Abstract

Time-resolved temporal point spread function (TPSF) measurement of near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) data allows the estimation of absorption and reduced scattering properties of biological tissues. Such analysis requires an iterative calculation of the theoretical TPSF curve using mathematical and computational models of the domain being imaged which are computationally complex and expensive. In this work, an efficient methodology for representing the TPSF data using a superposition of cosines calculated in frequency domain is presented. The proposed method is outlined and tested on finite element realistic models of the human neck and head. Using an adult head model containing ~140k nodes, the TPSF calculation at each node for one source is accelerated from 3.11 s to 1.29 s within an error limit of ± 5% related to the time domain calculation method.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (6)

J. A. Guggenheim, I. Bargigia, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, and H. Dehghani, “Time resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy with geometrically accurate models for bulk parameter recovery,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(9), 3784–3794 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. Pifferi, D. Contini, A. D. Mora, A. Farina, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “New frontiers in time-domain diffuse optics, a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 091310 (2016).
[PubMed]

W. Weigl, D. Milej, D. Janusek, S. Wojtkiewicz, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Gerega, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Application of optical methods in the monitoring of traumatic brain injury: A review,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 36(11), 1825–1843 (2016).
[PubMed]

D. Grosenick, H. Rinneberg, R. Cubeddu, and P. Taroni, “Review of optical breast imaging and spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 091311 (2016).
[PubMed]

C. Lindner, M. Mora, P. Farzam, M. Squarcia, J. Johansson, U. M. Weigel, I. Halperin, F. A. Hanzu, and T. Durduran, “Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147851 (2016).
[PubMed]

H. Fujii, Y. Yamada, K. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, and Y. Hoshi, “Modeling of light propagation in the human neck for diagnoses of thyroid cancers by diffuse optical tomography,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Biomed. Eng. 33(5), 2826 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (4)

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J. P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H. C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2037–2053 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Selb, T. M. Ogden, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, and D. A. Boas, “Comparison of a layered slab and an atlas head model for Monte Carlo fitting of time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy data of the adult head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 16010 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

T. Durduran and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for non-invasive, micro-vascular cerebral blood flow measurement,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 51–63 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (5)

C. Zhu and Q. Liu, “Review of Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 50902 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. Jermyn, H. Ghadyani, M. A. Mastanduno, W. Turner, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086007 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. Diop and K. St Lawrence, “Improving the depth sensitivity of time-resolved measurements by extracting the distribution of times-of-flight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(3), 447–459 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. Puszka, L. Hervé, A. Planat-Chrétien, A. Koenig, J. Derouard, and J.-M. Dinten, “Time-domain reflectance diffuse optical tomography with Mellin-Laplace transform for experimental detection and depth localization of a single absorbing inclusion,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(4), 569–583 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (3)

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Retrieval procedure for time-resolved near-infrared tissue spectroscopy based on the optimal estimation method,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57(10), 2915–2929 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and C. Elster, “Determination of absorption changes from moments of distributions of times of flight of photons: optimization of measurement conditions for a two-layered tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057005 (2012).
[PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016002 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (1)

Q. Zhu, H. Dehghani, K. M. Tichauer, R. W. Holt, K. Vishwanath, F. Leblond, and B. W. Pogue, “A three-dimensional finite element model and image reconstruction algorithm for time-domain fluorescence imaging in highly scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(23), 7419–7434 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (4)

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse Optics for Tissue Monitoring and Tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 662, 143–148 (2010).
[PubMed]

Q. Fang, “Mesh-based Monte Carlo method using fast ray-tracing in Plücker coordinates,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 165–175 (2010).
[PubMed]

Q. Fang, “Mesh-based Monte Carlo method using fast ray-tracing in Plücker coordinates,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 165–175 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25(6), 711–732 (2008).
[PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

X. Intes and B. Chance, “Multi-frequency diffuse optical tomography,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2139–2159 (2005).

2003 (2)

G. Strangman, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “Factors affecting the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy concentration calculations for focal changes in oxygenation parameters,” Neuroimage 18(4), 865–879 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, “Evaluation of optical properties of highly scattering media by moments of distributions of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 42(28), 5785–5792 (2003).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41 (1999).

1998 (3)

1995 (4)

A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, “The influence of boundary conditions on the accuracy of diffusion theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(11), 1957–1975 (1995).
[PubMed]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[PubMed]

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[PubMed]

1993 (1)

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20(2 Pt 1), 299–309 (1993).
[PubMed]

1992 (2)

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. Reynolds, and et al.., “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[PubMed]

H. A. d. Vorst, “Bi-CGSTAB: A Fast and Smoothly Converging Variant of Bi-CG for the Solution of Nonsymmetric Linear Systems,” SIAM J. Sci. Statist. Comput. 13, 631–644 (1992).

Andersson-Engels, S.

Arridge, S. R.

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(9), 1659–1670 (2000).
[PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41 (1999).

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20(2 Pt 1), 299–309 (1993).
[PubMed]

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. Reynolds, and et al.., “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[PubMed]

Baker, W. B.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse Optics for Tissue Monitoring and Tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[PubMed]

Bargigia, I.

Baribeau, F.

Barnett, A. H.

Bays, R.

Bénazech-Lavoué, M.

Bergh, H.

Bérubé-Lauzière, Y.

Binzoni, T.

Boas, D. A.

J. Selb, T. M. Ogden, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, and D. A. Boas, “Comparison of a layered slab and an atlas head model for Monte Carlo fitting of time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy data of the adult head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 16010 (2014).
[PubMed]

Q. Fang and D. A. Boas, “Monte Carlo Simulation of Photon Migration in 3D Turbid Media Accelerated by Graphics Processing Units,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20178–20190 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. Custo, W. M. Wells, A. H. Barnett, E. M. C. Hillman, and D. A. Boas, “Effective scattering coefficient of the cerebral spinal fluid in adult head models for diffuse optical imaging,” Appl. Opt. 45(19), 4747–4755 (2006).
[PubMed]

G. Strangman, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “Factors affecting the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy concentration calculations for focal changes in oxygenation parameters,” Neuroimage 18(4), 865–879 (2003).
[PubMed]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[PubMed]

Bodnar, O.

Botwicz, M.

Bouchard, J. P.

Caffini, M.

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A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
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Cope, M.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
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Custo, A.

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M. Jermyn, H. Ghadyani, M. A. Mastanduno, W. Turner, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086007 (2013).
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Dehghani, H.

J. A. Guggenheim, I. Bargigia, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, and H. Dehghani, “Time resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy with geometrically accurate models for bulk parameter recovery,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(9), 3784–3794 (2016).
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M. Jermyn, H. Ghadyani, M. A. Mastanduno, W. Turner, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086007 (2013).
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Q. Zhu, H. Dehghani, K. M. Tichauer, R. W. Holt, K. Vishwanath, F. Leblond, and B. W. Pogue, “A three-dimensional finite element model and image reconstruction algorithm for time-domain fluorescence imaging in highly scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(23), 7419–7434 (2011).
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H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25(6), 711–732 (2008).
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H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(9), 1659–1670 (2000).
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A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
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S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20(2 Pt 1), 299–309 (1993).
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Di Ninni, P.

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J. Selb, T. M. Ogden, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, and D. A. Boas, “Comparison of a layered slab and an atlas head model for Monte Carlo fitting of time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy data of the adult head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 16010 (2014).
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A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
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Durduran, T.

T. Binzoni, A. Sassaroli, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Farina, T. Durduran, S. Cavalieri, A. Pifferi, and F. Martelli, “Depth sensitivity of frequency domain optical measurements in diffusive media,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 2990–3004 (2017).
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C. Lindner, M. Mora, P. Farzam, M. Squarcia, J. Johansson, U. M. Weigel, I. Halperin, F. A. Hanzu, and T. Durduran, “Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147851 (2016).
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L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J. P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H. C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2037–2053 (2014).
[PubMed]

T. Durduran and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for non-invasive, micro-vascular cerebral blood flow measurement,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 51–63 (2014).
[PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse Optics for Tissue Monitoring and Tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[PubMed]

Eames, M. E.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25(6), 711–732 (2008).
[PubMed]

Edwards, A. D.

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. Reynolds, and et al.., “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[PubMed]

Elster, C.

Elwell, C. E.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[PubMed]

Essenpreis, M.

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. Reynolds, and et al.., “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[PubMed]

Fang, Q.

Farina, A.

T. Binzoni, A. Sassaroli, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Farina, T. Durduran, S. Cavalieri, A. Pifferi, and F. Martelli, “Depth sensitivity of frequency domain optical measurements in diffusive media,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 2990–3004 (2017).
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J. A. Guggenheim, I. Bargigia, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, and H. Dehghani, “Time resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy with geometrically accurate models for bulk parameter recovery,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(9), 3784–3794 (2016).
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A. Pifferi, D. Contini, A. D. Mora, A. Farina, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “New frontiers in time-domain diffuse optics, a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 091310 (2016).
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A. Farina, A. Torricelli, I. Bargigia, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Foschum, M. Jäger, E. Simon, O. Fugger, A. Kienle, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, and A. Pifferi, “In-vivo multilaboratory investigation of the optical properties of the human head,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2609–2623 (2015).
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L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J. P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H. C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2037–2053 (2014).
[PubMed]

Farzam, P.

C. Lindner, M. Mora, P. Farzam, M. Squarcia, J. Johansson, U. M. Weigel, I. Halperin, F. A. Hanzu, and T. Durduran, “Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147851 (2016).
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Franceschini, M. A.

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Fujii, H.

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Gabrusiewicz, A.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016002 (2012).
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Gerega, A.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, D. Janusek, S. Wojtkiewicz, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Gerega, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Application of optical methods in the monitoring of traumatic brain injury: A review,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 36(11), 1825–1843 (2016).
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Ghadyani, H.

M. Jermyn, H. Ghadyani, M. A. Mastanduno, W. Turner, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086007 (2013).
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Grosenick, D.

Guggenheim, J. A.

Halperin, I.

C. Lindner, M. Mora, P. Farzam, M. Squarcia, J. Johansson, U. M. Weigel, I. Halperin, F. A. Hanzu, and T. Durduran, “Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147851 (2016).
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Hanzu, F. A.

C. Lindner, M. Mora, P. Farzam, M. Squarcia, J. Johansson, U. M. Weigel, I. Halperin, F. A. Hanzu, and T. Durduran, “Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147851 (2016).
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Hiraoka, M.

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20(2 Pt 1), 299–309 (1993).
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Ho, H. C.

Holt, R. W.

Q. Zhu, H. Dehghani, K. M. Tichauer, R. W. Holt, K. Vishwanath, F. Leblond, and B. W. Pogue, “A three-dimensional finite element model and image reconstruction algorithm for time-domain fluorescence imaging in highly scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(23), 7419–7434 (2011).
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Hoshi, Y.

H. Fujii, Y. Yamada, K. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, and Y. Hoshi, “Modeling of light propagation in the human neck for diagnoses of thyroid cancers by diffuse optical tomography,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Biomed. Eng. 33(5), 2826 (2016).
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X. Intes and B. Chance, “Multi-frequency diffuse optical tomography,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2139–2159 (2005).

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Jäger, M.

Janusek, D.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, D. Janusek, S. Wojtkiewicz, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Gerega, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Application of optical methods in the monitoring of traumatic brain injury: A review,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 36(11), 1825–1843 (2016).
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Jermyn, M.

M. Jermyn, H. Ghadyani, M. A. Mastanduno, W. Turner, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086007 (2013).
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Johansson, J.

C. Lindner, M. Mora, P. Farzam, M. Squarcia, J. Johansson, U. M. Weigel, I. Halperin, F. A. Hanzu, and T. Durduran, “Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147851 (2016).
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Kacprzak, M.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, D. Janusek, S. Wojtkiewicz, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Gerega, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Application of optical methods in the monitoring of traumatic brain injury: A review,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 36(11), 1825–1843 (2016).
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A. Farina, A. Torricelli, I. Bargigia, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Foschum, M. Jäger, E. Simon, O. Fugger, A. Kienle, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, and A. Pifferi, “In-vivo multilaboratory investigation of the optical properties of the human head,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2609–2623 (2015).
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L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J. P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H. C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2037–2053 (2014).
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M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016002 (2012).
[PubMed]

Khoptyar, D.

Kienle, A.

Klauenberg, K.

Kobayashi, K.

H. Fujii, Y. Yamada, K. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, and Y. Hoshi, “Modeling of light propagation in the human neck for diagnoses of thyroid cancers by diffuse optical tomography,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Biomed. Eng. 33(5), 2826 (2016).
[PubMed]

Koenig, A.

Leblond, F.

Q. Zhu, H. Dehghani, K. M. Tichauer, R. W. Holt, K. Vishwanath, F. Leblond, and B. W. Pogue, “A three-dimensional finite element model and image reconstruction algorithm for time-domain fluorescence imaging in highly scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(23), 7419–7434 (2011).
[PubMed]

Leclair, S.

Lesage, F.

Liebert, A.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, D. Janusek, S. Wojtkiewicz, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Gerega, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Application of optical methods in the monitoring of traumatic brain injury: A review,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 36(11), 1825–1843 (2016).
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A. Farina, A. Torricelli, I. Bargigia, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Foschum, M. Jäger, E. Simon, O. Fugger, A. Kienle, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, and A. Pifferi, “In-vivo multilaboratory investigation of the optical properties of the human head,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2609–2623 (2015).
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L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J. P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H. C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2037–2053 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016002 (2012).
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A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, and C. Elster, “Determination of absorption changes from moments of distributions of times of flight of photons: optimization of measurement conditions for a two-layered tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057005 (2012).
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H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 662, 143–148 (2010).
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A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, “Evaluation of optical properties of highly scattering media by moments of distributions of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 42(28), 5785–5792 (2003).
[PubMed]

Lindner, C.

C. Lindner, M. Mora, P. Farzam, M. Squarcia, J. Johansson, U. M. Weigel, I. Halperin, F. A. Hanzu, and T. Durduran, “Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147851 (2016).
[PubMed]

Liu, Q.

C. Zhu and Q. Liu, “Review of Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 50902 (2013).
[PubMed]

Macdonald, R.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 662, 143–148 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, and H. Rinneberg, “Evaluation of optical properties of highly scattering media by moments of distributions of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 42(28), 5785–5792 (2003).
[PubMed]

Madycki, G.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016002 (2012).
[PubMed]

Maniewski, R.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, D. Janusek, S. Wojtkiewicz, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Gerega, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Application of optical methods in the monitoring of traumatic brain injury: A review,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 36(11), 1825–1843 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016002 (2012).
[PubMed]

Martelli, F.

Mastanduno, M. A.

M. Jermyn, H. Ghadyani, M. A. Mastanduno, W. Turner, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086007 (2013).
[PubMed]

Mazurenka, M.

McCormick, D. C.

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. Reynolds, and et al.., “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[PubMed]

Meek, J. H.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[PubMed]

Mermut, O.

Milej, D.

Moeller, M.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 662, 143–148 (2010).
[PubMed]

Möller, M.

Mora, A. D.

A. Pifferi, D. Contini, A. D. Mora, A. Farina, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “New frontiers in time-domain diffuse optics, a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 091310 (2016).
[PubMed]

Mora, M.

C. Lindner, M. Mora, P. Farzam, M. Squarcia, J. Johansson, U. M. Weigel, I. Halperin, F. A. Hanzu, and T. Durduran, “Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147851 (2016).
[PubMed]

Noiseux, I.

Obrig, H.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 662, 143–148 (2010).
[PubMed]

Ogden, T. M.

J. Selb, T. M. Ogden, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, and D. A. Boas, “Comparison of a layered slab and an atlas head model for Monte Carlo fitting of time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy data of the adult head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 16010 (2014).
[PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Paulsen, K. D.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25(6), 711–732 (2008).
[PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

T. Binzoni, A. Sassaroli, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Farina, T. Durduran, S. Cavalieri, A. Pifferi, and F. Martelli, “Depth sensitivity of frequency domain optical measurements in diffusive media,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 2990–3004 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. A. Guggenheim, I. Bargigia, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, and H. Dehghani, “Time resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy with geometrically accurate models for bulk parameter recovery,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(9), 3784–3794 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. Pifferi, D. Contini, A. D. Mora, A. Farina, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “New frontiers in time-domain diffuse optics, a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 091310 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. Farina, A. Torricelli, I. Bargigia, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Foschum, M. Jäger, E. Simon, O. Fugger, A. Kienle, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, and A. Pifferi, “In-vivo multilaboratory investigation of the optical properties of the human head,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2609–2623 (2015).
[PubMed]

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J. P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H. C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2037–2053 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Real-time method for fitting time-resolved reflectance and transmittance measurements with a monte carlo model,” Appl. Opt. 37(13), 2774–2780 (1998).
[PubMed]

Planat-Chrétien, A.

Pogue, B. W.

M. Jermyn, H. Ghadyani, M. A. Mastanduno, W. Turner, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086007 (2013).
[PubMed]

Q. Zhu, H. Dehghani, K. M. Tichauer, R. W. Holt, K. Vishwanath, F. Leblond, and B. W. Pogue, “A three-dimensional finite element model and image reconstruction algorithm for time-domain fluorescence imaging in highly scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(23), 7419–7434 (2011).
[PubMed]

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25(6), 711–732 (2008).
[PubMed]

Potter, L. A.

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. Reynolds, and et al.., “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[PubMed]

Puszka, A.

Re, R.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

Reynolds, E. O.

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. Reynolds, and et al.., “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[PubMed]

Rinneberg, H.

Roth, S. C.

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. Reynolds, and et al.., “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[PubMed]

Sassaroli, A.

Sawosz, P.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, D. Janusek, S. Wojtkiewicz, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Gerega, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Application of optical methods in the monitoring of traumatic brain injury: A review,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 36(11), 1825–1843 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. Farina, A. Torricelli, I. Bargigia, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Foschum, M. Jäger, E. Simon, O. Fugger, A. Kienle, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, and A. Pifferi, “In-vivo multilaboratory investigation of the optical properties of the human head,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2609–2623 (2015).
[PubMed]

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J. P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H. C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2037–2053 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016002 (2012).
[PubMed]

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H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(9), 1659–1670 (2000).
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[PubMed]

Selb, J.

J. Selb, T. M. Ogden, J. Dubb, Q. Fang, and D. A. Boas, “Comparison of a layered slab and an atlas head model for Monte Carlo fitting of time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy data of the adult head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 16010 (2014).
[PubMed]

Simon, E.

Spinelli, L.

T. Binzoni, A. Sassaroli, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Farina, T. Durduran, S. Cavalieri, A. Pifferi, and F. Martelli, “Depth sensitivity of frequency domain optical measurements in diffusive media,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 2990–3004 (2017).
[PubMed]

A. Pifferi, D. Contini, A. D. Mora, A. Farina, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “New frontiers in time-domain diffuse optics, a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 091310 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. Farina, A. Torricelli, I. Bargigia, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Foschum, M. Jäger, E. Simon, O. Fugger, A. Kienle, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, and A. Pifferi, “In-vivo multilaboratory investigation of the optical properties of the human head,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2609–2623 (2015).
[PubMed]

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J. P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H. C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2037–2053 (2014).
[PubMed]

Squarcia, M.

C. Lindner, M. Mora, P. Farzam, M. Squarcia, J. Johansson, U. M. Weigel, I. Halperin, F. A. Hanzu, and T. Durduran, “Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147851 (2016).
[PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25(6), 711–732 (2008).
[PubMed]

St Lawrence, K.

Staszkiewicz, W.

M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, W. Staszkiewicz, A. Gabrusiewicz, P. Sawosz, G. Madycki, and R. Maniewski, “Application of a time-resolved optical brain imager for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during carotid surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016002 (2012).
[PubMed]

Steinbrink, J.

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 662, 143–148 (2010).
[PubMed]

Strangman, G.

G. Strangman, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “Factors affecting the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy concentration calculations for focal changes in oxygenation parameters,” Neuroimage 18(4), 865–879 (2003).
[PubMed]

Subash, A. A.

Taroni, P.

Tichauer, K. M.

Q. Zhu, H. Dehghani, K. M. Tichauer, R. W. Holt, K. Vishwanath, F. Leblond, and B. W. Pogue, “A three-dimensional finite element model and image reconstruction algorithm for time-domain fluorescence imaging in highly scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(23), 7419–7434 (2011).
[PubMed]

Tittel, F. K.

A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, “The influence of boundary conditions on the accuracy of diffusion theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(11), 1957–1975 (1995).
[PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

T. Binzoni, A. Sassaroli, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Farina, T. Durduran, S. Cavalieri, A. Pifferi, and F. Martelli, “Depth sensitivity of frequency domain optical measurements in diffusive media,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 2990–3004 (2017).
[PubMed]

A. Pifferi, D. Contini, A. D. Mora, A. Farina, L. Spinelli, and A. Torricelli, “New frontiers in time-domain diffuse optics, a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 091310 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. Farina, A. Torricelli, I. Bargigia, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Foschum, M. Jäger, E. Simon, O. Fugger, A. Kienle, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, and A. Pifferi, “In-vivo multilaboratory investigation of the optical properties of the human head,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2609–2623 (2015).
[PubMed]

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J. P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H. C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2037–2053 (2014).
[PubMed]

Turner, W.

M. Jermyn, H. Ghadyani, M. A. Mastanduno, W. Turner, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Fast segmentation and high-quality three-dimensional volume mesh creation from medical images for diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086007 (2013).
[PubMed]

Tyszczuk, L.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(2), 295–304 (1995).
[PubMed]

Valentini, G.

van den Bergh, H.

van der Zee, P.

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. Reynolds, and et al.., “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[PubMed]

Vishwanath, K.

Q. Zhu, H. Dehghani, K. M. Tichauer, R. W. Holt, K. Vishwanath, F. Leblond, and B. W. Pogue, “A three-dimensional finite element model and image reconstruction algorithm for time-domain fluorescence imaging in highly scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(23), 7419–7434 (2011).
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Vorst, H. A. d.

H. A. d. Vorst, “Bi-CGSTAB: A Fast and Smoothly Converging Variant of Bi-CG for the Solution of Nonsymmetric Linear Systems,” SIAM J. Sci. Statist. Comput. 13, 631–644 (1992).

Wabnitz, H.

Wagnières, G.

Wagnivres, G.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
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A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, “The influence of boundary conditions on the accuracy of diffusion theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(11), 1957–1975 (1995).
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Watanabe, M.

H. Fujii, Y. Yamada, K. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, and Y. Hoshi, “Modeling of light propagation in the human neck for diagnoses of thyroid cancers by diffuse optical tomography,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Biomed. Eng. 33(5), 2826 (2016).
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Weigel, U.

Weigel, U. M.

C. Lindner, M. Mora, P. Farzam, M. Squarcia, J. Johansson, U. M. Weigel, I. Halperin, F. A. Hanzu, and T. Durduran, “Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147851 (2016).
[PubMed]

Weigl, W.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, D. Janusek, S. Wojtkiewicz, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Gerega, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Application of optical methods in the monitoring of traumatic brain injury: A review,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 36(11), 1825–1843 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wells, W. M.

Wojtkiewicz, S.

W. Weigl, D. Milej, D. Janusek, S. Wojtkiewicz, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Gerega, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Application of optical methods in the monitoring of traumatic brain injury: A review,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 36(11), 1825–1843 (2016).
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Wyatt, J. S.

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. Reynolds, and et al.., “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[PubMed]

Yalavarthy, P. K.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25(6), 711–732 (2008).
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Yamada, Y.

H. Fujii, Y. Yamada, K. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, and Y. Hoshi, “Modeling of light propagation in the human neck for diagnoses of thyroid cancers by diffuse optical tomography,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Biomed. Eng. 33(5), 2826 (2016).
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Yodh, A. G.

T. Durduran and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for non-invasive, micro-vascular cerebral blood flow measurement,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 51–63 (2014).
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Zaccanti, G.

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[PubMed]

Zhu, C.

C. Zhu and Q. Liu, “Review of Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 50902 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zhu, Q.

Q. Zhu, H. Dehghani, K. M. Tichauer, R. W. Holt, K. Vishwanath, F. Leblond, and B. W. Pogue, “A three-dimensional finite element model and image reconstruction algorithm for time-domain fluorescence imaging in highly scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(23), 7419–7434 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zolek, N.

Zucchelli, L.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
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Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (2)

H. Wabnitz, M. Moeller, A. Liebert, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, and R. Macdonald, “Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the adult human brain,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 662, 143–148 (2010).
[PubMed]

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Roth, E. O. Reynolds, and et al.., “Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143–153 (1992).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Biomed. Opt. Express (8)

Q. Fang, “Mesh-based Monte Carlo method using fast ray-tracing in Plücker coordinates,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 165–175 (2010).
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Q. Fang, “Mesh-based Monte Carlo method using fast ray-tracing in Plücker coordinates,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 165–175 (2010).
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M. Diop and K. St Lawrence, “Improving the depth sensitivity of time-resolved measurements by extracting the distribution of times-of-flight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(3), 447–459 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. Puszka, L. Hervé, A. Planat-Chrétien, A. Koenig, J. Derouard, and J.-M. Dinten, “Time-domain reflectance diffuse optical tomography with Mellin-Laplace transform for experimental detection and depth localization of a single absorbing inclusion,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(4), 569–583 (2013).
[PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic representation of contributions to a TPSF curve of angular frequencies close to ω = π/(2T) for maximum of a TPSF at t = 0 (a) and t = T/3 (b). T – maximum observable photons travel time, A – cosines amplitude.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Finite element models/meshes of homogenous slab (a), human head (b) and human neck (c). Green cubes show the 8 sources and red spheres show 9 detectors organized into a grid with 13 mm inter-optode distance. Models are not in scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relation between accuracy and number of time points Nt of NIRFAST time domain method as defined in Eq. (2). Data shown for the neck model as in Fig. 2c and two source-detector pairs. rsd – source-detector separation of 29 and 44 mm. 80% and 5% mark TPSF region of interest calculated as a percentage of the maximum value of TPSF for Nt = 1024. Residuals are related to TPSFs calculated for Nt = 1024.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relation between accuracy and number of frequencies Nω of NIRFAST frequency domain method as defined in Eq. (5). Data shown for the neck model as in Fig. 2c and two source-detector pairs. rsd – source-detector separation of 29 and 44 mm. 80% and 5% mark TPSF region of interest calculated as a percentage of the maximum value of TPSF calculated in time domain for Nt = 1024 Residuals are related to TPSFs calculated in time domain for Nt = 1024.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Accuracy of TPSF generation with TD – time domain and FD – frequency domain methods using low resolution “slab LO” and high resolution “slab HI” homogenous FEM models. Residuals are related to analytical solution of diffusion equation within the 80%-5% TPSF region of interest. Nω – number of frequencies of FD method, Nt – number of time steps of TD method, rsd – source-detector separation.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Quality measures of finite element models.

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Table 2 Optical properties of the neck and head models at 780 nm [24, 33, 34].

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Table 3 Calculation times per source of 3D distributions of time-resolved photon fluence rate Φ(r,t) within the finite element models. Marked cells show the lowest calculation time within ± 5% relative error. TD – time domain, FD – frequency domain, Nt – number of time point in TD and Nω – number of frequencies in FD.

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Table 4 Error of optical parameters recovery using slab models and TD – time domain, FD – frequency domain methods at Nt = 128 time point and Nω = 32 frequencies respectively.

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Table 5 Execution time per source per mesh node for the finite element models. TD – time domain, FD – frequency domain.

Equations (6)

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D( r )Φ( r,t ) μ a ( r )Φ( r,t ) 1 c m ( r ) Φ( r,t ) t =S( r s ,t ),
Φ( r,t ) t = c m ( r )[ ( D( r )Φ( r,t ) ) μ a ( r )Φ( r,t )+S( r s ,t ) ].
D( r )Φ( r,ω )( μ a ( r )+ jω c m ( r ) )Φ( r,ω )=F{ δ( r s ,t ) },
Φ( r,t )= 1 2π 0 | Φ( r,ω ) | e j( ωt+( Φ( r,ω ) ) ) dω .
Φ( r,t )= 1 2π k=0 N ω { | Φ( r, ω k ) | e j( ω k t+( Φ( r, ω k ) ) ) } ,
MA M T y=MqandΦ= M T y ,