Abstract

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed here for the non-invasive detection of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a primary health problem in the world and may further develop into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SERS measurement was applied to two groups of serum samples. One group included 93 HBV patients and the other group included 94 healthy volunteers as control subjects. Tentative assignments of the Raman bands in the measured SERS spectra have shown the difference of the serum SERS spectra between HBV patients and healthy volunteers. The differences indicated an increase in the relative amounts of L-arginine, Saccharide band (overlaps with acyl band), phenylalanine and tyrosine, together with a decrease in the percentage of nucleic acid, valine and hypoxanthine in the serum of HBV patients compared with those of healthy volunteers. For better analysis of the spectral data, the first-order derivation was applied to the SERS data. Furthermore, principal components analysis (PCA), combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were employed to distinguish HBV patients from healthy volunteers and to realize the diagnostic sensitivity of 78.5% and 91.4%, and specificity of 75% and 83% for SERS and the first order derivative SERS spectrum, respectively. These results suggest that derivative analysis could be an effective method to improve the classification of SERS spectra belonging to different groups. This exploratory work demonstrated that first-order derivative serum SERS spectrum combined with PCA-LDA has great potential for improving the detection of HBV.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (2)

A. Y. Sdobnov, V. V. Tuchin, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Confocal Raman microscopy supported by optical clearing treatment of the skin—influence on collagen hydration,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(28), 285401 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, J. Wang, C. Xu, Y. Zeng, Y. Chen, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, and R. Chen, “Differentiation of digestive system cancers by using serum protein-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(1), 16–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

L. A. Austin, S. Osseiran, and C. L. Evans, “Raman technologies in cancer diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(2), 476–503 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nagarajan and M. Sopanen, “Non-destructive method for strain imaging in an individual GaN nanorod by confocal Raman technique,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(46), 465303 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Ma, H. Xiao, and L. He, “Surface‐enhanced Raman scattering characterization of monohydroxylated polymethoxyflavones,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 47(8), 901–907 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghello, E. Papadopoulou, P. Ugo, and P. N. Bartlett, “Using Electrochemical SERS to Measure the Redox Potential of Drug Molecules Bound to dsDNA—a Study of Mitoxantrone,” Electrochim. Acta 187, 684–692 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Leong, D. Lin, and M. H. Nguyen, “Hepatitis B surface antigen escape mutations: Indications for initiation of antiviral therapy revisited,” World J. Clin. Cases 4(3), 71–75 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yang, L. W. Song, L. L. Fang, Y. Wu, S. X. Ge, H. Li, Q. Yuan, J. Zhang, and N. S. Xia, “Evaluation of a novel chemiluminescent microplate enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B surface antigen detection,” J. Virol. Methods 228, 55–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Çulha, “Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnosis: how far have we come?” Bioanalysis 7(21), 2813–2824 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kamińska, E. Witkowska, K. Winkler, I. Dzięcielewski, J. L. Weyher, and J. Waluk, “Detection of Hepatitis B virus antigen from human blood: SERS immunoassay in a microfluidic system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 66, 461–467 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. M. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50(1), 46–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

A. Bonifacio, S. Dalla Marta, R. Spizzo, S. Cervo, A. Steffan, A. Colombatti, and V. Sergo, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood plasma and serum using Ag and Au nanoparticles: a systematic study,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(9-10), 2355–2365 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, Z. Huang, S. Feng, J. Lin, N. Liu, J. Wang, L. Li, Y. Zeng, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Label-free optical detection of type II diabetes based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 45(10), 884–889 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Seto, Y. Okuda, E. Tokunaga, and T. Kobayashi, “Multiplex stimulated Raman imaging with white probe-light from a photonic-crystal fibre and with multi-wavelength balanced detection,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(34), 345401 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

V. Varade, G. V. Honnavar, P. Anjaneyulu, K. P. Kramesh, and R. Menon, “Probing disorder and transport properties in polypyrrole thin-film devices by impedance and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(36), 365306 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, H. Liang, S. Suri, D. Ma, and N. Wu, “Plasmonic nanorice antenna on triangle nanoarray for surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of hepatitis B virus DNA,” Anal. Chem. 85(4), 2072–2078 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

W. R. Premasiri, J. C. Lee, and L. D. Ziegler, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of whole human blood, blood plasma, and red blood cells: cellular processes and bioanalytical sensing,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(31), 9376–9386 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Yao, J. D. Liao, C. W. Chang, and J. R. Lin, “Spatially reinforced nano-cavity array as the SERS-active substrate for detecting hepatitis virus core antigen at low concentrations,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 174, 478–484 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Fenn, P. Xanthopoulos, G. Pyrgiotakis, S. R. Grobmyer, P. M. Pardalos, and L. L. Hench, “Raman Spectroscopy for Clinical Oncology,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2011, 213783 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

W. S. Lin, S. Z. Guo, H. Huang, R. Chen, S. Y. Feng, Y. Z. Li, and W. W. Chen, “[Infrared spectrum analysis of admixture decoction of herba Ephedrae with Ramulus cinnarnomi],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 29(7), 1847–1850 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. Chan, S. Fore, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, and T. Huser, “Raman spectroscopy and microscopy of individual cells and cellular components,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(5), 325–349 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated autofluorescence background subtraction algorithm for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, C. Li, X. Nie, X. Feng, W. Chen, Y. Yue, H. Tang, and F. Deng, “Metabonomic studies of human hepatocellular carcinoma using high-resolution magic-angle spinning 1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate data analysis,” J. Proteome Res. 6(7), 2605–2614 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

T. D. Ly, A. Servant-Delmas, S. Bagot, S. Gonzalo, M. P. Férey, A. Ebel, E. Dussaix, S. Laperche, and A. M. Roque-Afonso, “Sensitivities of four new commercial hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) assays in detection of HBsAg mutant forms,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 44(7), 2321–2326 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B. Weber, “Recent developments in the diagnosis and monitoring of HBV infection and role of the genetic variability of the S gene,” Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 5(1), 75–91 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

N. Leopold and B. Lendl, “A new method for fast preparation of highly surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active silver colloids at room temperature by reduction of silver nitrate with hydroxylamine hydrochloride,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5723–5727 (2003).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

L. Miclo, E. Perrin, A. Driou, M. Mellet, and G. Linden, “Determination of the ratios of the aromatic amino acid residues by first- or second-derivative UV spectrometry for a simple characterization of peptides,” Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 46(2), 186–192 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

M. Gallignani, S. Garrigues, and M. de la Guardia, “Direct determination of ethanol in all types of alcoholic beverages by near-infrared derivative spectrometry,” Analyst (Lond.) 118(9), 1167–1173 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. Samuel, R. Muller, G. Alexander, L. Fassati, B. Ducot, J. P. Benhamou, and H. Bismuth, “Liver transplantation in European patients with the hepatitis B surface antigen,” N. Engl. J. Med. 329(25), 1842–1847 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

V. T. Babes, N. Cajal, Z. Filipescu, and V. Milcov, “Accidental transfusion of blood containing HBsAg or anti-HBs,” Virologie 28(3), 173–178 (1977).
[PubMed]

Alexander, G.

D. Samuel, R. Muller, G. Alexander, L. Fassati, B. Ducot, J. P. Benhamou, and H. Bismuth, “Liver transplantation in European patients with the hepatitis B surface antigen,” N. Engl. J. Med. 329(25), 1842–1847 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anjaneyulu, P.

V. Varade, G. V. Honnavar, P. Anjaneyulu, K. P. Kramesh, and R. Menon, “Probing disorder and transport properties in polypyrrole thin-film devices by impedance and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(36), 365306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Austin, L. A.

L. A. Austin, S. Osseiran, and C. L. Evans, “Raman technologies in cancer diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(2), 476–503 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babes, V. T.

V. T. Babes, N. Cajal, Z. Filipescu, and V. Milcov, “Accidental transfusion of blood containing HBsAg or anti-HBs,” Virologie 28(3), 173–178 (1977).
[PubMed]

Bagot, S.

T. D. Ly, A. Servant-Delmas, S. Bagot, S. Gonzalo, M. P. Férey, A. Ebel, E. Dussaix, S. Laperche, and A. M. Roque-Afonso, “Sensitivities of four new commercial hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) assays in detection of HBsAg mutant forms,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 44(7), 2321–2326 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartlett, P. N.

M. Meneghello, E. Papadopoulou, P. Ugo, and P. N. Bartlett, “Using Electrochemical SERS to Measure the Redox Potential of Drug Molecules Bound to dsDNA—a Study of Mitoxantrone,” Electrochim. Acta 187, 684–692 (2016).
[Crossref]

Benhamou, J. P.

D. Samuel, R. Muller, G. Alexander, L. Fassati, B. Ducot, J. P. Benhamou, and H. Bismuth, “Liver transplantation in European patients with the hepatitis B surface antigen,” N. Engl. J. Med. 329(25), 1842–1847 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bismuth, H.

D. Samuel, R. Muller, G. Alexander, L. Fassati, B. Ducot, J. P. Benhamou, and H. Bismuth, “Liver transplantation in European patients with the hepatitis B surface antigen,” N. Engl. J. Med. 329(25), 1842–1847 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonifacio, A.

A. Bonifacio, S. Dalla Marta, R. Spizzo, S. Cervo, A. Steffan, A. Colombatti, and V. Sergo, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood plasma and serum using Ag and Au nanoparticles: a systematic study,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(9-10), 2355–2365 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cajal, N.

V. T. Babes, N. Cajal, Z. Filipescu, and V. Milcov, “Accidental transfusion of blood containing HBsAg or anti-HBs,” Virologie 28(3), 173–178 (1977).
[PubMed]

Cervo, S.

A. Bonifacio, S. Dalla Marta, R. Spizzo, S. Cervo, A. Steffan, A. Colombatti, and V. Sergo, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood plasma and serum using Ag and Au nanoparticles: a systematic study,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(9-10), 2355–2365 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, J.

J. Chan, S. Fore, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, and T. Huser, “Raman spectroscopy and microscopy of individual cells and cellular components,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(5), 325–349 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. W.

C. K. Yao, J. D. Liao, C. W. Chang, and J. R. Lin, “Spatially reinforced nano-cavity array as the SERS-active substrate for detecting hepatitis virus core antigen at low concentrations,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 174, 478–484 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
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Chen, R.

J. Lin, J. Wang, C. Xu, Y. Zeng, Y. Chen, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, and R. Chen, “Differentiation of digestive system cancers by using serum protein-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(1), 16–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, Z. Huang, S. Feng, J. Lin, N. Liu, J. Wang, L. Li, Y. Zeng, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Label-free optical detection of type II diabetes based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 45(10), 884–889 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Lin, S. Z. Guo, H. Huang, R. Chen, S. Y. Feng, Y. Z. Li, and W. W. Chen, “[Infrared spectrum analysis of admixture decoction of herba Ephedrae with Ramulus cinnarnomi],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 29(7), 1847–1850 (2009).
[PubMed]

Chen, W.

Y. Yang, C. Li, X. Nie, X. Feng, W. Chen, Y. Yue, H. Tang, and F. Deng, “Metabonomic studies of human hepatocellular carcinoma using high-resolution magic-angle spinning 1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate data analysis,” J. Proteome Res. 6(7), 2605–2614 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. W.

W. S. Lin, S. Z. Guo, H. Huang, R. Chen, S. Y. Feng, Y. Z. Li, and W. W. Chen, “[Infrared spectrum analysis of admixture decoction of herba Ephedrae with Ramulus cinnarnomi],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 29(7), 1847–1850 (2009).
[PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J. Lin, J. Wang, C. Xu, Y. Zeng, Y. Chen, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, and R. Chen, “Differentiation of digestive system cancers by using serum protein-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(1), 16–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
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S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
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A. Y. Sdobnov, V. V. Tuchin, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Confocal Raman microscopy supported by optical clearing treatment of the skin—influence on collagen hydration,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(28), 285401 (2017).
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M. Gallignani, S. Garrigues, and M. de la Guardia, “Direct determination of ethanol in all types of alcoholic beverages by near-infrared derivative spectrometry,” Analyst (Lond.) 118(9), 1167–1173 (1993).
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Y. Yang, C. Li, X. Nie, X. Feng, W. Chen, Y. Yue, H. Tang, and F. Deng, “Metabonomic studies of human hepatocellular carcinoma using high-resolution magic-angle spinning 1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate data analysis,” J. Proteome Res. 6(7), 2605–2614 (2007).
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A. Kamińska, E. Witkowska, K. Winkler, I. Dzięcielewski, J. L. Weyher, and J. Waluk, “Detection of Hepatitis B virus antigen from human blood: SERS immunoassay in a microfluidic system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 66, 461–467 (2015).
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T. D. Ly, A. Servant-Delmas, S. Bagot, S. Gonzalo, M. P. Férey, A. Ebel, E. Dussaix, S. Laperche, and A. M. Roque-Afonso, “Sensitivities of four new commercial hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) assays in detection of HBsAg mutant forms,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 44(7), 2321–2326 (2006).
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D. Samuel, R. Muller, G. Alexander, L. Fassati, B. Ducot, J. P. Benhamou, and H. Bismuth, “Liver transplantation in European patients with the hepatitis B surface antigen,” N. Engl. J. Med. 329(25), 1842–1847 (1993).
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S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, Z. Huang, S. Feng, J. Lin, N. Liu, J. Wang, L. Li, Y. Zeng, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Label-free optical detection of type II diabetes based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 45(10), 884–889 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S. Y.

W. S. Lin, S. Z. Guo, H. Huang, R. Chen, S. Y. Feng, Y. Z. Li, and W. W. Chen, “[Infrared spectrum analysis of admixture decoction of herba Ephedrae with Ramulus cinnarnomi],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 29(7), 1847–1850 (2009).
[PubMed]

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R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, C. Li, X. Nie, X. Feng, W. Chen, Y. Yue, H. Tang, and F. Deng, “Metabonomic studies of human hepatocellular carcinoma using high-resolution magic-angle spinning 1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate data analysis,” J. Proteome Res. 6(7), 2605–2614 (2007).
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T. D. Ly, A. Servant-Delmas, S. Bagot, S. Gonzalo, M. P. Férey, A. Ebel, E. Dussaix, S. Laperche, and A. M. Roque-Afonso, “Sensitivities of four new commercial hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) assays in detection of HBsAg mutant forms,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 44(7), 2321–2326 (2006).
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J. Chan, S. Fore, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, and T. Huser, “Raman spectroscopy and microscopy of individual cells and cellular components,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(5), 325–349 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gallignani, M.

M. Gallignani, S. Garrigues, and M. de la Guardia, “Direct determination of ethanol in all types of alcoholic beverages by near-infrared derivative spectrometry,” Analyst (Lond.) 118(9), 1167–1173 (1993).
[Crossref]

Garrigues, S.

M. Gallignani, S. Garrigues, and M. de la Guardia, “Direct determination of ethanol in all types of alcoholic beverages by near-infrared derivative spectrometry,” Analyst (Lond.) 118(9), 1167–1173 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ge, S. X.

L. Yang, L. W. Song, L. L. Fang, Y. Wu, S. X. Ge, H. Li, Q. Yuan, J. Zhang, and N. S. Xia, “Evaluation of a novel chemiluminescent microplate enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B surface antigen detection,” J. Virol. Methods 228, 55–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonzalo, S.

T. D. Ly, A. Servant-Delmas, S. Bagot, S. Gonzalo, M. P. Férey, A. Ebel, E. Dussaix, S. Laperche, and A. M. Roque-Afonso, “Sensitivities of four new commercial hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) assays in detection of HBsAg mutant forms,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 44(7), 2321–2326 (2006).
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Grobmyer, S. R.

M. B. Fenn, P. Xanthopoulos, G. Pyrgiotakis, S. R. Grobmyer, P. M. Pardalos, and L. L. Hench, “Raman Spectroscopy for Clinical Oncology,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2011, 213783 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guo, S. Z.

W. S. Lin, S. Z. Guo, H. Huang, R. Chen, S. Y. Feng, Y. Z. Li, and W. W. Chen, “[Infrared spectrum analysis of admixture decoction of herba Ephedrae with Ramulus cinnarnomi],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 29(7), 1847–1850 (2009).
[PubMed]

Guo, X.

R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
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Hao, W.

R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
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C. Ma, H. Xiao, and L. He, “Surface‐enhanced Raman scattering characterization of monohydroxylated polymethoxyflavones,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 47(8), 901–907 (2016).
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M. B. Fenn, P. Xanthopoulos, G. Pyrgiotakis, S. R. Grobmyer, P. M. Pardalos, and L. L. Hench, “Raman Spectroscopy for Clinical Oncology,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2011, 213783 (2011).
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Honnavar, G. V.

V. Varade, G. V. Honnavar, P. Anjaneyulu, K. P. Kramesh, and R. Menon, “Probing disorder and transport properties in polypyrrole thin-film devices by impedance and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(36), 365306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

W. S. Lin, S. Z. Guo, H. Huang, R. Chen, S. Y. Feng, Y. Z. Li, and W. W. Chen, “[Infrared spectrum analysis of admixture decoction of herba Ephedrae with Ramulus cinnarnomi],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 29(7), 1847–1850 (2009).
[PubMed]

Huang, S.

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
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R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

J. Lin, J. Wang, C. Xu, Y. Zeng, Y. Chen, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, and R. Chen, “Differentiation of digestive system cancers by using serum protein-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(1), 16–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, Z. Huang, S. Feng, J. Lin, N. Liu, J. Wang, L. Li, Y. Zeng, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Label-free optical detection of type II diabetes based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 45(10), 884–889 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huser, T.

J. Chan, S. Fore, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, and T. Huser, “Raman spectroscopy and microscopy of individual cells and cellular components,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(5), 325–349 (2008).
[Crossref]

Johnson, H.

R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
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A. Kamińska, E. Witkowska, K. Winkler, I. Dzięcielewski, J. L. Weyher, and J. Waluk, “Detection of Hepatitis B virus antigen from human blood: SERS immunoassay in a microfluidic system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 66, 461–467 (2015).
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K. Seto, Y. Okuda, E. Tokunaga, and T. Kobayashi, “Multiplex stimulated Raman imaging with white probe-light from a photonic-crystal fibre and with multi-wavelength balanced detection,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(34), 345401 (2014).
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Kramesh, K. P.

V. Varade, G. V. Honnavar, P. Anjaneyulu, K. P. Kramesh, and R. Menon, “Probing disorder and transport properties in polypyrrole thin-film devices by impedance and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(36), 365306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lademann, J.

A. Y. Sdobnov, V. V. Tuchin, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Confocal Raman microscopy supported by optical clearing treatment of the skin—influence on collagen hydration,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(28), 285401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Laperche, S.

T. D. Ly, A. Servant-Delmas, S. Bagot, S. Gonzalo, M. P. Férey, A. Ebel, E. Dussaix, S. Laperche, and A. M. Roque-Afonso, “Sensitivities of four new commercial hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) assays in detection of HBsAg mutant forms,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 44(7), 2321–2326 (2006).
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W. R. Premasiri, J. C. Lee, and L. D. Ziegler, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of whole human blood, blood plasma, and red blood cells: cellular processes and bioanalytical sensing,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(31), 9376–9386 (2012).
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N. Leopold and B. Lendl, “A new method for fast preparation of highly surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active silver colloids at room temperature by reduction of silver nitrate with hydroxylamine hydrochloride,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5723–5727 (2003).
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J. Leong, D. Lin, and M. H. Nguyen, “Hepatitis B surface antigen escape mutations: Indications for initiation of antiviral therapy revisited,” World J. Clin. Cases 4(3), 71–75 (2016).
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N. Leopold and B. Lendl, “A new method for fast preparation of highly surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active silver colloids at room temperature by reduction of silver nitrate with hydroxylamine hydrochloride,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5723–5727 (2003).
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Li, B.

J. Lin, J. Wang, C. Xu, Y. Zeng, Y. Chen, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, and R. Chen, “Differentiation of digestive system cancers by using serum protein-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(1), 16–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Z. Huang, S. Feng, J. Lin, N. Liu, J. Wang, L. Li, Y. Zeng, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Label-free optical detection of type II diabetes based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 45(10), 884–889 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Y. Yang, C. Li, X. Nie, X. Feng, W. Chen, Y. Yue, H. Tang, and F. Deng, “Metabonomic studies of human hepatocellular carcinoma using high-resolution magic-angle spinning 1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate data analysis,” J. Proteome Res. 6(7), 2605–2614 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

L. Yang, L. W. Song, L. L. Fang, Y. Wu, S. X. Ge, H. Li, Q. Yuan, J. Zhang, and N. S. Xia, “Evaluation of a novel chemiluminescent microplate enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B surface antigen detection,” J. Virol. Methods 228, 55–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

J. Lin, J. Wang, C. Xu, Y. Zeng, Y. Chen, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, and R. Chen, “Differentiation of digestive system cancers by using serum protein-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(1), 16–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Z. Huang, S. Feng, J. Lin, N. Liu, J. Wang, L. Li, Y. Zeng, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Label-free optical detection of type II diabetes based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 45(10), 884–889 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, H. Liang, S. Suri, D. Ma, and N. Wu, “Plasmonic nanorice antenna on triangle nanoarray for surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of hepatitis B virus DNA,” Anal. Chem. 85(4), 2072–2078 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y. Z.

W. S. Lin, S. Z. Guo, H. Huang, R. Chen, S. Y. Feng, Y. Z. Li, and W. W. Chen, “[Infrared spectrum analysis of admixture decoction of herba Ephedrae with Ramulus cinnarnomi],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 29(7), 1847–1850 (2009).
[PubMed]

Li, Z.

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, H.

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, H. Liang, S. Suri, D. Ma, and N. Wu, “Plasmonic nanorice antenna on triangle nanoarray for surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of hepatitis B virus DNA,” Anal. Chem. 85(4), 2072–2078 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, J. D.

C. K. Yao, J. D. Liao, C. W. Chang, and J. R. Lin, “Spatially reinforced nano-cavity array as the SERS-active substrate for detecting hepatitis virus core antigen at low concentrations,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 174, 478–484 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, D.

J. Leong, D. Lin, and M. H. Nguyen, “Hepatitis B surface antigen escape mutations: Indications for initiation of antiviral therapy revisited,” World J. Clin. Cases 4(3), 71–75 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

J. Lin, J. Wang, C. Xu, Y. Zeng, Y. Chen, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, and R. Chen, “Differentiation of digestive system cancers by using serum protein-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(1), 16–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, Z. Huang, S. Feng, J. Lin, N. Liu, J. Wang, L. Li, Y. Zeng, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Label-free optical detection of type II diabetes based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 45(10), 884–889 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Z. Huang, S. Feng, J. Lin, N. Liu, J. Wang, L. Li, Y. Zeng, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Label-free optical detection of type II diabetes based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 45(10), 884–889 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J. R.

C. K. Yao, J. D. Liao, C. W. Chang, and J. R. Lin, “Spatially reinforced nano-cavity array as the SERS-active substrate for detecting hepatitis virus core antigen at low concentrations,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 174, 478–484 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, W. S.

W. S. Lin, S. Z. Guo, H. Huang, R. Chen, S. Y. Feng, Y. Z. Li, and W. W. Chen, “[Infrared spectrum analysis of admixture decoction of herba Ephedrae with Ramulus cinnarnomi],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 29(7), 1847–1850 (2009).
[PubMed]

Linden, G.

L. Miclo, E. Perrin, A. Driou, M. Mellet, and G. Linden, “Determination of the ratios of the aromatic amino acid residues by first- or second-derivative UV spectrometry for a simple characterization of peptides,” Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 46(2), 186–192 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

J. Lin, Z. Huang, S. Feng, J. Lin, N. Liu, J. Wang, L. Li, Y. Zeng, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Label-free optical detection of type II diabetes based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 45(10), 884–889 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lui, H.

Ly, T. D.

T. D. Ly, A. Servant-Delmas, S. Bagot, S. Gonzalo, M. P. Férey, A. Ebel, E. Dussaix, S. Laperche, and A. M. Roque-Afonso, “Sensitivities of four new commercial hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) assays in detection of HBsAg mutant forms,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 44(7), 2321–2326 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, C.

C. Ma, H. Xiao, and L. He, “Surface‐enhanced Raman scattering characterization of monohydroxylated polymethoxyflavones,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 47(8), 901–907 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ma, D.

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, H. Liang, S. Suri, D. Ma, and N. Wu, “Plasmonic nanorice antenna on triangle nanoarray for surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of hepatitis B virus DNA,” Anal. Chem. 85(4), 2072–2078 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLean, D. I.

Mellet, M.

L. Miclo, E. Perrin, A. Driou, M. Mellet, and G. Linden, “Determination of the ratios of the aromatic amino acid residues by first- or second-derivative UV spectrometry for a simple characterization of peptides,” Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 46(2), 186–192 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meneghello, M.

M. Meneghello, E. Papadopoulou, P. Ugo, and P. N. Bartlett, “Using Electrochemical SERS to Measure the Redox Potential of Drug Molecules Bound to dsDNA—a Study of Mitoxantrone,” Electrochim. Acta 187, 684–692 (2016).
[Crossref]

Menon, R.

V. Varade, G. V. Honnavar, P. Anjaneyulu, K. P. Kramesh, and R. Menon, “Probing disorder and transport properties in polypyrrole thin-film devices by impedance and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(36), 365306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miclo, L.

L. Miclo, E. Perrin, A. Driou, M. Mellet, and G. Linden, “Determination of the ratios of the aromatic amino acid residues by first- or second-derivative UV spectrometry for a simple characterization of peptides,” Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 46(2), 186–192 (1995).
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V. T. Babes, N. Cajal, Z. Filipescu, and V. Milcov, “Accidental transfusion of blood containing HBsAg or anti-HBs,” Virologie 28(3), 173–178 (1977).
[PubMed]

Movasaghi, Z. M.

Z. M. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50(1), 46–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

Muller, R.

D. Samuel, R. Muller, G. Alexander, L. Fassati, B. Ducot, J. P. Benhamou, and H. Bismuth, “Liver transplantation in European patients with the hepatitis B surface antigen,” N. Engl. J. Med. 329(25), 1842–1847 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagarajan, S.

S. Nagarajan and M. Sopanen, “Non-destructive method for strain imaging in an individual GaN nanorod by confocal Raman technique,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(46), 465303 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, M. H.

J. Leong, D. Lin, and M. H. Nguyen, “Hepatitis B surface antigen escape mutations: Indications for initiation of antiviral therapy revisited,” World J. Clin. Cases 4(3), 71–75 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nie, X.

Y. Yang, C. Li, X. Nie, X. Feng, W. Chen, Y. Yue, H. Tang, and F. Deng, “Metabonomic studies of human hepatocellular carcinoma using high-resolution magic-angle spinning 1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate data analysis,” J. Proteome Res. 6(7), 2605–2614 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okuda, Y.

K. Seto, Y. Okuda, E. Tokunaga, and T. Kobayashi, “Multiplex stimulated Raman imaging with white probe-light from a photonic-crystal fibre and with multi-wavelength balanced detection,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(34), 345401 (2014).
[Crossref]

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L. A. Austin, S. Osseiran, and C. L. Evans, “Raman technologies in cancer diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(2), 476–503 (2016).
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Pan, J.

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papadopoulou, E.

M. Meneghello, E. Papadopoulou, P. Ugo, and P. N. Bartlett, “Using Electrochemical SERS to Measure the Redox Potential of Drug Molecules Bound to dsDNA—a Study of Mitoxantrone,” Electrochim. Acta 187, 684–692 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pardalos, P. M.

M. B. Fenn, P. Xanthopoulos, G. Pyrgiotakis, S. R. Grobmyer, P. M. Pardalos, and L. L. Hench, “Raman Spectroscopy for Clinical Oncology,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2011, 213783 (2011).
[Crossref]

Perrin, E.

L. Miclo, E. Perrin, A. Driou, M. Mellet, and G. Linden, “Determination of the ratios of the aromatic amino acid residues by first- or second-derivative UV spectrometry for a simple characterization of peptides,” Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 46(2), 186–192 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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W. R. Premasiri, J. C. Lee, and L. D. Ziegler, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of whole human blood, blood plasma, and red blood cells: cellular processes and bioanalytical sensing,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(31), 9376–9386 (2012).
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Pyrgiotakis, G.

M. B. Fenn, P. Xanthopoulos, G. Pyrgiotakis, S. R. Grobmyer, P. M. Pardalos, and L. L. Hench, “Raman Spectroscopy for Clinical Oncology,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2011, 213783 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rehman, I. U.

Z. M. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50(1), 46–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rehman, S.

Z. M. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50(1), 46–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rong, Z.

R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roque-Afonso, A. M.

T. D. Ly, A. Servant-Delmas, S. Bagot, S. Gonzalo, M. P. Férey, A. Ebel, E. Dussaix, S. Laperche, and A. M. Roque-Afonso, “Sensitivities of four new commercial hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) assays in detection of HBsAg mutant forms,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 44(7), 2321–2326 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samuel, D.

D. Samuel, R. Muller, G. Alexander, L. Fassati, B. Ducot, J. P. Benhamou, and H. Bismuth, “Liver transplantation in European patients with the hepatitis B surface antigen,” N. Engl. J. Med. 329(25), 1842–1847 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sdobnov, A. Y.

A. Y. Sdobnov, V. V. Tuchin, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Confocal Raman microscopy supported by optical clearing treatment of the skin—influence on collagen hydration,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(28), 285401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sergo, V.

A. Bonifacio, S. Dalla Marta, R. Spizzo, S. Cervo, A. Steffan, A. Colombatti, and V. Sergo, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood plasma and serum using Ag and Au nanoparticles: a systematic study,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(9-10), 2355–2365 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Servant-Delmas, A.

T. D. Ly, A. Servant-Delmas, S. Bagot, S. Gonzalo, M. P. Férey, A. Ebel, E. Dussaix, S. Laperche, and A. M. Roque-Afonso, “Sensitivities of four new commercial hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) assays in detection of HBsAg mutant forms,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 44(7), 2321–2326 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seto, K.

K. Seto, Y. Okuda, E. Tokunaga, and T. Kobayashi, “Multiplex stimulated Raman imaging with white probe-light from a photonic-crystal fibre and with multi-wavelength balanced detection,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(34), 345401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, L. W.

L. Yang, L. W. Song, L. L. Fang, Y. Wu, S. X. Ge, H. Li, Q. Yuan, J. Zhang, and N. S. Xia, “Evaluation of a novel chemiluminescent microplate enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B surface antigen detection,” J. Virol. Methods 228, 55–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sopanen, M.

S. Nagarajan and M. Sopanen, “Non-destructive method for strain imaging in an individual GaN nanorod by confocal Raman technique,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(46), 465303 (2016).
[Crossref]

Spizzo, R.

A. Bonifacio, S. Dalla Marta, R. Spizzo, S. Cervo, A. Steffan, A. Colombatti, and V. Sergo, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood plasma and serum using Ag and Au nanoparticles: a systematic study,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(9-10), 2355–2365 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steffan, A.

A. Bonifacio, S. Dalla Marta, R. Spizzo, S. Cervo, A. Steffan, A. Colombatti, and V. Sergo, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood plasma and serum using Ag and Au nanoparticles: a systematic study,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(9-10), 2355–2365 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suri, S.

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, H. Liang, S. Suri, D. Ma, and N. Wu, “Plasmonic nanorice antenna on triangle nanoarray for surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of hepatitis B virus DNA,” Anal. Chem. 85(4), 2072–2078 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, H.

Y. Yang, C. Li, X. Nie, X. Feng, W. Chen, Y. Yue, H. Tang, and F. Deng, “Metabonomic studies of human hepatocellular carcinoma using high-resolution magic-angle spinning 1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate data analysis,” J. Proteome Res. 6(7), 2605–2614 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tokunaga, E.

K. Seto, Y. Okuda, E. Tokunaga, and T. Kobayashi, “Multiplex stimulated Raman imaging with white probe-light from a photonic-crystal fibre and with multi-wavelength balanced detection,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(34), 345401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tuchin, V. V.

A. Y. Sdobnov, V. V. Tuchin, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Confocal Raman microscopy supported by optical clearing treatment of the skin—influence on collagen hydration,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(28), 285401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ugo, P.

M. Meneghello, E. Papadopoulou, P. Ugo, and P. N. Bartlett, “Using Electrochemical SERS to Measure the Redox Potential of Drug Molecules Bound to dsDNA—a Study of Mitoxantrone,” Electrochim. Acta 187, 684–692 (2016).
[Crossref]

Varade, V.

V. Varade, G. V. Honnavar, P. Anjaneyulu, K. P. Kramesh, and R. Menon, “Probing disorder and transport properties in polypyrrole thin-film devices by impedance and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(36), 365306 (2013).
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Wachsmann-Hogiu, S.

J. Chan, S. Fore, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, and T. Huser, “Raman spectroscopy and microscopy of individual cells and cellular components,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(5), 325–349 (2008).
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Waluk, J.

A. Kamińska, E. Witkowska, K. Winkler, I. Dzięcielewski, J. L. Weyher, and J. Waluk, “Detection of Hepatitis B virus antigen from human blood: SERS immunoassay in a microfluidic system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 66, 461–467 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Lin, J. Wang, C. Xu, Y. Zeng, Y. Chen, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, and R. Chen, “Differentiation of digestive system cancers by using serum protein-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(1), 16–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Z. Huang, S. Feng, J. Lin, N. Liu, J. Wang, L. Li, Y. Zeng, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Label-free optical detection of type II diabetes based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 45(10), 884–889 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
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B. Weber, “Recent developments in the diagnosis and monitoring of HBV infection and role of the genetic variability of the S gene,” Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn. 5(1), 75–91 (2005).
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A. Kamińska, E. Witkowska, K. Winkler, I. Dzięcielewski, J. L. Weyher, and J. Waluk, “Detection of Hepatitis B virus antigen from human blood: SERS immunoassay in a microfluidic system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 66, 461–467 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winkler, K.

A. Kamińska, E. Witkowska, K. Winkler, I. Dzięcielewski, J. L. Weyher, and J. Waluk, “Detection of Hepatitis B virus antigen from human blood: SERS immunoassay in a microfluidic system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 66, 461–467 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Witkowska, E.

A. Kamińska, E. Witkowska, K. Winkler, I. Dzięcielewski, J. L. Weyher, and J. Waluk, “Detection of Hepatitis B virus antigen from human blood: SERS immunoassay in a microfluidic system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 66, 461–467 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, N.

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, H. Liang, S. Suri, D. Ma, and N. Wu, “Plasmonic nanorice antenna on triangle nanoarray for surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of hepatitis B virus DNA,” Anal. Chem. 85(4), 2072–2078 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

L. Yang, L. W. Song, L. L. Fang, Y. Wu, S. X. Ge, H. Li, Q. Yuan, J. Zhang, and N. S. Xia, “Evaluation of a novel chemiluminescent microplate enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B surface antigen detection,” J. Virol. Methods 228, 55–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xanthopoulos, P.

M. B. Fenn, P. Xanthopoulos, G. Pyrgiotakis, S. R. Grobmyer, P. M. Pardalos, and L. L. Hench, “Raman Spectroscopy for Clinical Oncology,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2011, 213783 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xi, G.

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, N. S.

L. Yang, L. W. Song, L. L. Fang, Y. Wu, S. X. Ge, H. Li, Q. Yuan, J. Zhang, and N. S. Xia, “Evaluation of a novel chemiluminescent microplate enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B surface antigen detection,” J. Virol. Methods 228, 55–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, H.

C. Ma, H. Xiao, and L. He, “Surface‐enhanced Raman scattering characterization of monohydroxylated polymethoxyflavones,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 47(8), 901–907 (2016).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Representative serum SERS (black line) and derivative SERS (red line) of healthy volunteers in the range of 400~1800 cm−1 (A) and in the range of 600~700cm−1 (B). The increased spectral peaks of derivative SERS spectrum are obvious in the two boxes marked with green dotted lines.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of the mean SERS spectrum (A) and first-order derivative SERS spectrum (B) of normal serum sample (black line, n = 94) and HBV serum sample (red line, n = 93). The shaded areas represent the standard deviations. Also shown at the bottom is the difference spectrum.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The relationship between the number of PC and the root mean square error of cross validation (RMSE) for correct classification of normal and HBV patients.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Scatter plots of the PCA result for HBV group (red circles) and the healthy volunteer group (black triangles) with (A) PC1, PC2 in SERS spectrum and (B) PC1, PC2 in first order derivative SERS spectrum as the two axes. The diagnostic lines (PC2 = −0.580 PC1 + 0.0365 in Fig. 4(A); PC2 = −1.196 PC1-0.00549 in Fig. 4(B)) classify HBV from normal serum sample with the sensitivity of 75.3% (70/93), 84.9% (79/93) and the specificity of 77.7% (73/94), 80.8% (76/94) for SERS and derivative SERS data, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Scatter plots of the posterior probability of normal (black triangles) and HBV (red circles) serum sample as calculated for (A) SERS spectrum, (B) first-order derivative spectrum, respectively, using the PCA-LDA together with leave-one-out cross-validation method. The posterior probability corresponding to the dashed separation line is 0.5.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the discrimination result for the PCA-LDA based on the spectral classification of SERS and first order derivative SERS spectrum.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Peak positions and tentative assignments of major vibrational bands observed in serum samples