Abstract

It is now accepted that bone strength is a complex property determined mainly by three factors: quantity, quality and turnover of the bone itself. Most of the patients who experience fractures due to fragility could never develop affectations related to bone mass density (i.e. osteoporosis). In this work, the effect of secondary bone strength affectations are analyzed by simulating the degradation of one or more principal components (organic and inorganic) while they are inspected with a nondestructive optical technique. From the results obtained, a strong correlation among the hydroxyapatite, collagen and water is found that determines the bone strength.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

H. Xia, P. Picart, S. Montresor, R. Guo, J. C. Li, O. Yusuf Solieman, J. C. Durand, and M. Fages, “Mechanical behavior of CAD/CAM occlusal ceramic reconstruction assessed by digital color holography,” Dent. Mater. 34(8), 1222–1234 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

2016 (2)

I. M. De la Torre, M. S. Hernández Montes, J. M. Flores-Moreno, and F. M. Santoyo, “Laser speckle based digital optical methods in structural mechanics: A review,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 87, 32–58 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Kumar, R. Agarwal, R. Bhutani, and C. Shakher, “Measurement of strain distribution in cortical bone around miniscrew implants used for orthodontic anchorage using digital speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 55(5), 054101 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

M. Granke, M. D. Does, and J. S. Nyman, “The Role of Water Compartments in the Material Properties of Cortical Bone,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 97(3), 292–307 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-M. Desse and P. Picart, “Quasi-common path three-wavelength holographic interferometer based on Wollaston prisms,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 68, 188–193 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Kulkarni and P. Rastogi, “Three-dimensional displacement measurement from phase signals embedded in a frame in digital holographic interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 54(11), 3393–3397 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

A. Faingold, S. R. Cohen, R. Shahar, S. Weiner, L. Rapoport, and H. D. Wagner, “The effect of hydration on mechanical anisotropy, topography and fibril organization of the osteonal lamellae,” J. Biomech. 47(2), 367–372 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

M. R. Hardisty, M. A. Soicher, T. C. Garcia, S. M. Stover, and D. P. Fyhrie, “Do stress-whitening and optical clearing of collagenous tissue occur by the same mechanism?” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2411–2418 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

A. Unnanuntana, B. J. Rebolledo, M. M. Khair, E. F. DiCarlo, and J. M. Lane, “Diseases affecting bone quality: Beyond osteoporosis,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 469(8), 2194–2206 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Castro-Ceseña, E. E. Novitskaya, P.-Y. Chen, G. A. Hirata, and J. McKittrick, “Kinetic studies of bone demineralization at different HCl concentrations and temperatures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 31(3), 523–530 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Y. Chen, D. Toroian, P. A. Price, and J. McKittrick, “Minerals form a continuum phase in mature cancellous bone,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 88(5), 351–361 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Y. Chen and J. McKittrick, “Compressive mechanical properties of demineralized and deproteinized cancellous bone,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 4(7), 961–973 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

S. Calve, I. F. Lytle, K. Grosh, D. L. Brown, and E. M. Arruda, “Implantation increases tensile strength and collagen content of self-assembled tendon constructs,” J. Appl. Physiol. 108(4), 875–881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Natoli, S. Skaalure, S. Bijlani, K. X. Chen, J. Hu, and K. A. Athanasiou, “Intracellular Na(+) and Ca2+ modulation increases the tensile properties of developing engineered articular cartilage,” Arthritis Rheum. 62(4), 1097–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. A. Kanis, E. V. McCloskey, H. Johansson, O. Strom, F. Borgstrom, and A. Oden, “Case finding for the management of osteoporosis with FRAX-assessment and intervention thresholds for the UK,” Osteoporos. Int. 19(10), 1395–1408 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Y. Chen, A. Y. M. Lin, Y. S. Lin, Y. Seki, A. G. Stokes, J. Peyras, E. A. Olevsky, M. A. Meyers, and J. McKittrick, “Structure and mechanical properties of selected biological materials,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 1(3), 208–226 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

D. Toroian, J. E. Lim, and P. A. Price, “The size exclusion characteristics of type I collagen: implications for the role of noncollagenous bone constituents in mineralization,” J. Biol. Chem. 282(31), 22437–22447 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Stepan, D. B. Burr, I. Pavo, A. Sipos, D. Michalska, J. Li, A. Fahrleitner-Pammer, H. Petto, M. Westmore, D. Michalsky, M. Sato, and H. Dobnig, “Low bone mineral density is associated with bone microdamage accumulation in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis,” Bone 41(3), 378–385 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-Y. Weng and N. E. Lane, “Medication-induced osteoporosis,” Curr. Osteoporos. Rep. 5(4), 139–145 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

C. H. Turner, “Bone strength: current concepts,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1068(1), 429–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Kim, H. Zhao, H. Kitaura, S. Bhattacharyya, J. A. Brewer, L. J. Muglia, F. P. Ross, and S. L. Teitelbaum, “Glucocorticoids suppress bone formation via the osteoclast,” J. Clin. Invest. 116(8), 2152–2160 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

O. Di Munno, A. Delle Sedie, M. Rossini, and S. Adami, “Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and bone mass in rheumatoid arthritis,” Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 23(2), 137–144 (2005).
[PubMed]

E. Sornay-Rendu, F. Munoz, P. Garnero, F. Duboeuf, and P. D. Delmas, “Identification of osteopenic women at high risk of fracture: the OFELY study,” J. Bone Miner. Res. 20(10), 1813–1819 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Bouxsein, “Determinants of skeletal fragility,” Best Pract. Res. Clin. Rheumatol. 19(6), 897–911 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Felsenberg and S. Boonen, “The bone quality framework: determinants of bone strength and their interrelationships, and implications for osteoporosis management,” Clin. Ther. 27(1), 1–11 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

N. B. Watts, “Fundamentals and pitfalls of bone densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA),” Osteoporos. Int. 15(11), 847–854 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Schuit, M. van der Klift, A. E. Weel, C. E. de Laet, H. Burger, E. Seeman, A. Hofman, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. P. van Leeuwen, and H. A. Pols, “Fracture incidence and association with bone mineral density in elderly men and women: the Rotterdam Study,” Bone 34(1), 195–202 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Siris, Y. T. Chen, T. A. Abbott, E. Barrett-Connor, P. D. Miller, L. E. Wehren, and M. L. Berger, “Bone mineral density thresholds for pharmacological intervention to prevent fractures,” Arch. Intern. Med. 164(10), 1108–1112 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zehnder, M. Lüthi, D. Michel, H. Knecht, R. Perrelet, I. Neto, M. Kraenzlin, G. Zäch, and K. Lippuner, “Long-term changes in bone metabolism, bone mineral density, quantitative ultrasound parameters, and fracture incidence after spinal cord injury: A cross-sectional observational study in 100 paraplegic men,” Osteoporos. Int. 15(3), 180–189 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Fantner, H. Birkedal, J. H. Kindt, T. Hassenkam, J. C. Weaver, J. A. Cutroni, B. L. Bosma, L. Bawazer, M. M. Finch, G. A. Cidade, D. E. Morse, G. D. Stucky, and P. K. Hansma, “Influence of the degradation of the organic matrix on the microscopic fracture behavior of trabecular bone,” Bone 35(5), 1013–1022 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

S. G. Waguespack, D. L. Koller, K. E. White, T. Fishburn, G. Carn, K. A. Buckwalter, M. Johnson, M. Kocisko, W. E. Evans, T. Foroud, and M. J. Econs, “Chloride channel 7 (ClCN7) gene mutations and autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, type II,” J. Bone Miner. Res. 18(8), 1513–1518 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. F. Hodgson, N. B. Watts, J. P. Bilezikian, B. L. Clarke, T. K. Gray, D. W. Harris, C. C. Johnston, M. Kleerekoper, R. Lindsay, M. M. Luckey, M. R. McClung, H. R. Nankin, S. M. Petak, and R. R. Recker, “American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: 2001 edition, with selected updates for 2003,” Endocr. Pract. 9(6), 544–564 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Dufresne, P. A. Chmielewski, M. D. Manhart, T. D. Johnson, and B. Borah, “Risedronate Preserves Bone Architecture in Early Postmenopausal Women in 1 Year as Measured by Three-Dimensional Microcomputed Tomography,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 73(5), 423–432 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. R. Cummings, D. B. Karpf, F. Harris, H. K. Genant, K. Ensrud, A. Z. LaCroix, and D. M. Black, “Improvement in spine bone density and reduction in risk of vertebral fractures during treatment with antiresorptive drugs,” Am. J. Med. 112(4), 281–289 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy, “Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy,” JAMA 285(6), 785–795 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cleiren, O. Bénichou, E. Van Hul, J. Gram, J. Bollerslev, F. R. Singer, K. Beaverson, A. Aledo, M. P. Whyte, T. Yoneyama, M. C. deVernejoul, and W. Van Hul, “Albers-Schönberg disease (autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, type II) results from mutations in the ClCN7 chloride channel gene,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 10(25), 2861–2867 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

C. E. Fiore, P. Pennisi, F. Ciffo, C. Scebba, A. Amico, and S. Di Fazzio, “Immobilization-dependent bone collagen breakdown appears to increase with time: evidence for a lack of new bone equilibrium in response to reduced load during prolonged bed rest,” Horm. Metab. Res. 31(01), 31–36 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. M. Santoyo, G. Pedrini, S. Schedin, and H. J. Tiziani, “3D displacement measurements of vibrating objects with multi-pulse digital holography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10(12), 1305–1308 (1999).
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1998 (3)

J.-Y. Rho, L. Kuhn-Spearing, and P. Zioupos, “Mechanical properties and the hierarchical structure of bone,” Med. Eng. Phys. 20(2), 92–102 (1998).
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S. Weiner and H. D. Wagner, “THE MATERIAL BONE: Structure-Mechanical Function Relations,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28(1), 271–298 (1998).
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E. M. Lochmüller, J. B. Zeller, D. Kaiser, F. Eckstein, J. Landgraf, R. Putz, and R. Steldinger, “Correlation of femoral and lumbar DXA and calcaneal ultrasound, measured in situ with intact soft tissues, with the in vitro failure loads of the proximal femur,” Osteoporos. Int. 8(6), 591–598 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

D. A. Bushinsky, “Bone disease in moderate renal failure: cause, nature and prevention,” Annu. Rev. Med. 48, 167–176 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

W. J. Landis, K. J. Hodgens, M. J. Song, J. Arena, S. Kiyonaga, M. Marko, C. Owen, and B. F. McEwen, “Mineralization of collagen may occur on fibril surfaces: evidence from conventional and high-voltage electron microscopy and three-dimensional imaging,” J. Struct. Biol. 117(1), 24–35 (1996).
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K. U. Lewandrowski, V. Venugopalan, W. W. Tomford, K. T. Schomacker, H. J. Mankin, and T. F. Deutsch, “Kinetics of cortical bone demineralization: controlled demineralization--a new method for modifying cortical bone allografts,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 31(3), 365–372 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

R. Lakes, “Materials with structural hierarchy,” Nature 361(6412), 511–515 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. J. Broz, S. J. Simske, A. R. Greenberg, and M. W. Luttges, “Effects of Rehydration State on the Flexural Properties of Whole Mouse Long Bones,” J. Biomech. Eng. 115(4A), 447–449 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

J. D. Currey, “Strain rate and mineral content in fracture models of bone,” J. Orthop. Res. 6(1), 32–38 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1975 (1)

A. H. Burstein, J. M. Zika, K. G. Heiple, and L. Klein, “Contribution of collagen and mineral to the elastic-plastic properties of bone,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 57(7), 956–961 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (2)

H. Birkedal-Hansen, “Diffusion of H36Cl in decalcified ivory dentine,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 22(6), 428–433 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Birkedal-Hansen, “Kinetics of acid demineralization in histologic technique,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 22(6), 434–441 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

J. D. Currey, “The relationship between the stiffness and the mineral content of bone,” J. Biomech. 2(4), 477–480 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

R. Muller KH and A. Trias, “Bone density and composition: age related and pathological changes in water and mineral content,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 48, 140–148 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1951 (1)

F. G. Evans and M. Lebow, “Regional Differences in Some of the Physical Properties of the Human Femur,” J. Appl. Physiol. 3(9), 563–572 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abbott, T. A.

E. S. Siris, Y. T. Chen, T. A. Abbott, E. Barrett-Connor, P. D. Miller, L. E. Wehren, and M. L. Berger, “Bone mineral density thresholds for pharmacological intervention to prevent fractures,” Arch. Intern. Med. 164(10), 1108–1112 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adami, S.

O. Di Munno, A. Delle Sedie, M. Rossini, and S. Adami, “Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and bone mass in rheumatoid arthritis,” Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 23(2), 137–144 (2005).
[PubMed]

Agarwal, R.

M. Kumar, R. Agarwal, R. Bhutani, and C. Shakher, “Measurement of strain distribution in cortical bone around miniscrew implants used for orthodontic anchorage using digital speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 55(5), 054101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aledo, A.

E. Cleiren, O. Bénichou, E. Van Hul, J. Gram, J. Bollerslev, F. R. Singer, K. Beaverson, A. Aledo, M. P. Whyte, T. Yoneyama, M. C. deVernejoul, and W. Van Hul, “Albers-Schönberg disease (autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, type II) results from mutations in the ClCN7 chloride channel gene,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 10(25), 2861–2867 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amico, A.

C. E. Fiore, P. Pennisi, F. Ciffo, C. Scebba, A. Amico, and S. Di Fazzio, “Immobilization-dependent bone collagen breakdown appears to increase with time: evidence for a lack of new bone equilibrium in response to reduced load during prolonged bed rest,” Horm. Metab. Res. 31(01), 31–36 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arena, J.

W. J. Landis, K. J. Hodgens, M. J. Song, J. Arena, S. Kiyonaga, M. Marko, C. Owen, and B. F. McEwen, “Mineralization of collagen may occur on fibril surfaces: evidence from conventional and high-voltage electron microscopy and three-dimensional imaging,” J. Struct. Biol. 117(1), 24–35 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arruda, E. M.

S. Calve, I. F. Lytle, K. Grosh, D. L. Brown, and E. M. Arruda, “Implantation increases tensile strength and collagen content of self-assembled tendon constructs,” J. Appl. Physiol. 108(4), 875–881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Athanasiou, K. A.

R. M. Natoli, S. Skaalure, S. Bijlani, K. X. Chen, J. Hu, and K. A. Athanasiou, “Intracellular Na(+) and Ca2+ modulation increases the tensile properties of developing engineered articular cartilage,” Arthritis Rheum. 62(4), 1097–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrett-Connor, E.

E. S. Siris, Y. T. Chen, T. A. Abbott, E. Barrett-Connor, P. D. Miller, L. E. Wehren, and M. L. Berger, “Bone mineral density thresholds for pharmacological intervention to prevent fractures,” Arch. Intern. Med. 164(10), 1108–1112 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bawazer, L.

G. E. Fantner, H. Birkedal, J. H. Kindt, T. Hassenkam, J. C. Weaver, J. A. Cutroni, B. L. Bosma, L. Bawazer, M. M. Finch, G. A. Cidade, D. E. Morse, G. D. Stucky, and P. K. Hansma, “Influence of the degradation of the organic matrix on the microscopic fracture behavior of trabecular bone,” Bone 35(5), 1013–1022 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaverson, K.

E. Cleiren, O. Bénichou, E. Van Hul, J. Gram, J. Bollerslev, F. R. Singer, K. Beaverson, A. Aledo, M. P. Whyte, T. Yoneyama, M. C. deVernejoul, and W. Van Hul, “Albers-Schönberg disease (autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, type II) results from mutations in the ClCN7 chloride channel gene,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 10(25), 2861–2867 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bénichou, O.

E. Cleiren, O. Bénichou, E. Van Hul, J. Gram, J. Bollerslev, F. R. Singer, K. Beaverson, A. Aledo, M. P. Whyte, T. Yoneyama, M. C. deVernejoul, and W. Van Hul, “Albers-Schönberg disease (autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, type II) results from mutations in the ClCN7 chloride channel gene,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 10(25), 2861–2867 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berger, M. L.

E. S. Siris, Y. T. Chen, T. A. Abbott, E. Barrett-Connor, P. D. Miller, L. E. Wehren, and M. L. Berger, “Bone mineral density thresholds for pharmacological intervention to prevent fractures,” Arch. Intern. Med. 164(10), 1108–1112 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhattacharyya, S.

H.-J. Kim, H. Zhao, H. Kitaura, S. Bhattacharyya, J. A. Brewer, L. J. Muglia, F. P. Ross, and S. L. Teitelbaum, “Glucocorticoids suppress bone formation via the osteoclast,” J. Clin. Invest. 116(8), 2152–2160 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhutani, R.

M. Kumar, R. Agarwal, R. Bhutani, and C. Shakher, “Measurement of strain distribution in cortical bone around miniscrew implants used for orthodontic anchorage using digital speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 55(5), 054101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bijlani, S.

R. M. Natoli, S. Skaalure, S. Bijlani, K. X. Chen, J. Hu, and K. A. Athanasiou, “Intracellular Na(+) and Ca2+ modulation increases the tensile properties of developing engineered articular cartilage,” Arthritis Rheum. 62(4), 1097–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bilezikian, J. P.

S. F. Hodgson, N. B. Watts, J. P. Bilezikian, B. L. Clarke, T. K. Gray, D. W. Harris, C. C. Johnston, M. Kleerekoper, R. Lindsay, M. M. Luckey, M. R. McClung, H. R. Nankin, S. M. Petak, and R. R. Recker, “American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: 2001 edition, with selected updates for 2003,” Endocr. Pract. 9(6), 544–564 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birkedal, H.

G. E. Fantner, H. Birkedal, J. H. Kindt, T. Hassenkam, J. C. Weaver, J. A. Cutroni, B. L. Bosma, L. Bawazer, M. M. Finch, G. A. Cidade, D. E. Morse, G. D. Stucky, and P. K. Hansma, “Influence of the degradation of the organic matrix on the microscopic fracture behavior of trabecular bone,” Bone 35(5), 1013–1022 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birkedal-Hansen, H.

H. Birkedal-Hansen, “Diffusion of H36Cl in decalcified ivory dentine,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 22(6), 428–433 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Birkedal-Hansen, “Kinetics of acid demineralization in histologic technique,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 22(6), 434–441 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Black, D. M.

S. R. Cummings, D. B. Karpf, F. Harris, H. K. Genant, K. Ensrud, A. Z. LaCroix, and D. M. Black, “Improvement in spine bone density and reduction in risk of vertebral fractures during treatment with antiresorptive drugs,” Am. J. Med. 112(4), 281–289 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bollerslev, J.

E. Cleiren, O. Bénichou, E. Van Hul, J. Gram, J. Bollerslev, F. R. Singer, K. Beaverson, A. Aledo, M. P. Whyte, T. Yoneyama, M. C. deVernejoul, and W. Van Hul, “Albers-Schönberg disease (autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, type II) results from mutations in the ClCN7 chloride channel gene,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 10(25), 2861–2867 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boonen, S.

D. Felsenberg and S. Boonen, “The bone quality framework: determinants of bone strength and their interrelationships, and implications for osteoporosis management,” Clin. Ther. 27(1), 1–11 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borah, B.

T. E. Dufresne, P. A. Chmielewski, M. D. Manhart, T. D. Johnson, and B. Borah, “Risedronate Preserves Bone Architecture in Early Postmenopausal Women in 1 Year as Measured by Three-Dimensional Microcomputed Tomography,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 73(5), 423–432 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borgstrom, F.

J. A. Kanis, E. V. McCloskey, H. Johansson, O. Strom, F. Borgstrom, and A. Oden, “Case finding for the management of osteoporosis with FRAX-assessment and intervention thresholds for the UK,” Osteoporos. Int. 19(10), 1395–1408 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bosma, B. L.

G. E. Fantner, H. Birkedal, J. H. Kindt, T. Hassenkam, J. C. Weaver, J. A. Cutroni, B. L. Bosma, L. Bawazer, M. M. Finch, G. A. Cidade, D. E. Morse, G. D. Stucky, and P. K. Hansma, “Influence of the degradation of the organic matrix on the microscopic fracture behavior of trabecular bone,” Bone 35(5), 1013–1022 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouxsein, M. L.

M. L. Bouxsein, “Determinants of skeletal fragility,” Best Pract. Res. Clin. Rheumatol. 19(6), 897–911 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brewer, J. A.

H.-J. Kim, H. Zhao, H. Kitaura, S. Bhattacharyya, J. A. Brewer, L. J. Muglia, F. P. Ross, and S. L. Teitelbaum, “Glucocorticoids suppress bone formation via the osteoclast,” J. Clin. Invest. 116(8), 2152–2160 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briones-R, M. J.

Brown, D. L.

S. Calve, I. F. Lytle, K. Grosh, D. L. Brown, and E. M. Arruda, “Implantation increases tensile strength and collagen content of self-assembled tendon constructs,” J. Appl. Physiol. 108(4), 875–881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broz, J. J.

J. J. Broz, S. J. Simske, A. R. Greenberg, and M. W. Luttges, “Effects of Rehydration State on the Flexural Properties of Whole Mouse Long Bones,” J. Biomech. Eng. 115(4A), 447–449 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buckwalter, K. A.

S. G. Waguespack, D. L. Koller, K. E. White, T. Fishburn, G. Carn, K. A. Buckwalter, M. Johnson, M. Kocisko, W. E. Evans, T. Foroud, and M. J. Econs, “Chloride channel 7 (ClCN7) gene mutations and autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, type II,” J. Bone Miner. Res. 18(8), 1513–1518 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burger, H.

S. C. Schuit, M. van der Klift, A. E. Weel, C. E. de Laet, H. Burger, E. Seeman, A. Hofman, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. P. van Leeuwen, and H. A. Pols, “Fracture incidence and association with bone mineral density in elderly men and women: the Rotterdam Study,” Bone 34(1), 195–202 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burr, D. B.

J. J. Stepan, D. B. Burr, I. Pavo, A. Sipos, D. Michalska, J. Li, A. Fahrleitner-Pammer, H. Petto, M. Westmore, D. Michalsky, M. Sato, and H. Dobnig, “Low bone mineral density is associated with bone microdamage accumulation in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis,” Bone 41(3), 378–385 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burstein, A. H.

A. H. Burstein, J. M. Zika, K. G. Heiple, and L. Klein, “Contribution of collagen and mineral to the elastic-plastic properties of bone,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 57(7), 956–961 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bushinsky, D. A.

D. A. Bushinsky, “Bone disease in moderate renal failure: cause, nature and prevention,” Annu. Rev. Med. 48, 167–176 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calve, S.

S. Calve, I. F. Lytle, K. Grosh, D. L. Brown, and E. M. Arruda, “Implantation increases tensile strength and collagen content of self-assembled tendon constructs,” J. Appl. Physiol. 108(4), 875–881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carn, G.

S. G. Waguespack, D. L. Koller, K. E. White, T. Fishburn, G. Carn, K. A. Buckwalter, M. Johnson, M. Kocisko, W. E. Evans, T. Foroud, and M. J. Econs, “Chloride channel 7 (ClCN7) gene mutations and autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, type II,” J. Bone Miner. Res. 18(8), 1513–1518 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro-Ceseña, A. B.

A. B. Castro-Ceseña, E. E. Novitskaya, P.-Y. Chen, G. A. Hirata, and J. McKittrick, “Kinetic studies of bone demineralization at different HCl concentrations and temperatures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 31(3), 523–530 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. X.

R. M. Natoli, S. Skaalure, S. Bijlani, K. X. Chen, J. Hu, and K. A. Athanasiou, “Intracellular Na(+) and Ca2+ modulation increases the tensile properties of developing engineered articular cartilage,” Arthritis Rheum. 62(4), 1097–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P. Y.

P. Y. Chen, D. Toroian, P. A. Price, and J. McKittrick, “Minerals form a continuum phase in mature cancellous bone,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 88(5), 351–361 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Y. Chen and J. McKittrick, “Compressive mechanical properties of demineralized and deproteinized cancellous bone,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 4(7), 961–973 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Y. Chen, A. Y. M. Lin, Y. S. Lin, Y. Seki, A. G. Stokes, J. Peyras, E. A. Olevsky, M. A. Meyers, and J. McKittrick, “Structure and mechanical properties of selected biological materials,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 1(3), 208–226 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P.-Y.

A. B. Castro-Ceseña, E. E. Novitskaya, P.-Y. Chen, G. A. Hirata, and J. McKittrick, “Kinetic studies of bone demineralization at different HCl concentrations and temperatures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 31(3), 523–530 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. T.

E. S. Siris, Y. T. Chen, T. A. Abbott, E. Barrett-Connor, P. D. Miller, L. E. Wehren, and M. L. Berger, “Bone mineral density thresholds for pharmacological intervention to prevent fractures,” Arch. Intern. Med. 164(10), 1108–1112 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chmielewski, P. A.

T. E. Dufresne, P. A. Chmielewski, M. D. Manhart, T. D. Johnson, and B. Borah, “Risedronate Preserves Bone Architecture in Early Postmenopausal Women in 1 Year as Measured by Three-Dimensional Microcomputed Tomography,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 73(5), 423–432 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cidade, G. A.

G. E. Fantner, H. Birkedal, J. H. Kindt, T. Hassenkam, J. C. Weaver, J. A. Cutroni, B. L. Bosma, L. Bawazer, M. M. Finch, G. A. Cidade, D. E. Morse, G. D. Stucky, and P. K. Hansma, “Influence of the degradation of the organic matrix on the microscopic fracture behavior of trabecular bone,” Bone 35(5), 1013–1022 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ciffo, F.

C. E. Fiore, P. Pennisi, F. Ciffo, C. Scebba, A. Amico, and S. Di Fazzio, “Immobilization-dependent bone collagen breakdown appears to increase with time: evidence for a lack of new bone equilibrium in response to reduced load during prolonged bed rest,” Horm. Metab. Res. 31(01), 31–36 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clarke, B. L.

S. F. Hodgson, N. B. Watts, J. P. Bilezikian, B. L. Clarke, T. K. Gray, D. W. Harris, C. C. Johnston, M. Kleerekoper, R. Lindsay, M. M. Luckey, M. R. McClung, H. R. Nankin, S. M. Petak, and R. R. Recker, “American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: 2001 edition, with selected updates for 2003,” Endocr. Pract. 9(6), 544–564 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cleiren, E.

E. Cleiren, O. Bénichou, E. Van Hul, J. Gram, J. Bollerslev, F. R. Singer, K. Beaverson, A. Aledo, M. P. Whyte, T. Yoneyama, M. C. deVernejoul, and W. Van Hul, “Albers-Schönberg disease (autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, type II) results from mutations in the ClCN7 chloride channel gene,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 10(25), 2861–2867 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, S. R.

A. Faingold, S. R. Cohen, R. Shahar, S. Weiner, L. Rapoport, and H. D. Wagner, “The effect of hydration on mechanical anisotropy, topography and fibril organization of the osteonal lamellae,” J. Biomech. 47(2), 367–372 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cummings, S. R.

S. R. Cummings, D. B. Karpf, F. Harris, H. K. Genant, K. Ensrud, A. Z. LaCroix, and D. M. Black, “Improvement in spine bone density and reduction in risk of vertebral fractures during treatment with antiresorptive drugs,” Am. J. Med. 112(4), 281–289 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Currey, J. D.

J. D. Currey, “Strain rate and mineral content in fracture models of bone,” J. Orthop. Res. 6(1), 32–38 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Currey, “The relationship between the stiffness and the mineral content of bone,” J. Biomech. 2(4), 477–480 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cutroni, J. A.

G. E. Fantner, H. Birkedal, J. H. Kindt, T. Hassenkam, J. C. Weaver, J. A. Cutroni, B. L. Bosma, L. Bawazer, M. M. Finch, G. A. Cidade, D. E. Morse, G. D. Stucky, and P. K. Hansma, “Influence of the degradation of the organic matrix on the microscopic fracture behavior of trabecular bone,” Bone 35(5), 1013–1022 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalla Pria Bankoff, A.

A. Dalla Pria Bankoff, Human Musculoskeletal Biomechanics. (In Tech, 2012).

De la Torre, I. M.

I. M. De la Torre, M. S. Hernández Montes, J. M. Flores-Moreno, and F. M. Santoyo, “Laser speckle based digital optical methods in structural mechanics: A review,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 87, 32–58 (2016).
[Crossref]

De la Torre-I, M. H.

de Laet, C. E.

S. C. Schuit, M. van der Klift, A. E. Weel, C. E. de Laet, H. Burger, E. Seeman, A. Hofman, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. P. van Leeuwen, and H. A. Pols, “Fracture incidence and association with bone mineral density in elderly men and women: the Rotterdam Study,” Bone 34(1), 195–202 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delle Sedie, A.

O. Di Munno, A. Delle Sedie, M. Rossini, and S. Adami, “Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and bone mass in rheumatoid arthritis,” Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 23(2), 137–144 (2005).
[PubMed]

Delmas, P. D.

E. Sornay-Rendu, F. Munoz, P. Garnero, F. Duboeuf, and P. D. Delmas, “Identification of osteopenic women at high risk of fracture: the OFELY study,” J. Bone Miner. Res. 20(10), 1813–1819 (2005).
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P. Y. Chen, D. Toroian, P. A. Price, and J. McKittrick, “Minerals form a continuum phase in mature cancellous bone,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 88(5), 351–361 (2011).
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P. Y. Chen, D. Toroian, P. A. Price, and J. McKittrick, “Minerals form a continuum phase in mature cancellous bone,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 88(5), 351–361 (2011).
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Rebolledo, B. J.

A. Unnanuntana, B. J. Rebolledo, M. M. Khair, E. F. DiCarlo, and J. M. Lane, “Diseases affecting bone quality: Beyond osteoporosis,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 469(8), 2194–2206 (2011).
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Sato, M.

J. J. Stepan, D. B. Burr, I. Pavo, A. Sipos, D. Michalska, J. Li, A. Fahrleitner-Pammer, H. Petto, M. Westmore, D. Michalsky, M. Sato, and H. Dobnig, “Low bone mineral density is associated with bone microdamage accumulation in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis,” Bone 41(3), 378–385 (2007).
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C. E. Fiore, P. Pennisi, F. Ciffo, C. Scebba, A. Amico, and S. Di Fazzio, “Immobilization-dependent bone collagen breakdown appears to increase with time: evidence for a lack of new bone equilibrium in response to reduced load during prolonged bed rest,” Horm. Metab. Res. 31(01), 31–36 (1999).
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F. M. Santoyo, G. Pedrini, S. Schedin, and H. J. Tiziani, “3D displacement measurements of vibrating objects with multi-pulse digital holography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10(12), 1305–1308 (1999).
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K. U. Lewandrowski, V. Venugopalan, W. W. Tomford, K. T. Schomacker, H. J. Mankin, and T. F. Deutsch, “Kinetics of cortical bone demineralization: controlled demineralization--a new method for modifying cortical bone allografts,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 31(3), 365–372 (1996).
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S. C. Schuit, M. van der Klift, A. E. Weel, C. E. de Laet, H. Burger, E. Seeman, A. Hofman, A. G. Uitterlinden, J. P. van Leeuwen, and H. A. Pols, “Fracture incidence and association with bone mineral density in elderly men and women: the Rotterdam Study,” Bone 34(1), 195–202 (2004).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the cortical bovine bone samples machining steps. Opposite faces of the bone samples are parallel.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Bone sample groups to be tested.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 FT-IR mean transmittance spectra comparison for samples with 4 and 6 hours of demineralization (dm + H2O) with respect to the control group (m + H2O).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 FT-IR mean transmittance spectra comparison for samples with 24 and 48 hours of air-drying (m-H2O) with respect to the control group (m + H2O).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Mean temporal response for each cortical sample group with region marker for 100 (green), 200 (yellow) and 300 lbs (blue).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 DHI set up for the cortical bone compression tests.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Average surface displacement map comparison between m + H2O and dm@4hrs + H2O left and right column respectively, for (a,b) 100 (c,d) 200 and (e,f) 300 lbs.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Average surface displacement map comparison between m-H2O@48hrs and dm@4hrs-H2O@48hrs left and right column respectively, for (a,b) 100 (c,d) 200 and (e,f) 300 lbs.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Transmittance ratios considering the bands of hydroxyapatite (1010 cm−1), collagen (1600 cm−1) and water (3427 cm−1) for the control and demineralization process spectra shown in Fig. 3.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Transmittance ratios considering the bands of hydroxyapatite (1010 cm−1), collagen (1600 cm−1) and water (3427 cm−1) for control and air-drying process spectra shown in Fig. 4.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Temporal comparison among sample groups.

Equations (1)

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Δ φ u = 2 π λ   ( 1 + cos θ ) w

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