Abstract

It has been demonstrated that optical coherence micro-elastography (OCME) provides additional contrast of tumor compared to optical coherence tomography (OCT) alone. Previous studies, however, have predominantly been performed on mastectomy specimens. Such specimens typically differ substantially in composition and geometry from the more clinically relevant wide-local excision (WLE) specimens excised during breast-conserving surgery. As a result, it remains unclear if the mechanical contrast observed is maintained in WLE specimens. In this manuscript, we begin to address this issue by performing a feasibility study of OCME on 17 freshly excised, intact WLE specimens. In addition, we present two developments required to sustain the progression of OCME towards intraoperative deployment. First, to enable the rapid visualization of en face images required for intraoperative assessment, we describe an automated segmentation algorithm to fuse en face micro-elastograms with OCT images to provide dual contrast images. Secondly, to validate contrast in micro-elastograms, we present a method that enables co-registration of en face images with histology of WLE specimens, sectioned in the orthogonal plane, without any modification to the standard clinical workflow. We present a summary of the observations across the 17 specimens imaged in addition to representative micro-elastograms and OCT images demonstrating contrast in a number of tumor margins, including those involved by invasive ductal carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, and solid-papillary carcinoma. The results presented here demonstrate the potential of OCME for imaging tumor margins.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (4)

L. C. Cahill, M. G. Giacomelli, T. Yoshitake, H. Vardeh, B. E. Faulkner-Jones, J. L. Connolly, C.-K. Sun, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid virtual hematoxylin and eosin histology of breast tissue specimens using a compact fluorescence nonlinear microscope,” Lab. Invest. 98(1), 150–160 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Giacomelli, T. Yoshitake, L. C. Cahill, H. Vardeh, L. M. Quintana, B. E. Faulkner-Jones, J. Brooker, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Multiscale nonlinear microscopy and widefield white light imaging enables rapid histological imaging of surgical specimen margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(5), 2457–2475 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ha, L. C. Friedlander, H. Hibshoosh, C. Hendon, S. Feldman, S. Ahn, H. Schmidt, M. K. Akens, M. Fitzmaurice, B. C. Wilson, and V. L. Mango, “Optical coherence tomography: A novel imaging method for post-lumpectomy breast margin assessment—A multi-reader study,” Acad. Radiol. 25(3), 279–287 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Allen, K. M. Kennedy, Q. Fang, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, L. Watts, R. Zilkens, S. L. Chin, B. F. Dessauvagie, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field quantitative micro-elastography of human breast tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(3), 1082–1096 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (10)

M. R. Grootendorst, M. Cariati, S. E. Pinder, A. Kothari, M. Douek, T. Kovacs, H. Hamed, A. Pawa, F. Nimmo, J. Owen, V. Ramalingam, S. Sethi, S. Mistry, K. Vyas, D. S. Tuch, A. Britten, M. Van Hemelrijck, G. J. Cook, C. Sibley-Allen, S. Allen, and A. Purushotham, “Intraoperative Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in Breast-Conserving Surgery Using 18F-FDG Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging: A First-in-Human Feasibility Study,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(6), 891–898 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, P. Wijesinghe, and D. D. Sampson, “The emergence of optical elastography in biomedicine,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 215–221 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. Rector, J. Q. Lin, J. H. Young, M. Sans, N. Katta, N. Giese, W. Yu, C. Nagi, J. Suliburk, J. Liu, A. Bensussan, R. J. DeHoog, K. Y. Garza, B. Ludolph, A. G. Sorace, A. Syed, A. Zahedivash, T. E. Milner, and L. S. Eberlin, “Nondestructive tissue analysis for ex vivo and in vivo cancer diagnosis using a handheld mass spectrometry system,” Sci. Transl. Med. 9(406), eaan3968 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Thomas, T. Q. Nguyen, I. J. Pence, B. Caldwell, M. E. O’Connor, J. Giltnane, M. E. Sanders, A. Grau, I. Meszoely, M. Hooks, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Evaluating feasibility of an automated 3-dimensional scanner using Raman spectroscopy for intraoperative breast margin assessment,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13548 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Abeytunge, B. Larson, G. Peterson, M. Morrow, M. Rajadhyaksha, and M. P. Murray, “Evaluation of breast tissue with confocal strip-mosaicking microscopy: a test approach emulating pathology-like examination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 034002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Glaser, N. P. Reder, Y. Chen, E. F. McCarty, C. Yin, L. Wei, Y. Wang, L. D. True, and J. T. C. Liu, “Light-sheet microscopy for slide-free non-destructive pathology of large clinical specimens,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(7), 0084 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gao, B. Han, Y. Du, G. Zhao, Z. Yu, W. Xu, C. Zheng, and Z. Fan, “The clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for breast cancer detection,” J. Spectrosc. 2017, 5383948 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, H. Ashrafian, T. Athanasiou, Z. Takats, D. J. Hadjiminas, A. Darzi, and D. R. Leff, “Diagnostic accuracy of intraoperative techniques for margin assessment in breast cancer surgery: a meta-analysis,” Ann. Surg. 265(2), 300–310 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Simplifying the assessment of human breast cancer by mapping a micro-scale heterogeneity index in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biophotonics 10(5), 690–700 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, L. Frewer, P. Wijesinghe, W. M. Allen, L. Chin, J. Hamzah, D. D. Sampson, A. Curatolo, and B. F. Kennedy, “Depth-encoded optical coherence elastography for simultaneous volumetric imaging of two tissue faces,” Opt. Lett. 42(7), 1233–1236 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

E. F. Brachtel, N. B. Johnson, A. E. Huck, T. L. Rice-Stitt, M. G. Vangel, B. L. Smith, G. J. Tearney, and D. Kang, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy for diagnosing breast cancer in excision and margin specimens,” Lab. Invest. 96(4), 459–467 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Allen, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, R. W. Kirk, B. Latham, D. D. Sampson, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field optical coherence micro-elastography for intraoperative assessment of human breast cancer margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4139–4153 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Whitley, D. M. Cardona, A. L. Lazarides, I. Spasojevic, J. M. Ferrer, J. Cahill, C.-L. Lee, M. Snuderl, D. G. Blazer, E. S. Hwang, R. A. Greenup, P. J. Mosca, J. K. Mito, K. C. Cuneo, N. A. Larrier, E. K. O’Reilly, R. F. Riedel, W. C. Eward, D. B. Strasfeld, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, W. D. Lee, L. G. Griffith, M. G. Bawendi, D. G. Kirsch, and B. E. Brigman, “A mouse-human phase 1 co-clinical trial of a protease-activated fluorescent probe for imaging cancer,” Sci. Transl. Med. 8(320), 320ra4 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence micro-elastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ballal, D. B. Taylor, A. G. Bourke, B. Latham, and C. M. Saunders, “Predictors of re-excision in wire-guided wide local excision for early breast cancer: a Western Australian multi-centre experience,” ANZ J. Surg. 85(7-8), 540–545 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, C. Wu, C.-H. Liu, J. Li, A. Schill, A. Nair, and K. V. Larin, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography at 1.5 million A-Lines per second,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2588–2591 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Kirk, B. F. Kennedy, D. D. Sampson, and R. A. McLaughlin, “Near video-rate optical coherence elastography by acceleration with a graphics processing unit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(16), 3481–3485 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

L. Scolaro, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence tomography in breast cancer,” Photonics Lasers Med. 3(3), 225–240 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Chin, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, B. J. Doyle, P. R. T. Munro, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of image formation in optical coherence elastography using a multiphysics approach,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2913–2930 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 272 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence micro-elastography: mechanical-contrast imaging of tissue microstructure,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2113–2124 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

A. C. Chan, E. Y. Lam, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Comparison of Kasai autocorrelation and maximum likelihood estimators for Doppler optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1033–1042 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Thill, “MarginProbe: intraoperative margin assessment during breast conserving surgery by using radiofrequency spectroscopy,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 10(3), 301–315 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Adams, C. K. Zoon, C. Stevenson, P. Chitnavis, L. Wolfe, and H. D. Bear, “The role of margin status and reexcision in local recurrence following breast conservation surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 20(7), 2250–2255 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. P. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345(7), e4505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Esbona, Z. Li, and L. G. Wilke, “Intraoperative imprint cytology and frozen section pathology for margin assessment in breast conservation surgery: a systematic review,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(10), 3236–3245 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Jorns, D. Visscher, M. Sabel, T. Breslin, P. Healy, S. Daignaut, J. L. Myers, and A. J. Wu, “Intraoperative Frozen Section Analysis of Margins in Breast Conserving Surgery Significantly Decreases Reoperative Rates: One-Year Experience at an Ambulatory Surgical Center,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 138(5), 657–669 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

B. W. Graf, S. G. Adie, and S. A. Boppart, “Correction of coherence gate curvature in high numerical aperture optical coherence imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3120–3122 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H.-C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T.-H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

F. Gasca, L. Ramrath, G. Huettmann, and A. Schweikard, “Automated segmentation of tissue structures in optical coherence tomography data,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034046 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

E. D. Kurniawan, M. H. Wong, I. Windle, A. Rose, A. Mou, M. Buchanan, J. P. Collins, J. A. Miller, R. L. Gruen, and G. B. Mann, “Predictors of surgical margin status in breast-conserving surgery within a breast screening program,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(9), 2542–2549 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Jacobs, “Positive margins: The challenge continues for breast surgeons,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1271–1272 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

R. Laucirica, “Intraoperative Assessment of the Breast: Guidelines and Potential Pitfalls,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 129(12), 1565–1574 (2005).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

I. Gage, S. J. Schnitt, A. J. Nixon, B. Silver, A. Recht, S. L. Troyan, T. Eberlein, S. M. Love, R. Gelman, J. R. Harris, and J. L. Connolly, “Pathologic margin involvement and the risk of recurrence in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 78(9), 1921–1928 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

P. Perona and J. Malik, “Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629–639 (1990).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

N. Otsu, “A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[Crossref]

Abeytunge, S.

S. Abeytunge, B. Larson, G. Peterson, M. Morrow, M. Rajadhyaksha, and M. P. Murray, “Evaluation of breast tissue with confocal strip-mosaicking microscopy: a test approach emulating pathology-like examination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 034002 (2017).
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Adams, B. J.

B. J. Adams, C. K. Zoon, C. Stevenson, P. Chitnavis, L. Wolfe, and H. D. Bear, “The role of margin status and reexcision in local recurrence following breast conservation surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 20(7), 2250–2255 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Graf, S. G. Adie, and S. A. Boppart, “Correction of coherence gate curvature in high numerical aperture optical coherence imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3120–3122 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aguirre, A. D.

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H.-C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T.-H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, S.

R. Ha, L. C. Friedlander, H. Hibshoosh, C. Hendon, S. Feldman, S. Ahn, H. Schmidt, M. K. Akens, M. Fitzmaurice, B. C. Wilson, and V. L. Mango, “Optical coherence tomography: A novel imaging method for post-lumpectomy breast margin assessment—A multi-reader study,” Acad. Radiol. 25(3), 279–287 (2018).
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Akens, M. K.

R. Ha, L. C. Friedlander, H. Hibshoosh, C. Hendon, S. Feldman, S. Ahn, H. Schmidt, M. K. Akens, M. Fitzmaurice, B. C. Wilson, and V. L. Mango, “Optical coherence tomography: A novel imaging method for post-lumpectomy breast margin assessment—A multi-reader study,” Acad. Radiol. 25(3), 279–287 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Khudairi, R.

E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, H. Ashrafian, T. Athanasiou, Z. Takats, D. J. Hadjiminas, A. Darzi, and D. R. Leff, “Diagnostic accuracy of intraoperative techniques for margin assessment in breast cancer surgery: a meta-analysis,” Ann. Surg. 265(2), 300–310 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, S.

M. R. Grootendorst, M. Cariati, S. E. Pinder, A. Kothari, M. Douek, T. Kovacs, H. Hamed, A. Pawa, F. Nimmo, J. Owen, V. Ramalingam, S. Sethi, S. Mistry, K. Vyas, D. S. Tuch, A. Britten, M. Van Hemelrijck, G. J. Cook, C. Sibley-Allen, S. Allen, and A. Purushotham, “Intraoperative Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in Breast-Conserving Surgery Using 18F-FDG Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging: A First-in-Human Feasibility Study,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(6), 891–898 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, W. M.

Arganda-Carreras, I.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashrafian, H.

E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, H. Ashrafian, T. Athanasiou, Z. Takats, D. J. Hadjiminas, A. Darzi, and D. R. Leff, “Diagnostic accuracy of intraoperative techniques for margin assessment in breast cancer surgery: a meta-analysis,” Ann. Surg. 265(2), 300–310 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Athanasiou, T.

E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, H. Ashrafian, T. Athanasiou, Z. Takats, D. J. Hadjiminas, A. Darzi, and D. R. Leff, “Diagnostic accuracy of intraoperative techniques for margin assessment in breast cancer surgery: a meta-analysis,” Ann. Surg. 265(2), 300–310 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ballal, H.

H. Ballal, D. B. Taylor, A. G. Bourke, B. Latham, and C. M. Saunders, “Predictors of re-excision in wire-guided wide local excision for early breast cancer: a Western Australian multi-centre experience,” ANZ J. Surg. 85(7-8), 540–545 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

M. J. Whitley, D. M. Cardona, A. L. Lazarides, I. Spasojevic, J. M. Ferrer, J. Cahill, C.-L. Lee, M. Snuderl, D. G. Blazer, E. S. Hwang, R. A. Greenup, P. J. Mosca, J. K. Mito, K. C. Cuneo, N. A. Larrier, E. K. O’Reilly, R. F. Riedel, W. C. Eward, D. B. Strasfeld, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, W. D. Lee, L. G. Griffith, M. G. Bawendi, D. G. Kirsch, and B. E. Brigman, “A mouse-human phase 1 co-clinical trial of a protease-activated fluorescent probe for imaging cancer,” Sci. Transl. Med. 8(320), 320ra4 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bear, H. D.

B. J. Adams, C. K. Zoon, C. Stevenson, P. Chitnavis, L. Wolfe, and H. D. Bear, “The role of margin status and reexcision in local recurrence following breast conservation surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 20(7), 2250–2255 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellafiore, F. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bensussan, A.

J. Zhang, J. Rector, J. Q. Lin, J. H. Young, M. Sans, N. Katta, N. Giese, W. Yu, C. Nagi, J. Suliburk, J. Liu, A. Bensussan, R. J. DeHoog, K. Y. Garza, B. Ludolph, A. G. Sorace, A. Syed, A. Zahedivash, T. E. Milner, and L. S. Eberlin, “Nondestructive tissue analysis for ex vivo and in vivo cancer diagnosis using a handheld mass spectrometry system,” Sci. Transl. Med. 9(406), eaan3968 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blazer, D. G.

M. J. Whitley, D. M. Cardona, A. L. Lazarides, I. Spasojevic, J. M. Ferrer, J. Cahill, C.-L. Lee, M. Snuderl, D. G. Blazer, E. S. Hwang, R. A. Greenup, P. J. Mosca, J. K. Mito, K. C. Cuneo, N. A. Larrier, E. K. O’Reilly, R. F. Riedel, W. C. Eward, D. B. Strasfeld, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, W. D. Lee, L. G. Griffith, M. G. Bawendi, D. G. Kirsch, and B. E. Brigman, “A mouse-human phase 1 co-clinical trial of a protease-activated fluorescent probe for imaging cancer,” Sci. Transl. Med. 8(320), 320ra4 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Graf, S. G. Adie, and S. A. Boppart, “Correction of coherence gate curvature in high numerical aperture optical coherence imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3120–3122 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bourke, A. G.

H. Ballal, D. B. Taylor, A. G. Bourke, B. Latham, and C. M. Saunders, “Predictors of re-excision in wire-guided wide local excision for early breast cancer: a Western Australian multi-centre experience,” ANZ J. Surg. 85(7-8), 540–545 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brachtel, E. F.

E. F. Brachtel, N. B. Johnson, A. E. Huck, T. L. Rice-Stitt, M. G. Vangel, B. L. Smith, G. J. Tearney, and D. Kang, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy for diagnosing breast cancer in excision and margin specimens,” Lab. Invest. 96(4), 459–467 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breslin, T.

J. M. Jorns, D. Visscher, M. Sabel, T. Breslin, P. Healy, S. Daignaut, J. L. Myers, and A. J. Wu, “Intraoperative Frozen Section Analysis of Margins in Breast Conserving Surgery Significantly Decreases Reoperative Rates: One-Year Experience at an Ambulatory Surgical Center,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 138(5), 657–669 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brigman, B. E.

M. J. Whitley, D. M. Cardona, A. L. Lazarides, I. Spasojevic, J. M. Ferrer, J. Cahill, C.-L. Lee, M. Snuderl, D. G. Blazer, E. S. Hwang, R. A. Greenup, P. J. Mosca, J. K. Mito, K. C. Cuneo, N. A. Larrier, E. K. O’Reilly, R. F. Riedel, W. C. Eward, D. B. Strasfeld, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, W. D. Lee, L. G. Griffith, M. G. Bawendi, D. G. Kirsch, and B. E. Brigman, “A mouse-human phase 1 co-clinical trial of a protease-activated fluorescent probe for imaging cancer,” Sci. Transl. Med. 8(320), 320ra4 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Britten, A.

M. R. Grootendorst, M. Cariati, S. E. Pinder, A. Kothari, M. Douek, T. Kovacs, H. Hamed, A. Pawa, F. Nimmo, J. Owen, V. Ramalingam, S. Sethi, S. Mistry, K. Vyas, D. S. Tuch, A. Britten, M. Van Hemelrijck, G. J. Cook, C. Sibley-Allen, S. Allen, and A. Purushotham, “Intraoperative Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in Breast-Conserving Surgery Using 18F-FDG Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging: A First-in-Human Feasibility Study,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(6), 891–898 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brooker, J.

Buchanan, M.

E. D. Kurniawan, M. H. Wong, I. Windle, A. Rose, A. Mou, M. Buchanan, J. P. Collins, J. A. Miller, R. L. Gruen, and G. B. Mann, “Predictors of surgical margin status in breast-conserving surgery within a breast screening program,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(9), 2542–2549 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caddy, C. M.

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. P. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345(7), e4505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cahill, J.

M. J. Whitley, D. M. Cardona, A. L. Lazarides, I. Spasojevic, J. M. Ferrer, J. Cahill, C.-L. Lee, M. Snuderl, D. G. Blazer, E. S. Hwang, R. A. Greenup, P. J. Mosca, J. K. Mito, K. C. Cuneo, N. A. Larrier, E. K. O’Reilly, R. F. Riedel, W. C. Eward, D. B. Strasfeld, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, W. D. Lee, L. G. Griffith, M. G. Bawendi, D. G. Kirsch, and B. E. Brigman, “A mouse-human phase 1 co-clinical trial of a protease-activated fluorescent probe for imaging cancer,” Sci. Transl. Med. 8(320), 320ra4 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cahill, L. C.

L. C. Cahill, M. G. Giacomelli, T. Yoshitake, H. Vardeh, B. E. Faulkner-Jones, J. L. Connolly, C.-K. Sun, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid virtual hematoxylin and eosin histology of breast tissue specimens using a compact fluorescence nonlinear microscope,” Lab. Invest. 98(1), 150–160 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Giacomelli, T. Yoshitake, L. C. Cahill, H. Vardeh, L. M. Quintana, B. E. Faulkner-Jones, J. Brooker, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Multiscale nonlinear microscopy and widefield white light imaging enables rapid histological imaging of surgical specimen margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(5), 2457–2475 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caldwell, B.

G. Thomas, T. Q. Nguyen, I. J. Pence, B. Caldwell, M. E. O’Connor, J. Giltnane, M. E. Sanders, A. Grau, I. Meszoely, M. Hooks, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Evaluating feasibility of an automated 3-dimensional scanner using Raman spectroscopy for intraoperative breast margin assessment,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13548 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canner, J. K.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardona, A.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardona, D. M.

M. J. Whitley, D. M. Cardona, A. L. Lazarides, I. Spasojevic, J. M. Ferrer, J. Cahill, C.-L. Lee, M. Snuderl, D. G. Blazer, E. S. Hwang, R. A. Greenup, P. J. Mosca, J. K. Mito, K. C. Cuneo, N. A. Larrier, E. K. O’Reilly, R. F. Riedel, W. C. Eward, D. B. Strasfeld, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, W. D. Lee, L. G. Griffith, M. G. Bawendi, D. G. Kirsch, and B. E. Brigman, “A mouse-human phase 1 co-clinical trial of a protease-activated fluorescent probe for imaging cancer,” Sci. Transl. Med. 8(320), 320ra4 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cariati, M.

M. R. Grootendorst, M. Cariati, S. E. Pinder, A. Kothari, M. Douek, T. Kovacs, H. Hamed, A. Pawa, F. Nimmo, J. Owen, V. Ramalingam, S. Sethi, S. Mistry, K. Vyas, D. S. Tuch, A. Britten, M. Van Hemelrijck, G. J. Cook, C. Sibley-Allen, S. Allen, and A. Purushotham, “Intraoperative Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in Breast-Conserving Surgery Using 18F-FDG Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging: A First-in-Human Feasibility Study,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(6), 891–898 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, A. C.

A. C. Chan, E. Y. Lam, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Comparison of Kasai autocorrelation and maximum likelihood estimators for Doppler optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1033–1042 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaney, E. J.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
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Chitnavis, P.

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C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H.-C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T.-H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
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Daignaut, S.

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Douek, M.

M. R. Grootendorst, M. Cariati, S. E. Pinder, A. Kothari, M. Douek, T. Kovacs, H. Hamed, A. Pawa, F. Nimmo, J. Owen, V. Ramalingam, S. Sethi, S. Mistry, K. Vyas, D. S. Tuch, A. Britten, M. Van Hemelrijck, G. J. Cook, C. Sibley-Allen, S. Allen, and A. Purushotham, “Intraoperative Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in Breast-Conserving Surgery Using 18F-FDG Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging: A First-in-Human Feasibility Study,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(6), 891–898 (2017).
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Doyle, B. J.

Du, Y.

P. Gao, B. Han, Y. Du, G. Zhao, Z. Yu, W. Xu, C. Zheng, and Z. Fan, “The clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for breast cancer detection,” J. Spectrosc. 2017, 5383948 (2017).
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I. Gage, S. J. Schnitt, A. J. Nixon, B. Silver, A. Recht, S. L. Troyan, T. Eberlein, S. M. Love, R. Gelman, J. R. Harris, and J. L. Connolly, “Pathologic margin involvement and the risk of recurrence in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 78(9), 1921–1928 (1996).
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J. Zhang, J. Rector, J. Q. Lin, J. H. Young, M. Sans, N. Katta, N. Giese, W. Yu, C. Nagi, J. Suliburk, J. Liu, A. Bensussan, R. J. DeHoog, K. Y. Garza, B. Ludolph, A. G. Sorace, A. Syed, A. Zahedivash, T. E. Milner, and L. S. Eberlin, “Nondestructive tissue analysis for ex vivo and in vivo cancer diagnosis using a handheld mass spectrometry system,” Sci. Transl. Med. 9(406), eaan3968 (2017).
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Fan, Z.

P. Gao, B. Han, Y. Du, G. Zhao, Z. Yu, W. Xu, C. Zheng, and Z. Fan, “The clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for breast cancer detection,” J. Spectrosc. 2017, 5383948 (2017).
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Fang, Q.

Faulkner-Jones, B. E.

M. G. Giacomelli, T. Yoshitake, L. C. Cahill, H. Vardeh, L. M. Quintana, B. E. Faulkner-Jones, J. Brooker, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Multiscale nonlinear microscopy and widefield white light imaging enables rapid histological imaging of surgical specimen margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(5), 2457–2475 (2018).
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L. C. Cahill, M. G. Giacomelli, T. Yoshitake, H. Vardeh, B. E. Faulkner-Jones, J. L. Connolly, C.-K. Sun, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid virtual hematoxylin and eosin histology of breast tissue specimens using a compact fluorescence nonlinear microscope,” Lab. Invest. 98(1), 150–160 (2018).
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M. J. Whitley, D. M. Cardona, A. L. Lazarides, I. Spasojevic, J. M. Ferrer, J. Cahill, C.-L. Lee, M. Snuderl, D. G. Blazer, E. S. Hwang, R. A. Greenup, P. J. Mosca, J. K. Mito, K. C. Cuneo, N. A. Larrier, E. K. O’Reilly, R. F. Riedel, W. C. Eward, D. B. Strasfeld, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, W. D. Lee, L. G. Griffith, M. G. Bawendi, D. G. Kirsch, and B. E. Brigman, “A mouse-human phase 1 co-clinical trial of a protease-activated fluorescent probe for imaging cancer,” Sci. Transl. Med. 8(320), 320ra4 (2016).
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Frewer, L.

Friedlander, L. C.

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Frise, E.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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Fujimoto, J. G.

L. C. Cahill, M. G. Giacomelli, T. Yoshitake, H. Vardeh, B. E. Faulkner-Jones, J. L. Connolly, C.-K. Sun, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid virtual hematoxylin and eosin histology of breast tissue specimens using a compact fluorescence nonlinear microscope,” Lab. Invest. 98(1), 150–160 (2018).
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M. G. Giacomelli, T. Yoshitake, L. C. Cahill, H. Vardeh, L. M. Quintana, B. E. Faulkner-Jones, J. Brooker, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Multiscale nonlinear microscopy and widefield white light imaging enables rapid histological imaging of surgical specimen margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(5), 2457–2475 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, D. W. Cohen, Y. Wang, H.-C. Lee, A. E. Mondelblatt, T.-H. Tsai, A. D. Aguirre, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. L. Connolly, “Integrated optical coherence tomography and microscopy for ex vivo multiscale evaluation of human breast tissues,” Cancer Res. 70(24), 10071–10079 (2010).
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Fukumura, D.

M. J. Whitley, D. M. Cardona, A. L. Lazarides, I. Spasojevic, J. M. Ferrer, J. Cahill, C.-L. Lee, M. Snuderl, D. G. Blazer, E. S. Hwang, R. A. Greenup, P. J. Mosca, J. K. Mito, K. C. Cuneo, N. A. Larrier, E. K. O’Reilly, R. F. Riedel, W. C. Eward, D. B. Strasfeld, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, W. D. Lee, L. G. Griffith, M. G. Bawendi, D. G. Kirsch, and B. E. Brigman, “A mouse-human phase 1 co-clinical trial of a protease-activated fluorescent probe for imaging cancer,” Sci. Transl. Med. 8(320), 320ra4 (2016).
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Gabrielson, E.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
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I. Gage, S. J. Schnitt, A. J. Nixon, B. Silver, A. Recht, S. L. Troyan, T. Eberlein, S. M. Love, R. Gelman, J. R. Harris, and J. L. Connolly, “Pathologic margin involvement and the risk of recurrence in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 78(9), 1921–1928 (1996).
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Gao, P.

P. Gao, B. Han, Y. Du, G. Zhao, Z. Yu, W. Xu, C. Zheng, and Z. Fan, “The clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for breast cancer detection,” J. Spectrosc. 2017, 5383948 (2017).
[Crossref]

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J. Zhang, J. Rector, J. Q. Lin, J. H. Young, M. Sans, N. Katta, N. Giese, W. Yu, C. Nagi, J. Suliburk, J. Liu, A. Bensussan, R. J. DeHoog, K. Y. Garza, B. Ludolph, A. G. Sorace, A. Syed, A. Zahedivash, T. E. Milner, and L. S. Eberlin, “Nondestructive tissue analysis for ex vivo and in vivo cancer diagnosis using a handheld mass spectrometry system,” Sci. Transl. Med. 9(406), eaan3968 (2017).
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Gasca, F.

F. Gasca, L. Ramrath, G. Huettmann, and A. Schweikard, “Automated segmentation of tissue structures in optical coherence tomography data,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034046 (2009).
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Gelman, R.

I. Gage, S. J. Schnitt, A. J. Nixon, B. Silver, A. Recht, S. L. Troyan, T. Eberlein, S. M. Love, R. Gelman, J. R. Harris, and J. L. Connolly, “Pathologic margin involvement and the risk of recurrence in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 78(9), 1921–1928 (1996).
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Giacomelli, M. G.

L. C. Cahill, M. G. Giacomelli, T. Yoshitake, H. Vardeh, B. E. Faulkner-Jones, J. L. Connolly, C.-K. Sun, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid virtual hematoxylin and eosin histology of breast tissue specimens using a compact fluorescence nonlinear microscope,” Lab. Invest. 98(1), 150–160 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Giacomelli, T. Yoshitake, L. C. Cahill, H. Vardeh, L. M. Quintana, B. E. Faulkner-Jones, J. Brooker, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Multiscale nonlinear microscopy and widefield white light imaging enables rapid histological imaging of surgical specimen margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(5), 2457–2475 (2018).
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Giese, N.

J. Zhang, J. Rector, J. Q. Lin, J. H. Young, M. Sans, N. Katta, N. Giese, W. Yu, C. Nagi, J. Suliburk, J. Liu, A. Bensussan, R. J. DeHoog, K. Y. Garza, B. Ludolph, A. G. Sorace, A. Syed, A. Zahedivash, T. E. Milner, and L. S. Eberlin, “Nondestructive tissue analysis for ex vivo and in vivo cancer diagnosis using a handheld mass spectrometry system,” Sci. Transl. Med. 9(406), eaan3968 (2017).
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Giltnane, J.

G. Thomas, T. Q. Nguyen, I. J. Pence, B. Caldwell, M. E. O’Connor, J. Giltnane, M. E. Sanders, A. Grau, I. Meszoely, M. Hooks, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Evaluating feasibility of an automated 3-dimensional scanner using Raman spectroscopy for intraoperative breast margin assessment,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13548 (2017).
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R. Ha, L. C. Friedlander, H. Hibshoosh, C. Hendon, S. Feldman, S. Ahn, H. Schmidt, M. K. Akens, M. Fitzmaurice, B. C. Wilson, and V. L. Mango, “Optical coherence tomography: A novel imaging method for post-lumpectomy breast margin assessment—A multi-reader study,” Acad. Radiol. 25(3), 279–287 (2018).
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G. Thomas, T. Q. Nguyen, I. J. Pence, B. Caldwell, M. E. O’Connor, J. Giltnane, M. E. Sanders, A. Grau, I. Meszoely, M. Hooks, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Evaluating feasibility of an automated 3-dimensional scanner using Raman spectroscopy for intraoperative breast margin assessment,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13548 (2017).
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E. F. Brachtel, N. B. Johnson, A. E. Huck, T. L. Rice-Stitt, M. G. Vangel, B. L. Smith, G. J. Tearney, and D. Kang, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy for diagnosing breast cancer in excision and margin specimens,” Lab. Invest. 96(4), 459–467 (2016).
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M. J. Whitley, D. M. Cardona, A. L. Lazarides, I. Spasojevic, J. M. Ferrer, J. Cahill, C.-L. Lee, M. Snuderl, D. G. Blazer, E. S. Hwang, R. A. Greenup, P. J. Mosca, J. K. Mito, K. C. Cuneo, N. A. Larrier, E. K. O’Reilly, R. F. Riedel, W. C. Eward, D. B. Strasfeld, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, W. D. Lee, L. G. Griffith, M. G. Bawendi, D. G. Kirsch, and B. E. Brigman, “A mouse-human phase 1 co-clinical trial of a protease-activated fluorescent probe for imaging cancer,” Sci. Transl. Med. 8(320), 320ra4 (2016).
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M. J. Whitley, D. M. Cardona, A. L. Lazarides, I. Spasojevic, J. M. Ferrer, J. Cahill, C.-L. Lee, M. Snuderl, D. G. Blazer, E. S. Hwang, R. A. Greenup, P. J. Mosca, J. K. Mito, K. C. Cuneo, N. A. Larrier, E. K. O’Reilly, R. F. Riedel, W. C. Eward, D. B. Strasfeld, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, W. D. Lee, L. G. Griffith, M. G. Bawendi, D. G. Kirsch, and B. E. Brigman, “A mouse-human phase 1 co-clinical trial of a protease-activated fluorescent probe for imaging cancer,” Sci. Transl. Med. 8(320), 320ra4 (2016).
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J. M. Jorns, D. Visscher, M. Sabel, T. Breslin, P. Healy, S. Daignaut, J. L. Myers, and A. J. Wu, “Intraoperative Frozen Section Analysis of Margins in Breast Conserving Surgery Significantly Decreases Reoperative Rates: One-Year Experience at an Ambulatory Surgical Center,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 138(5), 657–669 (2012).
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E. F. Brachtel, N. B. Johnson, A. E. Huck, T. L. Rice-Stitt, M. G. Vangel, B. L. Smith, G. J. Tearney, and D. Kang, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy for diagnosing breast cancer in excision and margin specimens,” Lab. Invest. 96(4), 459–467 (2016).
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J. Zhang, J. Rector, J. Q. Lin, J. H. Young, M. Sans, N. Katta, N. Giese, W. Yu, C. Nagi, J. Suliburk, J. Liu, A. Bensussan, R. J. DeHoog, K. Y. Garza, B. Ludolph, A. G. Sorace, A. Syed, A. Zahedivash, T. E. Milner, and L. S. Eberlin, “Nondestructive tissue analysis for ex vivo and in vivo cancer diagnosis using a handheld mass spectrometry system,” Sci. Transl. Med. 9(406), eaan3968 (2017).
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J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. P. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345(7), e4505 (2012).
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Kelley, M. C.

G. Thomas, T. Q. Nguyen, I. J. Pence, B. Caldwell, M. E. O’Connor, J. Giltnane, M. E. Sanders, A. Grau, I. Meszoely, M. Hooks, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Evaluating feasibility of an automated 3-dimensional scanner using Raman spectroscopy for intraoperative breast margin assessment,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13548 (2017).
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Kennedy, B. F.

W. M. Allen, K. M. Kennedy, Q. Fang, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, L. Watts, R. Zilkens, S. L. Chin, B. F. Dessauvagie, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field quantitative micro-elastography of human breast tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(3), 1082–1096 (2018).
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Q. Fang, L. Frewer, P. Wijesinghe, W. M. Allen, L. Chin, J. Hamzah, D. D. Sampson, A. Curatolo, and B. F. Kennedy, “Depth-encoded optical coherence elastography for simultaneous volumetric imaging of two tissue faces,” Opt. Lett. 42(7), 1233–1236 (2017).
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L. Chin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Simplifying the assessment of human breast cancer by mapping a micro-scale heterogeneity index in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biophotonics 10(5), 690–700 (2017).
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B. F. Kennedy, P. Wijesinghe, and D. D. Sampson, “The emergence of optical elastography in biomedicine,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 215–221 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. M. Allen, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, R. W. Kirk, B. Latham, D. D. Sampson, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field optical coherence micro-elastography for intraoperative assessment of human breast cancer margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4139–4153 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Kirk, B. F. Kennedy, D. D. Sampson, and R. A. McLaughlin, “Near video-rate optical coherence elastography by acceleration with a graphics processing unit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(16), 3481–3485 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence micro-elastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 272 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Scolaro, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence tomography in breast cancer,” Photonics Lasers Med. 3(3), 225–240 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence micro-elastography: mechanical-contrast imaging of tissue microstructure,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2113–2124 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chin, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, B. J. Doyle, P. R. T. Munro, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of image formation in optical coherence elastography using a multiphysics approach,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2913–2930 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kennedy, K. M.

W. M. Allen, K. M. Kennedy, Q. Fang, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, L. Watts, R. Zilkens, S. L. Chin, B. F. Dessauvagie, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field quantitative micro-elastography of human breast tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(3), 1082–1096 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence micro-elastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 272 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence micro-elastography: mechanical-contrast imaging of tissue microstructure,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2113–2124 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirk, R. W.

Kirsch, D. G.

M. J. Whitley, D. M. Cardona, A. L. Lazarides, I. Spasojevic, J. M. Ferrer, J. Cahill, C.-L. Lee, M. Snuderl, D. G. Blazer, E. S. Hwang, R. A. Greenup, P. J. Mosca, J. K. Mito, K. C. Cuneo, N. A. Larrier, E. K. O’Reilly, R. F. Riedel, W. C. Eward, D. B. Strasfeld, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, W. D. Lee, L. G. Griffith, M. G. Bawendi, D. G. Kirsch, and B. E. Brigman, “A mouse-human phase 1 co-clinical trial of a protease-activated fluorescent probe for imaging cancer,” Sci. Transl. Med. 8(320), 320ra4 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koh, S. H.

Kothari, A.

M. R. Grootendorst, M. Cariati, S. E. Pinder, A. Kothari, M. Douek, T. Kovacs, H. Hamed, A. Pawa, F. Nimmo, J. Owen, V. Ramalingam, S. Sethi, S. Mistry, K. Vyas, D. S. Tuch, A. Britten, M. Van Hemelrijck, G. J. Cook, C. Sibley-Allen, S. Allen, and A. Purushotham, “Intraoperative Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in Breast-Conserving Surgery Using 18F-FDG Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging: A First-in-Human Feasibility Study,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(6), 891–898 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kotynek, J. G.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kovacs, T.

M. R. Grootendorst, M. Cariati, S. E. Pinder, A. Kothari, M. Douek, T. Kovacs, H. Hamed, A. Pawa, F. Nimmo, J. Owen, V. Ramalingam, S. Sethi, S. Mistry, K. Vyas, D. S. Tuch, A. Britten, M. Van Hemelrijck, G. J. Cook, C. Sibley-Allen, S. Allen, and A. Purushotham, “Intraoperative Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in Breast-Conserving Surgery Using 18F-FDG Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging: A First-in-Human Feasibility Study,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(6), 891–898 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurniawan, E. D.

E. D. Kurniawan, M. H. Wong, I. Windle, A. Rose, A. Mou, M. Buchanan, J. P. Collins, J. A. Miller, R. L. Gruen, and G. B. Mann, “Predictors of surgical margin status in breast-conserving surgery within a breast screening program,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(9), 2542–2549 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, E. Y.

A. C. Chan, E. Y. Lam, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Comparison of Kasai autocorrelation and maximum likelihood estimators for Doppler optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1033–1042 (2013).
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Larin, K. V.

Larrier, N. A.

M. J. Whitley, D. M. Cardona, A. L. Lazarides, I. Spasojevic, J. M. Ferrer, J. Cahill, C.-L. Lee, M. Snuderl, D. G. Blazer, E. S. Hwang, R. A. Greenup, P. J. Mosca, J. K. Mito, K. C. Cuneo, N. A. Larrier, E. K. O’Reilly, R. F. Riedel, W. C. Eward, D. B. Strasfeld, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, W. D. Lee, L. G. Griffith, M. G. Bawendi, D. G. Kirsch, and B. E. Brigman, “A mouse-human phase 1 co-clinical trial of a protease-activated fluorescent probe for imaging cancer,” Sci. Transl. Med. 8(320), 320ra4 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larson, B.

S. Abeytunge, B. Larson, G. Peterson, M. Morrow, M. Rajadhyaksha, and M. P. Murray, “Evaluation of breast tissue with confocal strip-mosaicking microscopy: a test approach emulating pathology-like examination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 034002 (2017).
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Latham, B.

W. M. Allen, K. M. Kennedy, Q. Fang, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, L. Watts, R. Zilkens, S. L. Chin, B. F. Dessauvagie, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field quantitative micro-elastography of human breast tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(3), 1082–1096 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Simplifying the assessment of human breast cancer by mapping a micro-scale heterogeneity index in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biophotonics 10(5), 690–700 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Allen, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, R. W. Kirk, B. Latham, D. D. Sampson, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field optical coherence micro-elastography for intraoperative assessment of human breast cancer margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4139–4153 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence micro-elastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. P. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345(7), e4505 (2012).
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P. Perona and J. Malik, “Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629–639 (1990).
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S. Abeytunge, B. Larson, G. Peterson, M. Morrow, M. Rajadhyaksha, and M. P. Murray, “Evaluation of breast tissue with confocal strip-mosaicking microscopy: a test approach emulating pathology-like examination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 034002 (2017).
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Pietzsch, T.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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Pinder, S. E.

M. R. Grootendorst, M. Cariati, S. E. Pinder, A. Kothari, M. Douek, T. Kovacs, H. Hamed, A. Pawa, F. Nimmo, J. Owen, V. Ramalingam, S. Sethi, S. Mistry, K. Vyas, D. S. Tuch, A. Britten, M. Van Hemelrijck, G. J. Cook, C. Sibley-Allen, S. Allen, and A. Purushotham, “Intraoperative Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in Breast-Conserving Surgery Using 18F-FDG Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging: A First-in-Human Feasibility Study,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(6), 891–898 (2017).
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Preibisch, S.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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Purushotham, A.

M. R. Grootendorst, M. Cariati, S. E. Pinder, A. Kothari, M. Douek, T. Kovacs, H. Hamed, A. Pawa, F. Nimmo, J. Owen, V. Ramalingam, S. Sethi, S. Mistry, K. Vyas, D. S. Tuch, A. Britten, M. Van Hemelrijck, G. J. Cook, C. Sibley-Allen, S. Allen, and A. Purushotham, “Intraoperative Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in Breast-Conserving Surgery Using 18F-FDG Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging: A First-in-Human Feasibility Study,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(6), 891–898 (2017).
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S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
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Quintana, L. M.

Rajadhyaksha, M.

S. Abeytunge, B. Larson, G. Peterson, M. Morrow, M. Rajadhyaksha, and M. P. Murray, “Evaluation of breast tissue with confocal strip-mosaicking microscopy: a test approach emulating pathology-like examination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 034002 (2017).
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Ramalingam, V.

M. R. Grootendorst, M. Cariati, S. E. Pinder, A. Kothari, M. Douek, T. Kovacs, H. Hamed, A. Pawa, F. Nimmo, J. Owen, V. Ramalingam, S. Sethi, S. Mistry, K. Vyas, D. S. Tuch, A. Britten, M. Van Hemelrijck, G. J. Cook, C. Sibley-Allen, S. Allen, and A. Purushotham, “Intraoperative Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in Breast-Conserving Surgery Using 18F-FDG Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging: A First-in-Human Feasibility Study,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(6), 891–898 (2017).
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Ramrath, L.

F. Gasca, L. Ramrath, G. Huettmann, and A. Schweikard, “Automated segmentation of tissue structures in optical coherence tomography data,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034046 (2009).
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Ray, P. S.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
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Recht, A.

I. Gage, S. J. Schnitt, A. J. Nixon, B. Silver, A. Recht, S. L. Troyan, T. Eberlein, S. M. Love, R. Gelman, J. R. Harris, and J. L. Connolly, “Pathologic margin involvement and the risk of recurrence in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 78(9), 1921–1928 (1996).
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J. Zhang, J. Rector, J. Q. Lin, J. H. Young, M. Sans, N. Katta, N. Giese, W. Yu, C. Nagi, J. Suliburk, J. Liu, A. Bensussan, R. J. DeHoog, K. Y. Garza, B. Ludolph, A. G. Sorace, A. Syed, A. Zahedivash, T. E. Milner, and L. S. Eberlin, “Nondestructive tissue analysis for ex vivo and in vivo cancer diagnosis using a handheld mass spectrometry system,” Sci. Transl. Med. 9(406), eaan3968 (2017).
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E. F. Brachtel, N. B. Johnson, A. E. Huck, T. L. Rice-Stitt, M. G. Vangel, B. L. Smith, G. J. Tearney, and D. Kang, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy for diagnosing breast cancer in excision and margin specimens,” Lab. Invest. 96(4), 459–467 (2016).
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Riedel, R. F.

M. J. Whitley, D. M. Cardona, A. L. Lazarides, I. Spasojevic, J. M. Ferrer, J. Cahill, C.-L. Lee, M. Snuderl, D. G. Blazer, E. S. Hwang, R. A. Greenup, P. J. Mosca, J. K. Mito, K. C. Cuneo, N. A. Larrier, E. K. O’Reilly, R. F. Riedel, W. C. Eward, D. B. Strasfeld, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, W. D. Lee, L. G. Griffith, M. G. Bawendi, D. G. Kirsch, and B. E. Brigman, “A mouse-human phase 1 co-clinical trial of a protease-activated fluorescent probe for imaging cancer,” Sci. Transl. Med. 8(320), 320ra4 (2016).
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Ronald, M.

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence micro-elastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
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Rose, A.

E. D. Kurniawan, M. H. Wong, I. Windle, A. Rose, A. Mou, M. Buchanan, J. P. Collins, J. A. Miller, R. L. Gruen, and G. B. Mann, “Predictors of surgical margin status in breast-conserving surgery within a breast screening program,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(9), 2542–2549 (2008).
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F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
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J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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Saalfeld, S.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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Sabel, M.

J. M. Jorns, D. Visscher, M. Sabel, T. Breslin, P. Healy, S. Daignaut, J. L. Myers, and A. J. Wu, “Intraoperative Frozen Section Analysis of Margins in Breast Conserving Surgery Significantly Decreases Reoperative Rates: One-Year Experience at an Ambulatory Surgical Center,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 138(5), 657–669 (2012).
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Sampson, D. D.

B. F. Kennedy, P. Wijesinghe, and D. D. Sampson, “The emergence of optical elastography in biomedicine,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 215–221 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Chin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Simplifying the assessment of human breast cancer by mapping a micro-scale heterogeneity index in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biophotonics 10(5), 690–700 (2017).
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Q. Fang, L. Frewer, P. Wijesinghe, W. M. Allen, L. Chin, J. Hamzah, D. D. Sampson, A. Curatolo, and B. F. Kennedy, “Depth-encoded optical coherence elastography for simultaneous volumetric imaging of two tissue faces,” Opt. Lett. 42(7), 1233–1236 (2017).
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W. M. Allen, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, R. W. Kirk, B. Latham, D. D. Sampson, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field optical coherence micro-elastography for intraoperative assessment of human breast cancer margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4139–4153 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Kirk, B. F. Kennedy, D. D. Sampson, and R. A. McLaughlin, “Near video-rate optical coherence elastography by acceleration with a graphics processing unit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(16), 3481–3485 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence micro-elastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 272 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Scolaro, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence tomography in breast cancer,” Photonics Lasers Med. 3(3), 225–240 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence micro-elastography: mechanical-contrast imaging of tissue microstructure,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2113–2124 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chin, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, B. J. Doyle, P. R. T. Munro, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of image formation in optical coherence elastography using a multiphysics approach,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2913–2930 (2014).
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B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
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Sanders, M. E.

G. Thomas, T. Q. Nguyen, I. J. Pence, B. Caldwell, M. E. O’Connor, J. Giltnane, M. E. Sanders, A. Grau, I. Meszoely, M. Hooks, M. C. Kelley, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Evaluating feasibility of an automated 3-dimensional scanner using Raman spectroscopy for intraoperative breast margin assessment,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13548 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sans, M.

J. Zhang, J. Rector, J. Q. Lin, J. H. Young, M. Sans, N. Katta, N. Giese, W. Yu, C. Nagi, J. Suliburk, J. Liu, A. Bensussan, R. J. DeHoog, K. Y. Garza, B. Ludolph, A. G. Sorace, A. Syed, A. Zahedivash, T. E. Milner, and L. S. Eberlin, “Nondestructive tissue analysis for ex vivo and in vivo cancer diagnosis using a handheld mass spectrometry system,” Sci. Transl. Med. 9(406), eaan3968 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saunders, C. M.

W. M. Allen, K. M. Kennedy, Q. Fang, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, L. Watts, R. Zilkens, S. L. Chin, B. F. Dessauvagie, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field quantitative micro-elastography of human breast tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(3), 1082–1096 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Simplifying the assessment of human breast cancer by mapping a micro-scale heterogeneity index in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biophotonics 10(5), 690–700 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Allen, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, R. W. Kirk, B. Latham, D. D. Sampson, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field optical coherence micro-elastography for intraoperative assessment of human breast cancer margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4139–4153 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence micro-elastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ballal, D. B. Taylor, A. G. Bourke, B. Latham, and C. M. Saunders, “Predictors of re-excision in wire-guided wide local excision for early breast cancer: a Western Australian multi-centre experience,” ANZ J. Surg. 85(7-8), 540–545 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Scolaro, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence tomography in breast cancer,” Photonics Lasers Med. 3(3), 225–240 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence micro-elastography: mechanical-contrast imaging of tissue microstructure,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2113–2124 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawyer, K.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schill, A.

Schindelin, J.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmid, B.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, H.

R. Ha, L. C. Friedlander, H. Hibshoosh, C. Hendon, S. Feldman, S. Ahn, H. Schmidt, M. K. Akens, M. Fitzmaurice, B. C. Wilson, and V. L. Mango, “Optical coherence tomography: A novel imaging method for post-lumpectomy breast margin assessment—A multi-reader study,” Acad. Radiol. 25(3), 279–287 (2018).
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Schneider, E. B.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schnitt, S. J.

I. Gage, S. J. Schnitt, A. J. Nixon, B. Silver, A. Recht, S. L. Troyan, T. Eberlein, S. M. Love, R. Gelman, J. R. Harris, and J. L. Connolly, “Pathologic margin involvement and the risk of recurrence in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 78(9), 1921–1928 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweikard, A.

F. Gasca, L. Ramrath, G. Huettmann, and A. Schweikard, “Automated segmentation of tissue structures in optical coherence tomography data,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034046 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scolaro, L.

L. Scolaro, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence tomography in breast cancer,” Photonics Lasers Med. 3(3), 225–240 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scott Carney, P.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sethi, S.

M. R. Grootendorst, M. Cariati, S. E. Pinder, A. Kothari, M. Douek, T. Kovacs, H. Hamed, A. Pawa, F. Nimmo, J. Owen, V. Ramalingam, S. Sethi, S. Mistry, K. Vyas, D. S. Tuch, A. Britten, M. Van Hemelrijck, G. J. Cook, C. Sibley-Allen, S. Allen, and A. Purushotham, “Intraoperative Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in Breast-Conserving Surgery Using 18F-FDG Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging: A First-in-Human Feasibility Study,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(6), 891–898 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shemonski, N. D.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C.

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. P. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345(7), e4505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sibley-Allen, C.

M. R. Grootendorst, M. Cariati, S. E. Pinder, A. Kothari, M. Douek, T. Kovacs, H. Hamed, A. Pawa, F. Nimmo, J. Owen, V. Ramalingam, S. Sethi, S. Mistry, K. Vyas, D. S. Tuch, A. Britten, M. Van Hemelrijck, G. J. Cook, C. Sibley-Allen, S. Allen, and A. Purushotham, “Intraoperative Assessment of Tumor Resection Margins in Breast-Conserving Surgery Using 18F-FDG Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging: A First-in-Human Feasibility Study,” J. Nucl. Med. 58(6), 891–898 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silver, B.

I. Gage, S. J. Schnitt, A. J. Nixon, B. Silver, A. Recht, S. L. Troyan, T. Eberlein, S. M. Love, R. Gelman, J. R. Harris, and J. L. Connolly, “Pathologic margin involvement and the risk of recurrence in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 78(9), 1921–1928 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, M.

Smith, B. L.

E. F. Brachtel, N. B. Johnson, A. E. Huck, T. L. Rice-Stitt, M. G. Vangel, B. L. Smith, G. J. Tearney, and D. Kang, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy for diagnosing breast cancer in excision and margin specimens,” Lab. Invest. 96(4), 459–467 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snuderl, M.

M. J. Whitley, D. M. Cardona, A. L. Lazarides, I. Spasojevic, J. M. Ferrer, J. Cahill, C.-L. Lee, M. Snuderl, D. G. Blazer, E. S. Hwang, R. A. Greenup, P. J. Mosca, J. K. Mito, K. C. Cuneo, N. A. Larrier, E. K. O’Reilly, R. F. Riedel, W. C. Eward, D. B. Strasfeld, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, W. D. Lee, L. G. Griffith, M. G. Bawendi, D. G. Kirsch, and B. E. Brigman, “A mouse-human phase 1 co-clinical trial of a protease-activated fluorescent probe for imaging cancer,” Sci. Transl. Med. 8(320), 320ra4 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorace, A. G.

J. Zhang, J. Rector, J. Q. Lin, J. H. Young, M. Sans, N. Katta, N. Giese, W. Yu, C. Nagi, J. Suliburk, J. Liu, A. Bensussan, R. J. DeHoog, K. Y. Garza, B. Ludolph, A. G. Sorace, A. Syed, A. Zahedivash, T. E. Milner, and L. S. Eberlin, “Nondestructive tissue analysis for ex vivo and in vivo cancer diagnosis using a handheld mass spectrometry system,” Sci. Transl. Med. 9(406), eaan3968 (2017).
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Zoon, C. K.

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Supplementary Material (5)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       High-resolution digital micrographs
» Visualization 2       OCME of the lateral margin of freshly excised WLE specimen demonstrating contrast in uninvolved stroma
» Visualization 3       OCME of the deep margin of a freshly excised WLE specimen demonstrating contrast in highly cellular invasive ductal carcinoma
» Visualization 4       OCME of the superficial margin of a freshly excised WLE specimen demonstrating contrast in mucinous carcinoma
» Visualization 5       OCME of the superior margin of a freshly excised WLE specimen demonstrating contrast in solid-papillary carcinoma

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Flowchart for the segmentation algorithm. (a) En face local axial strain image. (b) Input en face OCT image. (c) Filtering stage. (d) Binarization stage. (e) Area thresholding stage. (f) Clean-up stage. (g) Segmentation mask. (h) Fused micro-elastogram.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Histology co-registration and validation process. (a) Schematic outlining the process to estimate the location of tissue slices on the en face OCT image. (b) Validation of co-registration using low-resolution OCT volume to match digital micrographs. *, †, ‡, and § indicate co-registered features; *, change in surface topology; †, apocrine cyst; ‡, adipose tissue; § dense tissue.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 OCME of the lateral margin of freshly excised WLE specimen demonstrating contrast in uninvolved stroma (see Visualization 2). (a) Photograph of the lateral margin. (b) Digital micrograph and co-registered B-scans. (c) Wide-field and (d) magnified en face micro-elastogram. (e) Wide-field and (f) magnified en face OCT image. The arrow in (f) indicates an area of heterogeneous OCT intensity. En face images are presented at a depth of 240 µm. The white dashed lines in (c)-(f) indicate the location of the digital micrograph. All scale bars 3 mm. A, Adipose tissue; C, Clips; NC, Non-contact; S, Uninvolved stroma.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 OCME of the deep margin of a freshly excised WLE specimen demonstrating contrast in highly cellular invasive ductal carcinoma (see Visualization 3). (a) Photograph of the deep margin. (b) Digital micrograph and co-registered B-scans. (c) Wide-field and (d) magnified en face micro-elastogram. (e) Wide-field and (f) magnified en face OCT image. En face images are presented at a depth of 240 µm. The white dashed lines in (c)-(f) indicate the location of the digital micrograph. All scale bars 3 mm. A, Adipose tissue; C, Clip; CG, Coherence gate curvature artifact; IDC, Invasive ductal carcinoma; S, Stroma
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 OCME of the superficial margin of a freshly excised WLE specimen demonstrating contrast in mucinous carcinoma (see Visualization 4). (a) Photograph of the superficial margin. (b) Digital micrograph and co-registered B-scans. (c) Wide-field and (d) magnified en face micro-elastogram. (e) Wide-field and (f) magnified en face OCT image. En face images are presented at a depth of 430 µm. The white dashed lines in (c)-(f) indicate the location of the digital micrograph. All scale bars 3 mm. A, Adipose tissue; MC, Mucinous carcinoma; S, Stroma.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 OCME of the superior margin of a freshly excised WLE specimen demonstrating contrast in solid-papillary carcinoma (see Visualization 5). (a) Photograph of the superior margin. (b) Digital micrograph and co-registered B-scans. (c) Wide-field and (d) magnified en face micro-elastogram. (e) Wide-field and (f) magnified en face OCT image. En face images are presented at a depth of 240 µm. The white dashed lines in (c)-(f) indicate the location of the digital micrograph. All scale bars 3 mm. A, Adipose tissue; PC, Solid-papillary carcinoma.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of observations of common tissue types present in the margins imaged during the study.