Abstract

Early detection of dental caries is critical for avoiding more invasive and advanced treatment at a later stage. However, currently available techniques are unsatisfactory for early detection. Raman spectroscopy is known to have both high sensitivity and specificity in the analysis of mineral content in a tooth; but translating Raman spectroscopy to clinical caries detection remains a challenge. In this study, we report a full-scale Raman imaging system that can provide fast full-scale (~7 mm in diameter) tooth mineral analysis which could be feasible for clinical application. The results show that the Raman imaging system could not only confirm carious lesions that are obvious to the naked eye but also identify those which are not conclusive to traditional visual examination and probing.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2018 (4)

A. E. Paek, Y. Li, Z. Wang, P. So, M. N. Janal, N. G. Herman, A. Hopkins, and C. Chinn, “Caries outcome following an intensive fluoride varnish treatment regimen for children at high risk for early childhood caries,” Int. J. Paediatr. Dent. 28(3), 291–299 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Beerens, J. M. Ten Cate, M. J. Buijs, and M. H. van der Veen, “Long-term remineralizing effect of MI Paste Plus on regression of early caries after orthodontic fixed appliance treatment: a 12-month follow-up randomized controlled trial,” Eur. J. Orthod. 40(5), 457–464 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Markowitz and K. Carey, “Assessing the Appearance and Fluorescence of Resin-Infiltrated White Spot Lesions With Caries Detection Devices,” Oper. Dent. 43(1), E10–E18 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-S. Lee, S.-K. Kim, S.-W. Park, E. de Jong, H.-K. Kwon, S. H. Jeong, and B. I. Kim, “Caries detection and quantification around stained pits and fissures in occlusal tooth surfaces with fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(9), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

E. F. Sant’Anna, M. T. S. Araújo, L. I. Nojima, A. C. D. Cunha, B. L. D. Silveira, and M. Marquezan, “High-intensity laser application in Orthodontics,” Dental Press J. Orthod. 22(6), 99–109 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

R. Ramakrishnaiah, G. Rehman, S. Basavarajappa, A. A. Al Khuraif, B. H. Durgesh, A. S. Khan, and I. Rehman, “Applications of Raman Spectroscopy in Dentistry: Analysis of Tooth Structure,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50(4), 332–350 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Dikmen, “Icdas II criteria (international caries detection and assessment system),” J. Istanb. Univ. Fac. Dent. 49(3), 63–72 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

S. Yang, B. Li, A. Akkus, O. Akkus, and L. Lang, “Wide-field Raman imaging of dental lesions,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(12), 3107–3114 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Sobouti, V. Rakhshan, N. Chiniforush, and M. Khatami, “Effects of laser-assisted cosmetic smile lift gingivectomy on postoperative bleeding and pain in fixed orthodontic patients: a controlled clinical trial,” Prog. Orthod. 15(1), 66 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

R. Saini, “Ozone therapy in dentistry: A strategic review,” J. Nat. Sci. Biol. Med. 2(2), 151–153 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

M. D. Genovese and G. Olivi, “Use of laser technology in orthodontics: hard and soft tissue laser treatments,” Eur. J. Paediatr. Dent. 11(1), 44–48 (2010).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

I. A. Pretty, “Caries detection and diagnosis: Novel technologies,” J. Dent. 34(10), 727–739 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Weintraub, F. Ramos-Gomez, B. Jue, S. Shain, C. I. Hoover, J. D. B. Featherstone, and S. A. Gansky, “Fluoride Varnish Efficacy in Preventing Early Childhood Caries,” J. Dent. Res. 85(2), 172–176 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

A. Lussi, R. Hibst, and R. Paulus, “DIAGNOdent: An Optical Method for Caries Detection,” J. Dent. Res. 83(1), C80–C83 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. I. Ismail, “Visual and Visuo-tactile Detection of Dental Caries,” J. Dent. Res. 83(1), C56–C66 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Bader and D. A. Shugars, “A systematic review of the performance of a laser fluorescence device for detecting caries,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 135(10), 1413–1426 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

P. Magne, G. O. Gallucci, and U. C. Belser, “Anatomic crown width/length ratios of unworn and worn maxillary teeth in white subjects,” J. Prosthet. Dent. 89(5), 453–461 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. T. Amaechi and S. M. Higham, “Quantitative light-induced fluorescence: A potential tool for general dental assessment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(1), 7–13 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1987 (1)

B. Angmar-Månsson and J. J. ten Bosch, “Optical Methods for the Detection and Quantification of Caries,” Adv. Dent. Res. 1(1), 14–20 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akkus, A.

S. Yang, B. Li, A. Akkus, O. Akkus, and L. Lang, “Wide-field Raman imaging of dental lesions,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(12), 3107–3114 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akkus, O.

S. Yang, B. Li, A. Akkus, O. Akkus, and L. Lang, “Wide-field Raman imaging of dental lesions,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(12), 3107–3114 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al Khuraif, A. A.

R. Ramakrishnaiah, G. Rehman, S. Basavarajappa, A. A. Al Khuraif, B. H. Durgesh, A. S. Khan, and I. Rehman, “Applications of Raman Spectroscopy in Dentistry: Analysis of Tooth Structure,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50(4), 332–350 (2015).
[Crossref]

Amaechi, B. T.

B. T. Amaechi and S. M. Higham, “Quantitative light-induced fluorescence: A potential tool for general dental assessment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(1), 7–13 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angmar-Månsson, B.

B. Angmar-Månsson and J. J. ten Bosch, “Optical Methods for the Detection and Quantification of Caries,” Adv. Dent. Res. 1(1), 14–20 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Araújo, M. T. S.

E. F. Sant’Anna, M. T. S. Araújo, L. I. Nojima, A. C. D. Cunha, B. L. D. Silveira, and M. Marquezan, “High-intensity laser application in Orthodontics,” Dental Press J. Orthod. 22(6), 99–109 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bader, J. D.

J. D. Bader and D. A. Shugars, “A systematic review of the performance of a laser fluorescence device for detecting caries,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 135(10), 1413–1426 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basavarajappa, S.

R. Ramakrishnaiah, G. Rehman, S. Basavarajappa, A. A. Al Khuraif, B. H. Durgesh, A. S. Khan, and I. Rehman, “Applications of Raman Spectroscopy in Dentistry: Analysis of Tooth Structure,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50(4), 332–350 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beerens, M. W.

M. W. Beerens, J. M. Ten Cate, M. J. Buijs, and M. H. van der Veen, “Long-term remineralizing effect of MI Paste Plus on regression of early caries after orthodontic fixed appliance treatment: a 12-month follow-up randomized controlled trial,” Eur. J. Orthod. 40(5), 457–464 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belser, U. C.

P. Magne, G. O. Gallucci, and U. C. Belser, “Anatomic crown width/length ratios of unworn and worn maxillary teeth in white subjects,” J. Prosthet. Dent. 89(5), 453–461 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buijs, M. J.

M. W. Beerens, J. M. Ten Cate, M. J. Buijs, and M. H. van der Veen, “Long-term remineralizing effect of MI Paste Plus on regression of early caries after orthodontic fixed appliance treatment: a 12-month follow-up randomized controlled trial,” Eur. J. Orthod. 40(5), 457–464 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carey, K.

K. Markowitz and K. Carey, “Assessing the Appearance and Fluorescence of Resin-Infiltrated White Spot Lesions With Caries Detection Devices,” Oper. Dent. 43(1), E10–E18 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiniforush, N.

F. Sobouti, V. Rakhshan, N. Chiniforush, and M. Khatami, “Effects of laser-assisted cosmetic smile lift gingivectomy on postoperative bleeding and pain in fixed orthodontic patients: a controlled clinical trial,” Prog. Orthod. 15(1), 66 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chinn, C.

A. E. Paek, Y. Li, Z. Wang, P. So, M. N. Janal, N. G. Herman, A. Hopkins, and C. Chinn, “Caries outcome following an intensive fluoride varnish treatment regimen for children at high risk for early childhood caries,” Int. J. Paediatr. Dent. 28(3), 291–299 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choo-Smith, L.-P.

Cleghorn, B.

Cunha, A. C. D.

E. F. Sant’Anna, M. T. S. Araújo, L. I. Nojima, A. C. D. Cunha, B. L. D. Silveira, and M. Marquezan, “High-intensity laser application in Orthodontics,” Dental Press J. Orthod. 22(6), 99–109 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Jong, E.

H.-S. Lee, S.-K. Kim, S.-W. Park, E. de Jong, H.-K. Kwon, S. H. Jeong, and B. I. Kim, “Caries detection and quantification around stained pits and fissures in occlusal tooth surfaces with fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(9), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dikmen, B.

B. Dikmen, “Icdas II criteria (international caries detection and assessment system),” J. Istanb. Univ. Fac. Dent. 49(3), 63–72 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, C. C.

Durgesh, B. H.

R. Ramakrishnaiah, G. Rehman, S. Basavarajappa, A. A. Al Khuraif, B. H. Durgesh, A. S. Khan, and I. Rehman, “Applications of Raman Spectroscopy in Dentistry: Analysis of Tooth Structure,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50(4), 332–350 (2015).
[Crossref]

Featherstone, J. D. B.

J. A. Weintraub, F. Ramos-Gomez, B. Jue, S. Shain, C. I. Hoover, J. D. B. Featherstone, and S. A. Gansky, “Fluoride Varnish Efficacy in Preventing Early Childhood Caries,” J. Dent. Res. 85(2), 172–176 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fried, R. E. Glena, J. D. B. Featherstone, and W. Seka, “Nature of light scattering in dental enamel and dentin at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 34(7), 1278–1285 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fried, D.

Gallucci, G. O.

P. Magne, G. O. Gallucci, and U. C. Belser, “Anatomic crown width/length ratios of unworn and worn maxillary teeth in white subjects,” J. Prosthet. Dent. 89(5), 453–461 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gansky, S. A.

J. A. Weintraub, F. Ramos-Gomez, B. Jue, S. Shain, C. I. Hoover, J. D. B. Featherstone, and S. A. Gansky, “Fluoride Varnish Efficacy in Preventing Early Childhood Caries,” J. Dent. Res. 85(2), 172–176 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genovese, M. D.

M. D. Genovese and G. Olivi, “Use of laser technology in orthodontics: hard and soft tissue laser treatments,” Eur. J. Paediatr. Dent. 11(1), 44–48 (2010).
[PubMed]

Glena, R. E.

Herman, N. G.

A. E. Paek, Y. Li, Z. Wang, P. So, M. N. Janal, N. G. Herman, A. Hopkins, and C. Chinn, “Caries outcome following an intensive fluoride varnish treatment regimen for children at high risk for early childhood caries,” Int. J. Paediatr. Dent. 28(3), 291–299 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hewko, M.

Hibst, R.

A. Lussi, R. Hibst, and R. Paulus, “DIAGNOdent: An Optical Method for Caries Detection,” J. Dent. Res. 83(1), C80–C83 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Higham, S. M.

B. T. Amaechi and S. M. Higham, “Quantitative light-induced fluorescence: A potential tool for general dental assessment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(1), 7–13 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoover, C. I.

J. A. Weintraub, F. Ramos-Gomez, B. Jue, S. Shain, C. I. Hoover, J. D. B. Featherstone, and S. A. Gansky, “Fluoride Varnish Efficacy in Preventing Early Childhood Caries,” J. Dent. Res. 85(2), 172–176 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hopkins, A.

A. E. Paek, Y. Li, Z. Wang, P. So, M. N. Janal, N. G. Herman, A. Hopkins, and C. Chinn, “Caries outcome following an intensive fluoride varnish treatment regimen for children at high risk for early childhood caries,” Int. J. Paediatr. Dent. 28(3), 291–299 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ismail, A. I.

A. I. Ismail, “Visual and Visuo-tactile Detection of Dental Caries,” J. Dent. Res. 83(1), C56–C66 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janal, M. N.

A. E. Paek, Y. Li, Z. Wang, P. So, M. N. Janal, N. G. Herman, A. Hopkins, and C. Chinn, “Caries outcome following an intensive fluoride varnish treatment regimen for children at high risk for early childhood caries,” Int. J. Paediatr. Dent. 28(3), 291–299 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, S. H.

H.-S. Lee, S.-K. Kim, S.-W. Park, E. de Jong, H.-K. Kwon, S. H. Jeong, and B. I. Kim, “Caries detection and quantification around stained pits and fissures in occlusal tooth surfaces with fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(9), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jue, B.

J. A. Weintraub, F. Ramos-Gomez, B. Jue, S. Shain, C. I. Hoover, J. D. B. Featherstone, and S. A. Gansky, “Fluoride Varnish Efficacy in Preventing Early Childhood Caries,” J. Dent. Res. 85(2), 172–176 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, A. S.

R. Ramakrishnaiah, G. Rehman, S. Basavarajappa, A. A. Al Khuraif, B. H. Durgesh, A. S. Khan, and I. Rehman, “Applications of Raman Spectroscopy in Dentistry: Analysis of Tooth Structure,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50(4), 332–350 (2015).
[Crossref]

Khatami, M.

F. Sobouti, V. Rakhshan, N. Chiniforush, and M. Khatami, “Effects of laser-assisted cosmetic smile lift gingivectomy on postoperative bleeding and pain in fixed orthodontic patients: a controlled clinical trial,” Prog. Orthod. 15(1), 66 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B. I.

H.-S. Lee, S.-K. Kim, S.-W. Park, E. de Jong, H.-K. Kwon, S. H. Jeong, and B. I. Kim, “Caries detection and quantification around stained pits and fissures in occlusal tooth surfaces with fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(9), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-K.

H.-S. Lee, S.-K. Kim, S.-W. Park, E. de Jong, H.-K. Kwon, S. H. Jeong, and B. I. Kim, “Caries detection and quantification around stained pits and fissures in occlusal tooth surfaces with fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(9), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, A. C.

Kwon, H.-K.

H.-S. Lee, S.-K. Kim, S.-W. Park, E. de Jong, H.-K. Kwon, S. H. Jeong, and B. I. Kim, “Caries detection and quantification around stained pits and fissures in occlusal tooth surfaces with fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(9), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lang, L.

S. Yang, B. Li, A. Akkus, O. Akkus, and L. Lang, “Wide-field Raman imaging of dental lesions,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(12), 3107–3114 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H.-S.

H.-S. Lee, S.-K. Kim, S.-W. Park, E. de Jong, H.-K. Kwon, S. H. Jeong, and B. I. Kim, “Caries detection and quantification around stained pits and fissures in occlusal tooth surfaces with fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(9), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, B.

S. Yang, B. Li, A. Akkus, O. Akkus, and L. Lang, “Wide-field Raman imaging of dental lesions,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(12), 3107–3114 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

A. E. Paek, Y. Li, Z. Wang, P. So, M. N. Janal, N. G. Herman, A. Hopkins, and C. Chinn, “Caries outcome following an intensive fluoride varnish treatment regimen for children at high risk for early childhood caries,” Int. J. Paediatr. Dent. 28(3), 291–299 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lussi, A.

A. Lussi, R. Hibst, and R. Paulus, “DIAGNOdent: An Optical Method for Caries Detection,” J. Dent. Res. 83(1), C80–C83 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magne, P.

P. Magne, G. O. Gallucci, and U. C. Belser, “Anatomic crown width/length ratios of unworn and worn maxillary teeth in white subjects,” J. Prosthet. Dent. 89(5), 453–461 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markowitz, K.

K. Markowitz and K. Carey, “Assessing the Appearance and Fluorescence of Resin-Infiltrated White Spot Lesions With Caries Detection Devices,” Oper. Dent. 43(1), E10–E18 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marquezan, M.

E. F. Sant’Anna, M. T. S. Araújo, L. I. Nojima, A. C. D. Cunha, B. L. D. Silveira, and M. Marquezan, “High-intensity laser application in Orthodontics,” Dental Press J. Orthod. 22(6), 99–109 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nojima, L. I.

E. F. Sant’Anna, M. T. S. Araújo, L. I. Nojima, A. C. D. Cunha, B. L. D. Silveira, and M. Marquezan, “High-intensity laser application in Orthodontics,” Dental Press J. Orthod. 22(6), 99–109 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olivi, G.

M. D. Genovese and G. Olivi, “Use of laser technology in orthodontics: hard and soft tissue laser treatments,” Eur. J. Paediatr. Dent. 11(1), 44–48 (2010).
[PubMed]

Paek, A. E.

A. E. Paek, Y. Li, Z. Wang, P. So, M. N. Janal, N. G. Herman, A. Hopkins, and C. Chinn, “Caries outcome following an intensive fluoride varnish treatment regimen for children at high risk for early childhood caries,” Int. J. Paediatr. Dent. 28(3), 291–299 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S.-W.

H.-S. Lee, S.-K. Kim, S.-W. Park, E. de Jong, H.-K. Kwon, S. H. Jeong, and B. I. Kim, “Caries detection and quantification around stained pits and fissures in occlusal tooth surfaces with fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(9), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulus, R.

A. Lussi, R. Hibst, and R. Paulus, “DIAGNOdent: An Optical Method for Caries Detection,” J. Dent. Res. 83(1), C80–C83 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pretty, I. A.

I. A. Pretty, “Caries detection and diagnosis: Novel technologies,” J. Dent. 34(10), 727–739 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rakhshan, V.

F. Sobouti, V. Rakhshan, N. Chiniforush, and M. Khatami, “Effects of laser-assisted cosmetic smile lift gingivectomy on postoperative bleeding and pain in fixed orthodontic patients: a controlled clinical trial,” Prog. Orthod. 15(1), 66 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramakrishnaiah, R.

R. Ramakrishnaiah, G. Rehman, S. Basavarajappa, A. A. Al Khuraif, B. H. Durgesh, A. S. Khan, and I. Rehman, “Applications of Raman Spectroscopy in Dentistry: Analysis of Tooth Structure,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50(4), 332–350 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ramos-Gomez, F.

J. A. Weintraub, F. Ramos-Gomez, B. Jue, S. Shain, C. I. Hoover, J. D. B. Featherstone, and S. A. Gansky, “Fluoride Varnish Efficacy in Preventing Early Childhood Caries,” J. Dent. Res. 85(2), 172–176 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rehman, G.

R. Ramakrishnaiah, G. Rehman, S. Basavarajappa, A. A. Al Khuraif, B. H. Durgesh, A. S. Khan, and I. Rehman, “Applications of Raman Spectroscopy in Dentistry: Analysis of Tooth Structure,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50(4), 332–350 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rehman, I.

R. Ramakrishnaiah, G. Rehman, S. Basavarajappa, A. A. Al Khuraif, B. H. Durgesh, A. S. Khan, and I. Rehman, “Applications of Raman Spectroscopy in Dentistry: Analysis of Tooth Structure,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50(4), 332–350 (2015).
[Crossref]

Saini, R.

R. Saini, “Ozone therapy in dentistry: A strategic review,” J. Nat. Sci. Biol. Med. 2(2), 151–153 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sant’Anna, E. F.

E. F. Sant’Anna, M. T. S. Araújo, L. I. Nojima, A. C. D. Cunha, B. L. D. Silveira, and M. Marquezan, “High-intensity laser application in Orthodontics,” Dental Press J. Orthod. 22(6), 99–109 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seka, W.

Shain, S.

J. A. Weintraub, F. Ramos-Gomez, B. Jue, S. Shain, C. I. Hoover, J. D. B. Featherstone, and S. A. Gansky, “Fluoride Varnish Efficacy in Preventing Early Childhood Caries,” J. Dent. Res. 85(2), 172–176 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shugars, D. A.

J. D. Bader and D. A. Shugars, “A systematic review of the performance of a laser fluorescence device for detecting caries,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 135(10), 1413–1426 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silveira, B. L. D.

E. F. Sant’Anna, M. T. S. Araújo, L. I. Nojima, A. C. D. Cunha, B. L. D. Silveira, and M. Marquezan, “High-intensity laser application in Orthodontics,” Dental Press J. Orthod. 22(6), 99–109 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

So, P.

A. E. Paek, Y. Li, Z. Wang, P. So, M. N. Janal, N. G. Herman, A. Hopkins, and C. Chinn, “Caries outcome following an intensive fluoride varnish treatment regimen for children at high risk for early childhood caries,” Int. J. Paediatr. Dent. 28(3), 291–299 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sobouti, F.

F. Sobouti, V. Rakhshan, N. Chiniforush, and M. Khatami, “Effects of laser-assisted cosmetic smile lift gingivectomy on postoperative bleeding and pain in fixed orthodontic patients: a controlled clinical trial,” Prog. Orthod. 15(1), 66 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sowa, M. G.

ten Bosch, J. J.

B. Angmar-Månsson and J. J. ten Bosch, “Optical Methods for the Detection and Quantification of Caries,” Adv. Dent. Res. 1(1), 14–20 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ten Cate, J. M.

M. W. Beerens, J. M. Ten Cate, M. J. Buijs, and M. H. van der Veen, “Long-term remineralizing effect of MI Paste Plus on regression of early caries after orthodontic fixed appliance treatment: a 12-month follow-up randomized controlled trial,” Eur. J. Orthod. 40(5), 457–464 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Veen, M. H.

M. W. Beerens, J. M. Ten Cate, M. J. Buijs, and M. H. van der Veen, “Long-term remineralizing effect of MI Paste Plus on regression of early caries after orthodontic fixed appliance treatment: a 12-month follow-up randomized controlled trial,” Eur. J. Orthod. 40(5), 457–464 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

A. E. Paek, Y. Li, Z. Wang, P. So, M. N. Janal, N. G. Herman, A. Hopkins, and C. Chinn, “Caries outcome following an intensive fluoride varnish treatment regimen for children at high risk for early childhood caries,” Int. J. Paediatr. Dent. 28(3), 291–299 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weintraub, J. A.

J. A. Weintraub, F. Ramos-Gomez, B. Jue, S. Shain, C. I. Hoover, J. D. B. Featherstone, and S. A. Gansky, “Fluoride Varnish Efficacy in Preventing Early Childhood Caries,” J. Dent. Res. 85(2), 172–176 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

S. Yang, B. Li, A. Akkus, O. Akkus, and L. Lang, “Wide-field Raman imaging of dental lesions,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(12), 3107–3114 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Dent. Res. (1)

B. Angmar-Månsson and J. J. ten Bosch, “Optical Methods for the Detection and Quantification of Caries,” Adv. Dent. Res. 1(1), 14–20 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

S. Yang, B. Li, A. Akkus, O. Akkus, and L. Lang, “Wide-field Raman imaging of dental lesions,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(12), 3107–3114 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

R. Ramakrishnaiah, G. Rehman, S. Basavarajappa, A. A. Al Khuraif, B. H. Durgesh, A. S. Khan, and I. Rehman, “Applications of Raman Spectroscopy in Dentistry: Analysis of Tooth Structure,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50(4), 332–350 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dental Press J. Orthod. (1)

E. F. Sant’Anna, M. T. S. Araújo, L. I. Nojima, A. C. D. Cunha, B. L. D. Silveira, and M. Marquezan, “High-intensity laser application in Orthodontics,” Dental Press J. Orthod. 22(6), 99–109 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Orthod. (1)

M. W. Beerens, J. M. Ten Cate, M. J. Buijs, and M. H. van der Veen, “Long-term remineralizing effect of MI Paste Plus on regression of early caries after orthodontic fixed appliance treatment: a 12-month follow-up randomized controlled trial,” Eur. J. Orthod. 40(5), 457–464 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Paediatr. Dent. (1)

M. D. Genovese and G. Olivi, “Use of laser technology in orthodontics: hard and soft tissue laser treatments,” Eur. J. Paediatr. Dent. 11(1), 44–48 (2010).
[PubMed]

Int. J. Paediatr. Dent. (1)

A. E. Paek, Y. Li, Z. Wang, P. So, M. N. Janal, N. G. Herman, A. Hopkins, and C. Chinn, “Caries outcome following an intensive fluoride varnish treatment regimen for children at high risk for early childhood caries,” Int. J. Paediatr. Dent. 28(3), 291–299 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Dent. Assoc. (1)

J. D. Bader and D. A. Shugars, “A systematic review of the performance of a laser fluorescence device for detecting caries,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 135(10), 1413–1426 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

H.-S. Lee, S.-K. Kim, S.-W. Park, E. de Jong, H.-K. Kwon, S. H. Jeong, and B. I. Kim, “Caries detection and quantification around stained pits and fissures in occlusal tooth surfaces with fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(9), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. T. Amaechi and S. M. Higham, “Quantitative light-induced fluorescence: A potential tool for general dental assessment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(1), 7–13 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dent. (1)

I. A. Pretty, “Caries detection and diagnosis: Novel technologies,” J. Dent. 34(10), 727–739 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dent. Res. (3)

A. Lussi, R. Hibst, and R. Paulus, “DIAGNOdent: An Optical Method for Caries Detection,” J. Dent. Res. 83(1), C80–C83 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Weintraub, F. Ramos-Gomez, B. Jue, S. Shain, C. I. Hoover, J. D. B. Featherstone, and S. A. Gansky, “Fluoride Varnish Efficacy in Preventing Early Childhood Caries,” J. Dent. Res. 85(2), 172–176 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. I. Ismail, “Visual and Visuo-tactile Detection of Dental Caries,” J. Dent. Res. 83(1), C56–C66 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Istanb. Univ. Fac. Dent. (1)

B. Dikmen, “Icdas II criteria (international caries detection and assessment system),” J. Istanb. Univ. Fac. Dent. 49(3), 63–72 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Nat. Sci. Biol. Med. (1)

R. Saini, “Ozone therapy in dentistry: A strategic review,” J. Nat. Sci. Biol. Med. 2(2), 151–153 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Prosthet. Dent. (1)

P. Magne, G. O. Gallucci, and U. C. Belser, “Anatomic crown width/length ratios of unworn and worn maxillary teeth in white subjects,” J. Prosthet. Dent. 89(5), 453–461 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oper. Dent. (1)

K. Markowitz and K. Carey, “Assessing the Appearance and Fluorescence of Resin-Infiltrated White Spot Lesions With Caries Detection Devices,” Oper. Dent. 43(1), E10–E18 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Prog. Orthod. (1)

F. Sobouti, V. Rakhshan, N. Chiniforush, and M. Khatami, “Effects of laser-assisted cosmetic smile lift gingivectomy on postoperative bleeding and pain in fixed orthodontic patients: a controlled clinical trial,” Prog. Orthod. 15(1), 66 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (6)

T. J. Hilton, J. L. Ferracane, and J. Broome, Summitt’s Fundamentals of Operative Dentistry: A Contemporary Approach, Fourth Edition, 4th edition (Quintessence Pub Co, 2013).

H. S. Salehi, N. Karimian, M. Mahdian, H. Alnajjar, and A. Tadinada, “Deep learning classifier with optical coherence tomography images for early dental caries detection,” in P. Rechmann and D. Fried, eds. (SPIE, 2018), p. 3.

B. A. Dye, G. Thornton-Evans, X. Li, and T. J. Iafolla, “Dental caries and tooth loss in adults in the United States, 2011–2012. NCHS data brief, no 197.Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.,” (2015). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25973996

B. A. Dye, G. Thornton-Evans, X. Li, and T. J. Iafolla, “Dental caries and sealant prevalence in children and adolescents in the United States, 2011–2012. NCHS data brief, no 191. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics,” (2015).

O. Fejerskov and E. Kidd, Dental Caries: The Disease and Its Clinical Management (John Wiley & Sons, 2009).

E. Kidd and O. Fejerskov, Essentials of Dental Caries (Oxford University Press, 2016).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic layout of the imaging setup. (b) Typical Raman spectra of teeth when the band-pass filter is adjusted to center at 960 cm−1 (blue curve), 880 cm−1 (red curve) and removed (green curve).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Picture of the sliced buffalo tooth under white/flash light illumination. (b) Representative Raman spectra from dentin and enamel side of the tooth. Full-scale Raman images of the buffalo tooth when the band pass filter was tuned to (c) signal peak (Isig) at 960 cm−1, (d) fluorescence reference (Iref) at 880 cm−1, and (e) their difference (Isig-Iref). (f) A laser intensity distribution (Ilaser) image was acquired to obtain (g) the laser intensity calibrated ((Isig-Iref)/Ilaser) mineral distribution image, which is then normalized and re-plotted in (h) 3D format.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Picture of the incisor with white lesion taken by cell phone camera. Full-scale images covering the lesion when the band pass filter was tuned to (b) Raman signal peak, and (c) fluorescence reference. Fluorescence subtracted images (d) before and (e) after laser intensity correction. The laser intensity corrected Raman image was replotted in (f) in 3D format for additional viewpoints.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Picture of the premolar taken by cell phone camera. Full-scale fluorescence subtracted Raman images of the top surface (b) before and (c) after laser intensity correction. The laser intensity corrected Raman image was replotted in 3D format (d) for additional view point.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Full-scale Raman images of sliced buffalo tooth when camera was operated in (a) conventional CCD mode and (b) EMCCD mode. The integration time was 1s and the image was calibrated with the same laser intensity distribution shown in Fig. 2(e). (c) A full-scale Raman image of decayed incisor taken with 5s integration.