Abstract

In this study, an electroporation-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique was employed to differentiate the human myeloid leukemia cells from the normal human bone marrow mononuclear cells with the aim to develop a fast and label-free method for leukemia cell screening. The Ag nanoparticles were delivered into living cells by electroporation, and then high quality SERS spectra were successfully obtained from 60 acute promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL60 cell line), 60 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells (K562 cell line) and 60 normal human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMC). Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) differentiated the leukemia cell SERS spectra (HL60 plus K562) from normal cell SERS spectra (BMC) with high sensitivity (98.3%) and specificity (98.3%). Furthermore, partial least squares (PLS) approach was employed to develop a diagnostic model. The model successfully predicted the unidentified subjects with a diagnostic accuracy of 96.7%. This exploratory work demonstrates that the electroporation-based SERS technique combined with PCA-LDA and PLS diagnostic algorithms possesses great promise for cancer cell screening.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  4. R. Vanna, P. Ronchi, A. T. Lenferink, C. Tresoldi, C. Morasso, D. Mehn, M. Bedoni, S. Picciolini, L. W. Terstappen, F. Ciceri, C. Otto, and F. Gramatica, “Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(4), 1054–1064 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated Autofluorescence Background Subtraction Algorithm for Biomedical Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. Ghasemi, S. Ahmadi, and K. Torkestani, “Simultaneous determination of copper, nickel, cobalt and zinc using zincon as a metallochromic indicator with partial least squares,” Anal. Chim. Acta 487(2), 181–188 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Mert and M. Çulha, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based detection of cancerous renal cells,” Appl. Spectrosc. 68(6), 617–624 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Detects Individual Neoplastic and Normal Hematopoietic Cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

R. Smith, K. L. Wright, and L. Ashton, “Raman spectroscopy: an evolving technique for live cell studies,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(12), 3590–3600 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, H. Huang, S. Qiu, S. Feng, G. Chen, and R. Chen, “Diagnostic potential of polarized surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy technology for colorectal cancer detection,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2222–2234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

S. Feng, W. Wang, I. T. Tai, G. Chen, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for detection of colorectal cancer and precursor lesions using blood plasma,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3494–3502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Kang, P. T. So, R. R. Dasari, and D. K. Lim, “High resolution live cell Raman imaging using subcellular organelle-targeting SERS-sensitive gold nanoparticles with highly narrow intra-nanogap,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1766–1772 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. T. Marisca, K. Kantner, C. Pfeiffer, Q. Zhang, B. Pelaz, N. Leopold, W. J. Parak, and J. Rejman, “Comparison of the in Vitro Uptake and Toxicity of Collagen- and Synthetic Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 5(3), 1418–1430 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Vanna, P. Ronchi, A. T. Lenferink, C. Tresoldi, C. Morasso, D. Mehn, M. Bedoni, S. Picciolini, L. W. Terstappen, F. Ciceri, C. Otto, and F. Gramatica, “Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(4), 1054–1064 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mert and M. Çulha, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based detection of cancerous renal cells,” Appl. Spectrosc. 68(6), 617–624 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, B. Wittig, and K. Kneipp, “Following the Dynamics of pH in Endosomes of Live Cells with SERS Nanosensors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7421–7426 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Vo-Dinh, H. N. Wang, and J. Scaffidi, “Plasmonic nanoprobes for SERS biosensing and bioimaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(1-2), 89–102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, B. Wittig, and K. Kneipp, “Novel optical nanosensors for probing and imaging live cells,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 6(2), 214–226 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Giljohann, D. S. Seferos, W. L. Daniel, M. D. Massich, P. C. Patel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Gold Nanoparticles for Biology and Medicine,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(19), 3280–3294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Neugebauer, J. H. Clement, T. Bocklitz, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Identification and differentiation of single cells from peripheral blood by Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(8-9), 579–587 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, Y. Li, Z. Huang, S. Xie, Y. Yu, M. Cheng, and H. Zeng, “Rapid delivery of silver nanoparticles into living cells by electroporation for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(2), 388–394 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, T. Weeks, and T. Huser, “Chemical analysis in vivo and in vitro by Raman spectroscopy-from single cells to humans,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 63–73 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

F. H. Seeger, T. Tonn, N. Krzossok, A. M. Zeiher, and S. Dimmeler, “Cell isolation procedures matter: a comparison of different isolation protocols of bone marrow mononuclear cells used for cell therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” Eur. Heart J. 28(6), 766–772 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and D. I. U. Rehman, “Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated Autofluorescence Background Subtraction Algorithm for Biomedical Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Detects Individual Neoplastic and Normal Hematopoietic Cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Deschler and M. Lübbert, “Acute myeloid leukemia: epidemiology and etiology,” Cancer 107(9), 2099–2107 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

I. Notingher, G. Jell, U. Lohbauer, V. Salih, and L. L. Hench, “In situ non-invasive spectral discrimination between bone cell phenotypes used in tissue engineering,” J. Cell. Biochem. 92(6), 1180–1192 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, E. Volokhina, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Confocal Raman Imaging of DNA and Protein Distribution in Apoptotic Cells,” Biophys. J. 84(6), 3968–3981 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ghasemi, S. Ahmadi, and K. Torkestani, “Simultaneous determination of copper, nickel, cobalt and zinc using zincon as a metallochromic indicator with partial least squares,” Anal. Chim. Acta 487(2), 181–188 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Leopold and B. Lendl, “A New Method for Fast Preparation of Highly Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Active Silver Colloids at Room Temperature by Reduction of Silver Nitrate with Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5723–5727 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Ahmadi, S.

J. Ghasemi, S. Ahmadi, and K. Torkestani, “Simultaneous determination of copper, nickel, cobalt and zinc using zincon as a metallochromic indicator with partial least squares,” Anal. Chim. Acta 487(2), 181–188 (2003).
[Crossref]

Almond, L. M.

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashton, L.

R. Smith, K. L. Wright, and L. Ashton, “Raman spectroscopy: an evolving technique for live cell studies,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(12), 3590–3600 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

Barr, H.

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basnakian, A. G.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bedoni, M.

R. Vanna, P. Ronchi, A. T. Lenferink, C. Tresoldi, C. Morasso, D. Mehn, M. Bedoni, S. Picciolini, L. W. Terstappen, F. Ciceri, C. Otto, and F. Gramatica, “Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(4), 1054–1064 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biris, A. S.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bocklitz, T.

U. Neugebauer, J. H. Clement, T. Bocklitz, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Identification and differentiation of single cells from peripheral blood by Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(8-9), 579–587 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boone, C.

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Detects Individual Neoplastic and Normal Hematopoietic Cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

D. Lin, H. Huang, S. Qiu, S. Feng, G. Chen, and R. Chen, “Diagnostic potential of polarized surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy technology for colorectal cancer detection,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2222–2234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, W. Wang, I. T. Tai, G. Chen, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for detection of colorectal cancer and precursor lesions using blood plasma,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3494–3502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, H. Huang, S. Qiu, S. Feng, G. Chen, and R. Chen, “Diagnostic potential of polarized surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy technology for colorectal cancer detection,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2222–2234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, W. Wang, I. T. Tai, G. Chen, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for detection of colorectal cancer and precursor lesions using blood plasma,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3494–3502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, Y. Li, Z. Huang, S. Xie, Y. Yu, M. Cheng, and H. Zeng, “Rapid delivery of silver nanoparticles into living cells by electroporation for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(2), 388–394 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, M.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, Y. Li, Z. Huang, S. Xie, Y. Yu, M. Cheng, and H. Zeng, “Rapid delivery of silver nanoparticles into living cells by electroporation for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(2), 388–394 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ciceri, F.

R. Vanna, P. Ronchi, A. T. Lenferink, C. Tresoldi, C. Morasso, D. Mehn, M. Bedoni, S. Picciolini, L. W. Terstappen, F. Ciceri, C. Otto, and F. Gramatica, “Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(4), 1054–1064 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clement, J. H.

U. Neugebauer, J. H. Clement, T. Bocklitz, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Identification and differentiation of single cells from peripheral blood by Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(8-9), 579–587 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Çulha, M.

Daniel, W. L.

D. A. Giljohann, D. S. Seferos, W. L. Daniel, M. D. Massich, P. C. Patel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Gold Nanoparticles for Biology and Medicine,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(19), 3280–3294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

J. W. Kang, P. T. So, R. R. Dasari, and D. K. Lim, “High resolution live cell Raman imaging using subcellular organelle-targeting SERS-sensitive gold nanoparticles with highly narrow intra-nanogap,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1766–1772 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, A. S. Haka, H. Kneipp, K. Badizadegan, N. Yoshizawa, C. Boone, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, J. T. Motz, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy in Single Living Cells Using Gold Nanoparticles,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56(2), 150–154 (2002).
[Crossref]

Deschler, B.

B. Deschler and M. Lübbert, “Acute myeloid leukemia: epidemiology and etiology,” Cancer 107(9), 2099–2107 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dimmeler, S.

F. H. Seeger, T. Tonn, N. Krzossok, A. M. Zeiher, and S. Dimmeler, “Cell isolation procedures matter: a comparison of different isolation protocols of bone marrow mononuclear cells used for cell therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” Eur. Heart J. 28(6), 766–772 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fahmi, T.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Feng, S.

D. Lin, H. Huang, S. Qiu, S. Feng, G. Chen, and R. Chen, “Diagnostic potential of polarized surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy technology for colorectal cancer detection,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2222–2234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, W. Wang, I. T. Tai, G. Chen, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for detection of colorectal cancer and precursor lesions using blood plasma,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3494–3502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, Y. Li, Z. Huang, S. Xie, Y. Yu, M. Cheng, and H. Zeng, “Rapid delivery of silver nanoparticles into living cells by electroporation for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(2), 388–394 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galanzha, E. I.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghasemi, J.

J. Ghasemi, S. Ahmadi, and K. Torkestani, “Simultaneous determination of copper, nickel, cobalt and zinc using zincon as a metallochromic indicator with partial least squares,” Anal. Chim. Acta 487(2), 181–188 (2003).
[Crossref]

Giljohann, D. A.

D. A. Giljohann, D. S. Seferos, W. L. Daniel, M. D. Massich, P. C. Patel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Gold Nanoparticles for Biology and Medicine,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(19), 3280–3294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gramatica, F.

R. Vanna, P. Ronchi, A. T. Lenferink, C. Tresoldi, C. Morasso, D. Mehn, M. Bedoni, S. Picciolini, L. W. Terstappen, F. Ciceri, C. Otto, and F. Gramatica, “Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(4), 1054–1064 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greve, J.

N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, E. Volokhina, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Confocal Raman Imaging of DNA and Protein Distribution in Apoptotic Cells,” Biophys. J. 84(6), 3968–3981 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haka, A. S.

Hench, L. L.

I. Notingher, G. Jell, U. Lohbauer, V. Salih, and L. L. Hench, “In situ non-invasive spectral discrimination between bone cell phenotypes used in tissue engineering,” J. Cell. Biochem. 92(6), 1180–1192 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

D. Lin, H. Huang, S. Qiu, S. Feng, G. Chen, and R. Chen, “Diagnostic potential of polarized surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy technology for colorectal cancer detection,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2222–2234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S.

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, Y. Li, Z. Huang, S. Xie, Y. Yu, M. Cheng, and H. Zeng, “Rapid delivery of silver nanoparticles into living cells by electroporation for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(2), 388–394 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huser, T.

S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, T. Weeks, and T. Huser, “Chemical analysis in vivo and in vitro by Raman spectroscopy-from single cells to humans,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 63–73 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Detects Individual Neoplastic and Normal Hematopoietic Cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hutchings, J.

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ihara, K.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Detects Individual Neoplastic and Normal Hematopoietic Cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jell, G.

I. Notingher, G. Jell, U. Lohbauer, V. Salih, and L. L. Hench, “In situ non-invasive spectral discrimination between bone cell phenotypes used in tissue engineering,” J. Cell. Biochem. 92(6), 1180–1192 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juratli, M. A.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kallaway, C.

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J. W.

J. W. Kang, P. T. So, R. R. Dasari, and D. K. Lim, “High resolution live cell Raman imaging using subcellular organelle-targeting SERS-sensitive gold nanoparticles with highly narrow intra-nanogap,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1766–1772 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kantner, K.

O. T. Marisca, K. Kantner, C. Pfeiffer, Q. Zhang, B. Pelaz, N. Leopold, W. J. Parak, and J. Rejman, “Comparison of the in Vitro Uptake and Toxicity of Collagen- and Synthetic Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 5(3), 1418–1430 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kendall, C.

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kneipp, H.

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, B. Wittig, and K. Kneipp, “Novel optical nanosensors for probing and imaging live cells,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 6(2), 214–226 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, B. Wittig, and K. Kneipp, “Following the Dynamics of pH in Endosomes of Live Cells with SERS Nanosensors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7421–7426 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, A. S. Haka, H. Kneipp, K. Badizadegan, N. Yoshizawa, C. Boone, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, J. T. Motz, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy in Single Living Cells Using Gold Nanoparticles,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56(2), 150–154 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kneipp, J.

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, B. Wittig, and K. Kneipp, “Following the Dynamics of pH in Endosomes of Live Cells with SERS Nanosensors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7421–7426 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, B. Wittig, and K. Kneipp, “Novel optical nanosensors for probing and imaging live cells,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 6(2), 214–226 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kneipp, K.

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, B. Wittig, and K. Kneipp, “Novel optical nanosensors for probing and imaging live cells,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 6(2), 214–226 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, B. Wittig, and K. Kneipp, “Following the Dynamics of pH in Endosomes of Live Cells with SERS Nanosensors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7421–7426 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, A. S. Haka, H. Kneipp, K. Badizadegan, N. Yoshizawa, C. Boone, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, J. T. Motz, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy in Single Living Cells Using Gold Nanoparticles,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56(2), 150–154 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kraan, Y.

N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, E. Volokhina, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Confocal Raman Imaging of DNA and Protein Distribution in Apoptotic Cells,” Biophys. J. 84(6), 3968–3981 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krafft, C.

U. Neugebauer, J. H. Clement, T. Bocklitz, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Identification and differentiation of single cells from peripheral blood by Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(8-9), 579–587 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krzossok, N.

F. H. Seeger, T. Tonn, N. Krzossok, A. M. Zeiher, and S. Dimmeler, “Cell isolation procedures matter: a comparison of different isolation protocols of bone marrow mononuclear cells used for cell therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” Eur. Heart J. 28(6), 766–772 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lane, S. M.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Detects Individual Neoplastic and Normal Hematopoietic Cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lendl, B.

N. Leopold and B. Lendl, “A New Method for Fast Preparation of Highly Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Active Silver Colloids at Room Temperature by Reduction of Silver Nitrate with Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5723–5727 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lenferink, A.

N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, E. Volokhina, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Confocal Raman Imaging of DNA and Protein Distribution in Apoptotic Cells,” Biophys. J. 84(6), 3968–3981 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lenferink, A. T.

R. Vanna, P. Ronchi, A. T. Lenferink, C. Tresoldi, C. Morasso, D. Mehn, M. Bedoni, S. Picciolini, L. W. Terstappen, F. Ciceri, C. Otto, and F. Gramatica, “Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(4), 1054–1064 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leopold, N.

O. T. Marisca, K. Kantner, C. Pfeiffer, Q. Zhang, B. Pelaz, N. Leopold, W. J. Parak, and J. Rejman, “Comparison of the in Vitro Uptake and Toxicity of Collagen- and Synthetic Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 5(3), 1418–1430 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Leopold and B. Lendl, “A New Method for Fast Preparation of Highly Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Active Silver Colloids at Room Temperature by Reduction of Silver Nitrate with Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5723–5727 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, B.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, Y. Li, Z. Huang, S. Xie, Y. Yu, M. Cheng, and H. Zeng, “Rapid delivery of silver nanoparticles into living cells by electroporation for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(2), 388–394 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, D. K.

J. W. Kang, P. T. So, R. R. Dasari, and D. K. Lim, “High resolution live cell Raman imaging using subcellular organelle-targeting SERS-sensitive gold nanoparticles with highly narrow intra-nanogap,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1766–1772 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, D.

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, H. Huang, S. Qiu, S. Feng, G. Chen, and R. Chen, “Diagnostic potential of polarized surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy technology for colorectal cancer detection,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2222–2234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, Y. Li, Z. Huang, S. Xie, Y. Yu, M. Cheng, and H. Zeng, “Rapid delivery of silver nanoparticles into living cells by electroporation for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(2), 388–394 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lohbauer, U.

I. Notingher, G. Jell, U. Lohbauer, V. Salih, and L. L. Hench, “In situ non-invasive spectral discrimination between bone cell phenotypes used in tissue engineering,” J. Cell. Biochem. 92(6), 1180–1192 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lübbert, M.

B. Deschler and M. Lübbert, “Acute myeloid leukemia: epidemiology and etiology,” Cancer 107(9), 2099–2107 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lui, H.

Mahmood, M.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marisca, O. T.

O. T. Marisca, K. Kantner, C. Pfeiffer, Q. Zhang, B. Pelaz, N. Leopold, W. J. Parak, and J. Rejman, “Comparison of the in Vitro Uptake and Toxicity of Collagen- and Synthetic Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 5(3), 1418–1430 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Massich, M. D.

D. A. Giljohann, D. S. Seferos, W. L. Daniel, M. D. Massich, P. C. Patel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Gold Nanoparticles for Biology and Medicine,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(19), 3280–3294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLean, D. I.

Mehn, D.

R. Vanna, P. Ronchi, A. T. Lenferink, C. Tresoldi, C. Morasso, D. Mehn, M. Bedoni, S. Picciolini, L. W. Terstappen, F. Ciceri, C. Otto, and F. Gramatica, “Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(4), 1054–1064 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mert, S.

Mirkin, C. A.

D. A. Giljohann, D. S. Seferos, W. L. Daniel, M. D. Massich, P. C. Patel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Gold Nanoparticles for Biology and Medicine,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(19), 3280–3294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morasso, C.

R. Vanna, P. Ronchi, A. T. Lenferink, C. Tresoldi, C. Morasso, D. Mehn, M. Bedoni, S. Picciolini, L. W. Terstappen, F. Ciceri, C. Otto, and F. Gramatica, “Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(4), 1054–1064 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Motz, J. T.

Movasaghi, Z.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and D. I. U. Rehman, “Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mustafa, T.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nedosekin, D. A.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neugebauer, U.

U. Neugebauer, J. H. Clement, T. Bocklitz, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Identification and differentiation of single cells from peripheral blood by Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(8-9), 579–587 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nima, Z. A.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nolan, J. P.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Notingher, I.

I. Notingher, G. Jell, U. Lohbauer, V. Salih, and L. L. Hench, “In situ non-invasive spectral discrimination between bone cell phenotypes used in tissue engineering,” J. Cell. Biochem. 92(6), 1180–1192 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Otto, C.

R. Vanna, P. Ronchi, A. T. Lenferink, C. Tresoldi, C. Morasso, D. Mehn, M. Bedoni, S. Picciolini, L. W. Terstappen, F. Ciceri, C. Otto, and F. Gramatica, “Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(4), 1054–1064 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, E. Volokhina, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Confocal Raman Imaging of DNA and Protein Distribution in Apoptotic Cells,” Biophys. J. 84(6), 3968–3981 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, J.

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parak, W. J.

O. T. Marisca, K. Kantner, C. Pfeiffer, Q. Zhang, B. Pelaz, N. Leopold, W. J. Parak, and J. Rejman, “Comparison of the in Vitro Uptake and Toxicity of Collagen- and Synthetic Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 5(3), 1418–1430 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, P. C.

D. A. Giljohann, D. S. Seferos, W. L. Daniel, M. D. Massich, P. C. Patel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Gold Nanoparticles for Biology and Medicine,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(19), 3280–3294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pelaz, B.

O. T. Marisca, K. Kantner, C. Pfeiffer, Q. Zhang, B. Pelaz, N. Leopold, W. J. Parak, and J. Rejman, “Comparison of the in Vitro Uptake and Toxicity of Collagen- and Synthetic Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 5(3), 1418–1430 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, C.

O. T. Marisca, K. Kantner, C. Pfeiffer, Q. Zhang, B. Pelaz, N. Leopold, W. J. Parak, and J. Rejman, “Comparison of the in Vitro Uptake and Toxicity of Collagen- and Synthetic Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 5(3), 1418–1430 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Picciolini, S.

R. Vanna, P. Ronchi, A. T. Lenferink, C. Tresoldi, C. Morasso, D. Mehn, M. Bedoni, S. Picciolini, L. W. Terstappen, F. Ciceri, C. Otto, and F. Gramatica, “Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(4), 1054–1064 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popp, J.

U. Neugebauer, J. H. Clement, T. Bocklitz, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Identification and differentiation of single cells from peripheral blood by Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(8-9), 579–587 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, S.

D. Lin, H. Huang, S. Qiu, S. Feng, G. Chen, and R. Chen, “Diagnostic potential of polarized surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy technology for colorectal cancer detection,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2222–2234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rehman, D. I. U.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and D. I. U. Rehman, “Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rehman, S.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and D. I. U. Rehman, “Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rejman, J.

O. T. Marisca, K. Kantner, C. Pfeiffer, Q. Zhang, B. Pelaz, N. Leopold, W. J. Parak, and J. Rejman, “Comparison of the in Vitro Uptake and Toxicity of Collagen- and Synthetic Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 5(3), 1418–1430 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ronchi, P.

R. Vanna, P. Ronchi, A. T. Lenferink, C. Tresoldi, C. Morasso, D. Mehn, M. Bedoni, S. Picciolini, L. W. Terstappen, F. Ciceri, C. Otto, and F. Gramatica, “Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(4), 1054–1064 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salih, V.

I. Notingher, G. Jell, U. Lohbauer, V. Salih, and L. L. Hench, “In situ non-invasive spectral discrimination between bone cell phenotypes used in tissue engineering,” J. Cell. Biochem. 92(6), 1180–1192 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scaffidi, J.

T. Vo-Dinh, H. N. Wang, and J. Scaffidi, “Plasmonic nanoprobes for SERS biosensing and bioimaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(1-2), 89–102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seeger, F. H.

F. H. Seeger, T. Tonn, N. Krzossok, A. M. Zeiher, and S. Dimmeler, “Cell isolation procedures matter: a comparison of different isolation protocols of bone marrow mononuclear cells used for cell therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” Eur. Heart J. 28(6), 766–772 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seferos, D. S.

D. A. Giljohann, D. S. Seferos, W. L. Daniel, M. D. Massich, P. C. Patel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Gold Nanoparticles for Biology and Medicine,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(19), 3280–3294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shafer-Peltier, K. E.

Shi, H.

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, R.

R. Smith, K. L. Wright, and L. Ashton, “Raman spectroscopy: an evolving technique for live cell studies,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(12), 3590–3600 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

So, P. T.

J. W. Kang, P. T. So, R. R. Dasari, and D. K. Lim, “High resolution live cell Raman imaging using subcellular organelle-targeting SERS-sensitive gold nanoparticles with highly narrow intra-nanogap,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1766–1772 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, N.

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tai, I. T.

Taylor, D. S.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Detects Individual Neoplastic and Normal Hematopoietic Cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terstappen, L. W.

R. Vanna, P. Ronchi, A. T. Lenferink, C. Tresoldi, C. Morasso, D. Mehn, M. Bedoni, S. Picciolini, L. W. Terstappen, F. Ciceri, C. Otto, and F. Gramatica, “Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(4), 1054–1064 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonn, T.

F. H. Seeger, T. Tonn, N. Krzossok, A. M. Zeiher, and S. Dimmeler, “Cell isolation procedures matter: a comparison of different isolation protocols of bone marrow mononuclear cells used for cell therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” Eur. Heart J. 28(6), 766–772 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torkestani, K.

J. Ghasemi, S. Ahmadi, and K. Torkestani, “Simultaneous determination of copper, nickel, cobalt and zinc using zincon as a metallochromic indicator with partial least squares,” Anal. Chim. Acta 487(2), 181–188 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tresoldi, C.

R. Vanna, P. Ronchi, A. T. Lenferink, C. Tresoldi, C. Morasso, D. Mehn, M. Bedoni, S. Picciolini, L. W. Terstappen, F. Ciceri, C. Otto, and F. Gramatica, “Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(4), 1054–1064 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uzunbajakava, N.

N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, E. Volokhina, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Confocal Raman Imaging of DNA and Protein Distribution in Apoptotic Cells,” Biophys. J. 84(6), 3968–3981 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanna, R.

R. Vanna, P. Ronchi, A. T. Lenferink, C. Tresoldi, C. Morasso, D. Mehn, M. Bedoni, S. Picciolini, L. W. Terstappen, F. Ciceri, C. Otto, and F. Gramatica, “Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(4), 1054–1064 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vo-Dinh, T.

T. Vo-Dinh, H. N. Wang, and J. Scaffidi, “Plasmonic nanoprobes for SERS biosensing and bioimaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(1-2), 89–102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volokhina, E.

N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, E. Volokhina, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Confocal Raman Imaging of DNA and Protein Distribution in Apoptotic Cells,” Biophys. J. 84(6), 3968–3981 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vrensen, G.

N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, E. Volokhina, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Confocal Raman Imaging of DNA and Protein Distribution in Apoptotic Cells,” Biophys. J. 84(6), 3968–3981 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wachsmann-Hogiu, S.

S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, T. Weeks, and T. Huser, “Chemical analysis in vivo and in vitro by Raman spectroscopy-from single cells to humans,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 63–73 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H. N.

T. Vo-Dinh, H. N. Wang, and J. Scaffidi, “Plasmonic nanoprobes for SERS biosensing and bioimaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(1-2), 89–102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

Watanabe, F.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weeks, T.

S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, T. Weeks, and T. Huser, “Chemical analysis in vivo and in vitro by Raman spectroscopy-from single cells to humans,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 63–73 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wittig, B.

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, B. Wittig, and K. Kneipp, “Novel optical nanosensors for probing and imaging live cells,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 6(2), 214–226 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, B. Wittig, and K. Kneipp, “Following the Dynamics of pH in Endosomes of Live Cells with SERS Nanosensors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7421–7426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wood, J.

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, K. L.

R. Smith, K. L. Wright, and L. Ashton, “Raman spectroscopy: an evolving technique for live cell studies,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(12), 3590–3600 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, S.

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, Y. Li, Z. Huang, S. Xie, Y. Yu, M. Cheng, and H. Zeng, “Rapid delivery of silver nanoparticles into living cells by electroporation for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(2), 388–394 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshizawa, N.

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, Y. Li, Z. Huang, S. Xie, Y. Yu, M. Cheng, and H. Zeng, “Rapid delivery of silver nanoparticles into living cells by electroporation for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(2), 388–394 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeiher, A. M.

F. H. Seeger, T. Tonn, N. Krzossok, A. M. Zeiher, and S. Dimmeler, “Cell isolation procedures matter: a comparison of different isolation protocols of bone marrow mononuclear cells used for cell therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” Eur. Heart J. 28(6), 766–772 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, W. Wang, I. T. Tai, G. Chen, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for detection of colorectal cancer and precursor lesions using blood plasma,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3494–3502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, Y. Li, Z. Huang, S. Xie, Y. Yu, M. Cheng, and H. Zeng, “Rapid delivery of silver nanoparticles into living cells by electroporation for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(2), 388–394 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated Autofluorescence Background Subtraction Algorithm for Biomedical Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

O. T. Marisca, K. Kantner, C. Pfeiffer, Q. Zhang, B. Pelaz, N. Leopold, W. J. Parak, and J. Rejman, “Comparison of the in Vitro Uptake and Toxicity of Collagen- and Synthetic Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 5(3), 1418–1430 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

Zharov, V. P.

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zwerdling, T.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Detects Individual Neoplastic and Normal Hematopoietic Cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

J. Ghasemi, S. Ahmadi, and K. Torkestani, “Simultaneous determination of copper, nickel, cobalt and zinc using zincon as a metallochromic indicator with partial least squares,” Anal. Chim. Acta 487(2), 181–188 (2003).
[Crossref]

Analyst (Lond.) (2)

R. Smith, K. L. Wright, and L. Ashton, “Raman spectroscopy: an evolving technique for live cell studies,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(12), 3590–3600 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Vanna, P. Ronchi, A. T. Lenferink, C. Tresoldi, C. Morasso, D. Mehn, M. Bedoni, S. Picciolini, L. W. Terstappen, F. Ciceri, C. Otto, and F. Gramatica, “Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(4), 1054–1064 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

D. A. Giljohann, D. S. Seferos, W. L. Daniel, M. D. Massich, P. C. Patel, and C. A. Mirkin, “Gold Nanoparticles for Biology and Medicine,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(19), 3280–3294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Yu, J. Wang, J. Lin, D. Lin, W. Chen, S. Feng, Z. Huang, Y. Li, H. Huang, H. Shi, and R. Chen, “An optimized electroporation method for delivering nanoparticles into living cells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (3)

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and D. I. U. Rehman, “Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biophys. J. (2)

N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, E. Volokhina, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Confocal Raman Imaging of DNA and Protein Distribution in Apoptotic Cells,” Biophys. J. 84(6), 3968–3981 (2003).
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J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Detects Individual Neoplastic and Normal Hematopoietic Cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
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J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, Y. Li, Z. Huang, S. Xie, Y. Yu, M. Cheng, and H. Zeng, “Rapid delivery of silver nanoparticles into living cells by electroporation for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(2), 388–394 (2009).
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Cancer (1)

B. Deschler and M. Lübbert, “Acute myeloid leukemia: epidemiology and etiology,” Cancer 107(9), 2099–2107 (2006).
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Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, T. Weeks, and T. Huser, “Chemical analysis in vivo and in vitro by Raman spectroscopy-from single cells to humans,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 63–73 (2009).
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Eur. Heart J. (1)

F. H. Seeger, T. Tonn, N. Krzossok, A. M. Zeiher, and S. Dimmeler, “Cell isolation procedures matter: a comparison of different isolation protocols of bone marrow mononuclear cells used for cell therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” Eur. Heart J. 28(6), 766–772 (2007).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
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J. Biophotonics (2)

U. Neugebauer, J. H. Clement, T. Bocklitz, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Identification and differentiation of single cells from peripheral blood by Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(8-9), 579–587 (2010).
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T. Vo-Dinh, H. N. Wang, and J. Scaffidi, “Plasmonic nanoprobes for SERS biosensing and bioimaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(1-2), 89–102 (2010).
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J. Cell. Biochem. (1)

I. Notingher, G. Jell, U. Lohbauer, V. Salih, and L. L. Hench, “In situ non-invasive spectral discrimination between bone cell phenotypes used in tissue engineering,” J. Cell. Biochem. 92(6), 1180–1192 (2004).
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J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

N. Leopold and B. Lendl, “A New Method for Fast Preparation of Highly Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Active Silver Colloids at Room Temperature by Reduction of Silver Nitrate with Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5723–5727 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, B. Wittig, and K. Kneipp, “Following the Dynamics of pH in Endosomes of Live Cells with SERS Nanosensors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7421–7426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. W. Kang, P. T. So, R. R. Dasari, and D. K. Lim, “High resolution live cell Raman imaging using subcellular organelle-targeting SERS-sensitive gold nanoparticles with highly narrow intra-nanogap,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1766–1772 (2015).
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Nanomaterials (Basel) (1)

O. T. Marisca, K. Kantner, C. Pfeiffer, Q. Zhang, B. Pelaz, N. Leopold, W. J. Parak, and J. Rejman, “Comparison of the in Vitro Uptake and Toxicity of Collagen- and Synthetic Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 5(3), 1418–1430 (2015).
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Nanomedicine (Lond.) (1)

J. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, B. Wittig, and K. Kneipp, “Novel optical nanosensors for probing and imaging live cells,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 6(2), 214–226 (2010).
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Nanotechnology (1)

S. Feng, Z. Li, G. Chen, D. Lin, S. Huang, Z. Huang, Y. Li, J. Lin, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. (1)

C. Kallaway, L. M. Almond, H. Barr, J. Wood, J. Hutchings, C. Kendall, and N. Stone, “Advances in the clinical application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(3), 207–219 (2013).
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Sci. Rep. (2)

Z. A. Nima, M. Mahmood, Y. Xu, T. Mustafa, F. Watanabe, D. A. Nedosekin, M. A. Juratli, T. Fahmi, E. I. Galanzha, J. P. Nolan, A. G. Basnakian, V. P. Zharov, and A. S. Biris, “Circulating tumor cell identification by functionalized silver-gold nanorods with multicolor, super-enhanced SERS and photothermal resonances,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (A) TEM image of Ag NPs. Scale bar: 100 nm. The average size of the Ag NPs is 43 ± 5 nm. (B) UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectrum of the Ag colloids.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematics of using electroporation to deliver Ag NPs into living cells for SERS measurements (adapted from our previous study [17]).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (A) Comparison of mean SERS spectra from HL60 cells (n = 60), K562 cells (n = 60) and normal cells (BMC) (n = 60). The shaded areas represent the standard deviations of the means. The mean SERS spectrum (mean ± SD) of each cell group was averaged from the 60 mean SERS spectra in corresponding cell group. Note that the mean SERS spectra of cells are vertically shifted for clarity. (B) Difference spectra calculated from the mean SERS spectra of HL60 cells and BMC (i.e., HL60-BMC) (red line), K562 cells and BMC (blue line), and HL60 cells and K562 cells (black dotted line), respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Histogram of the nine SERS peak intensities (mean ± SD) for HL60 (red), K562 (blue) and BMC (gray) samples. The differences are statistically significant (p<0.05) between normal cells (BMC) and leukemia cells (HL60 or K562) for all SERS peaks, and between HL60 and K562 for 670, 802, 896, 1004, 1053, 1296 and 1618 cm−1 peaks.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (A) PC loadings of the three statistically significant PCs (PC1, PC2 and PC4) calculated from PCA. (B) A 3D scatter plot of the PCA result calculated from the SERS data for the leukemia cells groups (HL60 + K562) and the normal cell group (BMC) with PC1, PC2, and PC4 as three axes. (C) Scatter plots of the posterior probability for the leukemia cells and the normal cells categories using the PCA-LDA algorithm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Scatter plots of the corresponding PCs for cells classification: (A) HL60 vs. BMC, (B) K562 vs. BMC, and (C) HL60 vs. K562. Scatter plots of the posterior probabilities according to the HL60 cells, K562 cells and BMC calculated from the data sets using different grouping methods: (D) HL60 vs. BMC, (E) K562 vs. BMC, and (F) HL60 vs. K562.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of discrimination results for different groupings of cell samples generated from PCA-LDA analysis.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (A) Calibration result of leave-one-out cross-validation for the calibration set (n = 150, including 50 HL60 cells, 50 K562 cells and 50 BMC). The RMSE value is 0.130, and the correlation coefficients square value is 0.974. (B) Prediction results of partial least squares algorithm for the test set (n = 30, including 10 HL60 cells, 10 K562 cells and 10 BMC). The red arrow indicates the misjudged sample (sample 6).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 SERS peak positions and tentative assignments

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Table 2 Classification results of the three cell groups using PCA-LDA method

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