Abstract

Multiple scattering is a major barrier that limits the optical imaging depth in scattering media. In order to alleviate this effect, we demonstrate aberration-diverse optical coherence tomography (AD-OCT), which exploits the phase correlation between the deterministic signals from single-scattered photons to suppress the random background caused by multiple scattering and speckle. AD-OCT illuminates the sample volume with diverse aberrated point spread functions, and computationally removes these intentionally applied aberrations. After accumulating 12 astigmatism-diverse OCT volumes, we show a 10 dB enhancement in signal-to-background ratio via a coherent average of reconstructed signals from a USAF target located 7.2 scattering mean free paths below a thick scattering layer, and a 3× speckle contrast reduction from an incoherent average of reconstructed signals inside the scattering layer. This AD-OCT method, when implemented using astigmatic illumination, is a promising approach for ultra-deep volumetric optical coherence microscopy.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (3)

2017 (3)

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Thrane, S. Gu, B. J. Blackburn, K. V. Damodaran, A. M. Rollins, and M. W. Jenkins, “Complex decorrelation averaging in optical coherence tomography: a way to reduce the effect of multiple scattering and improve image contrast in a dynamic scattering medium,” Opt. Lett. 42(14), 2738–2741 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gigan, “Optical microscopy aims deep,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 14–16 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

A. Badon, D. Li, G. Lerosey, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, and A. Aubry, “Smart optical coherence tomography for ultra-deep imaging through highly scattering media,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1600370 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, Y.-Z. Liu, S. A. Boppart, and P. S. Carney, “Automated interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy and computational adaptive optics for improved optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 55(8), 2034–2041 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 440–443 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 253–258 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. P. Chong, C. W. Merkle, D. F. Cooke, T. Zhang, H. Radhakrishnan, L. Krubitzer, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Noninvasive, in vivo imaging of subcortical mouse brain regions with 1.7 μm optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4911–4914 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, J. Park, K. Lee, J. Yoon, K. Kim, S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Recent advances in wavefront shaping techniques for biomedical applications,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 15(5), 632–641 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (5)

2012 (4)

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. J. Srinivasan, H. Radhakrishnan, J. Y. Jiang, S. Barry, and A. E. Cable, “Optical coherence microscopy for deep tissue imaging of the cerebral cortex with intrinsic contrast,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2220–2239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, B. W. Graf, A. Ahmad, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, B. Wang, and R. Samatham, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of optical phantoms,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1162–1172 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 47–74 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

C. Dunsby and P. M. W. French, “Techniques for depth-resolved imaging through turbid media including coherence-gated imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(14), R207–R227 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(2), 239–303 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1205–1215 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

Adie, S. G.

S. Liu, J. A. Mulligan, and S. G. Adie, “Volumetric optical coherence microscopy with a high space-bandwidth-time product enabled by hybrid adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(7), 3137–3152 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 440–443 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, B. W. Graf, A. Ahmad, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. R. Hillman, S. G. Adie, V. Seemann, J. J. Armstrong, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Correlation of static speckle with sample properties in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 190–192 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmad, A.

S. G. Adie, B. W. Graf, A. Ahmad, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J. J.

Aubry, A.

A. Badon, D. Li, G. Lerosey, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, and A. Aubry, “Smart optical coherence tomography for ultra-deep imaging through highly scattering media,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1600370 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badon, A.

A. Badon, D. Li, G. Lerosey, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, and A. Aubry, “Smart optical coherence tomography for ultra-deep imaging through highly scattering media,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1600370 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barry, S.

Bashkansky, M.

Biedermann, B. R.

Blackburn, B. J.

Blatter, C.

Boccara, A. C.

A. Badon, D. Li, G. Lerosey, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, and A. Aubry, “Smart optical coherence tomography for ultra-deep imaging through highly scattering media,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1600370 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonora, S.

Boppart, S. A.

F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, A. J. Bower, Y. Xu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Wavefront measurement using computational adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 35(3), 466–473 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, Y.-Z. Liu, S. A. Boppart, and P. S. Carney, “Automated interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy and computational adaptive optics for improved optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 55(8), 2034–2041 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 440–443 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, B. W. Graf, A. Ahmad, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase stability technique for inverse scattering in optical coherence tomography,” in 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Nano to Macro,2006., 2006), 578–581.
[Crossref]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Bower, A. J.

Cable, A. E.

Carney, P. S.

F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, A. J. Bower, Y. Xu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Wavefront measurement using computational adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 35(3), 466–473 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, Y.-Z. Liu, S. A. Boppart, and P. S. Carney, “Automated interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy and computational adaptive optics for improved optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 55(8), 2034–2041 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 440–443 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, B. W. Graf, A. Ahmad, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase stability technique for inverse scattering in optical coherence tomography,” in 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Nano to Macro,2006., 2006), 578–581.
[Crossref]

Cense, B.

Choi, H.

Choi, W.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 253–258 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 253–258 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. R. Hillman, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Y. Park, and Z. Yaqoob, “Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1909 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, S. P.

Chu, S.

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, C. G.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooke, D. F.

Damodaran, K. V.

Dasari, R. R.

T. R. Hillman, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Y. Park, and Z. Yaqoob, “Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1909 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J.

de la Zerda, A.

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Derby, J. C.

Desjardins, A. E.

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 47–74 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(2), 239–303 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dunsby, C.

C. Dunsby and P. M. W. French, “Techniques for depth-resolved imaging through turbid media including coherence-gated imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(14), R207–R227 (2003).
[Crossref]

Durst, M. E.

Dutta, R.

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).
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Eigenwillig, C. M.

Feld, M. S.

T. R. Hillman, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Y. Park, and Z. Yaqoob, “Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1909 (2013).
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Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(2), 239–303 (2003).
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Ferguson, R. D.

Fink, M.

A. Badon, D. Li, G. Lerosey, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, and A. Aubry, “Smart optical coherence tomography for ultra-deep imaging through highly scattering media,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1600370 (2016).
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A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
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Fox, W.

French, P. M. W.

C. Dunsby and P. M. W. French, “Techniques for depth-resolved imaging through turbid media including coherence-gated imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(14), R207–R227 (2003).
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Gao, W.

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S. Gigan, “Optical microscopy aims deep,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 14–16 (2017).
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S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
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Gradowski, M. A.

Graf, B. W.

S. G. Adie, B. W. Graf, A. Ahmad, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
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T. R. Hillman, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Y. Park, and Z. Yaqoob, “Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1909 (2013).
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A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(2), 239–303 (2003).
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N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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Huber, R.

Iftimia, N.

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S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 253–258 (2015).
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S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 253–258 (2015).
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W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
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Kampik, A.

Kang, S.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 253–258 (2015).
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Kim, J.-Y.

Kim, K.

H. Yu, J. Park, K. Lee, J. Yoon, K. Kim, S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Recent advances in wavefront shaping techniques for biomedical applications,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 15(5), 632–641 (2015).
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Ko, H.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 253–258 (2015).
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N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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D. Kobat, M. E. Durst, N. Nishimura, A. W. Wong, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “Deep tissue multiphoton microscopy using longer wavelength excitation,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13354–13364 (2009).
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Krubitzer, L.

Kumar, A.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
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Lagendijk, A.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
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B. Karamata, K. Hassler, M. Laubscher, and T. Lasser, “Speckle statistics in optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(4), 593–596 (2005).
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A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(2), 239–303 (2003).
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Laubscher, M.

Lee, J.-S.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 253–258 (2015).
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Lee, K.

H. Yu, J. Park, K. Lee, J. Yoon, K. Kim, S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Recent advances in wavefront shaping techniques for biomedical applications,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 15(5), 632–641 (2015).
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Lee, S.

Leitgeb, R. A.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
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Lerosey, G.

A. Badon, D. Li, G. Lerosey, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, and A. Aubry, “Smart optical coherence tomography for ultra-deep imaging through highly scattering media,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1600370 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
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S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lew, M. D.

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D.

A. Badon, D. Li, G. Lerosey, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, and A. Aubry, “Smart optical coherence tomography for ultra-deep imaging through highly scattering media,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1600370 (2016).
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Liba, O.

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).
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Lim, J.

Lim, Y.-S.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 253–258 (2015).
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Liu, H.

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
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Liu, M.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
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Liu, S.

Liu, Y.-Z.

Marks, D. L.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
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T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase stability technique for inverse scattering in optical coherence tomography,” in 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Nano to Macro,2006., 2006), 578–581.
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Merkle, C. W.

Miller, D. T.

Moshfeghi, D. M.

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).
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Mosk, A. P.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
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I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
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Mujat, M.

Mulligan, J. A.

Neubauer, A.

Nishimura, N.

Oh, W. Y.

Oh, W.-Y.

Owen, G. M.

Park, B.

Park, J.

H. Yu, J. Park, K. Lee, J. Yoon, K. Kim, S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Recent advances in wavefront shaping techniques for biomedical applications,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 15(5), 632–641 (2015).
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Park, J.-H.

Park, Q. H.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 253–258 (2015).
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Park, Y.

H. Yu, J. Park, K. Lee, J. Yoon, K. Kim, S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Recent advances in wavefront shaping techniques for biomedical applications,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 15(5), 632–641 (2015).
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H. Yu, J. Jang, J. Lim, J.-H. Park, W. Jang, J.-Y. Kim, and Y. Park, “Depth-enhanced 2-D optical coherence tomography using complex wavefront shaping,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7514–7523 (2014).
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J. Jang, J. Lim, H. Yu, H. Choi, J. Ha, J.-H. Park, W.-Y. Oh, W. Jang, S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Complex wavefront shaping for optimal depth-selective focusing in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2890–2902 (2013).
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T. R. Hillman, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Y. Park, and Z. Yaqoob, “Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1909 (2013).
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Patel, A. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Popoff, S.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
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Radhakrishnan, H.

Rajadhyaksha, M.

Ralston, T. S.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
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T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase stability technique for inverse scattering in optical coherence tomography,” in 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Nano to Macro,2006., 2006), 578–581.
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Reintjes, J.

Reznicek, L.

Rollins, A. M.

Samatham, R.

Sampson, D. D.

Sarunic, M. V.

Schaffer, C. B.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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D. Kobat, M. E. Durst, N. Nishimura, A. W. Wong, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “Deep tissue multiphoton microscopy using longer wavelength excitation,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13354–13364 (2009).
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Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1205–1215 (1999).
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Sen, D.

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).
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Shemonski, N. D.

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 440–443 (2015).
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Siddiqui, M.

SoRelle, E. D.

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).
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South, F. A.

F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, A. J. Bower, Y. Xu, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Wavefront measurement using computational adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 35(3), 466–473 (2018).
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Srinivasan, V. J.

Swanson, E. A.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Thrane, L.

Tozburun, S.

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W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
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Vakoc, B. J.

Vellekoop, I. M.

Wang, B.

Wang, K.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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Wang, L. V.

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
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Wang, Q.

Wieser, W.

Wise, F. W.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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Wong, A. W.

Xu, C.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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Xu, J.

Xu, X.

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
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Xu, Y.

Yamauchi, T.

T. R. Hillman, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Y. Park, and Z. Yaqoob, “Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1909 (2013).
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Yang, T. D.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 253–258 (2015).
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T. R. Hillman, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Y. Park, and Z. Yaqoob, “Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1909 (2013).
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H. Yu, J. Park, K. Lee, J. Yoon, K. Kim, S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Recent advances in wavefront shaping techniques for biomedical applications,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 15(5), 632–641 (2015).
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Yu, H.

Yun, S.-H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, E. Z.

Zhang, T.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (7)

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Y. Jian, J. Xu, M. A. Gradowski, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for in vivo retinal imaging in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 547–559 (2014).
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N. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, E. Z. Zhang, W. Fox, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Combined reflectance confocal microscopy/optical coherence tomography imaging for skin burn assessment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(5), 680–695 (2013).
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S. Liu, J. A. Mulligan, and S. G. Adie, “Volumetric optical coherence microscopy with a high space-bandwidth-time product enabled by hybrid adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(7), 3137–3152 (2018).
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S. L. Jacques, B. Wang, and R. Samatham, “Reflectance confocal microscopy of optical phantoms,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1162–1172 (2012).
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Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Yu, J. Park, K. Lee, J. Yoon, K. Kim, S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Recent advances in wavefront shaping techniques for biomedical applications,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 15(5), 632–641 (2015).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. M. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1205–1215 (1999).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Dunsby and P. M. W. French, “Techniques for depth-resolved imaging through turbid media including coherence-gated imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(14), R207–R227 (2003).
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Nat. Commun. (2)

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (6)

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 253–258 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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S. Gigan, “Optical microscopy aims deep,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 14–16 (2017).
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N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 440–443 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Volumetric AD-OCT reconstructed with varying numbers of astigmatism rotations. The panel configuration is the same as Fig. 4.
» Visualization 2       Single-state control reconstructed with varying numbers of a fixed astigmatic state. The panel configuration is the same as Fig. 5.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The summation of complex signals from SS and background contributions. A complex SS signal which maintains a stable phase grows proportionally with N (left), while a background exhibiting a random phase grows analogous to a random walk, proportional to N (right).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 System diagram for AD-OCT setup and sample configuration. FC: 50-50 Fiber Coupler, PC: Polarization Controller, M: Mirror, DM: Deformable Mirror, RP: Right-angle Prism, GMx and GMy: Galvanometer mirror along x and y directions, OBJ: Objective Lens, CLr: Reference arm collimating lens, CLs: Sample arm collimating lens (f = 50 mm), TL1 and TL2: Telescope lens 1 and 2 (f1 = f2 = 400 mm), TL3 and TL4: Telescope lens 3 and 4 (f3 = 400 mm, f4 = 250 mm), TL5 and TL6: Telescope lens 5 and 6 (f5 = f6 = 100 mm). All the telescope lenses are AR-coated achromatic doublets. Folding mirrors in the system are not shown.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Illustration of wobble correction during AD-OCT. (a) Variation of the Zernike polynomial coefficients with rotating astigmatic angle for a sparsely scattering sample. Z4: Defocus, Z5: Oblique astigmatism, Z6: Vertical astigmatism. (b) AD-OCT of en face plane from 100 volumes in a resolution phantom, before wobble correction. (c) The same plane as in (b) after wobble correction.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Volumetric AD-OCT reconstruction results, showing a USAF target hidden beneath a scattering layer with an optical thickness of 7.2 scattering MFP. (a) Comparison of cross section (first row, γ = 0.7) and en face (3 bottom rows) among single image, incoherent average, and coherent average, from 12 volumes reconstructed with AD-OCT (15° angular separation). The depth of each en face plane is indicated by the arrows in the cross section view. The last column shows the phase stability measurements for AD-OCT. Scale bars indicate 40 μm for all images. The colormap has a fixed range at each depth for the first three columns, and from 0 to 1 for the last column. (b) Plot of OCT signal magnitude (99th percentile at each depth) versus depth for single image, incoherent average, and coherent average, from 12 volumes reconstructed with AD-OCT (15° angular separation). The depths of the 3 en face planes in (a) are labelled on the axis. The upper green arrow indicates a region where AD-OCT reduces the system noise floor by time averaging, and the bottom green arrow points to a region where AD-OCT reduces MS contribution by aberration diversity and the system noise floor by time averaging.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Single-state control experiment for AD-OCT, showing a USAF target hidden beneath a scattering layer with an optical thickness of 7.2 scattering MFP. (a) Comparison of cross section (first row, γ = 0.7) and en face (3 bottom rows) among single image, incoherent average, and coherent average, from 12 volumes with a single aberration state. The depth of each en face plane is indicated by the arrows in the cross section view. The last column shows the phase stability measurements for the single-state control. Scale bars indicate 40 μm for all images. The colormap has a fixed range at each depth for the first three columns, and from 0 to 1 for the last column. (b) Plot of OCT signal magnitude (99th percentile at each depth) versus depth for single image, incoherent average, and coherent average from 12 volumes with a single aberration state. The depths of the 3 en face planes in (a) are labelled on the axis. The upper green arrow indicates a region where the single-state control reduces the system noise floor by time averaging, and the bottom green arrow points to a region where the background cannot be reduced purely with time averaging.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Intensity profile of the USAF target beneath MS layer for N = 12. (a) En face plane of the target, extracted from Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. (b) Intensity plot along the arrow indicated at each en face plane, averaged from 30 pixels along the fast axis. The colormap has the same range as Fig. 4.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Images and masks used for the SBR and speckle contrast calculations. (a) Examples of USAF target en face view, and the SBR mask used to define the areas of expected signal and background. Any voxel within the blue regions are defined to be the signal, while the red region is defined to be the background. (b) Examples of en face view inside the scattering layer, and the speckle mask used to define the area of interest. Any voxel within the yellow region is considered as the speckle.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Quantitative measurement of SBR at the USAF target plane. (a) Intensity versus number of states from AD-OCT reconstruction, (b) Intensity versus number of states from single-state control, (c) SBR enhancement of coherent AD-OCT as more aberration states are applied.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Quantitative measurement of speckle reduction inside scattering layer. (a) Distribution of signal magnitude in speckle region from incoherent AD-OCT reconstruction, (b) Distribution of signal magnitude in speckle region from incoherent single-state control, (c) Speckle contrast reduction of incoherent AD-OCT as more aberration states are applied.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 En face view of USAF target showing joint suppression of MS and speckle. From total MS suppression with no speckle reduction (left) to no MS suppression with total speckle reduction (right). The colormap has the same range as Fig. 4.

Equations (4)

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S ˜ OCT (x,y, z 0 ;θ)= S ˜ SS (x,y, z 0 )+ S ˜ BG (x,y, z 0 ;θ).
S ˜ BG (x,y, z 0 ;θ)= S ˜ MS (x,y, z 0 ;θ)+ S ˜ SYS (x,y, z 0 ).
SBR coh = | i=1 N S ˜ SS,i | | i=1 N S ˜ BG,i | N| S ˜ SS | N | S ˜ BG | = N | S ˜ SS | | S ˜ BG | = N SBR ,
CR inc = σ inc S inc σ | S ˜ | / N .