Abstract

Hepatic cirrhosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to hepatitis C, alcoholism and fatty liver disease associated with obesity. Assessment of hepatic fibrosis relies in qualitative histological evaluation of biopsy samples. This method is time-consuming and depends on the histopathologists’ interpretation. In the last decades, non-invasive techniques were developed to detect and monitor hepatic fibrosis. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a good candidate for a real-time, independent and fast technique to diagnose hepatic fibrosis. In this work LIBS was employed to characterize rat liver tissues with different stages of fibrosis. Depth profiling measurements were carried out by using a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser operated at the fundamental wavelength and an echelle spectrometer coupled with an ICCD camera. Due to the soft nature of the samples, plasma conditions largely change between consecutives shots. Thus, a theoretically supported procedure to correct the spectral line intensities was implemented. This procedure allows the reduction of the intensities’ dispersion from 67% to 12%. After the correction, the LIBS signal shows an enhancement in calcium intensity by a factor of three as the fibrosis progressed. Calcium is known to increase crosslinking of extracellular matrix proteins in the fibrous septa. Therefore, our result singles it out as a key participant in the hepatic fibrosis.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2017 (1)

N. Kim, W.-K. Lee, S.-H. Lee, K. S. Jin, K.-H. Kim, Y. Lee, M. Song, and S.-Y. Kim, “Inter-molecular crosslinking activity is engendered by the dimeric form of transglutaminase 2,” Amino Acids 49(3), 461–471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

J. W. Keillor and K. Y. P. Apperley, “Transglutaminase inhibitors: a patent review,” Expert Opin. Ther. Pat. 26(1), 49–63 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Stasi and S. Milani, “Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis: Between prediction/prevention of outcomes and cost-effectiveness,” World J. Gastroenterol. 22(4), 1711–1720 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Lazic, A. Trujillo-Vazquez, H. Sobral, C. Márquez, A. Palucci, M. Ciaffi, and M. Pistilli, “Corrections for variable plasma parameters in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: Application on archeological samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 122, 103–113 (2016).

2015 (1)

Y. Moon, J. H. Han, J. J. Lee, and S. Jeong, “Influence of water content on the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of human cell pellet,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 114, 27–33 (2015).

2014 (5)

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Sebastiani, K. Gkouvatsos, and K. Pantopoulos, “Chronic hepatitis C and liver fibrosis,” World J. Gastroenterol. 20(32), 11033–11053 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dutta-Moscato, A. Solovyev, Q. Mi, T. Nishikawa, A. Soto-Gutierrez, I. J. Fox, and Y. Vodovotz, “A Multiscale Agent-Based in silico Model of Liver Fibrosis Progression,” Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 2, 18 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. McMillan, S. Rees, K. Kochelek, and C. McManus, “Geological Applications of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Geostand. Geoanal. Res. 38(3), 329–343 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Ohba, M. Saeki, I. Wakaida, R. Tanabe, and Y. Ito, “Effect of liquid-sheet thickness on detection sensitivity for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aqueous solution,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24478–24490 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

T. Shimamura, S. Iijima, M. Hirayama, M. Iwashita, S. Akiyama, Y. Takaku, and S. Yumoto, “Age-related effects of major and trace element concentrations in rat liver and their mutual relationships,” J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 27(4), 286–294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

R. P. Myers, G. Pomier-Layrargues, R. Kirsch, A. Pollett, A. Duarte-Rojo, D. Wong, M. Beaton, M. Levstik, P. Crotty, and M. Elkashab, “Feasibility and diagnostic performance of the FibroScan XL probe for liver stiffness measurement in overweight and obese patients,” Hepatology 55(1), 199–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Guirado, F. J. Fortes, V. Lazic, and J. J. Laserna, “Chemical analysis of archeological materials in submarine environments using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. On-site trials in the Mediterranean Sea,” Spectrochim. Acta - Part B At. Spectrosc. 74–75, 137–143 (2012).

Q. I. Mohaidat, K. Sheikh, S. Palchaudhuri, and S. J. Rehse, “Pathogen identification with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: the effect of bacterial and biofluid specimen contamination,” Appl. Opt. 51(7), B99–B107 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

V. Hernandez-Gea and S. L. Friedman, “Pathogenesis of Liver Fibrosis,” Annu. Rev. Pathol. 6(1), 425–456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

L. Caneve, A. Diamanti, F. Grimaldi, G. Palleschi, V. Spizzichino, and F. Valentini, “Analysis of fresco by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta - Part B At. Spectrosc. 65, 702–706 (2010).

A. El-Hussein, A. K. Kassem, H. Ismail, and M. A. Harith, “Exploiting LIBS as a spectrochemical analytical technique in diagnosis of some types of human malignancies,” Talanta 82(2), 495–501 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

D. A. Cremers and R. C. Chinni, “Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy—Capabilities and Limitations,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 44(6), 457–506 (2009).
[Crossref]

F.-Y. Yueh, H. Zheng, J. P. Singh, and S. Burgess, “Preliminary evaluation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for tissue classification,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 64, 1059–1067 (2009).

2008 (2)

R. Noll, V. Sturm, Ü. Aydin, D. Eilers, C. Gehlen, M. Höhne, A. Lamott, J. Makowe, and J. Vrenegor, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—From research to industry, new frontiers for process control,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 63, 1159–1166 (2008).

D. Santos, R. E. Samad, L. C. Trevizan, A. Z. de Freitas, N. D. Vieira, and F. J. Krug, “Evaluation of Femtosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Analysis of Animal Tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. 62(10), 1137–1143 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

J. P. Iredale, “Models of liver fibrosis: exploring the dynamic nature of inflammation and repair in a solid organ,” J. Clin. Invest. 117(3), 539–548 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-B. Sirven, B. Sallé, P. Mauchien, J.-L. Lacour, S. Maurice, and G. Manhès, “Feasibility study of rock identification at the surface of Mars by remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and three chemometric methods,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 22(12), 1471 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Hussain and M. A. Gondal, “Monitoring and assessment of toxic metals in Gulf War oil spill contaminated soil using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 136(1-3), 391–399 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. P. Mateo, G. Nicolas, V. Piñon, and A. Yañez, “Improvements in depth-profiling of thick samples by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using linear correlation,” Surf. Interface Anal. 38(5), 941–948 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

A. Kumar, F.-Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, and S. Burgess, “Characterization of malignant tissue cells by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(28), 5399–5403 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. S. Burakov, V. V. Kiris, P. A. Naumenkov, and S. N. Raikov, “Calibration-free laser spectral analysis of glasses and copper alloys,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(5), 740–746 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: An analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(1-3), 117–123 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Kim, Z. G. Specht, P. S. Vary, and C. T. Lin, “Spectral Fingerprints of Bacterial Strains by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(17), 5477–5482 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

P. Bedossa, D. Dargère, and V. Paradis, “Sampling variability of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatology 38(6), 1449–1457 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sandrin, B. Fourquet, J.-M. Hasquenoph, S. Yon, C. Fournier, F. Mal, C. Christidis, M. Ziol, B. Poulet, F. Kazemi, M. Beaugrand, and R. Palau, “Transient elastography: a new noninvasive method for assessment of hepatic fibrosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(12), 1705–1713 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Hybl, G. A. Lithgow, and S. G. Buckley, “Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Detection and Classification of Biological Aerosols,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57(10), 1207–1215 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

A. Ciucci, M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, S. Rastelli, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, “New Procedure for Quantitative Elemental Analysis by Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 53(8), 960–964 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. A. Cockell, P. W. Fischer, and B. Belonje, “Elemental composition of anatomically distinct regions of rat liver,” Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 70(3), 251–263 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

P. Bedossa and T. Poynard, “An algorithm for the grading of activity in chronic hepatitis C. The METAVIR Cooperative Study Group,” Hepatology 24(2), 289–293 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haisch, R. Niessner, O. I. Matveev, U. Panne, and N. Omenetto, “Element-specific determination of chlorine in gases by Laser-Induced-Breakdown-Spectroscopy (LIBS),” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 356(1), 21–26 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

R. D. Campo, “Effects of cations on cartilage structure: swelling of growth plate and degradation of proteoglycans induced by chelators of divalent cations,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 43(2), 108–121 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

F. A. Schanne, A. B. Kane, E. E. Young, and J. L. Farber, “Calcium dependence of toxic cell death: a final common pathway,” Science 206(4419), 700–702 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akiyama, S.

T. Shimamura, S. Iijima, M. Hirayama, M. Iwashita, S. Akiyama, Y. Takaku, and S. Yumoto, “Age-related effects of major and trace element concentrations in rat liver and their mutual relationships,” J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 27(4), 286–294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. B.

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Apperley, K. Y. P.

J. W. Keillor and K. Y. P. Apperley, “Transglutaminase inhibitors: a patent review,” Expert Opin. Ther. Pat. 26(1), 49–63 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, Ü.

R. Noll, V. Sturm, Ü. Aydin, D. Eilers, C. Gehlen, M. Höhne, A. Lamott, J. Makowe, and J. Vrenegor, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—From research to industry, new frontiers for process control,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 63, 1159–1166 (2008).

Baliva, A.

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: An analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(1-3), 117–123 (2004).
[Crossref]

Beaton, M.

R. P. Myers, G. Pomier-Layrargues, R. Kirsch, A. Pollett, A. Duarte-Rojo, D. Wong, M. Beaton, M. Levstik, P. Crotty, and M. Elkashab, “Feasibility and diagnostic performance of the FibroScan XL probe for liver stiffness measurement in overweight and obese patients,” Hepatology 55(1), 199–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaugrand, M.

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D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
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F. A. Schanne, A. B. Kane, E. E. Young, and J. L. Farber, “Calcium dependence of toxic cell death: a final common pathway,” Science 206(4419), 700–702 (1979).
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Kassem, A. K.

A. El-Hussein, A. K. Kassem, H. Ismail, and M. A. Harith, “Exploiting LIBS as a spectrochemical analytical technique in diagnosis of some types of human malignancies,” Talanta 82(2), 495–501 (2010).
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Kazemi, F.

L. Sandrin, B. Fourquet, J.-M. Hasquenoph, S. Yon, C. Fournier, F. Mal, C. Christidis, M. Ziol, B. Poulet, F. Kazemi, M. Beaugrand, and R. Palau, “Transient elastography: a new noninvasive method for assessment of hepatic fibrosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(12), 1705–1713 (2003).
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Keillor, J. W.

J. W. Keillor and K. Y. P. Apperley, “Transglutaminase inhibitors: a patent review,” Expert Opin. Ther. Pat. 26(1), 49–63 (2016).
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Kim, K.-H.

N. Kim, W.-K. Lee, S.-H. Lee, K. S. Jin, K.-H. Kim, Y. Lee, M. Song, and S.-Y. Kim, “Inter-molecular crosslinking activity is engendered by the dimeric form of transglutaminase 2,” Amino Acids 49(3), 461–471 (2017).
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Kim, N.

N. Kim, W.-K. Lee, S.-H. Lee, K. S. Jin, K.-H. Kim, Y. Lee, M. Song, and S.-Y. Kim, “Inter-molecular crosslinking activity is engendered by the dimeric form of transglutaminase 2,” Amino Acids 49(3), 461–471 (2017).
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Kim, S.-Y.

N. Kim, W.-K. Lee, S.-H. Lee, K. S. Jin, K.-H. Kim, Y. Lee, M. Song, and S.-Y. Kim, “Inter-molecular crosslinking activity is engendered by the dimeric form of transglutaminase 2,” Amino Acids 49(3), 461–471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T.

T. Kim, Z. G. Specht, P. S. Vary, and C. T. Lin, “Spectral Fingerprints of Bacterial Strains by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(17), 5477–5482 (2004).
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King, P. L.

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
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Kiris, V. V.

V. S. Burakov, V. V. Kiris, P. A. Naumenkov, and S. N. Raikov, “Calibration-free laser spectral analysis of glasses and copper alloys,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(5), 740–746 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kirsch, R.

R. P. Myers, G. Pomier-Layrargues, R. Kirsch, A. Pollett, A. Duarte-Rojo, D. Wong, M. Beaton, M. Levstik, P. Crotty, and M. Elkashab, “Feasibility and diagnostic performance of the FibroScan XL probe for liver stiffness measurement in overweight and obese patients,” Hepatology 55(1), 199–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kochelek, K.

N. J. McMillan, S. Rees, K. Kochelek, and C. McManus, “Geological Applications of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Geostand. Geoanal. Res. 38(3), 329–343 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krug, F. J.

Kumar, A.

Lacour, J.-L.

J.-B. Sirven, B. Sallé, P. Mauchien, J.-L. Lacour, S. Maurice, and G. Manhès, “Feasibility study of rock identification at the surface of Mars by remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and three chemometric methods,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 22(12), 1471 (2007).
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Lamott, A.

R. Noll, V. Sturm, Ü. Aydin, D. Eilers, C. Gehlen, M. Höhne, A. Lamott, J. Makowe, and J. Vrenegor, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—From research to industry, new frontiers for process control,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 63, 1159–1166 (2008).

Lanza, N.

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
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Laserna, J. J.

S. Guirado, F. J. Fortes, V. Lazic, and J. J. Laserna, “Chemical analysis of archeological materials in submarine environments using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. On-site trials in the Mediterranean Sea,” Spectrochim. Acta - Part B At. Spectrosc. 74–75, 137–143 (2012).

Lazic, V.

V. Lazic, A. Trujillo-Vazquez, H. Sobral, C. Márquez, A. Palucci, M. Ciaffi, and M. Pistilli, “Corrections for variable plasma parameters in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: Application on archeological samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 122, 103–113 (2016).

S. Guirado, F. J. Fortes, V. Lazic, and J. J. Laserna, “Chemical analysis of archeological materials in submarine environments using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. On-site trials in the Mediterranean Sea,” Spectrochim. Acta - Part B At. Spectrosc. 74–75, 137–143 (2012).

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: An analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(1-3), 117–123 (2004).
[Crossref]

Le Mouélic, S.

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. J.

Y. Moon, J. H. Han, J. J. Lee, and S. Jeong, “Influence of water content on the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of human cell pellet,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 114, 27–33 (2015).

Lee, S.-H.

N. Kim, W.-K. Lee, S.-H. Lee, K. S. Jin, K.-H. Kim, Y. Lee, M. Song, and S.-Y. Kim, “Inter-molecular crosslinking activity is engendered by the dimeric form of transglutaminase 2,” Amino Acids 49(3), 461–471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W.-K.

N. Kim, W.-K. Lee, S.-H. Lee, K. S. Jin, K.-H. Kim, Y. Lee, M. Song, and S.-Y. Kim, “Inter-molecular crosslinking activity is engendered by the dimeric form of transglutaminase 2,” Amino Acids 49(3), 461–471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.

N. Kim, W.-K. Lee, S.-H. Lee, K. S. Jin, K.-H. Kim, Y. Lee, M. Song, and S.-Y. Kim, “Inter-molecular crosslinking activity is engendered by the dimeric form of transglutaminase 2,” Amino Acids 49(3), 461–471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levstik, M.

R. P. Myers, G. Pomier-Layrargues, R. Kirsch, A. Pollett, A. Duarte-Rojo, D. Wong, M. Beaton, M. Levstik, P. Crotty, and M. Elkashab, “Feasibility and diagnostic performance of the FibroScan XL probe for liver stiffness measurement in overweight and obese patients,” Hepatology 55(1), 199–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. T.

T. Kim, Z. G. Specht, P. S. Vary, and C. T. Lin, “Spectral Fingerprints of Bacterial Strains by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(17), 5477–5482 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lithgow, G. A.

Madsen, M. B.

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Makowe, J.

R. Noll, V. Sturm, Ü. Aydin, D. Eilers, C. Gehlen, M. Höhne, A. Lamott, J. Makowe, and J. Vrenegor, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—From research to industry, new frontiers for process control,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 63, 1159–1166 (2008).

Mal, F.

L. Sandrin, B. Fourquet, J.-M. Hasquenoph, S. Yon, C. Fournier, F. Mal, C. Christidis, M. Ziol, B. Poulet, F. Kazemi, M. Beaugrand, and R. Palau, “Transient elastography: a new noninvasive method for assessment of hepatic fibrosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(12), 1705–1713 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mangold, N.

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Manhès, G.

J.-B. Sirven, B. Sallé, P. Mauchien, J.-L. Lacour, S. Maurice, and G. Manhès, “Feasibility study of rock identification at the surface of Mars by remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and three chemometric methods,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 22(12), 1471 (2007).
[Crossref]

Marinangeli, L.

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: An analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(1-3), 117–123 (2004).
[Crossref]

Márquez, C.

V. Lazic, A. Trujillo-Vazquez, H. Sobral, C. Márquez, A. Palucci, M. Ciaffi, and M. Pistilli, “Corrections for variable plasma parameters in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: Application on archeological samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 122, 103–113 (2016).

Mateo, M. P.

M. P. Mateo, G. Nicolas, V. Piñon, and A. Yañez, “Improvements in depth-profiling of thick samples by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using linear correlation,” Surf. Interface Anal. 38(5), 941–948 (2006).
[Crossref]

Matveev, O. I.

C. Haisch, R. Niessner, O. I. Matveev, U. Panne, and N. Omenetto, “Element-specific determination of chlorine in gases by Laser-Induced-Breakdown-Spectroscopy (LIBS),” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 356(1), 21–26 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mauchien, P.

J.-B. Sirven, B. Sallé, P. Mauchien, J.-L. Lacour, S. Maurice, and G. Manhès, “Feasibility study of rock identification at the surface of Mars by remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and three chemometric methods,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 22(12), 1471 (2007).
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Maurice, S.

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-B. Sirven, B. Sallé, P. Mauchien, J.-L. Lacour, S. Maurice, and G. Manhès, “Feasibility study of rock identification at the surface of Mars by remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and three chemometric methods,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 22(12), 1471 (2007).
[Crossref]

McManus, C.

N. J. McMillan, S. Rees, K. Kochelek, and C. McManus, “Geological Applications of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Geostand. Geoanal. Res. 38(3), 329–343 (2014).
[Crossref]

McMillan, N. J.

N. J. McMillan, S. Rees, K. Kochelek, and C. McManus, “Geological Applications of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Geostand. Geoanal. Res. 38(3), 329–343 (2014).
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Meslin, P.-Y.

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
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Mi, Q.

J. Dutta-Moscato, A. Solovyev, Q. Mi, T. Nishikawa, A. Soto-Gutierrez, I. J. Fox, and Y. Vodovotz, “A Multiscale Agent-Based in silico Model of Liver Fibrosis Progression,” Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 2, 18 (2014).
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Milani, S.

C. Stasi and S. Milani, “Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis: Between prediction/prevention of outcomes and cost-effectiveness,” World J. Gastroenterol. 22(4), 1711–1720 (2016).
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Mohaidat, Q. I.

Moon, Y.

Y. Moon, J. H. Han, J. J. Lee, and S. Jeong, “Influence of water content on the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of human cell pellet,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 114, 27–33 (2015).

Myers, R. P.

R. P. Myers, G. Pomier-Layrargues, R. Kirsch, A. Pollett, A. Duarte-Rojo, D. Wong, M. Beaton, M. Levstik, P. Crotty, and M. Elkashab, “Feasibility and diagnostic performance of the FibroScan XL probe for liver stiffness measurement in overweight and obese patients,” Hepatology 55(1), 199–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naumenkov, P. A.

V. S. Burakov, V. V. Kiris, P. A. Naumenkov, and S. N. Raikov, “Calibration-free laser spectral analysis of glasses and copper alloys,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(5), 740–746 (2004).
[Crossref]

Newsom, H.

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nicolas, G.

M. P. Mateo, G. Nicolas, V. Piñon, and A. Yañez, “Improvements in depth-profiling of thick samples by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using linear correlation,” Surf. Interface Anal. 38(5), 941–948 (2006).
[Crossref]

Niessner, R.

C. Haisch, R. Niessner, O. I. Matveev, U. Panne, and N. Omenetto, “Element-specific determination of chlorine in gases by Laser-Induced-Breakdown-Spectroscopy (LIBS),” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 356(1), 21–26 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishikawa, T.

J. Dutta-Moscato, A. Solovyev, Q. Mi, T. Nishikawa, A. Soto-Gutierrez, I. J. Fox, and Y. Vodovotz, “A Multiscale Agent-Based in silico Model of Liver Fibrosis Progression,” Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 2, 18 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noll, R.

R. Noll, V. Sturm, Ü. Aydin, D. Eilers, C. Gehlen, M. Höhne, A. Lamott, J. Makowe, and J. Vrenegor, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—From research to industry, new frontiers for process control,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 63, 1159–1166 (2008).

Ohba, H.

Ollila, A.

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
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Omenetto, N.

C. Haisch, R. Niessner, O. I. Matveev, U. Panne, and N. Omenetto, “Element-specific determination of chlorine in gases by Laser-Induced-Breakdown-Spectroscopy (LIBS),” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 356(1), 21–26 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ori, G. G.

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: An analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(1-3), 117–123 (2004).
[Crossref]

Palau, R.

L. Sandrin, B. Fourquet, J.-M. Hasquenoph, S. Yon, C. Fournier, F. Mal, C. Christidis, M. Ziol, B. Poulet, F. Kazemi, M. Beaugrand, and R. Palau, “Transient elastography: a new noninvasive method for assessment of hepatic fibrosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(12), 1705–1713 (2003).
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Palchaudhuri, S.

Palleschi, G.

L. Caneve, A. Diamanti, F. Grimaldi, G. Palleschi, V. Spizzichino, and F. Valentini, “Analysis of fresco by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta - Part B At. Spectrosc. 65, 702–706 (2010).

Palleschi, V.

Palucci, A.

V. Lazic, A. Trujillo-Vazquez, H. Sobral, C. Márquez, A. Palucci, M. Ciaffi, and M. Pistilli, “Corrections for variable plasma parameters in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: Application on archeological samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 122, 103–113 (2016).

Panne, U.

C. Haisch, R. Niessner, O. I. Matveev, U. Panne, and N. Omenetto, “Element-specific determination of chlorine in gases by Laser-Induced-Breakdown-Spectroscopy (LIBS),” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 356(1), 21–26 (1996).
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Pantopoulos, K.

G. Sebastiani, K. Gkouvatsos, and K. Pantopoulos, “Chronic hepatitis C and liver fibrosis,” World J. Gastroenterol. 20(32), 11033–11053 (2014).
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Paolini, A.

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: An analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(1-3), 117–123 (2004).
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Paradis, V.

P. Bedossa, D. Dargère, and V. Paradis, “Sampling variability of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatology 38(6), 1449–1457 (2003).
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Piñon, V.

M. P. Mateo, G. Nicolas, V. Piñon, and A. Yañez, “Improvements in depth-profiling of thick samples by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using linear correlation,” Surf. Interface Anal. 38(5), 941–948 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pistilli, M.

V. Lazic, A. Trujillo-Vazquez, H. Sobral, C. Márquez, A. Palucci, M. Ciaffi, and M. Pistilli, “Corrections for variable plasma parameters in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: Application on archeological samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 122, 103–113 (2016).

Pollett, A.

R. P. Myers, G. Pomier-Layrargues, R. Kirsch, A. Pollett, A. Duarte-Rojo, D. Wong, M. Beaton, M. Levstik, P. Crotty, and M. Elkashab, “Feasibility and diagnostic performance of the FibroScan XL probe for liver stiffness measurement in overweight and obese patients,” Hepatology 55(1), 199–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pomier-Layrargues, G.

R. P. Myers, G. Pomier-Layrargues, R. Kirsch, A. Pollett, A. Duarte-Rojo, D. Wong, M. Beaton, M. Levstik, P. Crotty, and M. Elkashab, “Feasibility and diagnostic performance of the FibroScan XL probe for liver stiffness measurement in overweight and obese patients,” Hepatology 55(1), 199–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poulet, B.

L. Sandrin, B. Fourquet, J.-M. Hasquenoph, S. Yon, C. Fournier, F. Mal, C. Christidis, M. Ziol, B. Poulet, F. Kazemi, M. Beaugrand, and R. Palau, “Transient elastography: a new noninvasive method for assessment of hepatic fibrosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(12), 1705–1713 (2003).
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Poynard, T.

P. Bedossa and T. Poynard, “An algorithm for the grading of activity in chronic hepatitis C. The METAVIR Cooperative Study Group,” Hepatology 24(2), 289–293 (1996).
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Raikov, S. N.

V. S. Burakov, V. V. Kiris, P. A. Naumenkov, and S. N. Raikov, “Calibration-free laser spectral analysis of glasses and copper alloys,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(5), 740–746 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rastelli, S.

Rees, S.

N. J. McMillan, S. Rees, K. Kochelek, and C. McManus, “Geological Applications of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Geostand. Geoanal. Res. 38(3), 329–343 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rehse, S. J.

Rowland, S.

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Saeki, M.

Sallé, B.

J.-B. Sirven, B. Sallé, P. Mauchien, J.-L. Lacour, S. Maurice, and G. Manhès, “Feasibility study of rock identification at the surface of Mars by remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and three chemometric methods,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 22(12), 1471 (2007).
[Crossref]

Salvetti, A.

Samad, R. E.

Sandrin, L.

L. Sandrin, B. Fourquet, J.-M. Hasquenoph, S. Yon, C. Fournier, F. Mal, C. Christidis, M. Ziol, B. Poulet, F. Kazemi, M. Beaugrand, and R. Palau, “Transient elastography: a new noninvasive method for assessment of hepatic fibrosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(12), 1705–1713 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santos, D.

Schanne, F. A.

F. A. Schanne, A. B. Kane, E. E. Young, and J. L. Farber, “Calcium dependence of toxic cell death: a final common pathway,” Science 206(4419), 700–702 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, M.

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schröder, S.

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sebastiani, G.

G. Sebastiani, K. Gkouvatsos, and K. Pantopoulos, “Chronic hepatitis C and liver fibrosis,” World J. Gastroenterol. 20(32), 11033–11053 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheikh, K.

Shimamura, T.

T. Shimamura, S. Iijima, M. Hirayama, M. Iwashita, S. Akiyama, Y. Takaku, and S. Yumoto, “Age-related effects of major and trace element concentrations in rat liver and their mutual relationships,” J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 27(4), 286–294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, J. P.

F.-Y. Yueh, H. Zheng, J. P. Singh, and S. Burgess, “Preliminary evaluation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for tissue classification,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 64, 1059–1067 (2009).

A. Kumar, F.-Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, and S. Burgess, “Characterization of malignant tissue cells by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(28), 5399–5403 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sirven, J.-B.

J.-B. Sirven, B. Sallé, P. Mauchien, J.-L. Lacour, S. Maurice, and G. Manhès, “Feasibility study of rock identification at the surface of Mars by remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and three chemometric methods,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 22(12), 1471 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sobral, H.

V. Lazic, A. Trujillo-Vazquez, H. Sobral, C. Márquez, A. Palucci, M. Ciaffi, and M. Pistilli, “Corrections for variable plasma parameters in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: Application on archeological samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 122, 103–113 (2016).

Solovyev, A.

J. Dutta-Moscato, A. Solovyev, Q. Mi, T. Nishikawa, A. Soto-Gutierrez, I. J. Fox, and Y. Vodovotz, “A Multiscale Agent-Based in silico Model of Liver Fibrosis Progression,” Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 2, 18 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, M.

N. Kim, W.-K. Lee, S.-H. Lee, K. S. Jin, K.-H. Kim, Y. Lee, M. Song, and S.-Y. Kim, “Inter-molecular crosslinking activity is engendered by the dimeric form of transglutaminase 2,” Amino Acids 49(3), 461–471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soto-Gutierrez, A.

J. Dutta-Moscato, A. Solovyev, Q. Mi, T. Nishikawa, A. Soto-Gutierrez, I. J. Fox, and Y. Vodovotz, “A Multiscale Agent-Based in silico Model of Liver Fibrosis Progression,” Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 2, 18 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Specht, Z. G.

T. Kim, Z. G. Specht, P. S. Vary, and C. T. Lin, “Spectral Fingerprints of Bacterial Strains by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(17), 5477–5482 (2004).
[Crossref]

Spizzichino, V.

L. Caneve, A. Diamanti, F. Grimaldi, G. Palleschi, V. Spizzichino, and F. Valentini, “Analysis of fresco by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta - Part B At. Spectrosc. 65, 702–706 (2010).

Stack, K.

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stasi, C.

C. Stasi and S. Milani, “Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis: Between prediction/prevention of outcomes and cost-effectiveness,” World J. Gastroenterol. 22(4), 1711–1720 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sturm, V.

R. Noll, V. Sturm, Ü. Aydin, D. Eilers, C. Gehlen, M. Höhne, A. Lamott, J. Makowe, and J. Vrenegor, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—From research to industry, new frontiers for process control,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 63, 1159–1166 (2008).

Sumner, D.

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Takaku, Y.

T. Shimamura, S. Iijima, M. Hirayama, M. Iwashita, S. Akiyama, Y. Takaku, and S. Yumoto, “Age-related effects of major and trace element concentrations in rat liver and their mutual relationships,” J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 27(4), 286–294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanabe, R.

Tognoni, E.

Tokar, R.

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Trevizan, L. C.

Trujillo-Vazquez, A.

V. Lazic, A. Trujillo-Vazquez, H. Sobral, C. Márquez, A. Palucci, M. Ciaffi, and M. Pistilli, “Corrections for variable plasma parameters in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: Application on archeological samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 122, 103–113 (2016).

Valentini, F.

L. Caneve, A. Diamanti, F. Grimaldi, G. Palleschi, V. Spizzichino, and F. Valentini, “Analysis of fresco by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta - Part B At. Spectrosc. 65, 702–706 (2010).

Vary, P. S.

T. Kim, Z. G. Specht, P. S. Vary, and C. T. Lin, “Spectral Fingerprints of Bacterial Strains by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(17), 5477–5482 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vieira, N. D.

Vodovotz, Y.

J. Dutta-Moscato, A. Solovyev, Q. Mi, T. Nishikawa, A. Soto-Gutierrez, I. J. Fox, and Y. Vodovotz, “A Multiscale Agent-Based in silico Model of Liver Fibrosis Progression,” Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 2, 18 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vrenegor, J.

R. Noll, V. Sturm, Ü. Aydin, D. Eilers, C. Gehlen, M. Höhne, A. Lamott, J. Makowe, and J. Vrenegor, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—From research to industry, new frontiers for process control,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 63, 1159–1166 (2008).

Wakaida, I.

Wiens, R. C.

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wong, D.

R. P. Myers, G. Pomier-Layrargues, R. Kirsch, A. Pollett, A. Duarte-Rojo, D. Wong, M. Beaton, M. Levstik, P. Crotty, and M. Elkashab, “Feasibility and diagnostic performance of the FibroScan XL probe for liver stiffness measurement in overweight and obese patients,” Hepatology 55(1), 199–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, K. Y.

Yañez, A.

M. P. Mateo, G. Nicolas, V. Piñon, and A. Yañez, “Improvements in depth-profiling of thick samples by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using linear correlation,” Surf. Interface Anal. 38(5), 941–948 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yon, S.

L. Sandrin, B. Fourquet, J.-M. Hasquenoph, S. Yon, C. Fournier, F. Mal, C. Christidis, M. Ziol, B. Poulet, F. Kazemi, M. Beaugrand, and R. Palau, “Transient elastography: a new noninvasive method for assessment of hepatic fibrosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(12), 1705–1713 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, E. E.

F. A. Schanne, A. B. Kane, E. E. Young, and J. L. Farber, “Calcium dependence of toxic cell death: a final common pathway,” Science 206(4419), 700–702 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yueh, F.-Y.

F.-Y. Yueh, H. Zheng, J. P. Singh, and S. Burgess, “Preliminary evaluation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for tissue classification,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 64, 1059–1067 (2009).

A. Kumar, F.-Y. Yueh, J. P. Singh, and S. Burgess, “Characterization of malignant tissue cells by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(28), 5399–5403 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yumoto, S.

T. Shimamura, S. Iijima, M. Hirayama, M. Iwashita, S. Akiyama, Y. Takaku, and S. Yumoto, “Age-related effects of major and trace element concentrations in rat liver and their mutual relationships,” J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 27(4), 286–294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, H.

F.-Y. Yueh, H. Zheng, J. P. Singh, and S. Burgess, “Preliminary evaluation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for tissue classification,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 64, 1059–1067 (2009).

Ziol, M.

L. Sandrin, B. Fourquet, J.-M. Hasquenoph, S. Yon, C. Fournier, F. Mal, C. Christidis, M. Ziol, B. Poulet, F. Kazemi, M. Beaugrand, and R. Palau, “Transient elastography: a new noninvasive method for assessment of hepatic fibrosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(12), 1705–1713 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amino Acids (1)

N. Kim, W.-K. Lee, S.-H. Lee, K. S. Jin, K.-H. Kim, Y. Lee, M. Song, and S.-Y. Kim, “Inter-molecular crosslinking activity is engendered by the dimeric form of transglutaminase 2,” Amino Acids 49(3), 461–471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

C. Haisch, R. Niessner, O. I. Matveev, U. Panne, and N. Omenetto, “Element-specific determination of chlorine in gases by Laser-Induced-Breakdown-Spectroscopy (LIBS),” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 356(1), 21–26 (1996).
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Annu. Rev. Pathol. (1)

V. Hernandez-Gea and S. L. Friedman, “Pathogenesis of Liver Fibrosis,” Annu. Rev. Pathol. 6(1), 425–456 (2011).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Spectrosc. (4)

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

D. A. Cremers and R. C. Chinni, “Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy—Capabilities and Limitations,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 44(6), 457–506 (2009).
[Crossref]

Biol. Trace Elem. Res. (1)

K. A. Cockell, P. W. Fischer, and B. Belonje, “Elemental composition of anatomically distinct regions of rat liver,” Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 70(3), 251–263 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calcif. Tissue Int. (1)

R. D. Campo, “Effects of cations on cartilage structure: swelling of growth plate and degradation of proteoglycans induced by chelators of divalent cations,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 43(2), 108–121 (1988).
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Environ. Monit. Assess. (1)

T. Hussain and M. A. Gondal, “Monitoring and assessment of toxic metals in Gulf War oil spill contaminated soil using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 136(1-3), 391–399 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Expert Opin. Ther. Pat. (1)

J. W. Keillor and K. Y. P. Apperley, “Transglutaminase inhibitors: a patent review,” Expert Opin. Ther. Pat. 26(1), 49–63 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. (1)

J. Dutta-Moscato, A. Solovyev, Q. Mi, T. Nishikawa, A. Soto-Gutierrez, I. J. Fox, and Y. Vodovotz, “A Multiscale Agent-Based in silico Model of Liver Fibrosis Progression,” Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 2, 18 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geostand. Geoanal. Res. (1)

N. J. McMillan, S. Rees, K. Kochelek, and C. McManus, “Geological Applications of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Geostand. Geoanal. Res. 38(3), 329–343 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hepatology (3)

P. Bedossa and T. Poynard, “An algorithm for the grading of activity in chronic hepatitis C. The METAVIR Cooperative Study Group,” Hepatology 24(2), 289–293 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bedossa, D. Dargère, and V. Paradis, “Sampling variability of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatology 38(6), 1449–1457 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Myers, G. Pomier-Layrargues, R. Kirsch, A. Pollett, A. Duarte-Rojo, D. Wong, M. Beaton, M. Levstik, P. Crotty, and M. Elkashab, “Feasibility and diagnostic performance of the FibroScan XL probe for liver stiffness measurement in overweight and obese patients,” Hepatology 55(1), 199–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (1)

J.-B. Sirven, B. Sallé, P. Mauchien, J.-L. Lacour, S. Maurice, and G. Manhès, “Feasibility study of rock identification at the surface of Mars by remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and three chemometric methods,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 22(12), 1471 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

V. S. Burakov, V. V. Kiris, P. A. Naumenkov, and S. N. Raikov, “Calibration-free laser spectral analysis of glasses and copper alloys,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(5), 740–746 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Clin. Invest. (1)

J. P. Iredale, “Models of liver fibrosis: exploring the dynamic nature of inflammation and repair in a solid organ,” J. Clin. Invest. 117(3), 539–548 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Geophys. Res. Planets (1)

D. L. Blaney, R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. M. Clegg, R. B. Anderson, L. C. Kah, S. Le Mouélic, A. Ollila, N. Bridges, R. Tokar, G. Berger, J. C. Bridges, A. Cousin, B. Clark, M. D. Dyar, P. L. King, N. Lanza, N. Mangold, P.-Y. Meslin, H. Newsom, S. Schröder, S. Rowland, J. Johnson, L. Edgar, O. Gasnault, O. Forni, M. Schmidt, W. Goetz, K. Stack, D. Sumner, M. Fisk, and M. B. Madsen, “Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration,” J. Geophys. Res. Planets 119(9), 2109–2131 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

T. Kim, Z. G. Specht, P. S. Vary, and C. T. Lin, “Spectral Fingerprints of Bacterial Strains by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(17), 5477–5482 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. (1)

T. Shimamura, S. Iijima, M. Hirayama, M. Iwashita, S. Akiyama, Y. Takaku, and S. Yumoto, “Age-related effects of major and trace element concentrations in rat liver and their mutual relationships,” J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 27(4), 286–294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

F. Colao, R. Fantoni, V. Lazic, A. Paolini, F. Fabbri, G. G. Ori, L. Marinangeli, and A. Baliva, “Investigation of LIBS feasibility for in situ planetary exploration: An analysis on Martian rock analogues,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(1-3), 117–123 (2004).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

F. A. Schanne, A. B. Kane, E. E. Young, and J. L. Farber, “Calcium dependence of toxic cell death: a final common pathway,” Science 206(4419), 700–702 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta - Part B At. Spectrosc. (2)

L. Caneve, A. Diamanti, F. Grimaldi, G. Palleschi, V. Spizzichino, and F. Valentini, “Analysis of fresco by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta - Part B At. Spectrosc. 65, 702–706 (2010).

S. Guirado, F. J. Fortes, V. Lazic, and J. J. Laserna, “Chemical analysis of archeological materials in submarine environments using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. On-site trials in the Mediterranean Sea,” Spectrochim. Acta - Part B At. Spectrosc. 74–75, 137–143 (2012).

Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. (4)

R. Noll, V. Sturm, Ü. Aydin, D. Eilers, C. Gehlen, M. Höhne, A. Lamott, J. Makowe, and J. Vrenegor, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—From research to industry, new frontiers for process control,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 63, 1159–1166 (2008).

F.-Y. Yueh, H. Zheng, J. P. Singh, and S. Burgess, “Preliminary evaluation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for tissue classification,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 64, 1059–1067 (2009).

V. Lazic, A. Trujillo-Vazquez, H. Sobral, C. Márquez, A. Palucci, M. Ciaffi, and M. Pistilli, “Corrections for variable plasma parameters in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: Application on archeological samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 122, 103–113 (2016).

Y. Moon, J. H. Han, J. J. Lee, and S. Jeong, “Influence of water content on the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of human cell pellet,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 114, 27–33 (2015).

Surf. Interface Anal. (1)

M. P. Mateo, G. Nicolas, V. Piñon, and A. Yañez, “Improvements in depth-profiling of thick samples by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using linear correlation,” Surf. Interface Anal. 38(5), 941–948 (2006).
[Crossref]

Talanta (1)

A. El-Hussein, A. K. Kassem, H. Ismail, and M. A. Harith, “Exploiting LIBS as a spectrochemical analytical technique in diagnosis of some types of human malignancies,” Talanta 82(2), 495–501 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

L. Sandrin, B. Fourquet, J.-M. Hasquenoph, S. Yon, C. Fournier, F. Mal, C. Christidis, M. Ziol, B. Poulet, F. Kazemi, M. Beaugrand, and R. Palau, “Transient elastography: a new noninvasive method for assessment of hepatic fibrosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(12), 1705–1713 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

World J. Gastroenterol. (2)

C. Stasi and S. Milani, “Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis: Between prediction/prevention of outcomes and cost-effectiveness,” World J. Gastroenterol. 22(4), 1711–1720 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sebastiani, K. Gkouvatsos, and K. Pantopoulos, “Chronic hepatitis C and liver fibrosis,” World J. Gastroenterol. 20(32), 11033–11053 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. Alemán-García, A. Pérez-García, J. Sánchez-Melecio, F. Silva-Aguilera, E. Gutiérrez-Herrera, M. R. Ortiz-Posadas, J. Hernández-Ruiz, D. Kershenobich, and C. Sánchez-Pérez, “Fibrosis evaluation of animal liver tissue by thermal conduction,” in BioMed Research International (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2017), Vol. 2017, pp. 674–677.

D. A. Cremers and L. J. Radziemski, Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Second Edition (2013).

C. Pasquini, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” in Handbook of Solid-State Lasers (Elsevier, 2013), pp. 551–571.

M. J. Amaya and M. H. Nathanson, “Calcium Signaling in the Liver,” in Comprehensive Physiology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Frequency histogram of METAVIR diagnoses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the LIBS system. BE: beam expander; L: plano-convex lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LIBS spectrum of healthy rat liver tissue.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity of Mg II (279.55 nm) as a function of laser shot number obtained at three different sampling points.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PCA scores along the PC1 and PC2 axes for samples with different METAVIR scores.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison between corrected and uncorrected averaged intensities for Mg II at 279.55 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized intensities corresponding to magnesium (a), carbon (b) and calcium (c) for different METAVIR scores.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Detected transitions of a typical rat liver sample

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Table 2 Correction coefficients for monitored lines

Equations (3)

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I c ij = I e ij S ij P
RSD AV = 1 N i=1 N RSD i
RSD i = 1 M-1 j=1 M ( I c ij - I c ¯ i ) 2 I c ¯ i

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