Abstract

Enlargement of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) due to progressive capillary nonperfusion is associated with visual deterioration in patients with diabetic retinopathy. The FAZ area has long been considered an important clinical marker of advancing retinopathy. However, a large body of literature shows that the FAZ area varies considerably in healthy eyes, resulting in substantial overlap between controls and diabetics, thus reducing its discriminatory value. In this study, within-subject FAZ area enlargement was obtained by the comparison of the structural FAZ area to the functional FAZ area using simultaneously-acquired, corresponding en face OCT reflectance and OCT angiography images. Our study suggests that en face OCT reflectance images provide useful anatomic baselines of structural FAZ morphology prior to the onset of disease. Measurements of within-subject FAZ area enlargement appear to be a more sensitive method for identifying the onset of diabetic retinopathy as compared to using OCT angiographic measurements of FAZ alone.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Computer-aided classification of sickle cell retinopathy using quantitative features in optical coherence tomography angiography

Minhaj Alam, Damber Thapa, Jennifer I. Lim, Dingcai Cao, and Xincheng Yao
Biomed. Opt. Express 8(9) 4206-4216 (2017)

Automatic differentiation of color fundus images containing drusen or exudates using a contextual spatial pyramid approach

Mark J. J. P. van Grinsven, Thomas Theelen, Leonard Witkamp, Job van der Heijden, Johannes P. H. van de Ven, Carel B. Hoyng, Bram van Ginneken, and Clara I. Sánchez
Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3) 709-725 (2016)

In vivo adaptive optics microvascular imaging in diabetic patients without clinically severe diabetic retinopathy

Stephen A. Burns, Ann E. Elsner, Toco Y. Chui, Dean A. VanNasdale, Christopher A. Clark, Thomas J Gast, Victor E. Malinovsky, and Anh-Danh T. Phan
Biomed. Opt. Express 5(3) 961-974 (2014)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. Cheung, P. Mitchell, and T. Y. Wong, “Diabetic retinopathy,” Lancet 376(9735), 124–136 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. E. Hartnett, W. Baehr, and Y. Z. Le, “Diabetic retinopathy, an overview,” Vision Res. 139, 1–6 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. E. J. Duh, J. K. Sun, and A. W. Stitt, “Diabetic retinopathy: Current understanding, mechanisms, and treatment strategies,” JCI Insight 2(14), e93751 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. S. Sivaprasad, B. Gupta, R. Crosby-Nwaobi, and J. Evans, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in various ethnic groups: A worldwide perspective,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 57(4), 347–370 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. N. Takase, M. Nozaki, A. Kato, H. Ozeki, M. Yoshida, and Y. Ogura, “Enlargement of foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes evaluated by en face optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2377–2383 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. R. Mastropasqua, L. Toto, A. Mastropasqua, R. Aloia, C. De Nicola, P. A. Mattei, G. Di Marzio, M. Di Nicola, and L. Di Antonio, “Foveal avascular zone area and parafoveal vessel density measurements in different stages of diabetic retinopathy by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 10(10), 1545–1551 (2017).
    [PubMed]
  8. P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. Bhanushali, N. Anegondi, S. G. Gadde, P. Srinivasan, L. Chidambara, N. K. Yadav, and A. Sinha Roy, “Linking retinal microvasculature features with severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT519 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Classification of diabetic retinopathy from fluorescein angiograms. ETDRS report number 11,” Ophthalmology 98(5l), 807–822 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. Conrath, R. Giorgi, D. Raccah, and B. Ridings, “Foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy: Quantitative vs qualitative assessment,” Eye (Lond.) 19(3), 322–326 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. C. Balaratnasingam, M. Inoue, S. Ahn, J. McCann, E. Dhrami-Gavazi, L. A. Yannuzzi, and K. B. Freund, “Visual acuity is correlated with the area of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmology 123(11), 2352–2367 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. F. Tang, Z. Sun, R. Wong, J. Lok, A. Lam, C. C. Tham, C. K. Chan, S. Mohamed, T. C. Lam, S. K. Szeto, D. S. Ng, and C. Y. Cheung, “Relationship of intercapillary area with visual acuity in diabetes mellitus: An optical coherence tomography angiography study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2018312010 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. K. Sakata, H. Funatsu, S. Harino, H. Noma, and S. Hori, “Relationship of macular microcirculation and retinal thickness with visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(11), 2061–2069 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, “Color photography vs fluorescein angiography in the detection of diabetic retinopathy in the diabetes control and complications trial,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105(10), 1344–1351 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. T. J. Ffytche, J. S. Shilling, I. H. Chisholm, and J. L. Federman, “Indications for fluorescein angiography in disease of the ocular fundus: A review,” J. R. Soc. Med. 73(5), 362–365 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. D. A. Salz and A. J. Witkin, “Imaging in diabetic retinopathy,” Middle East Afr. J. Ophthalmol. 22(2), 145–150 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. D. A. Dmuchowska, P. Krasnicki, and Z. Mariak, “Can optical coherence tomography replace fluorescein angiography in detection of ischemic diabetic maculopathy?” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(5), 731–738 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. G. Cennamo, M. R. Romano, G. Nicoletti, N. Velotti, and G. de Crecchio, “Optical coherence tomography angiography versus fluorescein angiography in the diagnosis of ischaemic diabetic maculopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(1), e36–e42 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. F. J. Freiberg, M. Pfau, J. Wons, M. A. Wirth, M. D. Becker, and S. Michels, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(6), 1051–1058 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. T. S. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. Smith, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion areas in 3 vascular plexuses with optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes of patients with diabetes,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(8), 929–936 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. G. Di, Y. Weihong, Z. Xiao, Y. Zhikun, Z. Xuan, Q. Yi, and D. Fangtian, “A morphological study of the foveal avascular zone in patients with diabetes mellitus using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(5), 873–879 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Noninvasive imaging of the foveal avascular zone with high-speed, phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 85–92 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: A prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. B. D. Krawitz, E. Phillips, R. D. Bavier, S. Mo, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. P. Chui, “Parafoveal nonperfusion analysis in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(4), 4 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Impact of multiple en face image averaging on quantitative assessment from optical coherence tomography angiography images,” Ophthalmology 124(7), 944–952 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. T. G. Schmidt, R. Linderman, M. Strampe, T. Y. P. Chui, R. B. Rosen, and J. Carroll, “The utility of frame averaging for automated algorithms in analyzing retinal vascular biomarkers in AngioVue OCTA,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. (in review).
  32. R. B. Rosen, M. Hathaway, J. Rogers, J. Pedro, P. Garcia, P. Laissue, G. M. Dobre, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Multidimensional en-face OCT imaging of the retina,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4112–4133 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. Y. Miwa, T. Murakami, K. Suzuma, A. Uji, S. Yoshitake, M. Fujimoto, T. Yoshitake, Y. Tamura, and N. Yoshimura, “Relationship between functional and structural changes in diabetic vessels in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29064 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Choriocapillaris imaging using multiple en face optical coherence tomography angiography image averaging,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(11), 1197–1204 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Grading diabetic retinopathy from stereoscopic color fundus photographs–an extension of the modified airlie house classification. ETDRS report number 10. Early treatment diabetic retinopathy study research group,” Ophthalmology 98, 786–806 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Fundus photographic risk factors for progression of diabetic retinopathy. ETDRS report number 12,” Ophthalmology 98(5), 823–833 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, “Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232(6), 361–367 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. S. Mo, E. Phillips, B. D. Krawitz, R. Garg, S. Salim, L. S. Geyman, E. Efstathiadis, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. Chui, “Visualization of radial peripapillary capillaries using optical coherence tomography angiography: The effect of image averaging,” PLoS One 12(1), e0169385 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. I. Arganda-Carreras, C. O. S. Sorzano, R. Marabini, J. M. Carazo, C. Ortiz-de-Solorzano, and J. Kybic, “Consistent and elastic registration of histological sections using vector-spline regularization,” in Computer Vision Approaches to Medical Image Analysis (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006), 85–95.
  42. B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, L. S. Geyman, S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, P. M. Garcia, T. Y. P. Chui, and R. B. Rosen, “Acircularity index and axis ratio of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes and healthy controls measured by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Vision Res. 139, 177–186 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. T. Y. Chui, D. A. VanNasdale, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “The association between the foveal avascular zone and retinal thickness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(10), 6870–6877 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. L. Z. Wu, Z. S. Huang, D. Z. Wu, and E. Chan, “Characteristics of the capillary-free zone in the normal human macula,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 29(4), 406–411 (1985).
    [PubMed]
  45. G. N. Magrath, E. A. T. Say, K. Sioufi, S. Ferenczy, W. A. Samara, and C. L. Shields, “Variability in foveal avascular zone and capillary density using optical coherence tomography angiography machines in healthy eyes,” Retina 37(11), 2102–2111 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  46. L. Laatikainen and J. Larinkari, “Capillary-free area of the fovea with advancing age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 16(12), 1154–1157 (1977).
    [PubMed]
  47. K. Ghasemi Falavarjani, N. A. Iafe, J. P. Hubschman, I. Tsui, S. R. Sadda, and D. Sarraf, “Optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of the foveal avascular zone and macular vessel density after anti-vegf therapy in eyes with diabetic macular edema and retinal vein occlusion,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(1), 30–34 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  48. J. Tang, S. Mohr, Y. D. Du, and T. S. Kern, “Non-uniform distribution of lesions and biochemical abnormalities within the retina of diabetic humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 27(1), 7–13 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  49. T. S. Kern and R. L. Engerman, “Vascular lesions in diabetes are distributed non-uniformly within the retina,” Exp. Eye Res. 60(5), 545–549 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  50. P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, J. K. Sun, A. Z. Soliman, L. M. Aiello, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified by mydriatic ultrawide field imaging: Distribution and potential impact on diabetic retinopathy severity,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2587–2595 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  51. A. Chan, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Normal macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using Stratus optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 124(2), 193–198 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  52. J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  53. Y. Kaizu, S. Nakao, S. Yoshida, T. Hayami, M. Arima, M. Yamaguchi, I. Wada, T. Hisatomi, Y. Ikeda, T. Ishibashi, and K. H. Sonoda, “Optical coherence tomography angiography reveals spatial bias of macular capillary dropout in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(11), 4889–4897 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  54. A. Pinhas, M. Razeen, M. Dubow, A. Gan, T. Y. Chui, N. Shah, M. Mehta, R. C. Gentile, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Assessment of perfused foveal microvascular density and identification of nonperfused capillaries in healthy and vasculopathic eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8056–8066 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  55. R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (5)

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Tang, Z. Sun, R. Wong, J. Lok, A. Lam, C. C. Tham, C. K. Chan, S. Mohamed, T. C. Lam, S. K. Szeto, D. S. Ng, and C. Y. Cheung, “Relationship of intercapillary area with visual acuity in diabetes mellitus: An optical coherence tomography angiography study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2018312010 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. Smith, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion areas in 3 vascular plexuses with optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes of patients with diabetes,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(8), 929–936 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Krawitz, E. Phillips, R. D. Bavier, S. Mo, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. P. Chui, “Parafoveal nonperfusion analysis in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(4), 4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (12)

Y. Kaizu, S. Nakao, S. Yoshida, T. Hayami, M. Arima, M. Yamaguchi, I. Wada, T. Hisatomi, Y. Ikeda, T. Ishibashi, and K. H. Sonoda, “Optical coherence tomography angiography reveals spatial bias of macular capillary dropout in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(11), 4889–4897 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. N. Magrath, E. A. T. Say, K. Sioufi, S. Ferenczy, W. A. Samara, and C. L. Shields, “Variability in foveal avascular zone and capillary density using optical coherence tomography angiography machines in healthy eyes,” Retina 37(11), 2102–2111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ghasemi Falavarjani, N. A. Iafe, J. P. Hubschman, I. Tsui, S. R. Sadda, and D. Sarraf, “Optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of the foveal avascular zone and macular vessel density after anti-vegf therapy in eyes with diabetic macular edema and retinal vein occlusion,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(1), 30–34 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Impact of multiple en face image averaging on quantitative assessment from optical coherence tomography angiography images,” Ophthalmology 124(7), 944–952 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Cennamo, M. R. Romano, G. Nicoletti, N. Velotti, and G. de Crecchio, “Optical coherence tomography angiography versus fluorescein angiography in the diagnosis of ischaemic diabetic maculopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(1), e36–e42 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Choriocapillaris imaging using multiple en face optical coherence tomography angiography image averaging,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(11), 1197–1204 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mo, E. Phillips, B. D. Krawitz, R. Garg, S. Salim, L. S. Geyman, E. Efstathiadis, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. Chui, “Visualization of radial peripapillary capillaries using optical coherence tomography angiography: The effect of image averaging,” PLoS One 12(1), e0169385 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, L. S. Geyman, S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, P. M. Garcia, T. Y. P. Chui, and R. B. Rosen, “Acircularity index and axis ratio of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes and healthy controls measured by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Vision Res. 139, 177–186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Mastropasqua, L. Toto, A. Mastropasqua, R. Aloia, C. De Nicola, P. A. Mattei, G. Di Marzio, M. Di Nicola, and L. Di Antonio, “Foveal avascular zone area and parafoveal vessel density measurements in different stages of diabetic retinopathy by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 10(10), 1545–1551 (2017).
[PubMed]

P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Hartnett, W. Baehr, and Y. Z. Le, “Diabetic retinopathy, an overview,” Vision Res. 139, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Duh, J. K. Sun, and A. W. Stitt, “Diabetic retinopathy: Current understanding, mechanisms, and treatment strategies,” JCI Insight 2(14), e93751 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

D. Bhanushali, N. Anegondi, S. G. Gadde, P. Srinivasan, L. Chidambara, N. K. Yadav, and A. Sinha Roy, “Linking retinal microvasculature features with severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT519 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Balaratnasingam, M. Inoue, S. Ahn, J. McCann, E. Dhrami-Gavazi, L. A. Yannuzzi, and K. B. Freund, “Visual acuity is correlated with the area of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmology 123(11), 2352–2367 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Miwa, T. Murakami, K. Suzuma, A. Uji, S. Yoshitake, M. Fujimoto, T. Yoshitake, Y. Tamura, and N. Yoshimura, “Relationship between functional and structural changes in diabetic vessels in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29064 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. J. Freiberg, M. Pfau, J. Wons, M. A. Wirth, M. D. Becker, and S. Michels, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(6), 1051–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Di, Y. Weihong, Z. Xiao, Y. Zhikun, Z. Xuan, Q. Yi, and D. Fangtian, “A morphological study of the foveal avascular zone in patients with diabetes mellitus using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(5), 873–879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: A prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Salz and A. J. Witkin, “Imaging in diabetic retinopathy,” Middle East Afr. J. Ophthalmol. 22(2), 145–150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Takase, M. Nozaki, A. Kato, H. Ozeki, M. Yoshida, and Y. Ogura, “Enlargement of foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes evaluated by en face optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2377–2383 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

A. Pinhas, M. Razeen, M. Dubow, A. Gan, T. Y. Chui, N. Shah, M. Mehta, R. C. Gentile, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Assessment of perfused foveal microvascular density and identification of nonperfused capillaries in healthy and vasculopathic eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8056–8066 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Dmuchowska, P. Krasnicki, and Z. Mariak, “Can optical coherence tomography replace fluorescein angiography in detection of ischemic diabetic maculopathy?” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(5), 731–738 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, D. A. VanNasdale, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “The association between the foveal avascular zone and retinal thickness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(10), 6870–6877 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, J. K. Sun, A. Z. Soliman, L. M. Aiello, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified by mydriatic ultrawide field imaging: Distribution and potential impact on diabetic retinopathy severity,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2587–2595 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Noninvasive imaging of the foveal avascular zone with high-speed, phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 85–92 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sivaprasad, B. Gupta, R. Crosby-Nwaobi, and J. Evans, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in various ethnic groups: A worldwide perspective,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 57(4), 347–370 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

N. Cheung, P. Mitchell, and T. Y. Wong, “Diabetic retinopathy,” Lancet 376(9735), 124–136 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

K. Sakata, H. Funatsu, S. Harino, H. Noma, and S. Hori, “Relationship of macular microcirculation and retinal thickness with visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(11), 2061–2069 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. Chan, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Normal macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using Stratus optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 124(2), 193–198 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. Conrath, R. Giorgi, D. Raccah, and B. Ridings, “Foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy: Quantitative vs qualitative assessment,” Eye (Lond.) 19(3), 322–326 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. Tang, S. Mohr, Y. D. Du, and T. S. Kern, “Non-uniform distribution of lesions and biochemical abnormalities within the retina of diabetic humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 27(1), 7–13 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

T. S. Kern and R. L. Engerman, “Vascular lesions in diabetes are distributed non-uniformly within the retina,” Exp. Eye Res. 60(5), 545–549 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, “Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232(6), 361–367 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Grading diabetic retinopathy from stereoscopic color fundus photographs–an extension of the modified airlie house classification. ETDRS report number 10. Early treatment diabetic retinopathy study research group,” Ophthalmology 98, 786–806 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Fundus photographic risk factors for progression of diabetic retinopathy. ETDRS report number 12,” Ophthalmology 98(5), 823–833 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Classification of diabetic retinopathy from fluorescein angiograms. ETDRS report number 11,” Ophthalmology 98(5l), 807–822 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, “Color photography vs fluorescein angiography in the detection of diabetic retinopathy in the diabetes control and complications trial,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105(10), 1344–1351 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

L. Z. Wu, Z. S. Huang, D. Z. Wu, and E. Chan, “Characteristics of the capillary-free zone in the normal human macula,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 29(4), 406–411 (1985).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

T. J. Ffytche, J. S. Shilling, I. H. Chisholm, and J. L. Federman, “Indications for fluorescein angiography in disease of the ocular fundus: A review,” J. R. Soc. Med. 73(5), 362–365 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

L. Laatikainen and J. Larinkari, “Capillary-free area of the fovea with advancing age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 16(12), 1154–1157 (1977).
[PubMed]

Agemy, S. A.

B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, L. S. Geyman, S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, P. M. Garcia, T. Y. P. Chui, and R. B. Rosen, “Acircularity index and axis ratio of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes and healthy controls measured by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Vision Res. 139, 177–186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, S.

C. Balaratnasingam, M. Inoue, S. Ahn, J. McCann, E. Dhrami-Gavazi, L. A. Yannuzzi, and K. B. Freund, “Visual acuity is correlated with the area of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmology 123(11), 2352–2367 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aiello, L. M.

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, J. K. Sun, A. Z. Soliman, L. M. Aiello, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified by mydriatic ultrawide field imaging: Distribution and potential impact on diabetic retinopathy severity,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2587–2595 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aiello, L. P.

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, J. K. Sun, A. Z. Soliman, L. M. Aiello, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified by mydriatic ultrawide field imaging: Distribution and potential impact on diabetic retinopathy severity,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2587–2595 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aloia, R.

R. Mastropasqua, L. Toto, A. Mastropasqua, R. Aloia, C. De Nicola, P. A. Mattei, G. Di Marzio, M. Di Nicola, and L. Di Antonio, “Foveal avascular zone area and parafoveal vessel density measurements in different stages of diabetic retinopathy by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 10(10), 1545–1551 (2017).
[PubMed]

Al-Sheikh, M.

A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Choriocapillaris imaging using multiple en face optical coherence tomography angiography image averaging,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(11), 1197–1204 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Impact of multiple en face image averaging on quantitative assessment from optical coherence tomography angiography images,” Ophthalmology 124(7), 944–952 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anegondi, N.

D. Bhanushali, N. Anegondi, S. G. Gadde, P. Srinivasan, L. Chidambara, N. K. Yadav, and A. Sinha Roy, “Linking retinal microvasculature features with severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT519 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arima, M.

Y. Kaizu, S. Nakao, S. Yoshida, T. Hayami, M. Arima, M. Yamaguchi, I. Wada, T. Hisatomi, Y. Ikeda, T. Ishibashi, and K. H. Sonoda, “Optical coherence tomography angiography reveals spatial bias of macular capillary dropout in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(11), 4889–4897 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baehr, W.

M. E. Hartnett, W. Baehr, and Y. Z. Le, “Diabetic retinopathy, an overview,” Vision Res. 139, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baghdasaryan, E.

A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Choriocapillaris imaging using multiple en face optical coherence tomography angiography image averaging,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(11), 1197–1204 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Impact of multiple en face image averaging on quantitative assessment from optical coherence tomography angiography images,” Ophthalmology 124(7), 944–952 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balaratnasingam, C.

C. Balaratnasingam, M. Inoue, S. Ahn, J. McCann, E. Dhrami-Gavazi, L. A. Yannuzzi, and K. B. Freund, “Visual acuity is correlated with the area of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmology 123(11), 2352–2367 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balasubramanian, S.

A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Impact of multiple en face image averaging on quantitative assessment from optical coherence tomography angiography images,” Ophthalmology 124(7), 944–952 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Choriocapillaris imaging using multiple en face optical coherence tomography angiography image averaging,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(11), 1197–1204 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barry, C. J.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bavier, R. D.

B. D. Krawitz, E. Phillips, R. D. Bavier, S. Mo, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. P. Chui, “Parafoveal nonperfusion analysis in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(4), 4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, M. D.

F. J. Freiberg, M. Pfau, J. Wons, M. A. Wirth, M. D. Becker, and S. Michels, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(6), 1051–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, A. G.

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, “Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232(6), 361–367 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhanushali, D.

D. Bhanushali, N. Anegondi, S. G. Gadde, P. Srinivasan, L. Chidambara, N. K. Yadav, and A. Sinha Roy, “Linking retinal microvasculature features with severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT519 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bresnick, G. H.

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

T. Y. Chui, D. A. VanNasdale, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “The association between the foveal avascular zone and retinal thickness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(10), 6870–6877 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carroll, J.

B. D. Krawitz, E. Phillips, R. D. Bavier, S. Mo, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. P. Chui, “Parafoveal nonperfusion analysis in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(4), 4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mo, E. Phillips, B. D. Krawitz, R. Garg, S. Salim, L. S. Geyman, E. Efstathiadis, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. Chui, “Visualization of radial peripapillary capillaries using optical coherence tomography angiography: The effect of image averaging,” PLoS One 12(1), e0169385 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pinhas, M. Razeen, M. Dubow, A. Gan, T. Y. Chui, N. Shah, M. Mehta, R. C. Gentile, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Assessment of perfused foveal microvascular density and identification of nonperfused capillaries in healthy and vasculopathic eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8056–8066 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. G. Schmidt, R. Linderman, M. Strampe, T. Y. P. Chui, R. B. Rosen, and J. Carroll, “The utility of frame averaging for automated algorithms in analyzing retinal vascular biomarkers in AngioVue OCTA,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. (in review).

Cavallerano, J. D.

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, J. K. Sun, A. Z. Soliman, L. M. Aiello, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified by mydriatic ultrawide field imaging: Distribution and potential impact on diabetic retinopathy severity,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2587–2595 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cennamo, G.

G. Cennamo, M. R. Romano, G. Nicoletti, N. Velotti, and G. de Crecchio, “Optical coherence tomography angiography versus fluorescein angiography in the diagnosis of ischaemic diabetic maculopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(1), e36–e42 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chai, H.

P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, A.

A. Chan, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Normal macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using Stratus optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 124(2), 193–198 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, C. K.

F. Tang, Z. Sun, R. Wong, J. Lok, A. Lam, C. C. Tham, C. K. Chan, S. Mohamed, T. C. Lam, S. K. Szeto, D. S. Ng, and C. Y. Cheung, “Relationship of intercapillary area with visual acuity in diabetes mellitus: An optical coherence tomography angiography study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2018312010 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, E.

L. Z. Wu, Z. S. Huang, D. Z. Wu, and E. Chan, “Characteristics of the capillary-free zone in the normal human macula,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 29(4), 406–411 (1985).
[PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheung, C. Y.

F. Tang, Z. Sun, R. Wong, J. Lok, A. Lam, C. C. Tham, C. K. Chan, S. Mohamed, T. C. Lam, S. K. Szeto, D. S. Ng, and C. Y. Cheung, “Relationship of intercapillary area with visual acuity in diabetes mellitus: An optical coherence tomography angiography study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2018312010 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheung, N.

N. Cheung, P. Mitchell, and T. Y. Wong, “Diabetic retinopathy,” Lancet 376(9735), 124–136 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chidambara, L.

D. Bhanushali, N. Anegondi, S. G. Gadde, P. Srinivasan, L. Chidambara, N. K. Yadav, and A. Sinha Roy, “Linking retinal microvasculature features with severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT519 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chisholm, I. H.

T. J. Ffytche, J. S. Shilling, I. H. Chisholm, and J. L. Federman, “Indications for fluorescein angiography in disease of the ocular fundus: A review,” J. R. Soc. Med. 73(5), 362–365 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chui, T.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chui, T. Y.

S. Mo, E. Phillips, B. D. Krawitz, R. Garg, S. Salim, L. S. Geyman, E. Efstathiadis, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. Chui, “Visualization of radial peripapillary capillaries using optical coherence tomography angiography: The effect of image averaging,” PLoS One 12(1), e0169385 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pinhas, M. Razeen, M. Dubow, A. Gan, T. Y. Chui, N. Shah, M. Mehta, R. C. Gentile, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Assessment of perfused foveal microvascular density and identification of nonperfused capillaries in healthy and vasculopathic eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8056–8066 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, D. A. VanNasdale, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “The association between the foveal avascular zone and retinal thickness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(10), 6870–6877 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chui, T. Y. P.

B. D. Krawitz, E. Phillips, R. D. Bavier, S. Mo, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. P. Chui, “Parafoveal nonperfusion analysis in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(4), 4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, L. S. Geyman, S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, P. M. Garcia, T. Y. P. Chui, and R. B. Rosen, “Acircularity index and axis ratio of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes and healthy controls measured by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Vision Res. 139, 177–186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. G. Schmidt, R. Linderman, M. Strampe, T. Y. P. Chui, R. B. Rosen, and J. Carroll, “The utility of frame averaging for automated algorithms in analyzing retinal vascular biomarkers in AngioVue OCTA,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. (in review).

Condit, R.

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conrath, J.

J. Conrath, R. Giorgi, D. Raccah, and B. Ridings, “Foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy: Quantitative vs qualitative assessment,” Eye (Lond.) 19(3), 322–326 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooney, M. J.

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cringle, S. J.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crosby-Nwaobi, R.

S. Sivaprasad, B. Gupta, R. Crosby-Nwaobi, and J. Evans, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in various ethnic groups: A worldwide perspective,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 57(4), 347–370 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Crecchio, G.

G. Cennamo, M. R. Romano, G. Nicoletti, N. Velotti, and G. de Crecchio, “Optical coherence tomography angiography versus fluorescein angiography in the diagnosis of ischaemic diabetic maculopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(1), e36–e42 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Nicola, C.

R. Mastropasqua, L. Toto, A. Mastropasqua, R. Aloia, C. De Nicola, P. A. Mattei, G. Di Marzio, M. Di Nicola, and L. Di Antonio, “Foveal avascular zone area and parafoveal vessel density measurements in different stages of diabetic retinopathy by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 10(10), 1545–1551 (2017).
[PubMed]

Dhrami-Gavazi, E.

C. Balaratnasingam, M. Inoue, S. Ahn, J. McCann, E. Dhrami-Gavazi, L. A. Yannuzzi, and K. B. Freund, “Visual acuity is correlated with the area of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmology 123(11), 2352–2367 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di, G.

G. Di, Y. Weihong, Z. Xiao, Y. Zhikun, Z. Xuan, Q. Yi, and D. Fangtian, “A morphological study of the foveal avascular zone in patients with diabetes mellitus using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(5), 873–879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Antonio, L.

R. Mastropasqua, L. Toto, A. Mastropasqua, R. Aloia, C. De Nicola, P. A. Mattei, G. Di Marzio, M. Di Nicola, and L. Di Antonio, “Foveal avascular zone area and parafoveal vessel density measurements in different stages of diabetic retinopathy by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 10(10), 1545–1551 (2017).
[PubMed]

Di Marzio, G.

R. Mastropasqua, L. Toto, A. Mastropasqua, R. Aloia, C. De Nicola, P. A. Mattei, G. Di Marzio, M. Di Nicola, and L. Di Antonio, “Foveal avascular zone area and parafoveal vessel density measurements in different stages of diabetic retinopathy by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 10(10), 1545–1551 (2017).
[PubMed]

Di Nicola, M.

R. Mastropasqua, L. Toto, A. Mastropasqua, R. Aloia, C. De Nicola, P. A. Mattei, G. Di Marzio, M. Di Nicola, and L. Di Antonio, “Foveal avascular zone area and parafoveal vessel density measurements in different stages of diabetic retinopathy by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 10(10), 1545–1551 (2017).
[PubMed]

Dmuchowska, D. A.

D. A. Dmuchowska, P. Krasnicki, and Z. Mariak, “Can optical coherence tomography replace fluorescein angiography in detection of ischemic diabetic maculopathy?” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(5), 731–738 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobre, G. M.

Du, Y. D.

J. Tang, S. Mohr, Y. D. Du, and T. S. Kern, “Non-uniform distribution of lesions and biochemical abnormalities within the retina of diabetic humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 27(1), 7–13 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubow, M.

A. Pinhas, M. Razeen, M. Dubow, A. Gan, T. Y. Chui, N. Shah, M. Mehta, R. C. Gentile, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Assessment of perfused foveal microvascular density and identification of nonperfused capillaries in healthy and vasculopathic eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8056–8066 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubra, A.

A. Pinhas, M. Razeen, M. Dubow, A. Gan, T. Y. Chui, N. Shah, M. Mehta, R. C. Gentile, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Assessment of perfused foveal microvascular density and identification of nonperfused capillaries in healthy and vasculopathic eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8056–8066 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duh, E. J.

E. J. Duh, J. K. Sun, and A. W. Stitt, “Diabetic retinopathy: Current understanding, mechanisms, and treatment strategies,” JCI Insight 2(14), e93751 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

A. Chan, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Normal macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using Stratus optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 124(2), 193–198 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edgar, D. F.

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, “Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232(6), 361–367 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Efstathiadis, E.

S. Mo, E. Phillips, B. D. Krawitz, R. Garg, S. Salim, L. S. Geyman, E. Efstathiadis, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. Chui, “Visualization of radial peripapillary capillaries using optical coherence tomography angiography: The effect of image averaging,” PLoS One 12(1), e0169385 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eliceiri, K. W.

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elsner, A. E.

T. Y. Chui, D. A. VanNasdale, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “The association between the foveal avascular zone and retinal thickness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(10), 6870–6877 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engerman, R. L.

T. S. Kern and R. L. Engerman, “Vascular lesions in diabetes are distributed non-uniformly within the retina,” Exp. Eye Res. 60(5), 545–549 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, J.

S. Sivaprasad, B. Gupta, R. Crosby-Nwaobi, and J. Evans, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in various ethnic groups: A worldwide perspective,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 57(4), 347–370 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fangtian, D.

G. Di, Y. Weihong, Z. Xiao, Y. Zhikun, Z. Xuan, Q. Yi, and D. Fangtian, “A morphological study of the foveal avascular zone in patients with diabetes mellitus using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(5), 873–879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fawzi, A. A.

P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Federman, J. L.

T. J. Ffytche, J. S. Shilling, I. H. Chisholm, and J. L. Federman, “Indications for fluorescein angiography in disease of the ocular fundus: A review,” J. R. Soc. Med. 73(5), 362–365 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferenczy, S.

G. N. Magrath, E. A. T. Say, K. Sioufi, S. Ferenczy, W. A. Samara, and C. L. Shields, “Variability in foveal avascular zone and capillary density using optical coherence tomography angiography machines in healthy eyes,” Retina 37(11), 2102–2111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ffytche, T. J.

T. J. Ffytche, J. S. Shilling, I. H. Chisholm, and J. L. Federman, “Indications for fluorescein angiography in disease of the ocular fundus: A review,” J. R. Soc. Med. 73(5), 362–365 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fingler, J.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Noninvasive imaging of the foveal avascular zone with high-speed, phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 85–92 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Noninvasive imaging of the foveal avascular zone with high-speed, phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 85–92 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freiberg, F. J.

F. J. Freiberg, M. Pfau, J. Wons, M. A. Wirth, M. D. Becker, and S. Michels, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(6), 1051–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freund, K. B.

C. Balaratnasingam, M. Inoue, S. Ahn, J. McCann, E. Dhrami-Gavazi, L. A. Yannuzzi, and K. B. Freund, “Visual acuity is correlated with the area of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmology 123(11), 2352–2367 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chan, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Normal macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using Stratus optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 124(2), 193–198 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, M.

Y. Miwa, T. Murakami, K. Suzuma, A. Uji, S. Yoshitake, M. Fujimoto, T. Yoshitake, Y. Tamura, and N. Yoshimura, “Relationship between functional and structural changes in diabetic vessels in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29064 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Funatsu, H.

K. Sakata, H. Funatsu, S. Harino, H. Noma, and S. Hori, “Relationship of macular microcirculation and retinal thickness with visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(11), 2061–2069 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gadde, S. G.

D. Bhanushali, N. Anegondi, S. G. Gadde, P. Srinivasan, L. Chidambara, N. K. Yadav, and A. Sinha Roy, “Linking retinal microvasculature features with severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT519 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, A.

A. Pinhas, M. Razeen, M. Dubow, A. Gan, T. Y. Chui, N. Shah, M. Mehta, R. C. Gentile, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Assessment of perfused foveal microvascular density and identification of nonperfused capillaries in healthy and vasculopathic eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8056–8066 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia, P.

Garcia, P. M.

B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, L. S. Geyman, S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, P. M. Garcia, T. Y. P. Chui, and R. B. Rosen, “Acircularity index and axis ratio of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes and healthy controls measured by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Vision Res. 139, 177–186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garg, R.

S. Mo, E. Phillips, B. D. Krawitz, R. Garg, S. Salim, L. S. Geyman, E. Efstathiadis, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. Chui, “Visualization of radial peripapillary capillaries using optical coherence tomography angiography: The effect of image averaging,” PLoS One 12(1), e0169385 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gentile, R. C.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pinhas, M. Razeen, M. Dubow, A. Gan, T. Y. Chui, N. Shah, M. Mehta, R. C. Gentile, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Assessment of perfused foveal microvascular density and identification of nonperfused capillaries in healthy and vasculopathic eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8056–8066 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geyman, L. S.

B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, L. S. Geyman, S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, P. M. Garcia, T. Y. P. Chui, and R. B. Rosen, “Acircularity index and axis ratio of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes and healthy controls measured by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Vision Res. 139, 177–186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mo, E. Phillips, B. D. Krawitz, R. Garg, S. Salim, L. S. Geyman, E. Efstathiadis, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. Chui, “Visualization of radial peripapillary capillaries using optical coherence tomography angiography: The effect of image averaging,” PLoS One 12(1), e0169385 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghasemi Falavarjani, K.

K. Ghasemi Falavarjani, N. A. Iafe, J. P. Hubschman, I. Tsui, S. R. Sadda, and D. Sarraf, “Optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of the foveal avascular zone and macular vessel density after anti-vegf therapy in eyes with diabetic macular edema and retinal vein occlusion,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(1), 30–34 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giorgi, R.

J. Conrath, R. Giorgi, D. Raccah, and B. Ridings, “Foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy: Quantitative vs qualitative assessment,” Eye (Lond.) 19(3), 322–326 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Groo, A.

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, B.

S. Sivaprasad, B. Gupta, R. Crosby-Nwaobi, and J. Evans, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in various ethnic groups: A worldwide perspective,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 57(4), 347–370 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hagag, A. M.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. Smith, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion areas in 3 vascular plexuses with optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes of patients with diabetes,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(8), 929–936 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harino, S.

K. Sakata, H. Funatsu, S. Harino, H. Noma, and S. Hori, “Relationship of macular microcirculation and retinal thickness with visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(11), 2061–2069 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartnett, M. E.

M. E. Hartnett, W. Baehr, and Y. Z. Le, “Diabetic retinopathy, an overview,” Vision Res. 139, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hathaway, M.

Hayami, T.

Y. Kaizu, S. Nakao, S. Yoshida, T. Hayami, M. Arima, M. Yamaguchi, I. Wada, T. Hisatomi, Y. Ikeda, T. Ishibashi, and K. H. Sonoda, “Optical coherence tomography angiography reveals spatial bias of macular capillary dropout in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(11), 4889–4897 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hisatomi, T.

Y. Kaizu, S. Nakao, S. Yoshida, T. Hayami, M. Arima, M. Yamaguchi, I. Wada, T. Hisatomi, Y. Ikeda, T. Ishibashi, and K. H. Sonoda, “Optical coherence tomography angiography reveals spatial bias of macular capillary dropout in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(11), 4889–4897 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hori, S.

K. Sakata, H. Funatsu, S. Harino, H. Noma, and S. Hori, “Relationship of macular microcirculation and retinal thickness with visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(11), 2061–2069 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornegger, J.

Hsiao, Y. S.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. Smith, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion areas in 3 vascular plexuses with optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes of patients with diabetes,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(8), 929–936 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z. S.

L. Z. Wu, Z. S. Huang, D. Z. Wu, and E. Chan, “Characteristics of the capillary-free zone in the normal human macula,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 29(4), 406–411 (1985).
[PubMed]

Hubschman, J. P.

K. Ghasemi Falavarjani, N. A. Iafe, J. P. Hubschman, I. Tsui, S. R. Sadda, and D. Sarraf, “Optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of the foveal avascular zone and macular vessel density after anti-vegf therapy in eyes with diabetic macular edema and retinal vein occlusion,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(1), 30–34 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, T.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, T. S.

T. S. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. Smith, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion areas in 3 vascular plexuses with optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes of patients with diabetes,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(8), 929–936 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iafe, N. A.

K. Ghasemi Falavarjani, N. A. Iafe, J. P. Hubschman, I. Tsui, S. R. Sadda, and D. Sarraf, “Optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of the foveal avascular zone and macular vessel density after anti-vegf therapy in eyes with diabetic macular edema and retinal vein occlusion,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(1), 30–34 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikeda, Y.

Y. Kaizu, S. Nakao, S. Yoshida, T. Hayami, M. Arima, M. Yamaguchi, I. Wada, T. Hisatomi, Y. Ikeda, T. Ishibashi, and K. H. Sonoda, “Optical coherence tomography angiography reveals spatial bias of macular capillary dropout in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(11), 4889–4897 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inoue, M.

C. Balaratnasingam, M. Inoue, S. Ahn, J. McCann, E. Dhrami-Gavazi, L. A. Yannuzzi, and K. B. Freund, “Visual acuity is correlated with the area of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmology 123(11), 2352–2367 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishibashi, T.

Y. Kaizu, S. Nakao, S. Yoshida, T. Hayami, M. Arima, M. Yamaguchi, I. Wada, T. Hisatomi, Y. Ikeda, T. Ishibashi, and K. H. Sonoda, “Optical coherence tomography angiography reveals spatial bias of macular capillary dropout in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(11), 4889–4897 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishibazawa, A.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: A prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jampol, L. M.

P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. Smith, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion areas in 3 vascular plexuses with optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes of patients with diabetes,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(8), 929–936 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaizu, Y.

Y. Kaizu, S. Nakao, S. Yoshida, T. Hayami, M. Arima, M. Yamaguchi, I. Wada, T. Hisatomi, Y. Ikeda, T. Ishibashi, and K. H. Sonoda, “Optical coherence tomography angiography reveals spatial bias of macular capillary dropout in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(11), 4889–4897 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kato, A.

N. Takase, M. Nozaki, A. Kato, H. Ozeki, M. Yoshida, and Y. Ogura, “Enlargement of foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes evaluated by en face optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2377–2383 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kern, T. S.

J. Tang, S. Mohr, Y. D. Du, and T. S. Kern, “Non-uniform distribution of lesions and biochemical abnormalities within the retina of diabetic humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 27(1), 7–13 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Kern and R. L. Engerman, “Vascular lesions in diabetes are distributed non-uniformly within the retina,” Exp. Eye Res. 60(5), 545–549 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Noninvasive imaging of the foveal avascular zone with high-speed, phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 85–92 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klancnik, J. M.

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, T. H.

A. Chan, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Normal macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using Stratus optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 124(2), 193–198 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korth, K.

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krasnicki, P.

D. A. Dmuchowska, P. Krasnicki, and Z. Mariak, “Can optical coherence tomography replace fluorescein angiography in detection of ischemic diabetic maculopathy?” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(5), 731–738 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. F.

Krawitz, B. D.

B. D. Krawitz, E. Phillips, R. D. Bavier, S. Mo, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. P. Chui, “Parafoveal nonperfusion analysis in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(4), 4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, L. S. Geyman, S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, P. M. Garcia, T. Y. P. Chui, and R. B. Rosen, “Acircularity index and axis ratio of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes and healthy controls measured by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Vision Res. 139, 177–186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mo, E. Phillips, B. D. Krawitz, R. Garg, S. Salim, L. S. Geyman, E. Efstathiadis, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. Chui, “Visualization of radial peripapillary capillaries using optical coherence tomography angiography: The effect of image averaging,” PLoS One 12(1), e0169385 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laatikainen, L.

L. Laatikainen and J. Larinkari, “Capillary-free area of the fovea with advancing age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 16(12), 1154–1157 (1977).
[PubMed]

Laissue, P.

Lam, A.

F. Tang, Z. Sun, R. Wong, J. Lok, A. Lam, C. C. Tham, C. K. Chan, S. Mohamed, T. C. Lam, S. K. Szeto, D. S. Ng, and C. Y. Cheung, “Relationship of intercapillary area with visual acuity in diabetes mellitus: An optical coherence tomography angiography study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2018312010 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, T. C.

F. Tang, Z. Sun, R. Wong, J. Lok, A. Lam, C. C. Tham, C. K. Chan, S. Mohamed, T. C. Lam, S. K. Szeto, D. S. Ng, and C. Y. Cheung, “Relationship of intercapillary area with visual acuity in diabetes mellitus: An optical coherence tomography angiography study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2018312010 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larinkari, J.

L. Laatikainen and J. Larinkari, “Capillary-free area of the fovea with advancing age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 16(12), 1154–1157 (1977).
[PubMed]

Le, Y. Z.

M. E. Hartnett, W. Baehr, and Y. Z. Le, “Diabetic retinopathy, an overview,” Vision Res. 139, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. G.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, J.

A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Impact of multiple en face image averaging on quantitative assessment from optical coherence tomography angiography images,” Ophthalmology 124(7), 944–952 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Choriocapillaris imaging using multiple en face optical coherence tomography angiography image averaging,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(11), 1197–1204 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linderman, R.

T. G. Schmidt, R. Linderman, M. Strampe, T. Y. P. Chui, R. B. Rosen, and J. Carroll, “The utility of frame averaging for automated algorithms in analyzing retinal vascular biomarkers in AngioVue OCTA,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. (in review).

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lok, J.

F. Tang, Z. Sun, R. Wong, J. Lok, A. Lam, C. C. Tham, C. K. Chan, S. Mohamed, T. C. Lam, S. K. Szeto, D. S. Ng, and C. Y. Cheung, “Relationship of intercapillary area with visual acuity in diabetes mellitus: An optical coherence tomography angiography study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2018312010 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, B.

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magrath, G. N.

G. N. Magrath, E. A. T. Say, K. Sioufi, S. Ferenczy, W. A. Samara, and C. L. Shields, “Variability in foveal avascular zone and capillary density using optical coherence tomography angiography machines in healthy eyes,” Retina 37(11), 2102–2111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mariak, Z.

D. A. Dmuchowska, P. Krasnicki, and Z. Mariak, “Can optical coherence tomography replace fluorescein angiography in detection of ischemic diabetic maculopathy?” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(5), 731–738 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mastropasqua, A.

R. Mastropasqua, L. Toto, A. Mastropasqua, R. Aloia, C. De Nicola, P. A. Mattei, G. Di Marzio, M. Di Nicola, and L. Di Antonio, “Foveal avascular zone area and parafoveal vessel density measurements in different stages of diabetic retinopathy by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 10(10), 1545–1551 (2017).
[PubMed]

Mastropasqua, R.

R. Mastropasqua, L. Toto, A. Mastropasqua, R. Aloia, C. De Nicola, P. A. Mattei, G. Di Marzio, M. Di Nicola, and L. Di Antonio, “Foveal avascular zone area and parafoveal vessel density measurements in different stages of diabetic retinopathy by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 10(10), 1545–1551 (2017).
[PubMed]

Mattei, P. A.

R. Mastropasqua, L. Toto, A. Mastropasqua, R. Aloia, C. De Nicola, P. A. Mattei, G. Di Marzio, M. Di Nicola, and L. Di Antonio, “Foveal avascular zone area and parafoveal vessel density measurements in different stages of diabetic retinopathy by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 10(10), 1545–1551 (2017).
[PubMed]

McAllister, I. L.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCann, J.

C. Balaratnasingam, M. Inoue, S. Ahn, J. McCann, E. Dhrami-Gavazi, L. A. Yannuzzi, and K. B. Freund, “Visual acuity is correlated with the area of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmology 123(11), 2352–2367 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehta, M.

A. Pinhas, M. Razeen, M. Dubow, A. Gan, T. Y. Chui, N. Shah, M. Mehta, R. C. Gentile, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Assessment of perfused foveal microvascular density and identification of nonperfused capillaries in healthy and vasculopathic eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8056–8066 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mendis, K. R.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michels, S.

F. J. Freiberg, M. Pfau, J. Wons, M. A. Wirth, M. D. Becker, and S. Michels, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(6), 1051–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitchell, P.

N. Cheung, P. Mitchell, and T. Y. Wong, “Diabetic retinopathy,” Lancet 376(9735), 124–136 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miwa, Y.

Y. Miwa, T. Murakami, K. Suzuma, A. Uji, S. Yoshitake, M. Fujimoto, T. Yoshitake, Y. Tamura, and N. Yoshimura, “Relationship between functional and structural changes in diabetic vessels in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29064 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mo, S.

B. D. Krawitz, E. Phillips, R. D. Bavier, S. Mo, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. P. Chui, “Parafoveal nonperfusion analysis in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(4), 4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, L. S. Geyman, S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, P. M. Garcia, T. Y. P. Chui, and R. B. Rosen, “Acircularity index and axis ratio of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes and healthy controls measured by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Vision Res. 139, 177–186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mo, E. Phillips, B. D. Krawitz, R. Garg, S. Salim, L. S. Geyman, E. Efstathiadis, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. Chui, “Visualization of radial peripapillary capillaries using optical coherence tomography angiography: The effect of image averaging,” PLoS One 12(1), e0169385 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohamed, S.

F. Tang, Z. Sun, R. Wong, J. Lok, A. Lam, C. C. Tham, C. K. Chan, S. Mohamed, T. C. Lam, S. K. Szeto, D. S. Ng, and C. Y. Cheung, “Relationship of intercapillary area with visual acuity in diabetes mellitus: An optical coherence tomography angiography study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2018312010 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohr, S.

J. Tang, S. Mohr, Y. D. Du, and T. S. Kern, “Non-uniform distribution of lesions and biochemical abnormalities within the retina of diabetic humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 27(1), 7–13 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morse, L. S.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Noninvasive imaging of the foveal avascular zone with high-speed, phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 85–92 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murakami, T.

Y. Miwa, T. Murakami, K. Suzuma, A. Uji, S. Yoshitake, M. Fujimoto, T. Yoshitake, Y. Tamura, and N. Yoshimura, “Relationship between functional and structural changes in diabetic vessels in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29064 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagaoka, T.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: A prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakao, S.

Y. Kaizu, S. Nakao, S. Yoshida, T. Hayami, M. Arima, M. Yamaguchi, I. Wada, T. Hisatomi, Y. Ikeda, T. Ishibashi, and K. H. Sonoda, “Optical coherence tomography angiography reveals spatial bias of macular capillary dropout in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(11), 4889–4897 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nesper, P. L.

P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, D. S.

F. Tang, Z. Sun, R. Wong, J. Lok, A. Lam, C. C. Tham, C. K. Chan, S. Mohamed, T. C. Lam, S. K. Szeto, D. S. Ng, and C. Y. Cheung, “Relationship of intercapillary area with visual acuity in diabetes mellitus: An optical coherence tomography angiography study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2018312010 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicoletti, G.

G. Cennamo, M. R. Romano, G. Nicoletti, N. Velotti, and G. de Crecchio, “Optical coherence tomography angiography versus fluorescein angiography in the diagnosis of ischaemic diabetic maculopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(1), e36–e42 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noma, H.

K. Sakata, H. Funatsu, S. Harino, H. Noma, and S. Hori, “Relationship of macular microcirculation and retinal thickness with visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(11), 2061–2069 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nozaki, M.

N. Takase, M. Nozaki, A. Kato, H. Ozeki, M. Yoshida, and Y. Ogura, “Enlargement of foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes evaluated by en face optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2377–2383 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogura, Y.

N. Takase, M. Nozaki, A. Kato, H. Ozeki, M. Yoshida, and Y. Ogura, “Enlargement of foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes evaluated by en face optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2377–2383 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Omae, T.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: A prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onishi, A. C.

P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozeki, H.

N. Takase, M. Nozaki, A. Kato, H. Ozeki, M. Yoshida, and Y. Ogura, “Enlargement of foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes evaluated by en face optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2377–2383 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palta, M.

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S. S.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Noninvasive imaging of the foveal avascular zone with high-speed, phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 85–92 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pedro, J.

Pfau, M.

F. J. Freiberg, M. Pfau, J. Wons, M. A. Wirth, M. D. Becker, and S. Michels, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(6), 1051–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, E.

B. D. Krawitz, E. Phillips, R. D. Bavier, S. Mo, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. P. Chui, “Parafoveal nonperfusion analysis in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(4), 4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mo, E. Phillips, B. D. Krawitz, R. Garg, S. Salim, L. S. Geyman, E. Efstathiadis, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. Chui, “Visualization of radial peripapillary capillaries using optical coherence tomography angiography: The effect of image averaging,” PLoS One 12(1), e0169385 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pinhas, A.

A. Pinhas, M. Razeen, M. Dubow, A. Gan, T. Y. Chui, N. Shah, M. Mehta, R. C. Gentile, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Assessment of perfused foveal microvascular density and identification of nonperfused capillaries in healthy and vasculopathic eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8056–8066 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A. G.

Potsaid, B.

Qian, Y.

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raccah, D.

J. Conrath, R. Giorgi, D. Raccah, and B. Ridings, “Foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy: Quantitative vs qualitative assessment,” Eye (Lond.) 19(3), 322–326 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rasband, W. S.

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Razeen, M.

A. Pinhas, M. Razeen, M. Dubow, A. Gan, T. Y. Chui, N. Shah, M. Mehta, R. C. Gentile, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Assessment of perfused foveal microvascular density and identification of nonperfused capillaries in healthy and vasculopathic eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8056–8066 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ridings, B.

J. Conrath, R. Giorgi, D. Raccah, and B. Ridings, “Foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy: Quantitative vs qualitative assessment,” Eye (Lond.) 19(3), 322–326 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, P. K.

P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, J.

Romano, M. R.

G. Cennamo, M. R. Romano, G. Nicoletti, N. Velotti, and G. de Crecchio, “Optical coherence tomography angiography versus fluorescein angiography in the diagnosis of ischaemic diabetic maculopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(1), e36–e42 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosen, R. B.

B. D. Krawitz, E. Phillips, R. D. Bavier, S. Mo, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. P. Chui, “Parafoveal nonperfusion analysis in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(4), 4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, L. S. Geyman, S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, P. M. Garcia, T. Y. P. Chui, and R. B. Rosen, “Acircularity index and axis ratio of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes and healthy controls measured by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Vision Res. 139, 177–186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mo, E. Phillips, B. D. Krawitz, R. Garg, S. Salim, L. S. Geyman, E. Efstathiadis, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. Chui, “Visualization of radial peripapillary capillaries using optical coherence tomography angiography: The effect of image averaging,” PLoS One 12(1), e0169385 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pinhas, M. Razeen, M. Dubow, A. Gan, T. Y. Chui, N. Shah, M. Mehta, R. C. Gentile, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Assessment of perfused foveal microvascular density and identification of nonperfused capillaries in healthy and vasculopathic eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8056–8066 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. B. Rosen, M. Hathaway, J. Rogers, J. Pedro, P. Garcia, P. Laissue, G. M. Dobre, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Multidimensional en-face OCT imaging of the retina,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4112–4133 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. G. Schmidt, R. Linderman, M. Strampe, T. Y. P. Chui, R. B. Rosen, and J. Carroll, “The utility of frame averaging for automated algorithms in analyzing retinal vascular biomarkers in AngioVue OCTA,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. (in review).

Rudnicka, A. R.

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, “Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232(6), 361–367 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadda, S. R.

A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Choriocapillaris imaging using multiple en face optical coherence tomography angiography image averaging,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(11), 1197–1204 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Impact of multiple en face image averaging on quantitative assessment from optical coherence tomography angiography images,” Ophthalmology 124(7), 944–952 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ghasemi Falavarjani, N. A. Iafe, J. P. Hubschman, I. Tsui, S. R. Sadda, and D. Sarraf, “Optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of the foveal avascular zone and macular vessel density after anti-vegf therapy in eyes with diabetic macular edema and retinal vein occlusion,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(1), 30–34 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakata, K.

K. Sakata, H. Funatsu, S. Harino, H. Noma, and S. Hori, “Relationship of macular microcirculation and retinal thickness with visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(11), 2061–2069 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salim, S.

S. Mo, E. Phillips, B. D. Krawitz, R. Garg, S. Salim, L. S. Geyman, E. Efstathiadis, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. Chui, “Visualization of radial peripapillary capillaries using optical coherence tomography angiography: The effect of image averaging,” PLoS One 12(1), e0169385 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salz, D. A.

D. A. Salz and A. J. Witkin, “Imaging in diabetic retinopathy,” Middle East Afr. J. Ophthalmol. 22(2), 145–150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samara, W. A.

G. N. Magrath, E. A. T. Say, K. Sioufi, S. Ferenczy, W. A. Samara, and C. L. Shields, “Variability in foveal avascular zone and capillary density using optical coherence tomography angiography machines in healthy eyes,” Retina 37(11), 2102–2111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarraf, D.

K. Ghasemi Falavarjani, N. A. Iafe, J. P. Hubschman, I. Tsui, S. R. Sadda, and D. Sarraf, “Optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of the foveal avascular zone and macular vessel density after anti-vegf therapy in eyes with diabetic macular edema and retinal vein occlusion,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(1), 30–34 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Say, E. A. T.

G. N. Magrath, E. A. T. Say, K. Sioufi, S. Ferenczy, W. A. Samara, and C. L. Shields, “Variability in foveal avascular zone and capillary density using optical coherence tomography angiography machines in healthy eyes,” Retina 37(11), 2102–2111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, T. G.

T. G. Schmidt, R. Linderman, M. Strampe, T. Y. P. Chui, R. B. Rosen, and J. Carroll, “The utility of frame averaging for automated algorithms in analyzing retinal vascular biomarkers in AngioVue OCTA,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. (in review).

Schneider, C. A.

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

A. Chan, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Normal macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using Stratus optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 124(2), 193–198 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, D. M.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Noninvasive imaging of the foveal avascular zone with high-speed, phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 85–92 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scripsema, N. K.

B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, L. S. Geyman, S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, P. M. Garcia, T. Y. P. Chui, and R. B. Rosen, “Acircularity index and axis ratio of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes and healthy controls measured by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Vision Res. 139, 177–186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, C. M.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, N.

A. Pinhas, M. Razeen, M. Dubow, A. Gan, T. Y. Chui, N. Shah, M. Mehta, R. C. Gentile, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Assessment of perfused foveal microvascular density and identification of nonperfused capillaries in healthy and vasculopathic eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8056–8066 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shields, C. L.

G. N. Magrath, E. A. T. Say, K. Sioufi, S. Ferenczy, W. A. Samara, and C. L. Shields, “Variability in foveal avascular zone and capillary density using optical coherence tomography angiography machines in healthy eyes,” Retina 37(11), 2102–2111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shilling, J. S.

T. J. Ffytche, J. S. Shilling, I. H. Chisholm, and J. L. Federman, “Indications for fluorescein angiography in disease of the ocular fundus: A review,” J. R. Soc. Med. 73(5), 362–365 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silva, P. S.

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, J. K. Sun, A. Z. Soliman, L. M. Aiello, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified by mydriatic ultrawide field imaging: Distribution and potential impact on diabetic retinopathy severity,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2587–2595 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simonett, J. M.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sinha Roy, A.

D. Bhanushali, N. Anegondi, S. G. Gadde, P. Srinivasan, L. Chidambara, N. K. Yadav, and A. Sinha Roy, “Linking retinal microvasculature features with severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT519 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sioufi, K.

G. N. Magrath, E. A. T. Say, K. Sioufi, S. Ferenczy, W. A. Samara, and C. L. Shields, “Variability in foveal avascular zone and capillary density using optical coherence tomography angiography machines in healthy eyes,” Retina 37(11), 2102–2111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivaprasad, S.

S. Sivaprasad, B. Gupta, R. Crosby-Nwaobi, and J. Evans, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in various ethnic groups: A worldwide perspective,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 57(4), 347–370 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, A.

T. S. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. Smith, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion areas in 3 vascular plexuses with optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes of patients with diabetes,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(8), 929–936 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sogawa, K.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: A prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soliman, A. Z.

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, J. K. Sun, A. Z. Soliman, L. M. Aiello, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified by mydriatic ultrawide field imaging: Distribution and potential impact on diabetic retinopathy severity,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2587–2595 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonoda, K. H.

Y. Kaizu, S. Nakao, S. Yoshida, T. Hayami, M. Arima, M. Yamaguchi, I. Wada, T. Hisatomi, Y. Ikeda, T. Ishibashi, and K. H. Sonoda, “Optical coherence tomography angiography reveals spatial bias of macular capillary dropout in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(11), 4889–4897 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spaide, R. F.

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, P.

D. Bhanushali, N. Anegondi, S. G. Gadde, P. Srinivasan, L. Chidambara, N. K. Yadav, and A. Sinha Roy, “Linking retinal microvasculature features with severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT519 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stitt, A. W.

E. J. Duh, J. K. Sun, and A. W. Stitt, “Diabetic retinopathy: Current understanding, mechanisms, and treatment strategies,” JCI Insight 2(14), e93751 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strampe, M.

T. G. Schmidt, R. Linderman, M. Strampe, T. Y. P. Chui, R. B. Rosen, and J. Carroll, “The utility of frame averaging for automated algorithms in analyzing retinal vascular biomarkers in AngioVue OCTA,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. (in review).

Subhash, H.

Sulai, Y. N.

A. Pinhas, M. Razeen, M. Dubow, A. Gan, T. Y. Chui, N. Shah, M. Mehta, R. C. Gentile, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Assessment of perfused foveal microvascular density and identification of nonperfused capillaries in healthy and vasculopathic eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8056–8066 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, J. K.

E. J. Duh, J. K. Sun, and A. W. Stitt, “Diabetic retinopathy: Current understanding, mechanisms, and treatment strategies,” JCI Insight 2(14), e93751 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, J. K. Sun, A. Z. Soliman, L. M. Aiello, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified by mydriatic ultrawide field imaging: Distribution and potential impact on diabetic retinopathy severity,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2587–2595 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Z.

F. Tang, Z. Sun, R. Wong, J. Lok, A. Lam, C. C. Tham, C. K. Chan, S. Mohamed, T. C. Lam, S. K. Szeto, D. S. Ng, and C. Y. Cheung, “Relationship of intercapillary area with visual acuity in diabetes mellitus: An optical coherence tomography angiography study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2018312010 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suzuma, K.

Y. Miwa, T. Murakami, K. Suzuma, A. Uji, S. Yoshitake, M. Fujimoto, T. Yoshitake, Y. Tamura, and N. Yoshimura, “Relationship between functional and structural changes in diabetic vessels in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29064 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Syrjala, S.

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szeto, S. K.

F. Tang, Z. Sun, R. Wong, J. Lok, A. Lam, C. C. Tham, C. K. Chan, S. Mohamed, T. C. Lam, S. K. Szeto, D. S. Ng, and C. Y. Cheung, “Relationship of intercapillary area with visual acuity in diabetes mellitus: An optical coherence tomography angiography study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2018312010 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, A.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: A prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takase, N.

N. Takase, M. Nozaki, A. Kato, H. Ozeki, M. Yoshida, and Y. Ogura, “Enlargement of foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes evaluated by en face optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2377–2383 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamura, Y.

Y. Miwa, T. Murakami, K. Suzuma, A. Uji, S. Yoshitake, M. Fujimoto, T. Yoshitake, Y. Tamura, and N. Yoshimura, “Relationship between functional and structural changes in diabetic vessels in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29064 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

Tang, F.

F. Tang, Z. Sun, R. Wong, J. Lok, A. Lam, C. C. Tham, C. K. Chan, S. Mohamed, T. C. Lam, S. K. Szeto, D. S. Ng, and C. Y. Cheung, “Relationship of intercapillary area with visual acuity in diabetes mellitus: An optical coherence tomography angiography study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2018312010 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, J.

J. Tang, S. Mohr, Y. D. Du, and T. S. Kern, “Non-uniform distribution of lesions and biochemical abnormalities within the retina of diabetic humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 27(1), 7–13 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tani, T.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: A prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tham, C. C.

F. Tang, Z. Sun, R. Wong, J. Lok, A. Lam, C. C. Tham, C. K. Chan, S. Mohamed, T. C. Lam, S. K. Szeto, D. S. Ng, and C. Y. Cheung, “Relationship of intercapillary area with visual acuity in diabetes mellitus: An optical coherence tomography angiography study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2018312010 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tokayer, J.

Toto, L.

R. Mastropasqua, L. Toto, A. Mastropasqua, R. Aloia, C. De Nicola, P. A. Mattei, G. Di Marzio, M. Di Nicola, and L. Di Antonio, “Foveal avascular zone area and parafoveal vessel density measurements in different stages of diabetic retinopathy by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 10(10), 1545–1551 (2017).
[PubMed]

Tsui, I.

K. Ghasemi Falavarjani, N. A. Iafe, J. P. Hubschman, I. Tsui, S. R. Sadda, and D. Sarraf, “Optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of the foveal avascular zone and macular vessel density after anti-vegf therapy in eyes with diabetic macular edema and retinal vein occlusion,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(1), 30–34 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uji, A.

A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Impact of multiple en face image averaging on quantitative assessment from optical coherence tomography angiography images,” Ophthalmology 124(7), 944–952 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Choriocapillaris imaging using multiple en face optical coherence tomography angiography image averaging,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(11), 1197–1204 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Miwa, T. Murakami, K. Suzuma, A. Uji, S. Yoshitake, M. Fujimoto, T. Yoshitake, Y. Tamura, and N. Yoshimura, “Relationship between functional and structural changes in diabetic vessels in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29064 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

VanNasdale, D. A.

T. Y. Chui, D. A. VanNasdale, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “The association between the foveal avascular zone and retinal thickness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(10), 6870–6877 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velotti, N.

G. Cennamo, M. R. Romano, G. Nicoletti, N. Velotti, and G. de Crecchio, “Optical coherence tomography angiography versus fluorescein angiography in the diagnosis of ischaemic diabetic maculopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(1), e36–e42 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wada, I.

Y. Kaizu, S. Nakao, S. Yoshida, T. Hayami, M. Arima, M. Yamaguchi, I. Wada, T. Hisatomi, Y. Ikeda, T. Ishibashi, and K. H. Sonoda, “Optical coherence tomography angiography reveals spatial bias of macular capillary dropout in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(11), 4889–4897 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waheed, N. K.

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. B.

A. Pinhas, M. Razeen, M. Dubow, A. Gan, T. Y. Chui, N. Shah, M. Mehta, R. C. Gentile, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Assessment of perfused foveal microvascular density and identification of nonperfused capillaries in healthy and vasculopathic eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8056–8066 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

T. S. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. Smith, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion areas in 3 vascular plexuses with optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes of patients with diabetes,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(8), 929–936 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weihong, Y.

G. Di, Y. Weihong, Z. Xiao, Y. Zhikun, Z. Xuan, Q. Yi, and D. Fangtian, “A morphological study of the foveal avascular zone in patients with diabetes mellitus using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(5), 873–879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weitz, R.

A. Pinhas, M. Razeen, M. Dubow, A. Gan, T. Y. Chui, N. Shah, M. Mehta, R. C. Gentile, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Assessment of perfused foveal microvascular density and identification of nonperfused capillaries in healthy and vasculopathic eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8056–8066 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Noninvasive imaging of the foveal avascular zone with high-speed, phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 85–92 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. J.

T. S. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. Smith, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion areas in 3 vascular plexuses with optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes of patients with diabetes,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(8), 929–936 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirth, M. A.

F. J. Freiberg, M. Pfau, J. Wons, M. A. Wirth, M. D. Becker, and S. Michels, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(6), 1051–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Witkin, A. J.

D. A. Salz and A. J. Witkin, “Imaging in diabetic retinopathy,” Middle East Afr. J. Ophthalmol. 22(2), 145–150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, R.

F. Tang, Z. Sun, R. Wong, J. Lok, A. Lam, C. C. Tham, C. K. Chan, S. Mohamed, T. C. Lam, S. K. Szeto, D. S. Ng, and C. Y. Cheung, “Relationship of intercapillary area with visual acuity in diabetes mellitus: An optical coherence tomography angiography study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2018312010 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, T. Y.

N. Cheung, P. Mitchell, and T. Y. Wong, “Diabetic retinopathy,” Lancet 376(9735), 124–136 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wons, J.

F. J. Freiberg, M. Pfau, J. Wons, M. A. Wirth, M. D. Becker, and S. Michels, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(6), 1051–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, D. Z.

L. Z. Wu, Z. S. Huang, D. Z. Wu, and E. Chan, “Characteristics of the capillary-free zone in the normal human macula,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 29(4), 406–411 (1985).
[PubMed]

Wu, L. Z.

L. Z. Wu, Z. S. Huang, D. Z. Wu, and E. Chan, “Characteristics of the capillary-free zone in the normal human macula,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 29(4), 406–411 (1985).
[PubMed]

Xiao, Z.

G. Di, Y. Weihong, Z. Xiao, Y. Zhikun, Z. Xuan, Q. Yi, and D. Fangtian, “A morphological study of the foveal avascular zone in patients with diabetes mellitus using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(5), 873–879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xuan, Z.

G. Di, Y. Weihong, Z. Xiao, Y. Zhikun, Z. Xuan, Q. Yi, and D. Fangtian, “A morphological study of the foveal avascular zone in patients with diabetes mellitus using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(5), 873–879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yadav, N. K.

D. Bhanushali, N. Anegondi, S. G. Gadde, P. Srinivasan, L. Chidambara, N. K. Yadav, and A. Sinha Roy, “Linking retinal microvasculature features with severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT519 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, M.

Y. Kaizu, S. Nakao, S. Yoshida, T. Hayami, M. Arima, M. Yamaguchi, I. Wada, T. Hisatomi, Y. Ikeda, T. Ishibashi, and K. H. Sonoda, “Optical coherence tomography angiography reveals spatial bias of macular capillary dropout in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(11), 4889–4897 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yannuzzi, L. A.

C. Balaratnasingam, M. Inoue, S. Ahn, J. McCann, E. Dhrami-Gavazi, L. A. Yannuzzi, and K. B. Freund, “Visual acuity is correlated with the area of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmology 123(11), 2352–2367 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, Q.

G. Di, Y. Weihong, Z. Xiao, Y. Zhikun, Z. Xuan, Q. Yi, and D. Fangtian, “A morphological study of the foveal avascular zone in patients with diabetes mellitus using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(5), 873–879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokota, H.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: A prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshida, A.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: A prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshida, M.

N. Takase, M. Nozaki, A. Kato, H. Ozeki, M. Yoshida, and Y. Ogura, “Enlargement of foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes evaluated by en face optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2377–2383 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshida, S.

Y. Kaizu, S. Nakao, S. Yoshida, T. Hayami, M. Arima, M. Yamaguchi, I. Wada, T. Hisatomi, Y. Ikeda, T. Ishibashi, and K. H. Sonoda, “Optical coherence tomography angiography reveals spatial bias of macular capillary dropout in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(11), 4889–4897 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshimura, N.

Y. Miwa, T. Murakami, K. Suzuma, A. Uji, S. Yoshitake, M. Fujimoto, T. Yoshitake, Y. Tamura, and N. Yoshimura, “Relationship between functional and structural changes in diabetic vessels in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29064 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshitake, S.

Y. Miwa, T. Murakami, K. Suzuma, A. Uji, S. Yoshitake, M. Fujimoto, T. Yoshitake, Y. Tamura, and N. Yoshimura, “Relationship between functional and structural changes in diabetic vessels in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29064 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshitake, T.

Y. Miwa, T. Murakami, K. Suzuma, A. Uji, S. Yoshitake, M. Fujimoto, T. Yoshitake, Y. Tamura, and N. Yoshimura, “Relationship between functional and structural changes in diabetic vessels in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29064 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, D. Y.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, P.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zawadzki, R. J.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Noninvasive imaging of the foveal avascular zone with high-speed, phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 85–92 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

T. S. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. Smith, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion areas in 3 vascular plexuses with optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes of patients with diabetes,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(8), 929–936 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhikun, Y.

G. Di, Y. Weihong, Z. Xiao, Y. Zhikun, Z. Xuan, Q. Yi, and D. Fangtian, “A morphological study of the foveal avascular zone in patients with diabetes mellitus using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(5), 873–879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, D.

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

G. Cennamo, M. R. Romano, G. Nicoletti, N. Velotti, and G. de Crecchio, “Optical coherence tomography angiography versus fluorescein angiography in the diagnosis of ischaemic diabetic maculopathy,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95(1), e36–e42 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: A prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (3)

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, “Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(9), 1286–1293 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, “Color photography vs fluorescein angiography in the detection of diabetic retinopathy in the diabetes control and complications trial,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105(10), 1344–1351 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chan, J. S. Duker, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Normal macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using Stratus optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 124(2), 193–198 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

F. Tang, Z. Sun, R. Wong, J. Lok, A. Lam, C. C. Tham, C. K. Chan, S. Mohamed, T. C. Lam, S. K. Szeto, D. S. Ng, and C. Y. Cheung, “Relationship of intercapillary area with visual acuity in diabetes mellitus: An optical coherence tomography angiography study,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2018312010 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

J. Tang, S. Mohr, Y. D. Du, and T. S. Kern, “Non-uniform distribution of lesions and biochemical abnormalities within the retina of diabetic humans,” Curr. Eye Res. 27(1), 7–13 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

T. S. Kern and R. L. Engerman, “Vascular lesions in diabetes are distributed non-uniformly within the retina,” Exp. Eye Res. 60(5), 545–549 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eye (Lond.) (1)

J. Conrath, R. Giorgi, D. Raccah, and B. Ridings, “Foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy: Quantitative vs qualitative assessment,” Eye (Lond.) 19(3), 322–326 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (4)

F. J. Freiberg, M. Pfau, J. Wons, M. A. Wirth, M. D. Becker, and S. Michels, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(6), 1051–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Di, Y. Weihong, Z. Xiao, Y. Zhikun, Z. Xuan, Q. Yi, and D. Fangtian, “A morphological study of the foveal avascular zone in patients with diabetes mellitus using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(5), 873–879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Dmuchowska, P. Krasnicki, and Z. Mariak, “Can optical coherence tomography replace fluorescein angiography in detection of ischemic diabetic maculopathy?” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(5), 731–738 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, “Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232(6), 361–367 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. Mastropasqua, L. Toto, A. Mastropasqua, R. Aloia, C. De Nicola, P. A. Mattei, G. Di Marzio, M. Di Nicola, and L. Di Antonio, “Foveal avascular zone area and parafoveal vessel density measurements in different stages of diabetic retinopathy by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 10(10), 1545–1551 (2017).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (10)

P. L. Nesper, P. K. Roberts, A. C. Onishi, H. Chai, L. Liu, L. M. Jampol, and A. A. Fawzi, “Quantifying microvascular abnormalities with increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO307 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Bhanushali, N. Anegondi, S. G. Gadde, P. Srinivasan, L. Chidambara, N. K. Yadav, and A. Sinha Roy, “Linking retinal microvasculature features with severity of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT519 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of automatically quantified foveal avascular zone metrics for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D. Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Noninvasive imaging of the foveal avascular zone with high-speed, phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 85–92 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chui, D. A. VanNasdale, A. E. Elsner, and S. A. Burns, “The association between the foveal avascular zone and retinal thickness,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(10), 6870–6877 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Laatikainen and J. Larinkari, “Capillary-free area of the fovea with advancing age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 16(12), 1154–1157 (1977).
[PubMed]

K. Ghasemi Falavarjani, N. A. Iafe, J. P. Hubschman, I. Tsui, S. R. Sadda, and D. Sarraf, “Optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of the foveal avascular zone and macular vessel density after anti-vegf therapy in eyes with diabetic macular edema and retinal vein occlusion,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(1), 30–34 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kaizu, S. Nakao, S. Yoshida, T. Hayami, M. Arima, M. Yamaguchi, I. Wada, T. Hisatomi, Y. Ikeda, T. Ishibashi, and K. H. Sonoda, “Optical coherence tomography angiography reveals spatial bias of macular capillary dropout in diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(11), 4889–4897 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pinhas, M. Razeen, M. Dubow, A. Gan, T. Y. Chui, N. Shah, M. Mehta, R. C. Gentile, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, Y. N. Sulai, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “Assessment of perfused foveal microvascular density and identification of nonperfused capillaries in healthy and vasculopathic eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 8056–8066 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Diabetes Res. (1)

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Soc. Med. (1)

T. J. Ffytche, J. S. Shilling, I. H. Chisholm, and J. L. Federman, “Indications for fluorescein angiography in disease of the ocular fundus: A review,” J. R. Soc. Med. 73(5), 362–365 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JAMA Ophthalmol. (3)

T. S. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, M. Zhang, A. Smith, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Automated quantification of nonperfusion areas in 3 vascular plexuses with optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes of patients with diabetes,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(8), 929–936 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Choriocapillaris imaging using multiple en face optical coherence tomography angiography image averaging,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(11), 1197–1204 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JCI Insight (1)

E. J. Duh, J. K. Sun, and A. W. Stitt, “Diabetic retinopathy: Current understanding, mechanisms, and treatment strategies,” JCI Insight 2(14), e93751 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

L. Z. Wu, Z. S. Huang, D. Z. Wu, and E. Chan, “Characteristics of the capillary-free zone in the normal human macula,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 29(4), 406–411 (1985).
[PubMed]

Lancet (1)

N. Cheung, P. Mitchell, and T. Y. Wong, “Diabetic retinopathy,” Lancet 376(9735), 124–136 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Middle East Afr. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. A. Salz and A. J. Witkin, “Imaging in diabetic retinopathy,” Middle East Afr. J. Ophthalmol. 22(2), 145–150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (7)

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, J. K. Sun, A. Z. Soliman, L. M. Aiello, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified by mydriatic ultrawide field imaging: Distribution and potential impact on diabetic retinopathy severity,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2587–2595 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Classification of diabetic retinopathy from fluorescein angiograms. ETDRS report number 11,” Ophthalmology 98(5l), 807–822 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Grading diabetic retinopathy from stereoscopic color fundus photographs–an extension of the modified airlie house classification. ETDRS report number 10. Early treatment diabetic retinopathy study research group,” Ophthalmology 98, 786–806 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Fundus photographic risk factors for progression of diabetic retinopathy. ETDRS report number 12,” Ophthalmology 98(5), 823–833 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Uji, S. Balasubramanian, J. Lei, E. Baghdasaryan, M. Al-Sheikh, and S. R. Sadda, “Impact of multiple en face image averaging on quantitative assessment from optical coherence tomography angiography images,” Ophthalmology 124(7), 944–952 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sakata, H. Funatsu, S. Harino, H. Noma, and S. Hori, “Relationship of macular microcirculation and retinal thickness with visual acuity in diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology 114(11), 2061–2069 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Balaratnasingam, M. Inoue, S. Ahn, J. McCann, E. Dhrami-Gavazi, L. A. Yannuzzi, and K. B. Freund, “Visual acuity is correlated with the area of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion,” Ophthalmology 123(11), 2352–2367 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

PLoS One (1)

S. Mo, E. Phillips, B. D. Krawitz, R. Garg, S. Salim, L. S. Geyman, E. Efstathiadis, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. Chui, “Visualization of radial peripapillary capillaries using optical coherence tomography angiography: The effect of image averaging,” PLoS One 12(1), e0169385 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Retina (4)

G. N. Magrath, E. A. T. Say, K. Sioufi, S. Ferenczy, W. A. Samara, and C. L. Shields, “Variability in foveal avascular zone and capillary density using optical coherence tomography angiography machines in healthy eyes,” Retina 37(11), 2102–2111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image artifacts in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Takase, M. Nozaki, A. Kato, H. Ozeki, M. Yoshida, and Y. Ogura, “Enlargement of foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes evaluated by en face optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2377–2383 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y. S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. Miwa, T. Murakami, K. Suzuma, A. Uji, S. Yoshitake, M. Fujimoto, T. Yoshitake, Y. Tamura, and N. Yoshimura, “Relationship between functional and structural changes in diabetic vessels in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29064 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surv. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Sivaprasad, B. Gupta, R. Crosby-Nwaobi, and J. Evans, “Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in various ethnic groups: A worldwide perspective,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 57(4), 347–370 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. D. Krawitz, E. Phillips, R. D. Bavier, S. Mo, J. Carroll, R. B. Rosen, and T. Y. P. Chui, “Parafoveal nonperfusion analysis in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 7(4), 4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (2)

M. E. Hartnett, W. Baehr, and Y. Z. Le, “Diabetic retinopathy, an overview,” Vision Res. 139, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Krawitz, S. Mo, L. S. Geyman, S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, P. M. Garcia, T. Y. P. Chui, and R. B. Rosen, “Acircularity index and axis ratio of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic eyes and healthy controls measured by optical coherence tomography angiography,” Vision Res. 139, 177–186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

I. Arganda-Carreras, C. O. S. Sorzano, R. Marabini, J. M. Carazo, C. Ortiz-de-Solorzano, and J. Kybic, “Consistent and elastic registration of histological sections using vector-spline regularization,” in Computer Vision Approaches to Medical Image Analysis (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006), 85–95.

T. G. Schmidt, R. Linderman, M. Strampe, T. Y. P. Chui, R. B. Rosen, and J. Carroll, “The utility of frame averaging for automated algorithms in analyzing retinal vascular biomarkers in AngioVue OCTA,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. (in review).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (A & D) Single frame and (B & E) averaged contrast-inverted en face OCT reflectance and averaged OCT angiography images in a control subject. Structural and functional FAZs were manually delineated on B & E, respectively. (C & F) Structural and functional FAZ masks (white area) overlaid with functional (in yellow) and structural (in red) FAZ borders, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of (A) contrast-inverted en face OCT reflectance and (B) corresponding OCT angiography image in the right eye of a PDR patient. FAZ area enlargement was measured by comparing the structural FAZ delineated on the contrast-inverted en face OCT reflectance and functional FAZ delineated on the OCT angiography image. (C & D) Superimposed structural FAZ (in red) and functional FAZ (in yellow) on A & B. Asterisks indicate the centroid of the structural FAZ.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Boxplots of the structural (top row) and functional (bottom row) FAZ metrics across 4 study groups. (A & D) FAZ area. (B & E) FAZ perimeter. (C & F) FAZ acircularity index. Significant P-values for the post-hoc pairwise comparisons after nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis tests are shown; all other comparisons were not significant (P>0.05).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Boxplots of within-subject FAZ area enlargement across 4 study groups. (A) Total FAZ area enlargement. (B) Temporal quadrant. (C) Nasal quadrant. (D) Superior quadrant. (E) Inferior quadrant. Significant P-values for the post-hoc pairwise comparisons after nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis tests are shown; all other comparisons were not significant (P>0.05).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 FAZ area enlargement difference for hemifields in each subject (filled circles: temporal-nasal hemifield and open circles: superior-inferior hemifield). Our findings suggested that FAZ area enlargement is neither quadrant nor hemifield specific in diabetic retinopathy.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Diagnostic ability of structural FAZ area, functional FAZ area, and total FAZ area enlargement for discriminating eyes with and without diabetic retinopathy. Total FAZ area enlargement showed the largest AROC of 0.91 (red), followed by functional FAZ area of 0.73 (blue) and structural FAZ area of 0.55 (magenta).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Contrast-inverted en face OCT reflectance (top row) and OCT angiograph (bottom row) in a (A & B) healthy control, (C & D) noDR subject, (E & F) NPDR subject, and (G & H) PDR subject. Red arrows indicate non-perfused capillary segments identified as hypo-reflective cord-like structure on the contrast-inverted OCT reflectance that was absent on the corresponding OCT angiography images.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The presence of exudates and neovascularization at the FAZ border in the right eye of a PDR patient. (A & B) Structural FAZ border was obscured by the presence of exudates on the contrast-inverted en face OCT reflectance (yellow arrow), while a complete functional FAZ border was visualized on the OCT angiography image. Magnified images of the red boxes are shown in A1-2 and B1-2. Red arrows indicate neovascularization across the true structural FAZ border, which falsely represent the anatomical FAZ border before the onset of diabetic retinopathy. This patient was excluded from image analysis.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Demographic data of the 4 study groups.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AROC) curve analyses of the structural FAZ, functional FAZ, FAZ perimeter and acircularity index change, and FAZ area enlargement in differentiating eyes with diabetic retinopathy (NPDR + PDR) and eyes without diabetic retinopathy (Control + noDR).