Abstract

Visible light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) is an emerging label-free and high-resolution 3-dimensional imaging technique that can provide retinal oximetry, angiography, and flowmetry in one modality. In this paper, we studied the organization of the arterial and venous retinal circulation in rats using vis-OCT. Arterioles were found predominantly in the superficial vascular plexus whereas veins tended to drain capillaries from the deep capillary plexus. After that, we determined the oxygen metabolic rate supported by retinal microcirculation by combining retinal vessel oxygen saturation and blood flow measurements. The ability to visualize and monitor retinal circulation organization and oxygen metabolism by vis-OCT may provide new opportunities for understanding the pathology of ocular diseases.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (4)

R. Liu, J. A. Winkelmann, G. Spicer, Y. Zhu, A. Eid, G. A. Ameer, V. Backman, and J. Yi, “Single capillary oximetry and tissue ultrastructural sensing by dual-band dual-scan inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 57 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Pi, A. Camino, W. Cepurna, X. Wei, M. Zhang, D. Huang, J. Morrison, and Y. Jia, “Automated spectroscopic retinal oximetry with visible-light optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(5), 2056–2067 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Chong, T. Zhang, A. Kho, M. T. Bernucci, A. Dubra, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Ultrahigh resolution retinal imaging by visible light OCT with longitudinal achromatization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(4), 1477–1491 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Nesper and A. A. Fawzi, “Human Parafoveal Capillary Vascular Anatomy and Connectivity Revealed by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(10), 3858–3867 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (11)

S. T. Garrity, M. Paques, A. Gaudric, K. B. Freund, and D. Sarraf, “Considerations in the Understanding of Venous Outflow in the Retinal Capillary Plexus,” Retina 37(10), 1809–1812 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Chong, M. Bernucci, H. Radhakrishnan, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Structural and functional human retinal imaging with a fiber-based visible light OCT ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(1), 323–337 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pi, A. Camino, M. Zhang, W. Cepurna, G. Liu, D. Huang, J. Morrison, and Y. Jia, “Angiographic and structural imaging using high axial resolution fiber-based visible-light OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(10), 4595–4608 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Nesper, B. T. Soetikno, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “OCT angiography and visible-light OCT in diabetic retinopathy,” Vision Res. 139, 191–203 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, “Review of adaptive optics OCT (AO-OCT): principles and applications for retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2536–2562 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shu, L. Beckmann, and H. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 121707 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fouquet, O. Vacca, F. Sennlaub, and M. Paques, “The 3D Retinal Capillary Circulation in Pigs Reveals a Predominant Serial Organization,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(13), 5754–5763 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Liu, G. Spicer, S. Chen, H. F. Zhang, J. Yi, and V. Backman, “Theoretical model for optical oximetry at the capillary level: exploring hemoglobin oxygen saturation through backscattering of single red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 025002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

G. Seidel, G. Aschinger, C. Singer, S. A. Herzog, M. Weger, A. Haas, R. M. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhöfer, “Estimating retinal blood flow velocities by optical coherence tomography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(10), 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Leahy, H. Radhakrishnan, G. Weiner, J. L. Goldberg, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Mapping the 3D connectivity of the rat inner retinal vascular network using OCT angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(10), 5785–5793 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Kornfield and E. A. Newman, “Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow Using Fluorescently Labeled Red Blood Cells,” eNeuro 2(2), ENEURO0005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, and H. F. Zhang, “Measuring oxygen saturation in retinal and choroidal circulations in rats using visible light optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2840–2853 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan and H. Radhakrishnan, “Total average blood flow and angiography in the rat retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 076025 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2008 (1)

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

C. E. Riva, E. Logean, and B. Falsini, “Visually evoked hemodynamical response and assessment of neurovascular coupling in the optic nerve and retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(2), 183–215 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. Paques, R. Tadayoni, R. Sercombe, P. Laurent, O. Genevois, A. Gaudric, and E. Vicaut, “Structural and hemodynamic analysis of the mouse retinal microcirculation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4960–4967 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

B. Khoobehi and G. A. Peyman, “Fluorescent labeling of blood cells for evaluation of retinal and choroidal circulation,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 30(2), 140–145 (1999).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

S. E. Bursell, A. C. Clermont, B. T. Kinsley, D. C. Simonson, L. M. Aiello, and H. A. Wolpert, “Retinal blood flow changes in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and no diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37(5), 886–897 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

R. D. Braun, R. A. Linsenmeier, and T. K. Goldstick, “Oxygen consumption in the inner and outer retina of the cat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 542–554 (1995).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

H. R. Zhang, “Scanning electron-microscopic study of corrosion casts on retinal and choroidal angioarchitecture in man and animals,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 13(1), 243–270 (1994).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

E. M. Kohner, A. M. Hamilton, S. J. Saunders, B. A. Sutcliffe, and C. J. Bulpitt, “The retinal blood flow in diabetes,” Diabetologia 11(1), 27–33 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aalders, M. C.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aiello, L. M.

S. E. Bursell, A. C. Clermont, B. T. Kinsley, D. C. Simonson, L. M. Aiello, and H. A. Wolpert, “Retinal blood flow changes in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and no diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37(5), 886–897 (1996).
[PubMed]

Ameer, G. A.

R. Liu, J. A. Winkelmann, G. Spicer, Y. Zhu, A. Eid, G. A. Ameer, V. Backman, and J. Yi, “Single capillary oximetry and tissue ultrastructural sensing by dual-band dual-scan inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 57 (2018).
[Crossref]

Aschinger, G.

G. Seidel, G. Aschinger, C. Singer, S. A. Herzog, M. Weger, A. Haas, R. M. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhöfer, “Estimating retinal blood flow velocities by optical coherence tomography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(10), 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

R. Liu, J. A. Winkelmann, G. Spicer, Y. Zhu, A. Eid, G. A. Ameer, V. Backman, and J. Yi, “Single capillary oximetry and tissue ultrastructural sensing by dual-band dual-scan inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 57 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Liu, G. Spicer, S. Chen, H. F. Zhang, J. Yi, and V. Backman, “Theoretical model for optical oximetry at the capillary level: exploring hemoglobin oxygen saturation through backscattering of single red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 025002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi and V. Backman, “Imaging a full set of optical scattering properties of biological tissue by inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4443–4445 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. T.

Beckmann, L.

X. Shu, L. Beckmann, and H. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 121707 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernucci, M.

Bernucci, M. T.

Bosschaart, N.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bower, B. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, R. D.

R. D. Braun, R. A. Linsenmeier, and T. K. Goldstick, “Oxygen consumption in the inner and outer retina of the cat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 542–554 (1995).
[PubMed]

Bulpitt, C. J.

E. M. Kohner, A. M. Hamilton, S. J. Saunders, B. A. Sutcliffe, and C. J. Bulpitt, “The retinal blood flow in diabetes,” Diabetologia 11(1), 27–33 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bursell, S. E.

S. E. Bursell, A. C. Clermont, B. T. Kinsley, D. C. Simonson, L. M. Aiello, and H. A. Wolpert, “Retinal blood flow changes in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and no diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37(5), 886–897 (1996).
[PubMed]

Camino, A.

Campbell, J. P.

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cepurna, W.

Chen, S.

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Liu, G. Spicer, S. Chen, H. F. Zhang, J. Yi, and V. Backman, “Theoretical model for optical oximetry at the capillary level: exploring hemoglobin oxygen saturation through backscattering of single red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 025002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, and H. F. Zhang, “Measuring oxygen saturation in retinal and choroidal circulations in rats using visible light optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2840–2853 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, S. P.

Clermont, A. C.

S. E. Bursell, A. C. Clermont, B. T. Kinsley, D. C. Simonson, L. M. Aiello, and H. A. Wolpert, “Retinal blood flow changes in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and no diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37(5), 886–897 (1996).
[PubMed]

de Carlo, T. E.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

Dubra, A.

Duker, J. S.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edelman, G. J.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eid, A.

R. Liu, J. A. Winkelmann, G. Spicer, Y. Zhu, A. Eid, G. A. Ameer, V. Backman, and J. Yi, “Single capillary oximetry and tissue ultrastructural sensing by dual-band dual-scan inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 57 (2018).
[Crossref]

Faber, D. J.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falsini, B.

C. E. Riva, E. Logean, and B. Falsini, “Visually evoked hemodynamical response and assessment of neurovascular coupling in the optic nerve and retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(2), 183–215 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fawzi, A. A.

P. L. Nesper and A. A. Fawzi, “Human Parafoveal Capillary Vascular Anatomy and Connectivity Revealed by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(10), 3858–3867 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Nesper, B. T. Soetikno, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “OCT angiography and visible-light OCT in diabetic retinopathy,” Vision Res. 139, 191–203 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fouquet, S.

S. Fouquet, O. Vacca, F. Sennlaub, and M. Paques, “The 3D Retinal Capillary Circulation in Pigs Reveals a Predominant Serial Organization,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(13), 5754–5763 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frangi, A. F.

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, K. L. Vincken, and M. A. Viergever, “Multiscale vessel enhancement filtering,” in International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, (Springer, 1998), 130–137.

Freund, K. B.

S. T. Garrity, M. Paques, A. Gaudric, K. B. Freund, and D. Sarraf, “Considerations in the Understanding of Venous Outflow in the Retinal Capillary Plexus,” Retina 37(10), 1809–1812 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gao, S. S.

Garhöfer, G.

G. Seidel, G. Aschinger, C. Singer, S. A. Herzog, M. Weger, A. Haas, R. M. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhöfer, “Estimating retinal blood flow velocities by optical coherence tomography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(10), 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garrity, S. T.

S. T. Garrity, M. Paques, A. Gaudric, K. B. Freund, and D. Sarraf, “Considerations in the Understanding of Venous Outflow in the Retinal Capillary Plexus,” Retina 37(10), 1809–1812 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaudric, A.

S. T. Garrity, M. Paques, A. Gaudric, K. B. Freund, and D. Sarraf, “Considerations in the Understanding of Venous Outflow in the Retinal Capillary Plexus,” Retina 37(10), 1809–1812 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Paques, R. Tadayoni, R. Sercombe, P. Laurent, O. Genevois, A. Gaudric, and E. Vicaut, “Structural and hemodynamic analysis of the mouse retinal microcirculation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4960–4967 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genevois, O.

M. Paques, R. Tadayoni, R. Sercombe, P. Laurent, O. Genevois, A. Gaudric, and E. Vicaut, “Structural and hemodynamic analysis of the mouse retinal microcirculation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4960–4967 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldberg, J. L.

C. Leahy, H. Radhakrishnan, G. Weiner, J. L. Goldberg, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Mapping the 3D connectivity of the rat inner retinal vascular network using OCT angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(10), 5785–5793 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldstick, T. K.

R. D. Braun, R. A. Linsenmeier, and T. K. Goldstick, “Oxygen consumption in the inner and outer retina of the cat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 542–554 (1995).
[PubMed]

Haas, A.

G. Seidel, G. Aschinger, C. Singer, S. A. Herzog, M. Weger, A. Haas, R. M. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhöfer, “Estimating retinal blood flow velocities by optical coherence tomography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(10), 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamilton, A. M.

E. M. Kohner, A. M. Hamilton, S. J. Saunders, B. A. Sutcliffe, and C. J. Bulpitt, “The retinal blood flow in diabetes,” Diabetologia 11(1), 27–33 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herzog, S. A.

G. Seidel, G. Aschinger, C. Singer, S. A. Herzog, M. Weger, A. Haas, R. M. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhöfer, “Estimating retinal blood flow velocities by optical coherence tomography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(10), 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, Y.-J.

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

S. Pi, A. Camino, W. Cepurna, X. Wei, M. Zhang, D. Huang, J. Morrison, and Y. Jia, “Automated spectroscopic retinal oximetry with visible-light optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(5), 2056–2067 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pi, A. Camino, M. Zhang, W. Cepurna, G. Liu, D. Huang, J. Morrison, and Y. Jia, “Angiographic and structural imaging using high axial resolution fiber-based visible-light OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(10), 4595–4608 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, T. S.

Izatt, J. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

S. Pi, A. Camino, W. Cepurna, X. Wei, M. Zhang, D. Huang, J. Morrison, and Y. Jia, “Automated spectroscopic retinal oximetry with visible-light optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(5), 2056–2067 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pi, A. Camino, M. Zhang, W. Cepurna, G. Liu, D. Huang, J. Morrison, and Y. Jia, “Angiographic and structural imaging using high axial resolution fiber-based visible-light OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(10), 4595–4608 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiao, S.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kho, A.

Khoobehi, B.

B. Khoobehi and G. A. Peyman, “Fluorescent labeling of blood cells for evaluation of retinal and choroidal circulation,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 30(2), 140–145 (1999).
[PubMed]

Kinsley, B. T.

S. E. Bursell, A. C. Clermont, B. T. Kinsley, D. C. Simonson, L. M. Aiello, and H. A. Wolpert, “Retinal blood flow changes in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and no diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37(5), 886–897 (1996).
[PubMed]

Kohner, E. M.

E. M. Kohner, A. M. Hamilton, S. J. Saunders, B. A. Sutcliffe, and C. J. Bulpitt, “The retinal blood flow in diabetes,” Diabetologia 11(1), 27–33 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kornfield, T. E.

T. E. Kornfield and E. A. Newman, “Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow Using Fluorescently Labeled Red Blood Cells,” eNeuro 2(2), ENEURO0005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. F.

Kurokawa, K.

Laurent, P.

M. Paques, R. Tadayoni, R. Sercombe, P. Laurent, O. Genevois, A. Gaudric, and E. Vicaut, “Structural and hemodynamic analysis of the mouse retinal microcirculation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4960–4967 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leahy, C.

C. Leahy, H. Radhakrishnan, G. Weiner, J. L. Goldberg, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Mapping the 3D connectivity of the rat inner retinal vascular network using OCT angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(10), 5785–5793 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linsenmeier, R. A.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Braun, R. A. Linsenmeier, and T. K. Goldstick, “Oxygen consumption in the inner and outer retina of the cat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 542–554 (1995).
[PubMed]

Liu, G.

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

Liu, R.

R. Liu, J. A. Winkelmann, G. Spicer, Y. Zhu, A. Eid, G. A. Ameer, V. Backman, and J. Yi, “Single capillary oximetry and tissue ultrastructural sensing by dual-band dual-scan inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 57 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Liu, G. Spicer, S. Chen, H. F. Zhang, J. Yi, and V. Backman, “Theoretical model for optical oximetry at the capillary level: exploring hemoglobin oxygen saturation through backscattering of single red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 025002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, T.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Logean, E.

C. E. Riva, E. Logean, and B. Falsini, “Visually evoked hemodynamical response and assessment of neurovascular coupling in the optic nerve and retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(2), 183–215 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Morrison, J.

Nesper, P. L.

P. L. Nesper and A. A. Fawzi, “Human Parafoveal Capillary Vascular Anatomy and Connectivity Revealed by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(10), 3858–3867 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Nesper, B. T. Soetikno, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “OCT angiography and visible-light OCT in diabetic retinopathy,” Vision Res. 139, 191–203 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Newman, E. A.

T. E. Kornfield and E. A. Newman, “Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow Using Fluorescently Labeled Red Blood Cells,” eNeuro 2(2), ENEURO0005 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niessen, W. J.

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, K. L. Vincken, and M. A. Viergever, “Multiscale vessel enhancement filtering,” in International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, (Springer, 1998), 130–137.

Paques, M.

S. T. Garrity, M. Paques, A. Gaudric, K. B. Freund, and D. Sarraf, “Considerations in the Understanding of Venous Outflow in the Retinal Capillary Plexus,” Retina 37(10), 1809–1812 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fouquet, O. Vacca, F. Sennlaub, and M. Paques, “The 3D Retinal Capillary Circulation in Pigs Reveals a Predominant Serial Organization,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(13), 5754–5763 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Paques, R. Tadayoni, R. Sercombe, P. Laurent, O. Genevois, A. Gaudric, and E. Vicaut, “Structural and hemodynamic analysis of the mouse retinal microcirculation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4960–4967 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pechauer, A. D.

Peyman, G. A.

B. Khoobehi and G. A. Peyman, “Fluorescent labeling of blood cells for evaluation of retinal and choroidal circulation,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 30(2), 140–145 (1999).
[PubMed]

Pi, S.

Pircher, M.

Potsaid, B.

Radhakrishnan, H.

S. P. Chong, M. Bernucci, H. Radhakrishnan, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Structural and functional human retinal imaging with a fiber-based visible light OCT ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(1), 323–337 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Leahy, H. Radhakrishnan, G. Weiner, J. L. Goldberg, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Mapping the 3D connectivity of the rat inner retinal vascular network using OCT angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(10), 5785–5793 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan and H. Radhakrishnan, “Total average blood flow and angiography in the rat retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 076025 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riva, C. E.

C. E. Riva, E. Logean, and B. Falsini, “Visually evoked hemodynamical response and assessment of neurovascular coupling in the optic nerve and retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(2), 183–215 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romano, A.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarraf, D.

S. T. Garrity, M. Paques, A. Gaudric, K. B. Freund, and D. Sarraf, “Considerations in the Understanding of Venous Outflow in the Retinal Capillary Plexus,” Retina 37(10), 1809–1812 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sasaki, K.

Saunders, S. J.

E. M. Kohner, A. M. Hamilton, S. J. Saunders, B. A. Sutcliffe, and C. J. Bulpitt, “The retinal blood flow in diabetes,” Diabetologia 11(1), 27–33 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

G. Seidel, G. Aschinger, C. Singer, S. A. Herzog, M. Weger, A. Haas, R. M. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhöfer, “Estimating retinal blood flow velocities by optical coherence tomography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(10), 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seidel, G.

G. Seidel, G. Aschinger, C. Singer, S. A. Herzog, M. Weger, A. Haas, R. M. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhöfer, “Estimating retinal blood flow velocities by optical coherence tomography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(10), 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sennlaub, F.

S. Fouquet, O. Vacca, F. Sennlaub, and M. Paques, “The 3D Retinal Capillary Circulation in Pigs Reveals a Predominant Serial Organization,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(13), 5754–5763 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sercombe, R.

M. Paques, R. Tadayoni, R. Sercombe, P. Laurent, O. Genevois, A. Gaudric, and E. Vicaut, “Structural and hemodynamic analysis of the mouse retinal microcirculation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4960–4967 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheibani, N.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shu, X.

Simonson, D. C.

S. E. Bursell, A. C. Clermont, B. T. Kinsley, D. C. Simonson, L. M. Aiello, and H. A. Wolpert, “Retinal blood flow changes in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and no diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37(5), 886–897 (1996).
[PubMed]

Singer, C.

G. Seidel, G. Aschinger, C. Singer, S. A. Herzog, M. Weger, A. Haas, R. M. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhöfer, “Estimating retinal blood flow velocities by optical coherence tomography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(10), 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sliney, D. H.

Soetikno, B. T.

P. L. Nesper, B. T. Soetikno, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “OCT angiography and visible-light OCT in diabetic retinopathy,” Vision Res. 139, 191–203 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, W.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorenson, C. M.

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spicer, G.

R. Liu, J. A. Winkelmann, G. Spicer, Y. Zhu, A. Eid, G. A. Ameer, V. Backman, and J. Yi, “Single capillary oximetry and tissue ultrastructural sensing by dual-band dual-scan inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 57 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Liu, G. Spicer, S. Chen, H. F. Zhang, J. Yi, and V. Backman, “Theoretical model for optical oximetry at the capillary level: exploring hemoglobin oxygen saturation through backscattering of single red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 025002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

S. P. Chong, T. Zhang, A. Kho, M. T. Bernucci, A. Dubra, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Ultrahigh resolution retinal imaging by visible light OCT with longitudinal achromatization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(4), 1477–1491 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Chong, M. Bernucci, H. Radhakrishnan, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Structural and functional human retinal imaging with a fiber-based visible light OCT ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(1), 323–337 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Leahy, H. Radhakrishnan, G. Weiner, J. L. Goldberg, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Mapping the 3D connectivity of the rat inner retinal vascular network using OCT angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(10), 5785–5793 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan and H. Radhakrishnan, “Total average blood flow and angiography in the rat retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 076025 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subhash, H.

Sutcliffe, B. A.

E. M. Kohner, A. M. Hamilton, S. J. Saunders, B. A. Sutcliffe, and C. J. Bulpitt, “The retinal blood flow in diabetes,” Diabetologia 11(1), 27–33 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tadayoni, R.

M. Paques, R. Tadayoni, R. Sercombe, P. Laurent, O. Genevois, A. Gaudric, and E. Vicaut, “Structural and hemodynamic analysis of the mouse retinal microcirculation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4960–4967 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tokayer, J.

Vacca, O.

S. Fouquet, O. Vacca, F. Sennlaub, and M. Paques, “The 3D Retinal Capillary Circulation in Pigs Reveals a Predominant Serial Organization,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(13), 5754–5763 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vicaut, E.

M. Paques, R. Tadayoni, R. Sercombe, P. Laurent, O. Genevois, A. Gaudric, and E. Vicaut, “Structural and hemodynamic analysis of the mouse retinal microcirculation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4960–4967 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viergever, M. A.

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, K. L. Vincken, and M. A. Viergever, “Multiscale vessel enhancement filtering,” in International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, (Springer, 1998), 130–137.

Vincken, K. L.

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, K. L. Vincken, and M. A. Viergever, “Multiscale vessel enhancement filtering,” in International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, (Springer, 1998), 130–137.

Waheed, N. K.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
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Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Weger, M.

G. Seidel, G. Aschinger, C. Singer, S. A. Herzog, M. Weger, A. Haas, R. M. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhöfer, “Estimating retinal blood flow velocities by optical coherence tomography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(10), 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, Q.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, X.

Weiner, G.

C. Leahy, H. Radhakrishnan, G. Weiner, J. L. Goldberg, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Mapping the 3D connectivity of the rat inner retinal vascular network using OCT angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(10), 5785–5793 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werkmeister, R. M.

G. Seidel, G. Aschinger, C. Singer, S. A. Herzog, M. Weger, A. Haas, R. M. Werkmeister, L. Schmetterer, and G. Garhöfer, “Estimating retinal blood flow velocities by optical coherence tomography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(10), 1104–1110 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. J.

Winkelmann, J. A.

R. Liu, J. A. Winkelmann, G. Spicer, Y. Zhu, A. Eid, G. A. Ameer, V. Backman, and J. Yi, “Single capillary oximetry and tissue ultrastructural sensing by dual-band dual-scan inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 57 (2018).
[Crossref]

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S. E. Bursell, A. C. Clermont, B. T. Kinsley, D. C. Simonson, L. M. Aiello, and H. A. Wolpert, “Retinal blood flow changes in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and no diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37(5), 886–897 (1996).
[PubMed]

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Yi, J.

R. Liu, J. A. Winkelmann, G. Spicer, Y. Zhu, A. Eid, G. A. Ameer, V. Backman, and J. Yi, “Single capillary oximetry and tissue ultrastructural sensing by dual-band dual-scan inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 57 (2018).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, and H. F. Zhang, “Measuring oxygen saturation in retinal and choroidal circulations in rats using visible light optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2840–2853 (2015).
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J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
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X. Shu, L. Beckmann, and H. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 121707 (2017).
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P. L. Nesper, B. T. Soetikno, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “OCT angiography and visible-light OCT in diabetic retinopathy,” Vision Res. 139, 191–203 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Liu, G. Spicer, S. Chen, H. F. Zhang, J. Yi, and V. Backman, “Theoretical model for optical oximetry at the capillary level: exploring hemoglobin oxygen saturation through backscattering of single red blood cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 025002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
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S. Chen, J. Yi, and H. F. Zhang, “Measuring oxygen saturation in retinal and choroidal circulations in rats using visible light optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2840–2853 (2015).
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W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6525 (2015).
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J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (10)

S. Chen, J. Yi, and H. F. Zhang, “Measuring oxygen saturation in retinal and choroidal circulations in rats using visible light optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2840–2853 (2015).
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M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
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M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
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S. P. Chong, M. Bernucci, H. Radhakrishnan, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Structural and functional human retinal imaging with a fiber-based visible light OCT ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(1), 323–337 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
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S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
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M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, “Review of adaptive optics OCT (AO-OCT): principles and applications for retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2536–2562 (2017).
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S. Pi, A. Camino, M. Zhang, W. Cepurna, G. Liu, D. Huang, J. Morrison, and Y. Jia, “Angiographic and structural imaging using high axial resolution fiber-based visible-light OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(10), 4595–4608 (2017).
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S. P. Chong, T. Zhang, A. Kho, M. T. Bernucci, A. Dubra, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Ultrahigh resolution retinal imaging by visible light OCT with longitudinal achromatization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(4), 1477–1491 (2018).
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S. Pi, A. Camino, W. Cepurna, X. Wei, M. Zhang, D. Huang, J. Morrison, and Y. Jia, “Automated spectroscopic retinal oximetry with visible-light optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(5), 2056–2067 (2018).
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T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
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Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (6)

S. Fouquet, O. Vacca, F. Sennlaub, and M. Paques, “The 3D Retinal Capillary Circulation in Pigs Reveals a Predominant Serial Organization,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(13), 5754–5763 (2017).
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P. L. Nesper and A. A. Fawzi, “Human Parafoveal Capillary Vascular Anatomy and Connectivity Revealed by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(10), 3858–3867 (2018).
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C. Leahy, H. Radhakrishnan, G. Weiner, J. L. Goldberg, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Mapping the 3D connectivity of the rat inner retinal vascular network using OCT angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(10), 5785–5793 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Paques, R. Tadayoni, R. Sercombe, P. Laurent, O. Genevois, A. Gaudric, and E. Vicaut, “Structural and hemodynamic analysis of the mouse retinal microcirculation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(11), 4960–4967 (2003).
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S. E. Bursell, A. C. Clermont, B. T. Kinsley, D. C. Simonson, L. M. Aiello, and H. A. Wolpert, “Retinal blood flow changes in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and no diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37(5), 886–897 (1996).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan and H. Radhakrishnan, “Total average blood flow and angiography in the rat retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 076025 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shu, L. Beckmann, and H. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 121707 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
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J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       The depth fly through angiogram of a brown Norway rat retina by visible light optical coherence tomography

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of sample arm illustates how rat eye was scanned. (A) The sample arm was fixed with light beam illuminated vertically. (B) The rat was scanned vertically with its head immobilized on a customized gas inhalation device.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Ultra wide-field en face images (diameter = 5 mm) stitched from four 3.2 mm × 3.2 mm volumetric scans in the superior, nasal, inferior and temporal regions respectively. Scale bar = 500 µm. (A) Cross-sectional structural B-scan overlaid with angiogram (upper panel), and averaged depth profiles demonstrating the positions of the retinal layers and vascular plexuses (lower panel). NFL: nerve fiber layer, GCL: ganglion cell layer, IPL: inner plexiform layer, INL: inner nuclear layer, OPL: outer plexiform layer. SVP: superficial vascular plexus, ICP: intermediate capillary plexus, DCP: deep capillary plexus. (B) Reflectance en face image was generated by mean projection of OCT signal within the retinal slab. (C) SVP en face image were generated by maximum projection of angiogram. White arrow indicates a direct connection from artery to vein. (D) ICP en face image were generated by maximum projection of angiogram. (E) DCP en face image were generated by maximum projection of angiogram. (F) Arteriovenous identification (arteries: red, veins: green) in the SVP of the rat retina by oxygen saturation at 100% O2 inhalation. The arterial vasculature extends over the majority of the SVP and its vessel density is almost 3 times that of the venous vasculature. (G) DCP (gray scale, E) overlaid with SVP (color-coded by sO2, F) demonstrates venules crossing between plexuses, indicating veins drain blood flow from the DCP. The remarkable venules connection between DCP and SVP are annotated by white arrows. Note some venules in SVP are obliquely crossing to the DCP, while others are vertically crossing to the DCP.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Retinal oxygen metabolism rate measurement with visible light OCT. (A) en face angiogram of the superficial vascular plexus near the optic disc region labeled by vessel number (red: artery, green: vein) and dual concentric Doppler circular scan positions (yellow dash line, arrow: scan direction). (B) Structural B-scans visualize major retinal vessels. (C) Doppler phase shift image differentiates arteries (red) from veins (blue), which supports the arteriovenous identification results by retinal oximetry using vis-OCT. (D) Blood flow velocity, (E) blood flow and (F) blood oxygen transport rate for each vessel with standard deviation calculated on three repeated dual circular scans. (G) Retinal oxygen metabolism is calculated by the subtraction of the total arterial oxygen transport rate minus the total venous oxygen transport rate with measurement repeatability of ~40 ng/min.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 En face images (2 × 2 mm2) of three vascular plexuses (A-C) and overlaid en face image (D) with flow drainage through DCP by major veins marked by yellow circles. The 3D schematic vascular network (E) illustrates the flow transition from artery to vein with microvasculature architecture corresponding to the current findings.

Equations (4)

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OD(z,λ)=ln( I(z,λ) I 0 (λ) )=2d[ C Hb O 2 ε Hb O 2 (λ)+ C Hb ε Hb (λ) ]+ln(r(λ))+ln( R 0 )
F= ν ¯ ·S
ν= f s λ 0 Δφ 4πncos(θ) S= π 4 H 2 sin (θ) 2
rMRO2= 4 W O 2 W Hb O 2 · C HbT ·( i s O 2a F a,i i s O 2v F v,i )