordano, I. Zubizarreta, M. Andorra, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, A. Saiz, R. Bermel, A. Klistorner, A. Petzold, S. Schippling, F. Costello, O. Aktas, P. Vermersch, C. Oreja-Guevara, G. Comi, L. Leocani, E. Garcia-Martin, F. Paul, E. Havrdova, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, A. J. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and P. Villoslada, “Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study,” The Lancet Neurol. 15, 574–584 (2016).
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Klumbies, K.

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Scler. J. 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knier, B.

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurol. - Neuroimmunol. Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
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Kolbe, S.

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
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Konar, A.

S. Das, A. Abraham, U. K. Chakraborty, and A. Konar, “Differential Evolution Using a Neighborhood-Based Mutation Operator,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 13, 526–553 (2009).
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Korn, T.

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurol. - Neuroimmunol. Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraemer, M.

P. Albrecht, C. Blasberg, S. Lukas, M. Ringelstein, A.-K. Müller, J. Harmel, E.-M. Kadas, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, O. Aktas, H.-P. Hartung, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, P. Berlit, A. Methner, and M. Kraemer, “Retinal pathology in idiopathic moyamoya angiopathy detected by optical coherence tomography,” Neurology 85, 521–527 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krämer, M.

M. Ringelstein, P. Albrecht, I. Kleffner, B. Bühn, J. Harmel, A.-K. Müller, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, R. Bergholz, T. Duning, M. Krämer, F. Paul, A. Brandt, T. Oberwahrenbrock, J. Mikolajczak, B. Wildemann, S. Jarius, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, and J. Dörr, “Retinal pathology in susac syndrome detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Neurology 85, 610–618 (2015).
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Krefting, D.

C. Jansen, M. Witt, and D. Krefting, Employing Docker Swarm on OpenStack for Biomedical Analysis(SpringerInternational Publishing, 2016), p. 303–318.

Kuchling, J.

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurol. - Neuroimmunol. Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kühn, A. A.

N. M. Roth, S. Saidha, H. Zimmermann, A. U. Brandt, J. Isensee, A. Benkhellouf-Rutkowska, M. Dornauer, A. A. Kühn, T. Müller, P. A. Calabresi, and F. Paul, “Photoreceptor layer thinning in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease,” Mov. Disord. 29, 1163–1170 (2014).
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A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, S. Arnow, J. A. Wilson, S. Saidha, J. L. Preiningerova, T. Oberwahrenbrock, A. U. Brandt, L. E. Pablo, S. Guerrieri, I. Gonzalez, O. Outteryck, A.-K. Mueller, P. Albrecht, W. Chan, S. Lukas, L. J. Balk, C. Fraser, J. L. Frederiksen, J. Resto, T. Frohman, C. Cordano, I. Zubizarreta, M. Andorra, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, A. Saiz, R. Bermel, A. Klistorner, A. Petzold, S. Schippling, F. Costello, O. Aktas, P. Vermersch, C. Oreja-Guevara, G. Comi, L. Leocani, E. Garcia-Martin, F. Paul, E. Havrdova, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, A. J. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and P. Villoslada, “Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study,” The Lancet Neurol. 15, 574–584 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osborne, B.

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Outteryck, O.

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, S. Arnow, J. A. Wilson, S. Saidha, J. L. Preiningerova, T. Oberwahrenbrock, A. U. Brandt, L. E. Pablo, S. Guerrieri, I. Gonzalez, O. Outteryck, A.-K. Mueller, P. Albrecht, W. Chan, S. Lukas, L. J. Balk, C. Fraser, J. L. Frederiksen, J. Resto, T. Frohman, C. Cordano, I. Zubizarreta, M. Andorra, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, A. Saiz, R. Bermel, A. Klistorner, A. Petzold, S. Schippling, F. Costello, O. Aktas, P. Vermersch, C. Oreja-Guevara, G. Comi, L. Leocani, E. Garcia-Martin, F. Paul, E. Havrdova, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, A. J. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and P. Villoslada, “Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study,” The Lancet Neurol. 15, 574–584 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pablo, L. E.

E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, S. Arnow, J. A. Wilson, S. Saidha, J. L. Preiningerova, T. Oberwahrenbrock, A. U. Brandt, L. E. Pablo, S. Guerrieri, I. Gonzalez, O. Outteryck, A.-K. Mueller, P. Albrecht, W. Chan, S. Lukas, L. J. Balk, C. Fraser, J. L. Frederiksen, J. Resto, T. Frohman, C. Cordano, I. Zubizarreta, M. Andorra, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, A. Saiz, R. Bermel, A. Klistorner, A. Petzold, S. Schippling, F. Costello, O. Aktas, P. Vermersch, C. Oreja-Guevara, G. Comi, L. Leocani, E. Garcia-Martin, F. Paul, E. Havrdova, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, A. J. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and P. Villoslada, “Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study,” The Lancet Neurol. 15, 574–584 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pache, F.

F. C. Oertel, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, M. Weinhold, E. M. Kadas, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Pache, J. Bellmann-Strobl, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Contribution of blood vessels to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in NMOSD,” Neurol. - Neuroimmunol. Neuroinflammation 4, e338 (2017).
[Crossref]

Papadopoulou, A.

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parr, E.

S. L. Galetta, P. Villoslada, N. Levin, K. Shindler, H. Ishikawa, E. Parr, D. Cadavid, and L. J. Balcer, “Acute optic neuritis,” Neurol. - Neuroimmunol. Neuroinflammation 2, e135 (2015).
[Crossref]

Paul, F.

P. Albrecht, C. Blasberg, M. Ringelstein, A.-K. Müller, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, E.-M. Kadas, W. Lagreze, O. Aktas, H.-P. Hartung, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and A. Methner, “Optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis and monitoring of idiopathic intracranial hypertension,” J. Neurol. 264, 1370–1380 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurol. - Neuroimmunol. Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. C. Oertel, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, M. Weinhold, E. M. Kadas, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Pache, J. Bellmann-Strobl, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Contribution of blood vessels to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in NMOSD,” Neurol. - Neuroimmunol. Neuroinflammation 4, e338 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. U. Brandt, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Costello, M. Fielden, K. Gertz, I. Kleffner, F. Paul, R. Bergholz, and J. Dörr, “Retinal lesion evolution in Susac syndrome,” Retina 36, 366–374 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, S. Arnow, J. A. Wilson, S. Saidha, J. L. Preiningerova, T. Oberwahrenbrock, A. U. Brandt, L. E. Pablo, S. Guerrieri, I. Gonzalez, O. Outteryck, A.-K. Mueller, P. Albrecht, W. Chan, S. Lukas, L. J. Balk, C. Fraser, J. L. Frederiksen, J. Resto, T. Frohman, C. Cordano, I. Zubizarreta, M. Andorra, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, A. Saiz, R. Bermel, A. Klistorner, A. Petzold, S. Schippling, F. Costello, O. Aktas, P. Vermersch, C. Oreja-Guevara, G. Comi, L. Leocani, E. Garcia-Martin, F. Paul, E. Havrdova, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, A. J. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and P. Villoslada, “Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study,” The Lancet Neurol. 15, 574–584 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cruz-Herranz, L. J. Balk, T. Oberwahrenbrock, S. Saidha, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, W. A. Lagreze, J. S. Schuman, P. Villoslada, P. Calabresi, L. Balcer, A. Petzold, A. J. Green, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and P. Albrecht, “The APOSTEL recommendations for reporting quantitative optical coherence tomography studies,” Neurology. 86, 2303–2309 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ringelstein, P. Albrecht, I. Kleffner, B. Bühn, J. Harmel, A.-K. Müller, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, R. Bergholz, T. Duning, M. Krämer, F. Paul, A. Brandt, T. Oberwahrenbrock, J. Mikolajczak, B. Wildemann, S. Jarius, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, and J. Dörr, “Retinal pathology in susac syndrome detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Neurology 85, 610–618 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Albrecht, C. Blasberg, S. Lukas, M. Ringelstein, A.-K. Müller, J. Harmel, E.-M. Kadas, D. Finis, R. Guthoff, O. Aktas, H.-P. Hartung, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, P. Berlit, A. Methner, and M. Kraemer, “Retinal pathology in idiopathic moyamoya angiopathy detected by optical coherence tomography,” Neurology 85, 521–527 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Roth, S. Saidha, H. Zimmermann, A. U. Brandt, J. Isensee, A. Benkhellouf-Rutkowska, M. Dornauer, A. A. Kühn, T. Müller, P. A. Calabresi, and F. Paul, “Photoreceptor layer thinning in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease,” Mov. Disord. 29, 1163–1170 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Petzold, M. P. Wattjes, F. Costello, J. Flores-Rivera, C. L. Fraser, K. Fujihara, J. Leavitt, R. Marignier, F. Paul, S. Schippling, C. Sindic, P. Villoslada, B. Weinshenker, and G. T. Plant, “The investigation of acute optic neuritis: a review and proposed protocol,” Nat. Rev. Neurol. 10, 447–458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Scler. J. 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, S. Schippling, M. Ringelstein, F. Kaufhold, H. Zimmermann, N. Keser, K. L. Young, J. Harmel, H.-P. Hartung, R. Martin, F. Paul, O. Aktas, and A. U. Brandt, “Retinal damage in multiple sclerosis disease subtypes measured by high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Multiple Scler. Int. 2012, 530305 (2012).

F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, C. Schmidt, H. Kunte, J. Hoffmann, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, L. Harms, K. Polthier, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optic nerve head quantification in idiopathic intracranial hypertension by spectral domain oct,” PLOS ONE 7, 1–6 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Bock, A. U. Brandt, J. Dörr, C. F. Pfueller, S. Ohlraun, F. Zipp, and F. Paul, “Time domain and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a comparative cross-sectional study,” Multiple Scler. J. 16, 893–896 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. M. Kadas, F. Kaufhold, C. Schulz, F. Paul, K. Polthier, and A. U. Brandt, 3D Optic Nerve Head Segmentation in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension(SpringerBerlin Heidelberg, 2012), pp. 262–267.

Petzold, A.

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cruz-Herranz, L. J. Balk, T. Oberwahrenbrock, S. Saidha, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, W. A. Lagreze, J. S. Schuman, P. Villoslada, P. Calabresi, L. Balcer, A. Petzold, A. J. Green, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and P. Albrecht, “The APOSTEL recommendations for reporting quantitative optical coherence tomography studies,” Neurology. 86, 2303–2309 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, S. Arnow, J. A. Wilson, S. Saidha, J. L. Preiningerova, T. Oberwahrenbrock, A. U. Brandt, L. E. Pablo, S. Guerrieri, I. Gonzalez, O. Outteryck, A.-K. Mueller, P. Albrecht, W. Chan, S. Lukas, L. J. Balk, C. Fraser, J. L. Frederiksen, J. Resto, T. Frohman, C. Cordano, I. Zubizarreta, M. Andorra, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, A. Saiz, R. Bermel, A. Klistorner, A. Petzold, S. Schippling, F. Costello, O. Aktas, P. Vermersch, C. Oreja-Guevara, G. Comi, L. Leocani, E. Garcia-Martin, F. Paul, E. Havrdova, E. Frohman, L. J. Balcer, A. J. Green, P. A. Calabresi, and P. Villoslada, “Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study,” The Lancet Neurol. 15, 574–584 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Petzold, M. P. Wattjes, F. Costello, J. Flores-Rivera, C. L. Fraser, K. Fujihara, J. Leavitt, R. Marignier, F. Paul, S. Schippling, C. Sindic, P. Villoslada, B. Weinshenker, and G. T. Plant, “The investigation of acute optic neuritis: a review and proposed protocol,” Nat. Rev. Neurol. 10, 447–458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pfueller, C. F.

M. Bock, A. U. Brandt, J. Dörr, C. F. Pfueller, S. Ohlraun, F. Zipp, and F. Paul, “Time domain and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a comparative cross-sectional study,” Multiple Scler. J. 16, 893–896 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pihl-Jensen, G.

A. Petzold, L. J. Balcer, P. A. Calabresi, F. Costello, T. C. Frohman, E. M. Frohman, E. H. Martinez-Lapiscina, A. J. Green, R. Kardon, O. Outteryck, F. Paul, S. Schippling, P. Vermersch, P. Villoslada, L. J. Balk, O. Aktas, P. Albrecht, J. Ashworth, N. Asgari, G. Black, D. Boehringer, R. Behbehani, L. Benson, R. Bermel, J. Bernard, A. Brandt, J. Burton, J. Calkwood, C. Cordano, A. Courtney, A. Cruz-Herranz, R. Diem, A. Daly, H. Dollfus, C. Fasser, C. Finke, J. Frederiksen, E. Garcia-Martin, I. G. Suárez, G. Pihl-Jensen, J. Graves, J. Havla, B. Hemmer, S.-C. Huang, J. Imitola, H. Jiang, D. Keegan, E. Kildebeck, A. Klistorner, B. Knier, S. Kolbe, T. Korn, B. LeRoy, L. Leocani, D. Leroux, N. Levin, P. Liskova, B. Lorenz, J. L. Preiningerova, J. Mikolajczak, X. Montalban, M. Morrow, R. Nolan, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. C. Oertel, C. Oreja-Guevara, B. Osborne, A. Papadopoulou, M. Ringelstein, S. Saidha, B. Sanchez-Dalmau, J. Sastre-Garriga, R. Shin, N. Shuey, K. Soelberg, A. Toosy, R. Torres, A. Vidal-Jordana, A. Waldman, O. White, A. Yeh, S. Wong, and H. Zimmermann, “Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Neurol. 16, 797–812 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plant, G. T.

A. Petzold, M. P. Wattjes, F. Costello, J. Flores-Rivera, C. L. Fraser, K. Fujihara, J. Leavitt, R. Marignier, F. Paul, S. Schippling, C. Sindic, P. Villoslada, B. Weinshenker, and G. T. Plant, “The investigation of acute optic neuritis: a review and proposed protocol,” Nat. Rev. Neurol. 10, 447–458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pollet-Villard, F.

F. Pollet-Villard, C. Chiquet, J.-P. Romanet, C. Noel, and F. Aptel, “Structure-function relationships with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head measurements structure-function relationships with SD-OCT,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.  55, 2953 (2014).
[Crossref]

Polthier, K.

F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, C. Schmidt, H. Kunte, J. Hoffmann, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, L. Harms, K. Polthier, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optic nerve head quantification in idiopathic intracranial hypertension by spectral domain oct,” PLOS ONE 7, 1–6 (2012).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (Left) Volume scan (C-Scan) of the optic nerve head (ONH). (Right) The volume scan consists of slices (B-scans), where each column is an axial depth scan (A-Scan). The ONH typically has a cup in its center (1). The blue line marks the inner limiting membrane (ILM) separating the vitreous body (2) from retinal tissue (3). The magenta line represents the Bruch’s membrane (BM). Note how the blue line failed to correctly detect the ILM, and misses the vessel at the left top, as well as the deep cuping.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 a) B-scan presenting several challenges for ILM segmentation using the original CV model: the yellow arrow shows the ONH region with no retinal layer information except several tissue remaining from nerve fibers and the ILM; the white arrows show shadows caused by the presence of large blood vessels. b) B-scan showing segmentation results using the original CV model. c) Boundary potential V on a sample B-scan. In the red area, V(x) = ρ, whereas in the green area V(x) = 0.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 a) Example of an ONH region with very low contrast compared to the vitreous (yellow arrow). This leads to the contour leaking into the tissue. b) The same scan with correctly detected ILM after scaling the values for c1 and c2 according to equation 7; c) Example of an ONH region with low intensity values at the inner layers (yellow arrow) compared to the dark vitreous as well as to the hyperintense outer layers (white arrow). This causes the contour to falsely detect parts of the lower layers as vitreous. d) The same scan with correctly detected ILM by rescaling values c1 and c2 after the interface has almost reached the desired ILM contour.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Three processing steps to obtain initial segmentation: a) filtering with morphological and Gauss filter b) thresholding, neglecting small connected components c) the initial contour
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Error distribution over 20 scans represented as box plots for the 10 optimization runs. The + symbol and the ◦ symbol denote outliers with an error deviating more than 1.5 × STD and more than 3.0 × STD from the mean, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Errors of the complete data set (40 scans): segmentation of the device (blue), proposed algorithm with the segmentation of the device as initial contour (green) and proposed algorithm with own initial contour (red). The lower bars show the error in the inner 1.5 mm circle of the ONH. The device error of scan 26 is very high (110 508 voxels) because the segmentation was completely wrong on some B-scans.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Normalized distribution of local Euclidean distances between manual and automatic segmentation.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Quality assessment of a volume scan: (a) B-scan with low SNR region in orange, (b) corresponding SLO image with quality assessment map, color coded according to the criteria shown at the right hand side of the map; green rectangle delimits the scan area; blue arrow shows the B-scan position.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Distribution of errors per B-Scan (a) (group40) obtained by comparing with manual segmentations, (b) (group100) as obtained by the corrections performed by an experienced grader.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Segmentation of three neighboring B-scans obtained from the 3D segmentation of the volume scan. The green line depicts the manual segmentation, the red our proposed method, and the blue line the segmentation as given by the device.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Segmentation results, showing B-scans that present particular challenges: deep cups - (a), (b), and (e); overhangs - (a), (d), (e), and (f); tissue still connected to ILM: (c). The red line depicts our proposed method, and the blue line the segmentation given by the device.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 3D view of the ILM segmentation results showing particularly interesting topologies at the ONH.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Total error and parameter values as obtained in 10 optimization runs, sorted in ascending order of the error. Total error represents the accumulated error of the 20 scans in the optimization set.

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Table 2 Mean error, and 10 %, 50 % and 90 % quantile of the error distribution computed as the euclidian distance between automatic (proposed, device) and manual segmentation.

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Table 3 Overview of scan quality (with corresponding labels) and segmentation corrections, as well as voxel error of the corrections made for 100 volume scan, randomly selected from a large database.

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Table 4 Parameter values; x, y, z denote coordinate directions horizontal, axial and lateral (between B-scans).

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

inside ( C ) = Ω 1 the retinal tissue
outside ( C ) = Ω 2 the vitreous body
F cv [ C ] = F gif + μ F surf + ν F vol ,
F gif = λ 1 Ω 1 | I ( x ) c 1 | 2 d x + λ 2 Ω 2 | I ( x ) c 2 | 2 d x ,
F surf = C d s , d s is the area element
F vol = Ω 1 1 d x .
c ^ i = c i 2 ( 1 + max k M I ( x kl ) ) i { 1 , 2 } , l N ,
F bound = Ω 1 V ( x ) d x .
F lif = λ 1 Ω 1 K σ ( x y ) | I ( y ) f 1 ( x ) | 2 d y d x + λ 2 Ω 2 K σ ( x y ) | I ( y ) f 2 ( x ) | 2 d y d x .
F = ω F gif + ( 1 ω ) F lif + μ F surf + ν F vol + F bound .
ϕ t = δ ε ( ϕ ) [ ( 1 ω ) F l o c a l ( x ) ω F g l o b a l ( x ) + μ div ( ϕ | ϕ | ) ν V ( x ) ]
with F g l o b a l ( x ) = ( I ( x ) c 1 ( x ) ) 2 + ( I ( x ) c 2 ( x ) ) 2 .
H ε ( z ) = { 1 z > ε 0 z < ε 1 2 [ 1 + z ε + 1 π sin ( π z ε ) ] | z | ε
δ ε ( z ) = { 0 | z | > ε 2 2 ε [ 1 + cos ( π z ε ) ] | z | ε .
f 1 ( x ) = { K σ ( x ) * [ H ε ( ϕ ( x ) ) I ( x ) ] K σ ( x ) * H ε ( ϕ ( x ) ) K σ ( x ) * H ε ( ϕ ( x ) ) > 0 n a n other
f 2 ( x ) = { K σ ( x ) * [ ( 1 H ε ( ϕ ( x ) ) ) I ( x ) ] K σ ( x ) * [ 1 H ε ( ϕ ( x ) ) ] K σ ( x ) * [ 1 H ε ( ϕ ( x ) ) ] > 0 n a n other
F l o c a l ( x ) = [ λ 1 f 1 ( y ) n a n K σ ( y x ) | I ( x ) f 1 ( y ) | 2 d y f 1 ( y ) n a n K σ ( y x ) + λ 1 f 2 ( y ) n a n K σ ( y x ) | I ( x ) f 2 ( y ) | 2 d y f 2 ( y ) n a n K σ ( y x ) ]
F l o c a l ( x ) = 0