Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the retina, and is commonly used for assessing pathological changes of fovea and macula in many diseases. Many neuroinflammatory conditions are known to cause modifications to the fovea shape. In this paper, we propose a method for parametric modeling of the foveal shape. Our method exploits invariant features of the macula from OCT data and applies a cubic Bézier polynomial along with a least square optimization to produce a best fit parametric model of the fovea. Additionally, we provide several parameters of the foveal shape based on the proposed 3D parametric modeling. Our quantitative and visual results show that the proposed model is not only able to reconstruct important features from the foveal shape, but also produces less error compared to the state-of-the-art methods. Finally, we apply the model in a comparison of healthy control eyes and eyes from patients with neuroinflammatory central nervous system disorders and optic neuritis, and show that several derived model parameters show significant differences between the two groups.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Fang, D. Cunefare, C. Wang, R. H. Guymer, S. Li, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of nine retinal layer boundaries in oct images of non-exudative amd patients using deep learning and graph search,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8, 2732–2744 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. C. Oertel, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, M. Weinhold, E. M. Kadas, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Pache, J. Bellmann-Strobl, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Contribution of blood vessels to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in nmosd,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4338 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

L. Liu, W. Marsh-Tootle, E. N. Harb, W. Hou, Q. Zhang, H. A. Anderson, T. T. Norton, K. K. Weise, J. E. Gwiazda, L. Hyman, and the COMET Group, “A sloped piecemeal Gaussian model for characterising foveal pit shape,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 36, 615–631 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Scheibe, M. T. Zocher, M. Francke, and F. G. Rauscher, “Analysis of foveal characteristics and their asymmetries in the normal population,” Experimental Eye Research 148, 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Weinhold, J. Mikolajczak, H. Zimmermann, F. Paul, I. Beckers, and A. U. Brandt, “Reliability of intra-retinal layer thickness estimates,” PloS one 10, e0137316 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. K. McCafferty, M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, K. E. Stepien, A. M. Dubis, M. H. Brilliant, J. L. Anderson, J. Carroll, and C. G. Summers, “Clinical insights into foveal morphology in albinism,” J. Pediatric Ophthalmology Strabismus 52, 167–172 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (8)

S. Niu, Q. Chen, L. de Sisternes, D. L. Rubin, W. Zhang, and Q. Liu, “Automated retinal layers segmentation in sd-oct images using dual-gradient and spatial correlation smoothness constraint,” Computers in Biology and Medicine 54, 116–128 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Cha and J. H. Han, “High-accuracy retinal layer segmentation for optical coherence tomography using tracking kernels based on gaussian mixture model,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 32–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. M. Roth, S. Saidha, H. Zimmermann, A. U. Brandt, J. Isensee, A. Benkhellouf-Rutkowska, M. Dornauer, A. A. Kühn, T. Müller, P. A. Calabresi, and F. Paul, “Photoreceptor layer thinning in idiopathic parkinson’s disease,” Movement Disorders 29, 1163–1170 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Scheibe, A. Lazareva, U.-D. Braumann, A. Reichenbach, P. Wiedemann, M. Francke, and F. G. Rauscher, “Parametric model for the 3d reconstruction of individual fovea shape from OCT data,” Experimental Eye Research 119, 19–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Nesmith, A. Gupta, T. Strange, Y. Schaal, and S. Schaal, “Mathematical Analysis of the Normal Anatomy of the Aging FoveaAnatomy of the Aging Fovea,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 55, 5962–5966 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Ding, B. Spund, S. Glazman, E. M. Shrier, S. Miri, I. Selesnick, and I. Bodis-Wollner, “Application of an oct data-based mathematical model of the foveal pit in parkinson disease,” Journal of Neural Transmission 121, 1367–1376 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Balk, P. Tewarie, J. Killestein, C. H. Polman, B. Uitdehaag, and A. Petzold, “Disease course heterogeneity and oct in multiple sclerosis,” Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England) 20, 1198–1206 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Sclerosis Journal 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kafieh, H. Rabbani, and S. Kermani, “A review of algorithms for segmentation of optical coherence tomography from retina,” J. Medical Signals and Sensors 3, 45–60 (2013).

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Zhong, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal avascular zone and its relationship to foveal pit shape,” Optometry and Vision Science 89, 602–610 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Y. Barak, M. P. Sherman, and S. Schaal, “Mathematical Analysis of Specific Anatomic Foveal Configurations Predisposing to the Formation of Macular Holes,” Investigative Ophthalmology Visual Science 52, 8266–8270 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tick, F. Rossant, I. Ghorbel, A. Gaudric, J.-A. Sahel, P. Chaumet-Riffaud, and M. Paques, “Foveal shape and structure in a normal population,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 52, 5105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Stricker, T. Oberwahrenbrock, H. Zimmermann, J. Schroeter, M. Endres, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Temporal retinal nerve fiber loss in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1,” PLoS ONE 6, e23024 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. M. Dubis, J. T. McAllister, and J. Carroll, “Reconstructing foveal pit morphology from optical coherence tomography imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 1223–1227 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: An adaptive optics fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 49, 2061 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

R. Ihaka and R. Gentleman, “R: A language for data analysis and graphics,” Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics 5, 299–314 (1996).

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, and a. et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ach, T.

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aktas, O.

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Sclerosis Journal 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, H. A.

L. Liu, W. Marsh-Tootle, E. N. Harb, W. Hou, Q. Zhang, H. A. Anderson, T. T. Norton, K. K. Weise, J. E. Gwiazda, L. Hyman, and the COMET Group, “A sloped piecemeal Gaussian model for characterising foveal pit shape,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 36, 615–631 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, J. L.

B. K. McCafferty, M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, K. E. Stepien, A. M. Dubis, M. H. Brilliant, J. L. Anderson, J. Carroll, and C. G. Summers, “Clinical insights into foveal morphology in albinism,” J. Pediatric Ophthalmology Strabismus 52, 167–172 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

Asgari, N.

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balk, L. J.

L. J. Balk, P. Tewarie, J. Killestein, C. H. Polman, B. Uitdehaag, and A. Petzold, “Disease course heterogeneity and oct in multiple sclerosis,” Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England) 20, 1198–1206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barak, Y.

Y. Barak, M. P. Sherman, and S. Schaal, “Mathematical Analysis of Specific Anatomic Foveal Configurations Predisposing to the Formation of Macular Holes,” Investigative Ophthalmology Visual Science 52, 8266–8270 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnaby, A. M.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: An adaptive optics fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 49, 2061 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beckers, I.

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Weinhold, J. Mikolajczak, H. Zimmermann, F. Paul, I. Beckers, and A. U. Brandt, “Reliability of intra-retinal layer thickness estimates,” PloS one 10, e0137316 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellmann-Strobl, J.

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. C. Oertel, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, M. Weinhold, E. M. Kadas, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Pache, J. Bellmann-Strobl, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Contribution of blood vessels to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in nmosd,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4338 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Sclerosis Journal 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benkhellouf-Rutkowska, A.

N. M. Roth, S. Saidha, H. Zimmermann, A. U. Brandt, J. Isensee, A. Benkhellouf-Rutkowska, M. Dornauer, A. A. Kühn, T. Müller, P. A. Calabresi, and F. Paul, “Photoreceptor layer thinning in idiopathic parkinson’s disease,” Movement Disorders 29, 1163–1170 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bigelow, C. E.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: An adaptive optics fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 49, 2061 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bilger, F.

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bodis-Wollner, I.

Y. Ding, B. Spund, S. Glazman, E. M. Shrier, S. Miri, I. Selesnick, and I. Bodis-Wollner, “Application of an oct data-based mathematical model of the foveal pit in parkinson disease,” Journal of Neural Transmission 121, 1367–1376 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borisow, N.

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brandt, A. U.

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. C. Oertel, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, M. Weinhold, E. M. Kadas, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Pache, J. Bellmann-Strobl, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Contribution of blood vessels to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in nmosd,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4338 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Weinhold, J. Mikolajczak, H. Zimmermann, F. Paul, I. Beckers, and A. U. Brandt, “Reliability of intra-retinal layer thickness estimates,” PloS one 10, e0137316 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Roth, S. Saidha, H. Zimmermann, A. U. Brandt, J. Isensee, A. Benkhellouf-Rutkowska, M. Dornauer, A. A. Kühn, T. Müller, P. A. Calabresi, and F. Paul, “Photoreceptor layer thinning in idiopathic parkinson’s disease,” Movement Disorders 29, 1163–1170 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Sclerosis Journal 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Stricker, T. Oberwahrenbrock, H. Zimmermann, J. Schroeter, M. Endres, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Temporal retinal nerve fiber loss in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1,” PLoS ONE 6, e23024 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braumann, U.-D.

P. Scheibe, A. Lazareva, U.-D. Braumann, A. Reichenbach, P. Wiedemann, M. Francke, and F. G. Rauscher, “Parametric model for the 3d reconstruction of individual fovea shape from OCT data,” Experimental Eye Research 119, 19–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brilliant, M. H.

B. K. McCafferty, M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, K. E. Stepien, A. M. Dubis, M. H. Brilliant, J. L. Anderson, J. Carroll, and C. G. Summers, “Clinical insights into foveal morphology in albinism,” J. Pediatric Ophthalmology Strabismus 52, 167–172 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

Burns, S. A.

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Zhong, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal avascular zone and its relationship to foveal pit shape,” Optometry and Vision Science 89, 602–610 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buttmann, M.

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calabresi, P. A.

N. M. Roth, S. Saidha, H. Zimmermann, A. U. Brandt, J. Isensee, A. Benkhellouf-Rutkowska, M. Dornauer, A. A. Kühn, T. Müller, P. A. Calabresi, and F. Paul, “Photoreceptor layer thinning in idiopathic parkinson’s disease,” Movement Disorders 29, 1163–1170 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carroll, J.

B. K. McCafferty, M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, K. E. Stepien, A. M. Dubis, M. H. Brilliant, J. L. Anderson, J. Carroll, and C. G. Summers, “Clinical insights into foveal morphology in albinism,” J. Pediatric Ophthalmology Strabismus 52, 167–172 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. M. Dubis, J. T. McAllister, and J. Carroll, “Reconstructing foveal pit morphology from optical coherence tomography imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 1223–1227 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cha, Y. M.

Y. M. Cha and J. H. Han, “High-accuracy retinal layer segmentation for optical coherence tomography using tracking kernels based on gaussian mixture model,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 32–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, and a. et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaumet-Riffaud, P.

S. Tick, F. Rossant, I. Ghorbel, A. Gaudric, J.-A. Sahel, P. Chaumet-Riffaud, and M. Paques, “Foveal shape and structure in a normal population,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 52, 5105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

S. Niu, Q. Chen, L. de Sisternes, D. L. Rubin, W. Zhang, and Q. Liu, “Automated retinal layers segmentation in sd-oct images using dual-gradient and spatial correlation smoothness constraint,” Computers in Biology and Medicine 54, 116–128 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiang, P.-W.

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chien, C.

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chui, T. Y. P.

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Zhong, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal avascular zone and its relationship to foveal pit shape,” Optometry and Vision Science 89, 602–610 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Connor, T. B.

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cooper, R. F.

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

Costakos, D. M.

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cunefare, D.

Curcio, C. A.

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

de Sisternes, L.

S. Niu, Q. Chen, L. de Sisternes, D. L. Rubin, W. Zhang, and Q. Liu, “Automated retinal layers segmentation in sd-oct images using dual-gradient and spatial correlation smoothness constraint,” Computers in Biology and Medicine 54, 116–128 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deuschle, K.

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Sclerosis Journal 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding, B. Spund, S. Glazman, E. M. Shrier, S. Miri, I. Selesnick, and I. Bodis-Wollner, “Application of an oct data-based mathematical model of the foveal pit in parkinson disease,” Journal of Neural Transmission 121, 1367–1376 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dornauer, M.

N. M. Roth, S. Saidha, H. Zimmermann, A. U. Brandt, J. Isensee, A. Benkhellouf-Rutkowska, M. Dornauer, A. A. Kühn, T. Müller, P. A. Calabresi, and F. Paul, “Photoreceptor layer thinning in idiopathic parkinson’s disease,” Movement Disorders 29, 1163–1170 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dubis, A. M.

B. K. McCafferty, M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, K. E. Stepien, A. M. Dubis, M. H. Brilliant, J. L. Anderson, J. Carroll, and C. G. Summers, “Clinical insights into foveal morphology in albinism,” J. Pediatric Ophthalmology Strabismus 52, 167–172 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. M. Dubis, J. T. McAllister, and J. Carroll, “Reconstructing foveal pit morphology from optical coherence tomography imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 1223–1227 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubra, A.

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

Endres, M.

S. Stricker, T. Oberwahrenbrock, H. Zimmermann, J. Schroeter, M. Endres, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Temporal retinal nerve fiber loss in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1,” PLoS ONE 6, e23024 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, L.

Farin, G. E.

G. E. Farin, Curves and Surfaces for Computer-Aided Geometric Design: A Practical Code (Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, FL, USA, 1996), 4th ed.

Farsiu, S.

Ferguson, R. D.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: An adaptive optics fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 49, 2061 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, and a. et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Francke, M.

P. Scheibe, M. T. Zocher, M. Francke, and F. G. Rauscher, “Analysis of foveal characteristics and their asymmetries in the normal population,” Experimental Eye Research 148, 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Scheibe, A. Lazareva, U.-D. Braumann, A. Reichenbach, P. Wiedemann, M. Francke, and F. G. Rauscher, “Parametric model for the 3d reconstruction of individual fovea shape from OCT data,” Experimental Eye Research 119, 19–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fulton, A. B.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: An adaptive optics fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 49, 2061 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaudric, A.

S. Tick, F. Rossant, I. Ghorbel, A. Gaudric, J.-A. Sahel, P. Chaumet-Riffaud, and M. Paques, “Foveal shape and structure in a normal population,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 52, 5105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gentleman, R.

R. Ihaka and R. Gentleman, “R: A language for data analysis and graphics,” Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics 5, 299–314 (1996).

Ghorbel, I.

S. Tick, F. Rossant, I. Ghorbel, A. Gaudric, J.-A. Sahel, P. Chaumet-Riffaud, and M. Paques, “Foveal shape and structure in a normal population,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 52, 5105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glazman, S.

Y. Ding, B. Spund, S. Glazman, E. M. Shrier, S. Miri, I. Selesnick, and I. Bodis-Wollner, “Application of an oct data-based mathematical model of the foveal pit in parkinson disease,” Journal of Neural Transmission 121, 1367–1376 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, and a. et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gross, N.

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, A.

B. Nesmith, A. Gupta, T. Strange, Y. Schaal, and S. Schaal, “Mathematical Analysis of the Normal Anatomy of the Aging FoveaAnatomy of the Aging Fovea,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 55, 5962–5966 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guymer, R. H.

Gwiazda, J. E.

L. Liu, W. Marsh-Tootle, E. N. Harb, W. Hou, Q. Zhang, H. A. Anderson, T. T. Norton, K. K. Weise, J. E. Gwiazda, L. Hyman, and the COMET Group, “A sloped piecemeal Gaussian model for characterising foveal pit shape,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 36, 615–631 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: An adaptive optics fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 49, 2061 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J. H.

Y. M. Cha and J. H. Han, “High-accuracy retinal layer segmentation for optical coherence tomography using tracking kernels based on gaussian mixture model,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 32–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Harb, E. N.

L. Liu, W. Marsh-Tootle, E. N. Harb, W. Hou, Q. Zhang, H. A. Anderson, T. T. Norton, K. K. Weise, J. E. Gwiazda, L. Hyman, and the COMET Group, “A sloped piecemeal Gaussian model for characterising foveal pit shape,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 36, 615–631 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harmel, J.

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Sclerosis Journal 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartung, H.-P.

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Sclerosis Journal 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, and a. et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hou, W.

L. Liu, W. Marsh-Tootle, E. N. Harb, W. Hou, Q. Zhang, H. A. Anderson, T. T. Norton, K. K. Weise, J. E. Gwiazda, L. Hyman, and the COMET Group, “A sloped piecemeal Gaussian model for characterising foveal pit shape,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 36, 615–631 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, and a. et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hyman, L.

L. Liu, W. Marsh-Tootle, E. N. Harb, W. Hou, Q. Zhang, H. A. Anderson, T. T. Norton, K. K. Weise, J. E. Gwiazda, L. Hyman, and the COMET Group, “A sloped piecemeal Gaussian model for characterising foveal pit shape,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 36, 615–631 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N. V.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: An adaptive optics fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 49, 2061 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ihaka, R.

R. Ihaka and R. Gentleman, “R: A language for data analysis and graphics,” Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics 5, 299–314 (1996).

Isensee, J.

N. M. Roth, S. Saidha, H. Zimmermann, A. U. Brandt, J. Isensee, A. Benkhellouf-Rutkowska, M. Dornauer, A. A. Kühn, T. Müller, P. A. Calabresi, and F. Paul, “Photoreceptor layer thinning in idiopathic parkinson’s disease,” Movement Disorders 29, 1163–1170 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jarius, S.

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jentschke, S.

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Sclerosis Journal 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kadas, E. M.

F. C. Oertel, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, M. Weinhold, E. M. Kadas, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Pache, J. Bellmann-Strobl, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Contribution of blood vessels to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in nmosd,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4338 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kafieh, R.

R. Kafieh, H. Rabbani, and S. Kermani, “A review of algorithms for segmentation of optical coherence tomography from retina,” J. Medical Signals and Sensors 3, 45–60 (2013).

Kaufhold, F.

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kermani, S.

R. Kafieh, H. Rabbani, and S. Kermani, “A review of algorithms for segmentation of optical coherence tomography from retina,” J. Medical Signals and Sensors 3, 45–60 (2013).

Killestein, J.

L. J. Balk, P. Tewarie, J. Killestein, C. H. Polman, B. Uitdehaag, and A. Petzold, “Disease course heterogeneity and oct in multiple sclerosis,” Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England) 20, 1198–1206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Klistorner, A.

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

Klumbies, K.

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Sclerosis Journal 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knier, B.

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

Korn, T.

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kuchling, J.

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kühn, A. A.

N. M. Roth, S. Saidha, H. Zimmermann, A. U. Brandt, J. Isensee, A. Benkhellouf-Rutkowska, M. Dornauer, A. A. Kühn, T. Müller, P. A. Calabresi, and F. Paul, “Photoreceptor layer thinning in idiopathic parkinson’s disease,” Movement Disorders 29, 1163–1170 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lacheta, A.

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lazareva, A.

P. Scheibe, A. Lazareva, U.-D. Braumann, A. Reichenbach, P. Wiedemann, M. Francke, and F. G. Rauscher, “Parametric model for the 3d reconstruction of individual fovea shape from OCT data,” Experimental Eye Research 119, 19–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

Lin, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, and a. et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, W. Marsh-Tootle, E. N. Harb, W. Hou, Q. Zhang, H. A. Anderson, T. T. Norton, K. K. Weise, J. E. Gwiazda, L. Hyman, and the COMET Group, “A sloped piecemeal Gaussian model for characterising foveal pit shape,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 36, 615–631 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Q.

S. Niu, Q. Chen, L. de Sisternes, D. L. Rubin, W. Zhang, and Q. Liu, “Automated retinal layers segmentation in sd-oct images using dual-gradient and spatial correlation smoothness constraint,” Computers in Biology and Medicine 54, 116–128 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marsh-Tootle, W.

L. Liu, W. Marsh-Tootle, E. N. Harb, W. Hou, Q. Zhang, H. A. Anderson, T. T. Norton, K. K. Weise, J. E. Gwiazda, L. Hyman, and the COMET Group, “A sloped piecemeal Gaussian model for characterising foveal pit shape,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 36, 615–631 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McAllister, J. T.

B. K. McCafferty, M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, K. E. Stepien, A. M. Dubis, M. H. Brilliant, J. L. Anderson, J. Carroll, and C. G. Summers, “Clinical insights into foveal morphology in albinism,” J. Pediatric Ophthalmology Strabismus 52, 167–172 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. M. Dubis, J. T. McAllister, and J. Carroll, “Reconstructing foveal pit morphology from optical coherence tomography imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 1223–1227 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCafferty, B. K.

B. K. McCafferty, M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, K. E. Stepien, A. M. Dubis, M. H. Brilliant, J. L. Anderson, J. Carroll, and C. G. Summers, “Clinical insights into foveal morphology in albinism,” J. Pediatric Ophthalmology Strabismus 52, 167–172 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mikolajczak, J.

F. C. Oertel, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, M. Weinhold, E. M. Kadas, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Pache, J. Bellmann-Strobl, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Contribution of blood vessels to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in nmosd,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4338 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Weinhold, J. Mikolajczak, H. Zimmermann, F. Paul, I. Beckers, and A. U. Brandt, “Reliability of intra-retinal layer thickness estimates,” PloS one 10, e0137316 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miri, S.

Y. Ding, B. Spund, S. Glazman, E. M. Shrier, S. Miri, I. Selesnick, and I. Bodis-Wollner, “Application of an oct data-based mathematical model of the foveal pit in parkinson disease,” Journal of Neural Transmission 121, 1367–1376 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, T.

N. M. Roth, S. Saidha, H. Zimmermann, A. U. Brandt, J. Isensee, A. Benkhellouf-Rutkowska, M. Dornauer, A. A. Kühn, T. Müller, P. A. Calabresi, and F. Paul, “Photoreceptor layer thinning in idiopathic parkinson’s disease,” Movement Disorders 29, 1163–1170 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nesmith, B.

B. Nesmith, A. Gupta, T. Strange, Y. Schaal, and S. Schaal, “Mathematical Analysis of the Normal Anatomy of the Aging FoveaAnatomy of the Aging Fovea,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 55, 5962–5966 (2014).
[Crossref]

Niu, S.

S. Niu, Q. Chen, L. de Sisternes, D. L. Rubin, W. Zhang, and Q. Liu, “Automated retinal layers segmentation in sd-oct images using dual-gradient and spatial correlation smoothness constraint,” Computers in Biology and Medicine 54, 116–128 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norton, T. T.

L. Liu, W. Marsh-Tootle, E. N. Harb, W. Hou, Q. Zhang, H. A. Anderson, T. T. Norton, K. K. Weise, J. E. Gwiazda, L. Hyman, and the COMET Group, “A sloped piecemeal Gaussian model for characterising foveal pit shape,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 36, 615–631 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oberwahrenbrock, T.

F. C. Oertel, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, M. Weinhold, E. M. Kadas, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Pache, J. Bellmann-Strobl, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Contribution of blood vessels to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in nmosd,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4338 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Weinhold, J. Mikolajczak, H. Zimmermann, F. Paul, I. Beckers, and A. U. Brandt, “Reliability of intra-retinal layer thickness estimates,” PloS one 10, e0137316 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Sclerosis Journal 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Stricker, T. Oberwahrenbrock, H. Zimmermann, J. Schroeter, M. Endres, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Temporal retinal nerve fiber loss in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1,” PLoS ONE 6, e23024 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oertel, F. C.

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. C. Oertel, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, M. Weinhold, E. M. Kadas, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Pache, J. Bellmann-Strobl, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Contribution of blood vessels to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in nmosd,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4338 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pache, F.

F. C. Oertel, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, M. Weinhold, E. M. Kadas, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Pache, J. Bellmann-Strobl, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Contribution of blood vessels to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in nmosd,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4338 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paques, M.

S. Tick, F. Rossant, I. Ghorbel, A. Gaudric, J.-A. Sahel, P. Chaumet-Riffaud, and M. Paques, “Foveal shape and structure in a normal population,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 52, 5105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patitucci, T. N.

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paul, F.

F. C. Oertel, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, M. Weinhold, E. M. Kadas, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Pache, J. Bellmann-Strobl, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Contribution of blood vessels to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in nmosd,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4338 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Weinhold, J. Mikolajczak, H. Zimmermann, F. Paul, I. Beckers, and A. U. Brandt, “Reliability of intra-retinal layer thickness estimates,” PloS one 10, e0137316 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Roth, S. Saidha, H. Zimmermann, A. U. Brandt, J. Isensee, A. Benkhellouf-Rutkowska, M. Dornauer, A. A. Kühn, T. Müller, P. A. Calabresi, and F. Paul, “Photoreceptor layer thinning in idiopathic parkinson’s disease,” Movement Disorders 29, 1163–1170 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Sclerosis Journal 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Stricker, T. Oberwahrenbrock, H. Zimmermann, J. Schroeter, M. Endres, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Temporal retinal nerve fiber loss in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1,” PLoS ONE 6, e23024 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petzold, A.

L. J. Balk, P. Tewarie, J. Killestein, C. H. Polman, B. Uitdehaag, and A. Petzold, “Disease course heterogeneity and oct in multiple sclerosis,” Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England) 20, 1198–1206 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Polman, C. H.

L. J. Balk, P. Tewarie, J. Killestein, C. H. Polman, B. Uitdehaag, and A. Petzold, “Disease course heterogeneity and oct in multiple sclerosis,” Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England) 20, 1198–1206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Puliafito, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, and a. et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rabbani, H.

R. Kafieh, H. Rabbani, and S. Kermani, “A review of algorithms for segmentation of optical coherence tomography from retina,” J. Medical Signals and Sensors 3, 45–60 (2013).

Rauscher, F. G.

P. Scheibe, M. T. Zocher, M. Francke, and F. G. Rauscher, “Analysis of foveal characteristics and their asymmetries in the normal population,” Experimental Eye Research 148, 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Scheibe, A. Lazareva, U.-D. Braumann, A. Reichenbach, P. Wiedemann, M. Francke, and F. G. Rauscher, “Parametric model for the 3d reconstruction of individual fovea shape from OCT data,” Experimental Eye Research 119, 19–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reichenbach, A.

P. Scheibe, A. Lazareva, U.-D. Braumann, A. Reichenbach, P. Wiedemann, M. Francke, and F. G. Rauscher, “Parametric model for the 3d reconstruction of individual fovea shape from OCT data,” Experimental Eye Research 119, 19–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reindl, M.

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ringelstein, M.

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Sclerosis Journal 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossant, F.

S. Tick, F. Rossant, I. Ghorbel, A. Gaudric, J.-A. Sahel, P. Chaumet-Riffaud, and M. Paques, “Foveal shape and structure in a normal population,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 52, 5105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roth, N. M.

N. M. Roth, S. Saidha, H. Zimmermann, A. U. Brandt, J. Isensee, A. Benkhellouf-Rutkowska, M. Dornauer, A. A. Kühn, T. Müller, P. A. Calabresi, and F. Paul, “Photoreceptor layer thinning in idiopathic parkinson’s disease,” Movement Disorders 29, 1163–1170 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rubin, D. L.

S. Niu, Q. Chen, L. de Sisternes, D. L. Rubin, W. Zhang, and Q. Liu, “Automated retinal layers segmentation in sd-oct images using dual-gradient and spatial correlation smoothness constraint,” Computers in Biology and Medicine 54, 116–128 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruprecht, K.

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. C. Oertel, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, M. Weinhold, E. M. Kadas, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Pache, J. Bellmann-Strobl, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Contribution of blood vessels to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in nmosd,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4338 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Sclerosis Journal 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sahel, J.-A.

S. Tick, F. Rossant, I. Ghorbel, A. Gaudric, J.-A. Sahel, P. Chaumet-Riffaud, and M. Paques, “Foveal shape and structure in a normal population,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 52, 5105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saidha, S.

N. M. Roth, S. Saidha, H. Zimmermann, A. U. Brandt, J. Isensee, A. Benkhellouf-Rutkowska, M. Dornauer, A. A. Kühn, T. Müller, P. A. Calabresi, and F. Paul, “Photoreceptor layer thinning in idiopathic parkinson’s disease,” Movement Disorders 29, 1163–1170 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schaal, S.

B. Nesmith, A. Gupta, T. Strange, Y. Schaal, and S. Schaal, “Mathematical Analysis of the Normal Anatomy of the Aging FoveaAnatomy of the Aging Fovea,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 55, 5962–5966 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Barak, M. P. Sherman, and S. Schaal, “Mathematical Analysis of Specific Anatomic Foveal Configurations Predisposing to the Formation of Macular Holes,” Investigative Ophthalmology Visual Science 52, 8266–8270 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaal, Y.

B. Nesmith, A. Gupta, T. Strange, Y. Schaal, and S. Schaal, “Mathematical Analysis of the Normal Anatomy of the Aging FoveaAnatomy of the Aging Fovea,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 55, 5962–5966 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scheel, M.

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

Scheibe, P.

P. Scheibe, M. T. Zocher, M. Francke, and F. G. Rauscher, “Analysis of foveal characteristics and their asymmetries in the normal population,” Experimental Eye Research 148, 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Scheibe, A. Lazareva, U.-D. Braumann, A. Reichenbach, P. Wiedemann, M. Francke, and F. G. Rauscher, “Parametric model for the 3d reconstruction of individual fovea shape from OCT data,” Experimental Eye Research 119, 19–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schippling, S.

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Sclerosis Journal 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, F.

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schneider, E.

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schroeter, J.

S. Stricker, T. Oberwahrenbrock, H. Zimmermann, J. Schroeter, M. Endres, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Temporal retinal nerve fiber loss in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1,” PLoS ONE 6, e23024 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schumacher, S.

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, and a. et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Selesnick, I.

Y. Ding, B. Spund, S. Glazman, E. M. Shrier, S. Miri, I. Selesnick, and I. Bodis-Wollner, “Application of an oct data-based mathematical model of the foveal pit in parkinson disease,” Journal of Neural Transmission 121, 1367–1376 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sherman, M. P.

Y. Barak, M. P. Sherman, and S. Schaal, “Mathematical Analysis of Specific Anatomic Foveal Configurations Predisposing to the Formation of Macular Holes,” Investigative Ophthalmology Visual Science 52, 8266–8270 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shrier, E. M.

Y. Ding, B. Spund, S. Glazman, E. M. Shrier, S. Miri, I. Selesnick, and I. Bodis-Wollner, “Application of an oct data-based mathematical model of the foveal pit in parkinson disease,” Journal of Neural Transmission 121, 1367–1376 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soelberg, K.

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, H.

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Zhong, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal avascular zone and its relationship to foveal pit shape,” Optometry and Vision Science 89, 602–610 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spund, B.

Y. Ding, B. Spund, S. Glazman, E. M. Shrier, S. Miri, I. Selesnick, and I. Bodis-Wollner, “Application of an oct data-based mathematical model of the foveal pit in parkinson disease,” Journal of Neural Transmission 121, 1367–1376 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stepien, K. E.

B. K. McCafferty, M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, K. E. Stepien, A. M. Dubis, M. H. Brilliant, J. L. Anderson, J. Carroll, and C. G. Summers, “Clinical insights into foveal morphology in albinism,” J. Pediatric Ophthalmology Strabismus 52, 167–172 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stinson, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, and a. et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strange, T.

B. Nesmith, A. Gupta, T. Strange, Y. Schaal, and S. Schaal, “Mathematical Analysis of the Normal Anatomy of the Aging FoveaAnatomy of the Aging Fovea,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 55, 5962–5966 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stricker, S.

S. Stricker, T. Oberwahrenbrock, H. Zimmermann, J. Schroeter, M. Endres, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Temporal retinal nerve fiber loss in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1,” PLoS ONE 6, e23024 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Summerfelt, P.

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

Summers, C. G.

B. K. McCafferty, M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, K. E. Stepien, A. M. Dubis, M. H. Brilliant, J. L. Anderson, J. Carroll, and C. G. Summers, “Clinical insights into foveal morphology in albinism,” J. Pediatric Ophthalmology Strabismus 52, 167–172 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

Swanson, E.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, and a. et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tewarie, P.

L. J. Balk, P. Tewarie, J. Killestein, C. H. Polman, B. Uitdehaag, and A. Petzold, “Disease course heterogeneity and oct in multiple sclerosis,” Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England) 20, 1198–1206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tick, S.

S. Tick, F. Rossant, I. Ghorbel, A. Gaudric, J.-A. Sahel, P. Chaumet-Riffaud, and M. Paques, “Foveal shape and structure in a normal population,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 52, 5105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uitdehaag, B.

L. J. Balk, P. Tewarie, J. Killestein, C. H. Polman, B. Uitdehaag, and A. Petzold, “Disease course heterogeneity and oct in multiple sclerosis,” Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England) 20, 1198–1206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ustun, T. E.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: An adaptive optics fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 49, 2061 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waldman, A.

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Weinhold, M.

F. C. Oertel, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, M. Weinhold, E. M. Kadas, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Pache, J. Bellmann-Strobl, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Contribution of blood vessels to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in nmosd,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4338 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Weinhold, J. Mikolajczak, H. Zimmermann, F. Paul, I. Beckers, and A. U. Brandt, “Reliability of intra-retinal layer thickness estimates,” PloS one 10, e0137316 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weise, K. K.

L. Liu, W. Marsh-Tootle, E. N. Harb, W. Hou, Q. Zhang, H. A. Anderson, T. T. Norton, K. K. Weise, J. E. Gwiazda, L. Hyman, and the COMET Group, “A sloped piecemeal Gaussian model for characterising foveal pit shape,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 36, 615–631 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiedemann, P.

P. Scheibe, A. Lazareva, U.-D. Braumann, A. Reichenbach, P. Wiedemann, M. Francke, and F. G. Rauscher, “Parametric model for the 3d reconstruction of individual fovea shape from OCT data,” Experimental Eye Research 119, 19–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wildemann, B.

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wilk, M. A.

B. K. McCafferty, M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, K. E. Stepien, A. M. Dubis, M. H. Brilliant, J. L. Anderson, J. Carroll, and C. G. Summers, “Clinical insights into foveal morphology in albinism,” J. Pediatric Ophthalmology Strabismus 52, 167–172 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wirostko, W. J.

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

L. Liu, W. Marsh-Tootle, E. N. Harb, W. Hou, Q. Zhang, H. A. Anderson, T. T. Norton, K. K. Weise, J. E. Gwiazda, L. Hyman, and the COMET Group, “A sloped piecemeal Gaussian model for characterising foveal pit shape,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 36, 615–631 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

S. Niu, Q. Chen, L. de Sisternes, D. L. Rubin, W. Zhang, and Q. Liu, “Automated retinal layers segmentation in sd-oct images using dual-gradient and spatial correlation smoothness constraint,” Computers in Biology and Medicine 54, 116–128 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, Z.

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Zhong, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal avascular zone and its relationship to foveal pit shape,” Optometry and Vision Science 89, 602–610 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, H.

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. C. Oertel, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, M. Weinhold, E. M. Kadas, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Pache, J. Bellmann-Strobl, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Contribution of blood vessels to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in nmosd,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4338 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Weinhold, J. Mikolajczak, H. Zimmermann, F. Paul, I. Beckers, and A. U. Brandt, “Reliability of intra-retinal layer thickness estimates,” PloS one 10, e0137316 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Roth, S. Saidha, H. Zimmermann, A. U. Brandt, J. Isensee, A. Benkhellouf-Rutkowska, M. Dornauer, A. A. Kühn, T. Müller, P. A. Calabresi, and F. Paul, “Photoreceptor layer thinning in idiopathic parkinson’s disease,” Movement Disorders 29, 1163–1170 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Stricker, T. Oberwahrenbrock, H. Zimmermann, J. Schroeter, M. Endres, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Temporal retinal nerve fiber loss in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1,” PLoS ONE 6, e23024 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zocher, M. T.

P. Scheibe, M. T. Zocher, M. Francke, and F. G. Rauscher, “Analysis of foveal characteristics and their asymmetries in the normal population,” Experimental Eye Research 148, 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. M. Dubis, J. T. McAllister, and J. Carroll, “Reconstructing foveal pit morphology from optical coherence tomography imaging,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 1223–1227 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Computers in Biology and Medicine (1)

S. Niu, Q. Chen, L. de Sisternes, D. L. Rubin, W. Zhang, and Q. Liu, “Automated retinal layers segmentation in sd-oct images using dual-gradient and spatial correlation smoothness constraint,” Computers in Biology and Medicine 54, 116–128 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Experimental Eye Research (2)

P. Scheibe, M. T. Zocher, M. Francke, and F. G. Rauscher, “Analysis of foveal characteristics and their asymmetries in the normal population,” Experimental Eye Research 148, 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Scheibe, A. Lazareva, U.-D. Braumann, A. Reichenbach, P. Wiedemann, M. Francke, and F. G. Rauscher, “Parametric model for the 3d reconstruction of individual fovea shape from OCT data,” Experimental Eye Research 119, 19–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. M. Cha and J. H. Han, “High-accuracy retinal layer segmentation for optical coherence tomography using tracking kernels based on gaussian mixture model,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 32–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (1)

B. Nesmith, A. Gupta, T. Strange, Y. Schaal, and S. Schaal, “Mathematical Analysis of the Normal Anatomy of the Aging FoveaAnatomy of the Aging Fovea,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 55, 5962–5966 (2014).
[Crossref]

Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (3)

M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, T. N. Patitucci, P. Summerfelt, J. L. Anderson, K. E. Stepien, D. M. Costakos, T. B. Connor, W. J. Wirostko, P.-W. Chiang, A. Dubra, C. A. Curcio, M. H. Brilliant, C. G. Summers, and J. Carroll, “Relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in albinismfoveal cone specialization and pit morphology,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 55, 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Tick, F. Rossant, I. Ghorbel, A. Gaudric, J.-A. Sahel, P. Chaumet-Riffaud, and M. Paques, “Foveal shape and structure in a normal population,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 52, 5105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: An adaptive optics fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 49, 2061 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Investigative Ophthalmology Visual Science (1)

Y. Barak, M. P. Sherman, and S. Schaal, “Mathematical Analysis of Specific Anatomic Foveal Configurations Predisposing to the Formation of Macular Holes,” Investigative Ophthalmology Visual Science 52, 8266–8270 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Medical Signals and Sensors (1)

R. Kafieh, H. Rabbani, and S. Kermani, “A review of algorithms for segmentation of optical coherence tomography from retina,” J. Medical Signals and Sensors 3, 45–60 (2013).

J. Neuroinflammation (1)

F. Pache, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, S. Schumacher, A. Lacheta, F. C. Oertel, J. Bellmann-Strobl, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, M. Reindl, A. Waldman, K. Soelberg, N. Asgari, M. Ringelstein, O. Aktas, N. Gross, M. Buttmann, T. Ach, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, A. U. Brandt, and cooperation with the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS), “Mog-igg in nmo and related disorders: a multicenter study of 50 patients. part 4: Afferent visual system damage after optic neuritis in mog-igg-seropositive versus aqp4-igg-seropositive patients,” J. Neuroinflammation 13, 282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pediatric Ophthalmology Strabismus (1)

B. K. McCafferty, M. A. Wilk, J. T. McAllister, K. E. Stepien, A. M. Dubis, M. H. Brilliant, J. L. Anderson, J. Carroll, and C. G. Summers, “Clinical insights into foveal morphology in albinism,” J. Pediatric Ophthalmology Strabismus 52, 167–172 (2015).
[Crossref]

Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics (1)

R. Ihaka and R. Gentleman, “R: A language for data analysis and graphics,” Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics 5, 299–314 (1996).

Journal of Neural Transmission (1)

Y. Ding, B. Spund, S. Glazman, E. M. Shrier, S. Miri, I. Selesnick, and I. Bodis-Wollner, “Application of an oct data-based mathematical model of the foveal pit in parkinson disease,” Journal of Neural Transmission 121, 1367–1376 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Movement Disorders (1)

N. M. Roth, S. Saidha, H. Zimmermann, A. U. Brandt, J. Isensee, A. Benkhellouf-Rutkowska, M. Dornauer, A. A. Kühn, T. Müller, P. A. Calabresi, and F. Paul, “Photoreceptor layer thinning in idiopathic parkinson’s disease,” Movement Disorders 29, 1163–1170 (2014).
[Crossref]

Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England) (1)

L. J. Balk, P. Tewarie, J. Killestein, C. H. Polman, B. Uitdehaag, and A. Petzold, “Disease course heterogeneity and oct in multiple sclerosis,” Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England) 20, 1198–1206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Multiple Sclerosis Journal (1)

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Ringelstein, S. Jentschke, K. Deuschle, K. Klumbies, J. Bellmann-Strobl, J. Harmel, K. Ruprecht, S. Schippling, H.-P. Hartung, O. Aktas, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer thinning in clinically isolated syndrome,” Multiple Sclerosis Journal 19, 1887–1895 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation (2)

F. C. Oertel, J. Kuchling, H. Zimmermann, C. Chien, F. Schmidt, B. Knier, J. Bellmann-Strobl, T. Korn, M. Scheel, A. Klistorner, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Microstructural visual system changes in AQP4-antibody–seropositive NMOSD,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4, e334 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. C. Oertel, H. Zimmermann, J. Mikolajczak, M. Weinhold, E. M. Kadas, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Pache, J. Bellmann-Strobl, K. Ruprecht, F. Paul, and A. U. Brandt, “Contribution of blood vessels to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in nmosd,” Neurology - Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation 4338 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics (1)

L. Liu, W. Marsh-Tootle, E. N. Harb, W. Hou, Q. Zhang, H. A. Anderson, T. T. Norton, K. K. Weise, J. E. Gwiazda, L. Hyman, and the COMET Group, “A sloped piecemeal Gaussian model for characterising foveal pit shape,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 36, 615–631 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Optometry and Vision Science (1)

T. Y. P. Chui, Z. Zhong, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Foveal avascular zone and its relationship to foveal pit shape,” Optometry and Vision Science 89, 602–610 (2012).
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PloS one (1)

T. Oberwahrenbrock, M. Weinhold, J. Mikolajczak, H. Zimmermann, F. Paul, I. Beckers, and A. U. Brandt, “Reliability of intra-retinal layer thickness estimates,” PloS one 10, e0137316 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Schneider, H. Zimmermann, T. Oberwahrenbrock, F. Kaufhold, E. M. Kadas, A. Petzold, F. Bilger, N. Borisow, S. Jarius, B. Wildemann, K. Ruprecht, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Optical coherence tomography reveals distinct patterns of retinal damage in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,” PLOS ONE 8, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Stricker, T. Oberwahrenbrock, H. Zimmermann, J. Schroeter, M. Endres, A. U. Brandt, and F. Paul, “Temporal retinal nerve fiber loss in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1,” PLoS ONE 6, e23024 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. Puliafito, and a. et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
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Other (1)

G. E. Farin, Curves and Surfaces for Computer-Aided Geometric Design: A Practical Code (Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, FL, USA, 1996), 4th ed.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Figure shows the structures of interest in the retina with layers ILM (Inner limiting membrane), GCL (Ganglion cell layer) and RPE (Retinal pigment epithelium layer).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Various shapes of the foveal pit

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The central B-scan of a volume with invariant tangent at critical points. Red dots = critical points. (b) The interior and the exterior segment of the corresponding right half of the B-scan. The inner (P1, P2) and end (P0, P3) control points are shown in green and red, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The pipeline of the proposed algorithm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

3D shape reconstruction procedure. (a) Shows a volume scan with 61 B-scans and 768 A-scans and corresponding 24 radial directions (blue) using the bilinear interpolation. (b) Represents the 24 fitted radial scans (green) using the least square optimization. The red points show the critical points for each radial scan.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

2D shape reconstruction (a) Shows re-sampled radial scans from a volume scan divided in two parts: c(r, θi) and c(r, θi + π) (b) Shows corresponding fitted radial scans using least square optimization. These are represented by Q(t, θi) and Q(t, θi + π) and i = 1, · · · , n. A full radial scan can be consider as a combination of c(r, θi) and c(r, θi + π) and is shown in different colors and corresponding parametrized curves are shown in the same color.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Visualization of 2D parameters on the central B-scan.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

a: Top view of rim disk. b: Normal vector of rim disk plane and corresponding covariance eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

A visual representation of the 3D parameters. The rim and the inner rim volume is defined as the volume covered by the corresponding disk area. The radius for the inner disk area and the volume is defined by user.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of the proposed method with two state-of-the-art methods [25] and [20]. Blue curve is the raw input (ILM-RPE difference) at the central B-scan and black, red and green are the reconstructed curves with [20], [25] and our method (CuBe) respectively. The RMSE values show that the proposed method manages to reconstruct the shape with minimum artifacts, specifically the pit shape.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

RMSE values for 3D M1, M2, and CuBe for the whole data set.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Two examples of 2D curve fitting results with the lowest (top) and the highest (bottom) RMSE values selected from the entire data set analyzed. Original data is shown in blue and fitted curve in green. RMSE values are from top to bottom, 1.0 μm, 7.1 μm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Repeatability test for the 3D parameters. Abbreviations: ICC - intra-class correlation coefficient, LCI - lower confidence interval and UCI - upper confidence interval.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Analysis of all the 3D parameters defined for the HC and patient group. The last column shows the GEE analysis between the two groups. Abbreviations: HC - healthy controls. SD - standard deviation, Min - minimum value, Max - maximum value, GEE -generalized estimating equation models analysis accounting for the inter-eye/intra-subject dependencies, p - p value

Equations (37)

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Q ( t ) = i = 0 n P i , n B i , n ( t ) , 0 t 1 ,
B i , n ( t ) = ( n i ) t i ( 1 t ) n i , i = [ 0 , 1 . . , n ] .
Q ( t ) = i = 0 3 P i B i , 3 ( t ) , 0 t 1 .
P 1 P 0 = α T 01 , P 2 P 3 = β T 23 .
P 1 = P 0 + α T , P 2 = P 3 β T .
P 1 = P 0 + α T .
Q I ( t , α , β ) = α T B 1 ( t ) β T B 2 ( t ) + P 0 ( B 0 ( t ) + B 1 ( t ) ) + P 3 ( B 2 ( t ) + B 3 ( t ) ) .
E ( t , α , β ) = i = 1 m D i I Q i ( t i , α , β ) 2 ,
α E = 0 , β E = 0 .
α E = 2 i = 1 m ( D i I Q i ( t i , α , β ) ) B 1 ( t i ) T .
i = 1 m B 1 ( t i ) Q I ( t i , α , β ) = i = 1 m D i I B 1 ( t i ) ,
t E = 0 .
t E = 2 i = 1 m ( D i I Q I ( t i , α , β ) ) Q I ( t i , α , β ) ,
t ˜ i = t i + s t E ,
Q E ( t , P 2 , α ) = α T B 1 ( t ) + P 0 ( B 0 ( t ) + B 1 ( t ) ) + P 2 B 2 ( t ) + P 3 B 3 ( t ) ) .
E ( t , P 2 , α ) = i = 1 m D i E Q E ( t i , P 2 , α ) 2 ,
m = ( x m , y m ) ,
c ( r , θ i ) p ( r , θ ) where i = 1 , , n .
h cft = ( x m , y m ) .
h r = 1 n i = 1 n max ( c ( r , θ i ) ) .
C r = 1 n i = 1 n ( p c p i ) T ( p c p i ) , p c = 1 n i = 1 n p i .
A 3 D = A 2 D cos θ , θ = ( n p , n z ) ,
d r = 2 n i = 1 n / 2 p θ i p θ i + π .
h p = h r h cft .
s i = d Q I y ( t ) / d t d Q I x ( t ) / d t i = 1 , , n ,
s m i = P 3 y P 0 y α β α β ( P 3 x P 0 x ) , t m i = α α + β ,
s m = 1 n i n s m i .
p θ i s ( x ) = Q x ( t m , θ i ) , p θ i s ( y ) = Q y ( t m , θ i ) , p θ i + π s ( x ) = Q x ( t m , θ i + π ) , p θ i + π s ( y ) = Q y ( t m , θ i + π ) ,
d s = 2 n i = 1 n / 2 p θ i s p θ i + π s .
τ Q I y ( t f , θ i ) = 0 .
d f i = Q E x ( t f , θ i ) .
d f = 2 n i = 1 n d f i .
V r = A f ( x , y ) d x d y = 0 2 π 0 R c ( r , θ ) r d r d θ .
V r = 2 π n i = 1 n 0 R c ( r , θ i ) r d r .
V r = 2 π n i = 1 n 0 1 Q I y ( t , θ i ) Q I x ( t , θ i ) d Q I x ( t , θ i ) d t d t .
V IR = 2 π n i = 1 n 0 t u Q I y ( t , θ i ) Q I x ( t , θ i ) d Q I x ( t , θ i ) d t d t .
V p = V t V r .

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