Abstract

Terahertz (THz) light is non-ionizing and highly sensitive to subtle changes in water concentration which can be indicative of disease. The short THz penetration depth in bio-samples restricts in vivo measurements to be in a reflection geometry and the sample is often placed onto an imaging window. Upon contacting the imaging window, occlusion and compression of the skin affect the THz response. If not appropriately controlled, this could cause misleading results. In this work, we investigate and quantify how the applied pressure affects the THz response of skin and employ a stratified model to help understand the mechanisms at play. This work will enable future THz studies to have a more rigorous experimental protocol, which in turn will facilitate research in various potential biomedical applications under investigation.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
In vivo terahertz imaging to evaluate scar treatment strategies: silicone gel sheeting

Jiarui Wang, Qiushuo Sun, Rayko I. Stantchev, Tor-Wo Chiu, Anil T. Ahuja, and Emma Pickwell-MacPherson
Biomed. Opt. Express 10(7) 3584-3590 (2019)

Physiological and structural characterization of human skin in vivo using combined photothermal radiometry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

Nina Verdel, Ana Marin, Matija Milanič, and Boris Majaron
Biomed. Opt. Express 10(2) 944-960 (2019)

Chromophore concentrations, absorption and scattering properties of human skin in-vivo

Sheng-Hao Tseng, Paulo Bargo, Anthony Durkin, and Nikiforos Kollias
Opt. Express 17(17) 14599-14617 (2009)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Schirmer, M. Fujio, M. Minami, J. Miura, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Biomedical applications of a real-time terahertz color scanner,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(2), 354–366 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. Schwerdtfeger, S. Lippert, M. Koch, A. Berg, S. Katletz, and K. Wiesauer, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for monitoring the curing of dental composites,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2842–2850 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. G. G. Hernandez-Cardoso, S. C. Rojas-Landeros, M. Alfaro-Gomez, A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, I. Salas-Gutierrez, E. Lemus-Bedolla, A. R. Castillo-Guzman, H. L. Lopez-Lemus, and E. Castro-Camus, “Terahertz imaging for early screening of diabetic foot syndrome: A proof of concept,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42124 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophotonics 10(9), 1143–1151 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. I. Ozheredov, M. Prokopchuk, M. Mischenko, T. Safonova, P. Solyankin, A. Larichev, A. Angeluts, A. Balakin, and A. Shkurinov, “In vivo THz sensing of the cornea of the eye,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055601 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. J. Oh, S.-H. Kim, Y. B. Ji, K. Jeong, Y. Park, J. Yang, D. W. Park, S. K. Noh, S.-G. Kang, Y.-M. Huh, J.-H. Son, and J.-S. Suh, “Study of freshly excised brain tissues using terahertz imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2837–2842 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. C. S. Joseph, R. Patel, V. A. Neel, R. H. Giles, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Imaging of ex vivo nonmelanoma skin cancers in the optical and terahertz spectral regions optical and terahertz skin cancers imaging,” J. Biophotonics 7(5), 295–303 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Z. Yang, J. Leon, M. Martin, T. A. Larson, J. Bankson, J. Aaron, and J. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology 24, 214001 (2013).
  14. S. J. Oh, J. Kang, I. Maeng, J. S. Suh, Y. M. Huh, S. Haam, and J. H. Son, “Nanoparticle-enabled terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3469–3475 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon. Res. 4(3), A29–A35 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A Robust Baseline and Reference Modification and Acquisition Algorithm for Accurate THz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7(5), 493–501 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  17. Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, Y. He, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” J. Biophotonics 11(2), e201700111 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. P. Clarys, R. Clijsen, and A. O. Barel, “Influence of probe application pressure on in vitro and in vivo capacitance (Corneometer CM 825 ®) and conductance (Skicon 200 EX ®) measurements,” Ski. Res. Technol. 17, 445 (2011).
  19. T. J. Ryan, M. Thoolen, and Y. H. Yang, “The effect of mechanical forces (vibration or external compression) on the dermal water content of the upper dermis and epidermis, assessed by high frequency ultrasound,” J. Tissue Viability 11(3), 97–101 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 943–950 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. Reimann, “Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1597–1632 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  22. Z. Peng and S. A. T. Redfern, “Mechanical properties of quartz at the α-β Phase transition: Implications for tectonic and seismic anomalies,” Geochemistry, Geophys. Geosystems (2013).
  23. D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for Terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. Q. Sun, R. I. Stantchev, J. Wang, E. P. J. Parrott, A. Cottenden, T.-W. Chiu, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo estimation of water diffusivity in occluded human skin using terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 2018, e201800145 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. R. R. Warner, M. C. Myers, and D. A. Taylor, “Electron probe analysis of human skin: determination of the water concentration profile,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 90, 218 (1988).
  26. E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-Infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy †,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(24), 10373–10379 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  28. Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

2018 (3)

I. Ozheredov, M. Prokopchuk, M. Mischenko, T. Safonova, P. Solyankin, A. Larichev, A. Angeluts, A. Balakin, and A. Shkurinov, “In vivo THz sensing of the cornea of the eye,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, Y. He, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” J. Biophotonics 11(2), e201700111 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Sun, R. I. Stantchev, J. Wang, E. P. J. Parrott, A. Cottenden, T.-W. Chiu, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo estimation of water diffusivity in occluded human skin using terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 2018, e201800145 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A Robust Baseline and Reference Modification and Acquisition Algorithm for Accurate THz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7(5), 493–501 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. G. Hernandez-Cardoso, S. C. Rojas-Landeros, M. Alfaro-Gomez, A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, I. Salas-Gutierrez, E. Lemus-Bedolla, A. R. Castillo-Guzman, H. L. Lopez-Lemus, and E. Castro-Camus, “Terahertz imaging for early screening of diabetic foot syndrome: A proof of concept,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42124 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophotonics 10(9), 1143–1151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon. Res. 4(3), A29–A35 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

S. J. Oh, S.-H. Kim, Y. B. Ji, K. Jeong, Y. Park, J. Yang, D. W. Park, S. K. Noh, S.-G. Kang, Y.-M. Huh, J.-H. Son, and J.-S. Suh, “Study of freshly excised brain tissues using terahertz imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2837–2842 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Joseph, R. Patel, V. A. Neel, R. H. Giles, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Imaging of ex vivo nonmelanoma skin cancers in the optical and terahertz spectral regions optical and terahertz skin cancers imaging,” J. Biophotonics 7(5), 295–303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

Z. Yang, J. Leon, M. Martin, T. A. Larson, J. Bankson, J. Aaron, and J. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology 24, 214001 (2013).

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for Terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Clarys, R. Clijsen, and A. O. Barel, “Influence of probe application pressure on in vitro and in vivo capacitance (Corneometer CM 825 ®) and conductance (Skicon 200 EX ®) measurements,” Ski. Res. Technol. 17, 445 (2011).

2010 (2)

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schirmer, M. Fujio, M. Minami, J. Miura, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Biomedical applications of a real-time terahertz color scanner,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(2), 354–366 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

K. Reimann, “Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1597–1632 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

T. J. Ryan, M. Thoolen, and Y. H. Yang, “The effect of mechanical forces (vibration or external compression) on the dermal water content of the upper dermis and epidermis, assessed by high frequency ultrasound,” J. Tissue Viability 11(3), 97–101 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 943–950 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-Infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy †,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(24), 10373–10379 (1996).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

R. R. Warner, M. C. Myers, and D. A. Taylor, “Electron probe analysis of human skin: determination of the water concentration profile,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 90, 218 (1988).

Aaron, J.

Z. Yang, J. Leon, M. Martin, T. A. Larson, J. Bankson, J. Aaron, and J. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology 24, 214001 (2013).

Ahuja, A. T.

Q. Sun, R. I. Stantchev, J. Wang, E. P. J. Parrott, A. Cottenden, T.-W. Chiu, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo estimation of water diffusivity in occluded human skin using terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 2018, e201800145 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alfaro-Gomez, M.

G. G. Hernandez-Cardoso, S. C. Rojas-Landeros, M. Alfaro-Gomez, A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, I. Salas-Gutierrez, E. Lemus-Bedolla, A. R. Castillo-Guzman, H. L. Lopez-Lemus, and E. Castro-Camus, “Terahertz imaging for early screening of diabetic foot syndrome: A proof of concept,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42124 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alger, J.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angeluts, A.

I. Ozheredov, M. Prokopchuk, M. Mischenko, T. Safonova, P. Solyankin, A. Larichev, A. Angeluts, A. Balakin, and A. Shkurinov, “In vivo THz sensing of the cornea of the eye,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Araki, T.

Ashworth, P. C.

Bajwa, N.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Balakin, A.

I. Ozheredov, M. Prokopchuk, M. Mischenko, T. Safonova, P. Solyankin, A. Larichev, A. Angeluts, A. Balakin, and A. Shkurinov, “In vivo THz sensing of the cornea of the eye,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bankson, J.

Z. Yang, J. Leon, M. Martin, T. A. Larson, J. Bankson, J. Aaron, and J. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology 24, 214001 (2013).

Barel, A. O.

P. Clarys, R. Clijsen, and A. O. Barel, “Influence of probe application pressure on in vitro and in vivo capacitance (Corneometer CM 825 ®) and conductance (Skicon 200 EX ®) measurements,” Ski. Res. Technol. 17, 445 (2011).

Bennett, D. B.

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for Terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Berg, A.

Brown, E. R.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for Terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Castillo-Guzman, A. R.

G. G. Hernandez-Cardoso, S. C. Rojas-Landeros, M. Alfaro-Gomez, A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, I. Salas-Gutierrez, E. Lemus-Bedolla, A. R. Castillo-Guzman, H. L. Lopez-Lemus, and E. Castro-Camus, “Terahertz imaging for early screening of diabetic foot syndrome: A proof of concept,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42124 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro-Camus, E.

G. G. Hernandez-Cardoso, S. C. Rojas-Landeros, M. Alfaro-Gomez, A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, I. Salas-Gutierrez, E. Lemus-Bedolla, A. R. Castillo-Guzman, H. L. Lopez-Lemus, and E. Castro-Camus, “Terahertz imaging for early screening of diabetic foot syndrome: A proof of concept,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42124 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, E. K.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 943–950 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A Robust Baseline and Reference Modification and Acquisition Algorithm for Accurate THz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7(5), 493–501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chiu, T.-W.

Q. Sun, R. I. Stantchev, J. Wang, E. P. J. Parrott, A. Cottenden, T.-W. Chiu, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo estimation of water diffusivity in occluded human skin using terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 2018, e201800145 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clarys, P.

P. Clarys, R. Clijsen, and A. O. Barel, “Influence of probe application pressure on in vitro and in vivo capacitance (Corneometer CM 825 ®) and conductance (Skicon 200 EX ®) measurements,” Ski. Res. Technol. 17, 445 (2011).

Clijsen, R.

P. Clarys, R. Clijsen, and A. O. Barel, “Influence of probe application pressure on in vitro and in vivo capacitance (Corneometer CM 825 ®) and conductance (Skicon 200 EX ®) measurements,” Ski. Res. Technol. 17, 445 (2011).

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cottenden, A.

Q. Sun, R. I. Stantchev, J. Wang, E. P. J. Parrott, A. Cottenden, T.-W. Chiu, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo estimation of water diffusivity in occluded human skin using terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 2018, e201800145 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Culjat, M. O.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Ennis, D. B.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophotonics 10(9), 1143–1151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon. Res. 4(3), A29–A35 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fishbein, M. C.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fu, W.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujio, M.

Giles, R. H.

C. S. Joseph, R. Patel, V. A. Neel, R. H. Giles, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Imaging of ex vivo nonmelanoma skin cancers in the optical and terahertz spectral regions optical and terahertz skin cancers imaging,” J. Biophotonics 7(5), 295–303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grundfest, W. S.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for Terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Haam, S.

He, Y.

Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, Y. He, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” J. Biophotonics 11(2), e201700111 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hernandez-Cardoso, G. G.

G. G. Hernandez-Cardoso, S. C. Rojas-Landeros, M. Alfaro-Gomez, A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, I. Salas-Gutierrez, E. Lemus-Bedolla, A. R. Castillo-Guzman, H. L. Lopez-Lemus, and E. Castro-Camus, “Terahertz imaging for early screening of diabetic foot syndrome: A proof of concept,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42124 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hernandez-Serrano, A. I.

G. G. Hernandez-Cardoso, S. C. Rojas-Landeros, M. Alfaro-Gomez, A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, I. Salas-Gutierrez, E. Lemus-Bedolla, A. R. Castillo-Guzman, H. L. Lopez-Lemus, and E. Castro-Camus, “Terahertz imaging for early screening of diabetic foot syndrome: A proof of concept,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42124 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hubschman, J. P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Hubschman, J.-P.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, Y. M.

Huh, Y.-M.

Jeong, K.

Ji, Y. B.

John, M. A. S.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, R. D.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joseph, C. S.

C. S. Joseph, R. Patel, V. A. Neel, R. H. Giles, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Imaging of ex vivo nonmelanoma skin cancers in the optical and terahertz spectral regions optical and terahertz skin cancers imaging,” J. Biophotonics 7(5), 295–303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J.

Kang, S.-G.

Katletz, S.

Kealey, C. P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Kim, S.-H.

Kindt, J. T.

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-Infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy †,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(24), 10373–10379 (1996).
[Crossref]

Koch, M.

Larichev, A.

I. Ozheredov, M. Prokopchuk, M. Mischenko, T. Safonova, P. Solyankin, A. Larichev, A. Angeluts, A. Balakin, and A. Shkurinov, “In vivo THz sensing of the cornea of the eye,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Larson, T. A.

Z. Yang, J. Leon, M. Martin, T. A. Larson, J. Bankson, J. Aaron, and J. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology 24, 214001 (2013).

Lee, H.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Lemus-Bedolla, E.

G. G. Hernandez-Cardoso, S. C. Rojas-Landeros, M. Alfaro-Gomez, A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, I. Salas-Gutierrez, E. Lemus-Bedolla, A. R. Castillo-Guzman, H. L. Lopez-Lemus, and E. Castro-Camus, “Terahertz imaging for early screening of diabetic foot syndrome: A proof of concept,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42124 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leon, J.

Z. Yang, J. Leon, M. Martin, T. A. Larson, J. Bankson, J. Aaron, and J. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology 24, 214001 (2013).

Li, W.

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for Terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lippert, S.

Liu, Y.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez-Lemus, H. L.

G. G. Hernandez-Cardoso, S. C. Rojas-Landeros, M. Alfaro-Gomez, A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, I. Salas-Gutierrez, E. Lemus-Bedolla, A. R. Castillo-Guzman, H. L. Lopez-Lemus, and E. Castro-Camus, “Terahertz imaging for early screening of diabetic foot syndrome: A proof of concept,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42124 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maccabi, A.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maeng, I.

Martin, M.

Z. Yang, J. Leon, M. Martin, T. A. Larson, J. Bankson, J. Aaron, and J. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology 24, 214001 (2013).

Minami, M.

Mischenko, M.

I. Ozheredov, M. Prokopchuk, M. Mischenko, T. Safonova, P. Solyankin, A. Larichev, A. Angeluts, A. Balakin, and A. Shkurinov, “In vivo THz sensing of the cornea of the eye,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Miura, J.

Motamedi, M.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 943–950 (1996).
[Crossref]

Myers, M. C.

R. R. Warner, M. C. Myers, and D. A. Taylor, “Electron probe analysis of human skin: determination of the water concentration profile,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 90, 218 (1988).

Neel, V. A.

C. S. Joseph, R. Patel, V. A. Neel, R. H. Giles, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Imaging of ex vivo nonmelanoma skin cancers in the optical and terahertz spectral regions optical and terahertz skin cancers imaging,” J. Biophotonics 7(5), 295–303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noh, S. K.

Nowroozi, B. N.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Neil, M.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 943–950 (1996).
[Crossref]

Oh, S. J.

Ozheredov, I.

I. Ozheredov, M. Prokopchuk, M. Mischenko, T. Safonova, P. Solyankin, A. Larichev, A. Angeluts, A. Balakin, and A. Shkurinov, “In vivo THz sensing of the cornea of the eye,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Park, D. W.

Park, Y.

Parrott, E. P. J.

Q. Sun, R. I. Stantchev, J. Wang, E. P. J. Parrott, A. Cottenden, T.-W. Chiu, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo estimation of water diffusivity in occluded human skin using terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 2018, e201800145 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, Y. He, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” J. Biophotonics 11(2), e201700111 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A Robust Baseline and Reference Modification and Acquisition Algorithm for Accurate THz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7(5), 493–501 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophotonics 10(9), 1143–1151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon. Res. 4(3), A29–A35 (2016).
[Crossref]

Patel, R.

C. S. Joseph, R. Patel, V. A. Neel, R. H. Giles, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Imaging of ex vivo nonmelanoma skin cancers in the optical and terahertz spectral regions optical and terahertz skin cancers imaging,” J. Biophotonics 7(5), 295–303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pepper, M.

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

Q. Sun, R. I. Stantchev, J. Wang, E. P. J. Parrott, A. Cottenden, T.-W. Chiu, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo estimation of water diffusivity in occluded human skin using terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 2018, e201800145 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, Y. He, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” J. Biophotonics 11(2), e201700111 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A Robust Baseline and Reference Modification and Acquisition Algorithm for Accurate THz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7(5), 493–501 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophotonics 10(9), 1143–1151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon. Res. 4(3), A29–A35 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pinder, S. E.

Prokopchuk, M.

I. Ozheredov, M. Prokopchuk, M. Mischenko, T. Safonova, P. Solyankin, A. Larichev, A. Angeluts, A. Balakin, and A. Shkurinov, “In vivo THz sensing of the cornea of the eye,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Protsenko, D.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 943–950 (1996).
[Crossref]

Provenzano, E.

Purushotham, A. D.

Reimann, K.

K. Reimann, “Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1597–1632 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rojas-Landeros, S. C.

G. G. Hernandez-Cardoso, S. C. Rojas-Landeros, M. Alfaro-Gomez, A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, I. Salas-Gutierrez, E. Lemus-Bedolla, A. R. Castillo-Guzman, H. L. Lopez-Lemus, and E. Castro-Camus, “Terahertz imaging for early screening of diabetic foot syndrome: A proof of concept,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42124 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruan, D.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryan, T. J.

T. J. Ryan, M. Thoolen, and Y. H. Yang, “The effect of mechanical forces (vibration or external compression) on the dermal water content of the upper dermis and epidermis, assessed by high frequency ultrasound,” J. Tissue Viability 11(3), 97–101 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Safonova, T.

I. Ozheredov, M. Prokopchuk, M. Mischenko, T. Safonova, P. Solyankin, A. Larichev, A. Angeluts, A. Balakin, and A. Shkurinov, “In vivo THz sensing of the cornea of the eye,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Salas-Gutierrez, I.

G. G. Hernandez-Cardoso, S. C. Rojas-Landeros, M. Alfaro-Gomez, A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, I. Salas-Gutierrez, E. Lemus-Bedolla, A. R. Castillo-Guzman, H. L. Lopez-Lemus, and E. Castro-Camus, “Terahertz imaging for early screening of diabetic foot syndrome: A proof of concept,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42124 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sassoon, D. J.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schirmer, M.

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-Infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy †,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(24), 10373–10379 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schwerdtfeger, M.

Shkurinov, A.

I. Ozheredov, M. Prokopchuk, M. Mischenko, T. Safonova, P. Solyankin, A. Larichev, A. Angeluts, A. Balakin, and A. Shkurinov, “In vivo THz sensing of the cornea of the eye,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Singh, R. S.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Solyankin, P.

I. Ozheredov, M. Prokopchuk, M. Mischenko, T. Safonova, P. Solyankin, A. Larichev, A. Angeluts, A. Balakin, and A. Shkurinov, “In vivo THz sensing of the cornea of the eye,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Son, J.

Z. Yang, J. Leon, M. Martin, T. A. Larson, J. Bankson, J. Aaron, and J. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology 24, 214001 (2013).

Son, J. H.

Son, J.-H.

Sorg, B.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 943–950 (1996).
[Crossref]

Stantchev, R. I.

Q. Sun, R. I. Stantchev, J. Wang, E. P. J. Parrott, A. Cottenden, T.-W. Chiu, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo estimation of water diffusivity in occluded human skin using terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 2018, e201800145 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stojadinovic, A.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Suh, J. S.

Suh, J.-S.

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, R. I. Stantchev, J. Wang, E. P. J. Parrott, A. Cottenden, T.-W. Chiu, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo estimation of water diffusivity in occluded human skin using terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 2018, e201800145 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, Y. He, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” J. Biophotonics 11(2), e201700111 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, S.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sy, S.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, D. A.

R. R. Warner, M. C. Myers, and D. A. Taylor, “Electron probe analysis of human skin: determination of the water concentration profile,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 90, 218 (1988).

Taylor, Z. D.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for Terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

Tewari, P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thoolen, M.

T. J. Ryan, M. Thoolen, and Y. H. Yang, “The effect of mechanical forces (vibration or external compression) on the dermal water content of the upper dermis and epidermis, assessed by high frequency ultrasound,” J. Tissue Viability 11(3), 97–101 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ung, B. S. Y.

X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A Robust Baseline and Reference Modification and Acquisition Algorithm for Accurate THz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7(5), 493–501 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophotonics 10(9), 1143–1151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon. Res. 4(3), A29–A35 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wallace, V. P.

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophotonics 10(9), 1143–1151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Q. Sun, R. I. Stantchev, J. Wang, E. P. J. Parrott, A. Cottenden, T.-W. Chiu, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo estimation of water diffusivity in occluded human skin using terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 2018, e201800145 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. X. J.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warner, R. R.

R. R. Warner, M. C. Myers, and D. A. Taylor, “Electron probe analysis of human skin: determination of the water concentration profile,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 90, 218 (1988).

Welch, J.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 943–950 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wiesauer, K.

Yang, J.

Yang, K.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. H.

T. J. Ryan, M. Thoolen, and Y. H. Yang, “The effect of mechanical forces (vibration or external compression) on the dermal water content of the upper dermis and epidermis, assessed by high frequency ultrasound,” J. Tissue Viability 11(3), 97–101 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.

Z. Yang, J. Leon, M. Martin, T. A. Larson, J. Bankson, J. Aaron, and J. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology 24, 214001 (2013).

Yaroslavsky, A. N.

C. S. Joseph, R. Patel, V. A. Neel, R. H. Giles, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Imaging of ex vivo nonmelanoma skin cancers in the optical and terahertz spectral regions optical and terahertz skin cancers imaging,” J. Biophotonics 7(5), 295–303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasui, T.

Yu, J.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. T.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and J. Welch, “Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 943–950 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

D. B. Bennett, W. Li, Z. D. Taylor, W. S. Grundfest, and E. R. Brown, “Stratified media model for Terahertz reflectometry of the skin,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(5), 1253–1262 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. S. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (2)

X. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A Robust Baseline and Reference Modification and Acquisition Algorithm for Accurate THz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 7(5), 493–501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: In vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201 (2011).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (4)

S. Fan, B. S. Y. Ung, E. P. J. Parrott, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process,” J. Biophotonics 10(9), 1143–1151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Sun, E. P. J. Parrott, Y. He, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects,” J. Biophotonics 11(2), e201700111 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Joseph, R. Patel, V. A. Neel, R. H. Giles, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, “Imaging of ex vivo nonmelanoma skin cancers in the optical and terahertz spectral regions optical and terahertz skin cancers imaging,” J. Biophotonics 7(5), 295–303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Sun, R. I. Stantchev, J. Wang, E. P. J. Parrott, A. Cottenden, T.-W. Chiu, A. T. Ahuja, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “In vivo estimation of water diffusivity in occluded human skin using terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 2018, e201800145 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

R. R. Warner, M. C. Myers, and D. A. Taylor, “Electron probe analysis of human skin: determination of the water concentration profile,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 90, 218 (1988).

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-Infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy †,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(24), 10373–10379 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Tissue Viability (1)

T. J. Ryan, M. Thoolen, and Y. H. Yang, “The effect of mechanical forces (vibration or external compression) on the dermal water content of the upper dermis and epidermis, assessed by high frequency ultrasound,” J. Tissue Viability 11(3), 97–101 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

I. Ozheredov, M. Prokopchuk, M. Mischenko, T. Safonova, P. Solyankin, A. Larichev, A. Angeluts, A. Balakin, and A. Shkurinov, “In vivo THz sensing of the cornea of the eye,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

Z. Yang, J. Leon, M. Martin, T. A. Larson, J. Bankson, J. Aaron, and J. Son, “Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging,” Nanotechnology 24, 214001 (2013).

Opt. Express (2)

Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

K. Reimann, “Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1597–1632 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

G. G. Hernandez-Cardoso, S. C. Rojas-Landeros, M. Alfaro-Gomez, A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, I. Salas-Gutierrez, E. Lemus-Bedolla, A. R. Castillo-Guzman, H. L. Lopez-Lemus, and E. Castro-Camus, “Terahertz imaging for early screening of diabetic foot syndrome: A proof of concept,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42124 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ski. Res. Technol. (1)

P. Clarys, R. Clijsen, and A. O. Barel, “Influence of probe application pressure on in vitro and in vivo capacitance (Corneometer CM 825 ®) and conductance (Skicon 200 EX ®) measurements,” Ski. Res. Technol. 17, 445 (2011).

Trends Biotechnol. (1)

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Z. Peng and S. A. T. Redfern, “Mechanical properties of quartz at the α-β Phase transition: Implications for tectonic and seismic anomalies,” Geochemistry, Geophys. Geosystems (2013).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup and stratified media model illustration. (a) The THz beam is focused onto the top interface of the quartz window, and the reflected signal is collected and then detected by a photoconductive antenna. (b) Schematic illustration of the layers within human skin: each layer has a different permittivity. The hydration profile of skin is approximately linear in the SC and epidermis, and constant in the dermis.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) THz pulse response of skin under different pressures, they are shifted for clear display. Photographs of the experimental set up: (b) top view, just before placing the arm on the quartz window and (c) bottom view during measurement (skin is contacting the quartz window) (d) THz images of skin under different pressures.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Reflectivity of skin under different pressures at 0.6 THz during a 1 min continuous point scan measurement. (b) Reflectivity of different subjects under different pressures at 0.6 THz 30 s after skin initially contacts the quartz window. (c) Reflectivity and (d) refractive index (solid lines) and absorption coefficient (dashed lines) of one subject under different pressures from 0.3 THz to 0.95 THz, 30 s after skin initial contact with the quartz window during a one minute continuous point scan. Note that the pressure values displayed are the target pressures.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Water distribution in skin for different pressures. (b) Refractive index of the biological background and calculated SC depth. The error bars are the standard deviation of three measurements.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M m e a s = F F T ( E s a m p l e ( t ) E b a s e l i n e ( t ) ) F F T ( E a i r ( t ) E b a s e l i n e ( t ) )
{ M c a l = r q s r q a = n ˜ q cos θ q n ˜ s cos θ s n ˜ q cos θ q + n ˜ s cos θ s n ˜ q cos θ q + n ˜ a cos θ a n ˜ q cos θ q n ˜ a cos θ a n ˜ a sin θ a = n ˜ q sin θ q = n ˜ s sin θ s
i=1 J η i ε i ε e f f ε i + 2 ε e f f = 0
R meas = | M m e a s r q a | 2
R c a l = | Z s k i n 1 cos θ quartz μ 0 ε 0 ε q u a r t z Z s k i n + 1 cos θ quartz μ 0 ε 0 ε q u a r t z | 2

Metrics