Abstract

We demonstrate a low-cost optical method for measuring the gloss properties with improved sensitivity in the low gloss regime, relevant for skin gloss properties. The gloss estimation method is based on, on the one hand, the slope of the intensity gradient in the transition regime between specular and diffuse reflection and on the other on the sum over the intensities of pixels above threshold, derived from a camera image obtained using unpolarized white light illumination. We demonstrate the improved sensitivity of the two proposed methods using Monte Carlo simulations and experiments performed on ISO gloss calibration standards with an optical prototype. The performance and linearity of the method was compared with different professional gloss measurement devices based on the ratio of specular to diffuse intensity. We demonstrate the feasibility for in-vivo skin gloss measurements by quantifying the temporal evolution of skin gloss after application of standard paraffin cream bases on skin. The presented method opens new possibilities in the fields of cosmetology and dermatopharmacology for measuring the skin gloss and resorption kinetics and the pharmacodynamics of various external agents.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  4. N. Samson, B. Fink, and P. J. Matts, “Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32(3), 167–184 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. Matsubara, Z. Liang, Y. Sato, and K. Uchikawa, “Analysis of human perception of facial skin radiance by means of image histogram parameters of surface and subsurface reflections from the skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 18(3), 265–271 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. C. Huff, W. L. Weston, and M. G. Tonnesen, “Erythema multiforme: A critical review of characteristics, diagnostic criteria, and causes,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 8(6), 763–775 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. W. G. van Lankveld, M. C. Vonk, H. Teunissen, and F. H. van den Hoogen, “Appearance self-esteem in systemic sclerosis--subjective experience of skin deformity and its relationship with physician-assessed skin involvement, disease status and psychological variables,” Rheumatology (Oxford) 46(5), 872–876 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. L. Li and C. So-ling Ng, “Rendering human skin using a multi-layer reflection model,” Int. J. Math. Comput. Simul. 1(3), 44–53 (2009).
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    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. P. E. Pochi, J. S. Strauss, and D. T. Downing, “Skin Surface Lipid Composition, Acne, Pubertal Development, and Urinary Excretion of Testosterone and 17-Ketosteroids in Children,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 69(5), 485–489 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. B. Y. Kim, J. W. Choi, K. C. Park, and S. W. Youn, “Sebum, acne, skin elasticity, and gender difference - which is the major influencing factor for facial pores?” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e45–e53 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. W. Abramovits and A. Gonzalez-Serva, “Sebum, Cosmetics, And Skin Care,” Dermatol. Clin. 18(4), 617–620 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. W. J. Cunliffe and S. Shuster, “The rate of sebum excretion in man,” Br. J. Dermatol. 81(9), 697–704 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. R. Silvennoinen, K. Peiponen, and K. Myller, Specular Gloss (Elsevier, 2008).
  18. A. Pfund, “The Measurement of Gloss,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(1), 23–25 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Ezerskaia, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, R. Verhagen, and B. Varghese, “Quantitative and simultaneous non-invasive measurement of skin hydration and sebum levels,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(6), 2311–2320 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. R. Hunter and R. Harold, Measurement Appearance, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 1987).
  21. M. Matsuta and T. Kubota, “Gloss Measurement on Painted Surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20(6), 1145–1152 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  22. G. Kigle-Boeckler, “Measurement of gloss and reflection properties of surfaces,” Mat. Finish 93(5), 28–31 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. Lentner and V. Wienert, “A new method for assessing the gloss of human skin,” Skin Pharmacol. 9(3), 184–189 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

B. Y. Kim, J. W. Choi, K. C. Park, and S. W. Youn, “Sebum, acne, skin elasticity, and gender difference - which is the major influencing factor for facial pores?” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e45–e53 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

A. Matsubara, Z. Liang, Y. Sato, and K. Uchikawa, “Analysis of human perception of facial skin radiance by means of image histogram parameters of surface and subsurface reflections from the skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 18(3), 265–271 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

N. Samson, B. Fink, and P. J. Matts, “Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32(3), 167–184 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

L. Li and C. So-ling Ng, “Rendering human skin using a multi-layer reflection model,” Int. J. Math. Comput. Simul. 1(3), 44–53 (2009).

A. Lentner and V. Wienert, “A new method for assessing the gloss of human skin,” Skin Pharmacol. 9(3), 184–189 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

W. G. van Lankveld, M. C. Vonk, H. Teunissen, and F. H. van den Hoogen, “Appearance self-esteem in systemic sclerosis--subjective experience of skin deformity and its relationship with physician-assessed skin involvement, disease status and psychological variables,” Rheumatology (Oxford) 46(5), 872–876 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2000 (1)

W. Abramovits and A. Gonzalez-Serva, “Sebum, Cosmetics, And Skin Care,” Dermatol. Clin. 18(4), 617–620 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

G. Kigle-Boeckler, “Measurement of gloss and reflection properties of surfaces,” Mat. Finish 93(5), 28–31 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. T. Downing, “Lipid and protein structures in the permeability barrier of mammalian epidermis,” J. Lipid Res. 33(3), 301–313 (1992).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

P. M. Elias and G. K. Menon, “Structural and lipid biochemical correlates of the epidermal permeability barrier,” Adv. Lipid Res. 24, 1–26 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

J. C. Huff, W. L. Weston, and M. G. Tonnesen, “Erythema multiforme: A critical review of characteristics, diagnostic criteria, and causes,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 8(6), 763–775 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

M. Matsuta and T. Kubota, “Gloss Measurement on Painted Surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20(6), 1145–1152 (1981).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

P. E. Pochi, J. S. Strauss, and D. T. Downing, “Skin Surface Lipid Composition, Acne, Pubertal Development, and Urinary Excretion of Testosterone and 17-Ketosteroids in Children,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 69(5), 485–489 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

W. J. Cunliffe and S. Shuster, “The rate of sebum excretion in man,” Br. J. Dermatol. 81(9), 697–704 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1930 (1)

A. Pfund, “The Measurement of Gloss,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(1), 23–25 (1930).
[Crossref]

Abramovits, W.

W. Abramovits and A. Gonzalez-Serva, “Sebum, Cosmetics, And Skin Care,” Dermatol. Clin. 18(4), 617–620 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burmeister, D. M.

Choi, B.

Choi, J. W.

B. Y. Kim, J. W. Choi, K. C. Park, and S. W. Youn, “Sebum, acne, skin elasticity, and gender difference - which is the major influencing factor for facial pores?” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e45–e53 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christy, R. J.

Cunliffe, W. J.

W. J. Cunliffe and S. Shuster, “The rate of sebum excretion in man,” Br. J. Dermatol. 81(9), 697–704 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dakin, J.

Ding, H.

Downing, D. T.

D. T. Downing, “Lipid and protein structures in the permeability barrier of mammalian epidermis,” J. Lipid Res. 33(3), 301–313 (1992).
[PubMed]

P. E. Pochi, J. S. Strauss, and D. T. Downing, “Skin Surface Lipid Composition, Acne, Pubertal Development, and Urinary Excretion of Testosterone and 17-Ketosteroids in Children,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 69(5), 485–489 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durkin, A. J.

Elias, P. M.

P. M. Elias and G. K. Menon, “Structural and lipid biochemical correlates of the epidermal permeability barrier,” Adv. Lipid Res. 24, 1–26 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ezerskaia, A.

Fink, B.

N. Samson, B. Fink, and P. J. Matts, “Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32(3), 167–184 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonzalez-Serva, A.

W. Abramovits and A. Gonzalez-Serva, “Sebum, Cosmetics, And Skin Care,” Dermatol. Clin. 18(4), 617–620 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, X. H.

Huff, J. C.

J. C. Huff, W. L. Weston, and M. G. Tonnesen, “Erythema multiforme: A critical review of characteristics, diagnostic criteria, and causes,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 8(6), 763–775 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobs, K. M.

Ji, W.

Kigle-Boeckler, G.

G. Kigle-Boeckler, “Measurement of gloss and reflection properties of surfaces,” Mat. Finish 93(5), 28–31 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. Y.

B. Y. Kim, J. W. Choi, K. C. Park, and S. W. Youn, “Sebum, acne, skin elasticity, and gender difference - which is the major influencing factor for facial pores?” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e45–e53 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubota, T.

M. Matsuta and T. Kubota, “Gloss Measurement on Painted Surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20(6), 1145–1152 (1981).
[Crossref]

Lentner, A.

A. Lentner and V. Wienert, “A new method for assessing the gloss of human skin,” Skin Pharmacol. 9(3), 184–189 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

L. Li and C. So-ling Ng, “Rendering human skin using a multi-layer reflection model,” Int. J. Math. Comput. Simul. 1(3), 44–53 (2009).

Liang, Z.

A. Matsubara, Z. Liang, Y. Sato, and K. Uchikawa, “Analysis of human perception of facial skin radiance by means of image histogram parameters of surface and subsurface reflections from the skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 18(3), 265–271 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, J. Q.

Luo, R. M.

Matsubara, A.

A. Matsubara, Z. Liang, Y. Sato, and K. Uchikawa, “Analysis of human perception of facial skin radiance by means of image histogram parameters of surface and subsurface reflections from the skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 18(3), 265–271 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsuta, M.

M. Matsuta and T. Kubota, “Gloss Measurement on Painted Surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20(6), 1145–1152 (1981).
[Crossref]

Matts, P. J.

N. Samson, B. Fink, and P. J. Matts, “Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32(3), 167–184 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menon, G. K.

P. M. Elias and G. K. Menon, “Structural and lipid biochemical correlates of the epidermal permeability barrier,” Adv. Lipid Res. 24, 1–26 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

Park, K. C.

B. Y. Kim, J. W. Choi, K. C. Park, and S. W. Youn, “Sebum, acne, skin elasticity, and gender difference - which is the major influencing factor for facial pores?” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e45–e53 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pereira, S. F.

Pfund, A.

A. Pfund, “The Measurement of Gloss,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(1), 23–25 (1930).
[Crossref]

Pochi, P. E.

P. E. Pochi, J. S. Strauss, and D. T. Downing, “Skin Surface Lipid Composition, Acne, Pubertal Development, and Urinary Excretion of Testosterone and 17-Ketosteroids in Children,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 69(5), 485–489 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pointer, M. R.

Ponticorvo, A.

Ripoll, J.

Samson, N.

N. Samson, B. Fink, and P. J. Matts, “Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32(3), 167–184 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sato, Y.

A. Matsubara, Z. Liang, Y. Sato, and K. Uchikawa, “Analysis of human perception of facial skin radiance by means of image histogram parameters of surface and subsurface reflections from the skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 18(3), 265–271 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shuster, S.

W. J. Cunliffe and S. Shuster, “The rate of sebum excretion in man,” Br. J. Dermatol. 81(9), 697–704 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

So-ling Ng, C.

L. Li and C. So-ling Ng, “Rendering human skin using a multi-layer reflection model,” Int. J. Math. Comput. Simul. 1(3), 44–53 (2009).

Strauss, J. S.

P. E. Pochi, J. S. Strauss, and D. T. Downing, “Skin Surface Lipid Composition, Acne, Pubertal Development, and Urinary Excretion of Testosterone and 17-Ketosteroids in Children,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 69(5), 485–489 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teunissen, H.

W. G. van Lankveld, M. C. Vonk, H. Teunissen, and F. H. van den Hoogen, “Appearance self-esteem in systemic sclerosis--subjective experience of skin deformity and its relationship with physician-assessed skin involvement, disease status and psychological variables,” Rheumatology (Oxford) 46(5), 872–876 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonnesen, M. G.

J. C. Huff, W. L. Weston, and M. G. Tonnesen, “Erythema multiforme: A critical review of characteristics, diagnostic criteria, and causes,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 8(6), 763–775 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uchikawa, K.

A. Matsubara, Z. Liang, Y. Sato, and K. Uchikawa, “Analysis of human perception of facial skin radiance by means of image histogram parameters of surface and subsurface reflections from the skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 18(3), 265–271 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urbach, H. P.

van den Hoogen, F. H.

W. G. van Lankveld, M. C. Vonk, H. Teunissen, and F. H. van den Hoogen, “Appearance self-esteem in systemic sclerosis--subjective experience of skin deformity and its relationship with physician-assessed skin involvement, disease status and psychological variables,” Rheumatology (Oxford) 46(5), 872–876 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Lankveld, W. G.

W. G. van Lankveld, M. C. Vonk, H. Teunissen, and F. H. van den Hoogen, “Appearance self-esteem in systemic sclerosis--subjective experience of skin deformity and its relationship with physician-assessed skin involvement, disease status and psychological variables,” Rheumatology (Oxford) 46(5), 872–876 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varghese, B.

Verhagen, R.

Vonk, M. C.

W. G. van Lankveld, M. C. Vonk, H. Teunissen, and F. H. van den Hoogen, “Appearance self-esteem in systemic sclerosis--subjective experience of skin deformity and its relationship with physician-assessed skin involvement, disease status and psychological variables,” Rheumatology (Oxford) 46(5), 872–876 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weston, W. L.

J. C. Huff, W. L. Weston, and M. G. Tonnesen, “Erythema multiforme: A critical review of characteristics, diagnostic criteria, and causes,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 8(6), 763–775 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wienert, V.

A. Lentner and V. Wienert, “A new method for assessing the gloss of human skin,” Skin Pharmacol. 9(3), 184–189 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

Yessayan, D.

Youn, S. W.

B. Y. Kim, J. W. Choi, K. C. Park, and S. W. Youn, “Sebum, acne, skin elasticity, and gender difference - which is the major influencing factor for facial pores?” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e45–e53 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zacharakis, G.

Adv. Lipid Res. (1)

P. M. Elias and G. K. Menon, “Structural and lipid biochemical correlates of the epidermal permeability barrier,” Adv. Lipid Res. 24, 1–26 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

W. J. Cunliffe and S. Shuster, “The rate of sebum excretion in man,” Br. J. Dermatol. 81(9), 697–704 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dermatol. Clin. (1)

W. Abramovits and A. Gonzalez-Serva, “Sebum, Cosmetics, And Skin Care,” Dermatol. Clin. 18(4), 617–620 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. (1)

N. Samson, B. Fink, and P. J. Matts, “Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32(3), 167–184 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Math. Comput. Simul. (1)

L. Li and C. So-ling Ng, “Rendering human skin using a multi-layer reflection model,” Int. J. Math. Comput. Simul. 1(3), 44–53 (2009).

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1)

J. C. Huff, W. L. Weston, and M. G. Tonnesen, “Erythema multiforme: A critical review of characteristics, diagnostic criteria, and causes,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 8(6), 763–775 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

P. E. Pochi, J. S. Strauss, and D. T. Downing, “Skin Surface Lipid Composition, Acne, Pubertal Development, and Urinary Excretion of Testosterone and 17-Ketosteroids in Children,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 69(5), 485–489 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lipid Res. (1)

D. T. Downing, “Lipid and protein structures in the permeability barrier of mammalian epidermis,” J. Lipid Res. 33(3), 301–313 (1992).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Matsuta and T. Kubota, “Gloss Measurement on Painted Surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20(6), 1145–1152 (1981).
[Crossref]

Mat. Finish (1)

G. Kigle-Boeckler, “Measurement of gloss and reflection properties of surfaces,” Mat. Finish 93(5), 28–31 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rheumatology (Oxford) (1)

W. G. van Lankveld, M. C. Vonk, H. Teunissen, and F. H. van den Hoogen, “Appearance self-esteem in systemic sclerosis--subjective experience of skin deformity and its relationship with physician-assessed skin involvement, disease status and psychological variables,” Rheumatology (Oxford) 46(5), 872–876 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skin Pharmacol. (1)

A. Lentner and V. Wienert, “A new method for assessing the gloss of human skin,” Skin Pharmacol. 9(3), 184–189 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skin Res. Technol. (2)

A. Matsubara, Z. Liang, Y. Sato, and K. Uchikawa, “Analysis of human perception of facial skin radiance by means of image histogram parameters of surface and subsurface reflections from the skin,” Skin Res. Technol. 18(3), 265–271 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Y. Kim, J. W. Choi, K. C. Park, and S. W. Youn, “Sebum, acne, skin elasticity, and gender difference - which is the major influencing factor for facial pores?” Skin Res. Technol. 19(1), e45–e53 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

A. Jarrett, The Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Skin (Academic Press, 1986).

R. Silvennoinen, K. Peiponen, and K. Myller, Specular Gloss (Elsevier, 2008).

R. Hunter and R. Harold, Measurement Appearance, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 1987).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the system model used for the Monte Carlo simulation and the optical prototype.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of gloss measurement method based on the angle (slope) of the intensity profile in the transition region from specular spot (S) to diffuse background (D).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic representation of gloss measurement method based on the number of pixels above a threshold weighted with intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The power distribution on the sensor obtained for different gloss values using Monte Carlo simulations: (a) 100% Glossy, (b) 50% Glossy/ 50% Diffuse, (c) 100% Diffuse. The grey values are the logarithm of the power density.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The gloss value estimated using Monte Carlo ray tracing for samples with gloss values ranging from 0% (diffuse standard) to 100% (mirror).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The gloss values estimated on ISO Gloss calibration tiles in the high gloss regime measured with the camera prototype and algorithms and comparison to professional Gloss meter measurements using angle of illumination of 60°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The gloss values estimated on gloss papers in the low gloss regime measured with the camera prototype and algorithms and comparison to professional Gloss meter measurements using angle of illumination of 60°.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The temporal evolution of skin gloss values after application of liquid paraffin. Experimental results obtained with the camera prototype are compared with professional devices for skin gloss measurements.

Metrics