Abstract

For rapid pathological assessment of large surgical tissue excisions with cellular resolution, we present a line scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope (LSSSCM). LSSSCM uses no scanning mirrors. Laser light is focused with a single cylindrical lens to a line of diffraction-limited width directly into the (Z) sample focal plane, which is parallel to and near the flattened specimen surface. Semi-confocal optical sections are derived from the linear array distribution (Y) and a single mechanical drive that moves the sample parallel to the focal plane and perpendicular to the focused line (X). LSSSCM demonstrates cellular resolution in the conditions of high nuclear density within micronodular basal cell carcinoma.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (2)

E. W. Mu, J. M. Lewin, M. L. Stevenson, S. A. Meehan, J. A. Carucci, and D. S. Gareau, “Use of Digitally Stained Multimodal Confocal Mosaic Images to Screen for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer,” JAMA Dermatol. 152, 1335–1341 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Levenson and F. Fereidouni, “MUSE: A New, Fast, Simple Microscopy Method for Slide-Free Histology and Surface Topography,” The FASEB Journal 3051.5351 (2016).

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

A. Bennassar, A. Vilata, S. Puig, and J. Malvehy, “Ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy for fast evaluation of tumour margins during Mohs surgery,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(2), 360–365 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. S. Shareef and W. Hussain, “The Mohs histotechnician: a review of training and practice within 29 centres in the UK,” Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 38, 589–593 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Stern, “Cost effectiveness of Mohs micrographic surgery,” J. Investigative Dermatology 133, 1129–1131 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 61227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 066018 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, H. Jeon, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Rapid screening of cancer margins in tissue with multimodal confocal microscopy,” J. Surg. Res. 178, 533–538 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. K. El Tal, A. E. Abrou, M. A. Stiff, and D. A. Mehregan, “Immunostaining in Mohs micrographic surgery: a review,” Dermatolgic Surgery 36(3), 275–290 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

J. K. Karen, D. S. Gareau, S. W. Dusza, M. Tudisco, M. Rajadhyaksha, and K. S. Nehal, “Detection of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excisions with fluorescence confocal mosaicing microscopy,” Br. J. Dermatol. 160, 1242–1250 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, “Feasibility of digitally stained multimodal confocal mosaics to simulate histopathology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034050 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, J. K. Karen, S. W. Dusza, M. Tudisco, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Sensitivity and specificity for detecting basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excisions with confocal fluorescence mosaicing microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, S. Abeytunge, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Line-scanning reflectance confocal microscopy of human skin: comparison of full-pupil and divided-pupil configurations,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3235–3237 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. S. Gareau, Y. Li, B. Huang, Z. Eastman, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy in Mohs skin excisions: feasibility of rapid surgical pathology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

R. M. Campbell, C. S. Perlis, M. K. Malik, and R. G. Dufresne, “Characteristics of Mohs practices in the United States: a recall survey of ACMS surgeons,” Dermatologic Surgery 33, 1413–1418 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034027 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

R. Wolleschensky, B. Zimmermann, and M. Kempe, “High-speed confocal fluorescence imaging with a novel line scanning microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064011 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

1999 (1)

1995 (1)

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” The Journal of investigative dermatology 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abeytunge, S.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 61227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, S. Abeytunge, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Line-scanning reflectance confocal microscopy of human skin: comparison of full-pupil and divided-pupil configurations,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3235–3237 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abrou, A. E.

A. K. El Tal, A. E. Abrou, M. A. Stiff, and D. A. Mehregan, “Immunostaining in Mohs micrographic surgery: a review,” Dermatolgic Surgery 36(3), 275–290 (2010).
[Crossref]

Anderson, R. R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “Video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for imaging human tissues in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2105–2115 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” The Journal of investigative dermatology 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aranda, I.

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034027 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, D. R.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bar, A.

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 066018 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennassar, A.

A. Bennassar, A. Vilata, S. Puig, and J. Malvehy, “Ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy for fast evaluation of tumour margins during Mohs surgery,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(2), 360–365 (2014).
[Crossref]

Berger, T. G.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigby, M.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolognia, J. L.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braaf, B.

Brewer, J. D.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brodland, D. G.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, R. M.

R. M. Campbell, C. S. Perlis, M. K. Malik, and R. G. Dufresne, “Characteristics of Mohs practices in the United States: a recall survey of ACMS surgeons,” Dermatologic Surgery 33, 1413–1418 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carucci, J. A.

E. W. Mu, J. M. Lewin, M. L. Stevenson, S. A. Meehan, J. A. Carucci, and D. S. Gareau, “Use of Digitally Stained Multimodal Confocal Mosaic Images to Screen for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer,” JAMA Dermatol. 152, 1335–1341 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, N.

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 066018 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coldiron, B. M.

H. W. Rogers, M. A. Weinstock, S. R. Feldman, and B. M. Coldiron, “Incidence Estimate of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer (Keratinocyte Carcinomas) in the US Population, 2012,” JAMA Dermatol. 151, 1081–1086 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collins, S.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Connolly, S. M.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cronin, T. A.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dahl, M. V.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Damodaran, M.

de Boer, J. F.

Dufresne, R. G.

R. M. Campbell, C. S. Perlis, M. K. Malik, and R. G. Dufresne, “Characteristics of Mohs practices in the United States: a recall survey of ACMS surgeons,” Dermatologic Surgery 33, 1413–1418 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dusza, S. W.

J. K. Karen, D. S. Gareau, S. W. Dusza, M. Tudisco, M. Rajadhyaksha, and K. S. Nehal, “Detection of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excisions with fluorescence confocal mosaicing microscopy,” Br. J. Dermatol. 160, 1242–1250 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, J. K. Karen, S. W. Dusza, M. Tudisco, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Sensitivity and specificity for detecting basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excisions with confocal fluorescence mosaicing microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eastman, Z.

D. S. Gareau, Y. Li, B. Huang, Z. Eastman, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy in Mohs skin excisions: feasibility of rapid surgical pathology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El Tal, A. K.

A. K. El Tal, A. E. Abrou, M. A. Stiff, and D. A. Mehregan, “Immunostaining in Mohs micrographic surgery: a review,” Dermatolgic Surgery 36(3), 275–290 (2010).
[Crossref]

Esterowitz, D.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” The Journal of investigative dermatology 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fazio, M. J.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldman, S. R.

H. W. Rogers, M. A. Weinstock, S. R. Feldman, and B. M. Coldiron, “Incidence Estimate of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer (Keratinocyte Carcinomas) in the US Population, 2012,” JAMA Dermatol. 151, 1081–1086 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fereidouni, F.

R. M. Levenson and F. Fereidouni, “MUSE: A New, Fast, Simple Microscopy Method for Slide-Free Histology and Surface Topography,” The FASEB Journal 3051.5351 (2016).

Gareau, D.

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 066018 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gareau, D. S.

E. W. Mu, J. M. Lewin, M. L. Stevenson, S. A. Meehan, J. A. Carucci, and D. S. Gareau, “Use of Digitally Stained Multimodal Confocal Mosaic Images to Screen for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer,” JAMA Dermatol. 152, 1335–1341 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, H. Jeon, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Rapid screening of cancer margins in tissue with multimodal confocal microscopy,” J. Surg. Res. 178, 533–538 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, “Feasibility of digitally stained multimodal confocal mosaics to simulate histopathology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034050 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, J. K. Karen, S. W. Dusza, M. Tudisco, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Sensitivity and specificity for detecting basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excisions with confocal fluorescence mosaicing microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, S. Abeytunge, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Line-scanning reflectance confocal microscopy of human skin: comparison of full-pupil and divided-pupil configurations,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3235–3237 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Karen, D. S. Gareau, S. W. Dusza, M. Tudisco, M. Rajadhyaksha, and K. S. Nehal, “Detection of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excisions with fluorescence confocal mosaicing microscopy,” Br. J. Dermatol. 160, 1242–1250 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, Y. Li, B. Huang, Z. Eastman, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy in Mohs skin excisions: feasibility of rapid surgical pathology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grant-Kels, J. M.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grossman, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” The Journal of investigative dermatology 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halpern, A. C.

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034027 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, S.

Hanke, C. W.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hruza, G. J.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, B.

D. S. Gareau, Y. Li, B. Huang, Z. Eastman, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy in Mohs skin excisions: feasibility of rapid surgical pathology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hussain, W.

M. S. Shareef and W. Hussain, “The Mohs histotechnician: a review of training and practice within 29 centres in the UK,” Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 38, 589–593 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Im, K. B.

Jacques, S.

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 066018 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

James, W. D.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, H.

D. S. Gareau, H. Jeon, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Rapid screening of cancer margins in tissue with multimodal confocal microscopy,” J. Surg. Res. 178, 533–538 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karen, J. K.

D. S. Gareau, J. K. Karen, S. W. Dusza, M. Tudisco, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Sensitivity and specificity for detecting basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excisions with confocal fluorescence mosaicing microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Karen, D. S. Gareau, S. W. Dusza, M. Tudisco, M. Rajadhyaksha, and K. S. Nehal, “Detection of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excisions with fluorescence confocal mosaicing microscopy,” Br. J. Dermatol. 160, 1242–1250 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kempe, M.

R. Wolleschensky, B. Zimmermann, and M. Kempe, “High-speed confocal fluorescence imaging with a novel line scanning microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064011 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. M.

Kim, D.

Larson, B.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 61227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 066018 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levenson, R. M.

R. M. Levenson and F. Fereidouni, “MUSE: A New, Fast, Simple Microscopy Method for Slide-Free Histology and Surface Topography,” The FASEB Journal 3051.5351 (2016).

Lewin, J. M.

E. W. Mu, J. M. Lewin, M. L. Stevenson, S. A. Meehan, J. A. Carucci, and D. S. Gareau, “Use of Digitally Stained Multimodal Confocal Mosaic Images to Screen for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer,” JAMA Dermatol. 152, 1335–1341 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 61227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, Y. Li, B. Huang, Z. Eastman, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy in Mohs skin excisions: feasibility of rapid surgical pathology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034027 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lober, C. W.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lv, X.

Malik, M. K.

R. M. Campbell, C. S. Perlis, M. K. Malik, and R. G. Dufresne, “Characteristics of Mohs practices in the United States: a recall survey of ACMS surgeons,” Dermatologic Surgery 33, 1413–1418 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malvehy, J.

A. Bennassar, A. Vilata, S. Puig, and J. Malvehy, “Ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy for fast evaluation of tumour margins during Mohs surgery,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(2), 360–365 (2014).
[Crossref]

McBurney, E. I.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meehan, S. A.

E. W. Mu, J. M. Lewin, M. L. Stevenson, S. A. Meehan, J. A. Carucci, and D. S. Gareau, “Use of Digitally Stained Multimodal Confocal Mosaic Images to Screen for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer,” JAMA Dermatol. 152, 1335–1341 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehregan, D. A.

A. K. El Tal, A. E. Abrou, M. A. Stiff, and D. A. Mehregan, “Immunostaining in Mohs micrographic surgery: a review,” Dermatolgic Surgery 36(3), 275–290 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mu, E. W.

E. W. Mu, J. M. Lewin, M. L. Stevenson, S. A. Meehan, J. A. Carucci, and D. S. Gareau, “Use of Digitally Stained Multimodal Confocal Mosaic Images to Screen for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer,” JAMA Dermatol. 152, 1335–1341 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nehal, K. S.

D. S. Gareau, H. Jeon, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Rapid screening of cancer margins in tissue with multimodal confocal microscopy,” J. Surg. Res. 178, 533–538 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, J. K. Karen, S. W. Dusza, M. Tudisco, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Sensitivity and specificity for detecting basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excisions with confocal fluorescence mosaicing microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Karen, D. S. Gareau, S. W. Dusza, M. Tudisco, M. Rajadhyaksha, and K. S. Nehal, “Detection of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excisions with fluorescence confocal mosaicing microscopy,” Br. J. Dermatol. 160, 1242–1250 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, Y. Li, B. Huang, Z. Eastman, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy in Mohs skin excisions: feasibility of rapid surgical pathology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034027 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norton, S. A.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H.

Patel, Y. G.

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034027 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perlis, C. S.

R. M. Campbell, C. S. Perlis, M. K. Malik, and R. G. Dufresne, “Characteristics of Mohs practices in the United States: a recall survey of ACMS surgeons,” Dermatologic Surgery 33, 1413–1418 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peterson, G.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 61227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puig, S.

A. Bennassar, A. Vilata, S. Puig, and J. Malvehy, “Ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy for fast evaluation of tumour margins during Mohs surgery,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(2), 360–365 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 61227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, H. Jeon, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Rapid screening of cancer margins in tissue with multimodal confocal microscopy,” J. Surg. Res. 178, 533–538 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, J. K. Karen, S. W. Dusza, M. Tudisco, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Sensitivity and specificity for detecting basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excisions with confocal fluorescence mosaicing microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, S. Abeytunge, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Line-scanning reflectance confocal microscopy of human skin: comparison of full-pupil and divided-pupil configurations,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3235–3237 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Karen, D. S. Gareau, S. W. Dusza, M. Tudisco, M. Rajadhyaksha, and K. S. Nehal, “Detection of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excisions with fluorescence confocal mosaicing microscopy,” Br. J. Dermatol. 160, 1242–1250 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, Y. Li, B. Huang, Z. Eastman, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy in Mohs skin excisions: feasibility of rapid surgical pathology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034027 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “Video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for imaging human tissues in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2105–2115 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” The Journal of investigative dermatology 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ratings, P.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roenigk, R. K.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, H. W.

H. W. Rogers, M. A. Weinstock, S. R. Feldman, and B. M. Coldiron, “Incidence Estimate of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer (Keratinocyte Carcinomas) in the US Population, 2012,” JAMA Dermatol. 151, 1081–1086 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seltzer, E.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 61227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shang, Z.

Shareef, M. S.

M. S. Shareef and W. Hussain, “The Mohs histotechnician: a review of training and practice within 29 centres in the UK,” Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 38, 589–593 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simpson, E.

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 066018 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith Begolka, W.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snaveley, N.

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 066018 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stern, R. S.

R. S. Stern, “Cost effectiveness of Mohs micrographic surgery,” J. Investigative Dermatology 133, 1129–1131 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stevenson, M. L.

E. W. Mu, J. M. Lewin, M. L. Stevenson, S. A. Meehan, J. A. Carucci, and D. S. Gareau, “Use of Digitally Stained Multimodal Confocal Mosaic Images to Screen for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer,” JAMA Dermatol. 152, 1335–1341 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stiff, M. A.

A. K. El Tal, A. E. Abrou, M. A. Stiff, and D. A. Mehregan, “Immunostaining in Mohs micrographic surgery: a review,” Dermatolgic Surgery 36(3), 275–290 (2010).
[Crossref]

Storrs, P. A.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, N.

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 066018 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Titford, M.

M. Titford, “The long history of hematoxylin,” Biotech. Histochem. 80(2), 73–78 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toledo-Crow, R.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 61227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tudisco, M.

D. S. Gareau, J. K. Karen, S. W. Dusza, M. Tudisco, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Sensitivity and specificity for detecting basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excisions with confocal fluorescence mosaicing microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Karen, D. S. Gareau, S. W. Dusza, M. Tudisco, M. Rajadhyaksha, and K. S. Nehal, “Detection of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excisions with fluorescence confocal mosaicing microscopy,” Br. J. Dermatol. 160, 1242–1250 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vermeer, K. A.

Vidimos, A. T.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vienola, K. V.

Vilata, A.

A. Bennassar, A. Vilata, S. Puig, and J. Malvehy, “Ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy for fast evaluation of tumour margins during Mohs surgery,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(2), 360–365 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Webb, R. H.

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “Video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for imaging human tissues in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2105–2115 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” The Journal of investigative dermatology 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weinstock, M. A.

H. W. Rogers, M. A. Weinstock, S. R. Feldman, and B. M. Coldiron, “Incidence Estimate of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer (Keratinocyte Carcinomas) in the US Population, 2012,” JAMA Dermatol. 151, 1081–1086 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wheeland, R. G.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wisco, O. J.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolleschensky, R.

R. Wolleschensky, B. Zimmermann, and M. Kempe, “High-speed confocal fluorescence imaging with a novel line scanning microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064011 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, T.

Yuan, J.

Zalla, M. J.

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, S.

Zheng, T.

Zimmermann, B.

R. Wolleschensky, B. Zimmermann, and M. Kempe, “High-speed confocal fluorescence imaging with a novel line scanning microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064011 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biotech. Histochem. (1)

M. Titford, “The long history of hematoxylin,” Biotech. Histochem. 80(2), 73–78 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Dermatol. (2)

J. K. Karen, D. S. Gareau, S. W. Dusza, M. Tudisco, M. Rajadhyaksha, and K. S. Nehal, “Detection of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excisions with fluorescence confocal mosaicing microscopy,” Br. J. Dermatol. 160, 1242–1250 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bennassar, A. Vilata, S. Puig, and J. Malvehy, “Ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy for fast evaluation of tumour margins during Mohs surgery,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(2), 360–365 (2014).
[Crossref]

Clinical and Experimental Dermatology (1)

M. S. Shareef and W. Hussain, “The Mohs histotechnician: a review of training and practice within 29 centres in the UK,” Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 38, 589–593 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dermatolgic Surgery (1)

A. K. El Tal, A. E. Abrou, M. A. Stiff, and D. A. Mehregan, “Immunostaining in Mohs micrographic surgery: a review,” Dermatolgic Surgery 36(3), 275–290 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dermatologic Surgery (1)

R. M. Campbell, C. S. Perlis, M. K. Malik, and R. G. Dufresne, “Characteristics of Mohs practices in the United States: a recall survey of ACMS surgeons,” Dermatologic Surgery 33, 1413–1418 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1)

S. M. Connolly, D. R. Baker, B. M. Coldiron, M. J. Fazio, P. A. Storrs, A. T. Vidimos, M. J. Zalla, J. D. Brewer, W. Smith Begolka, P. Ratings, T. G. Berger, M. Bigby, J. L. Bolognia, D. G. Brodland, S. Collins, T. A. Cronin, M. V. Dahl, J. M. Grant-Kels, C. W. Hanke, G. J. Hruza, W. D. James, C. W. Lober, E. I. McBurney, S. A. Norton, R. K. Roenigk, R. G. Wheeland, and O. J. Wisco, “AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 67, 531–550 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (7)

D. Gareau, A. Bar, N. Snaveley, K. Lee, N. Chen, N. Swanson, E. Simpson, and S. Jacques, “Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 066018 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, Y. Li, B. Huang, Z. Eastman, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal mosaicing microscopy in Mohs skin excisions: feasibility of rapid surgical pathology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, “Feasibility of digitally stained multimodal confocal mosaics to simulate histopathology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034050 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Gareau, J. K. Karen, S. W. Dusza, M. Tudisco, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Sensitivity and specificity for detecting basal cell carcinomas in Mohs excisions with confocal fluorescence mosaicing microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wolleschensky, B. Zimmermann, and M. Kempe, “High-speed confocal fluorescence imaging with a novel line scanning microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064011 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Patel, K. S. Nehal, I. Aranda, Y. Li, A. C. Halpern, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034027 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, G. Peterson, E. Seltzer, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 61227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Investigative Dermatology (1)

R. S. Stern, “Cost effectiveness of Mohs micrographic surgery,” J. Investigative Dermatology 133, 1129–1131 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Surg. Res. (1)

D. S. Gareau, H. Jeon, K. S. Nehal, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Rapid screening of cancer margins in tissue with multimodal confocal microscopy,” J. Surg. Res. 178, 533–538 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JAMA Dermatol. (2)

E. W. Mu, J. M. Lewin, M. L. Stevenson, S. A. Meehan, J. A. Carucci, and D. S. Gareau, “Use of Digitally Stained Multimodal Confocal Mosaic Images to Screen for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer,” JAMA Dermatol. 152, 1335–1341 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Rogers, M. A. Weinstock, S. R. Feldman, and B. M. Coldiron, “Incidence Estimate of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer (Keratinocyte Carcinomas) in the US Population, 2012,” JAMA Dermatol. 151, 1081–1086 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

The FASEB Journal (1)

R. M. Levenson and F. Fereidouni, “MUSE: A New, Fast, Simple Microscopy Method for Slide-Free Histology and Surface Topography,” The FASEB Journal 3051.5351 (2016).

The Journal of investigative dermatology (1)

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” The Journal of investigative dermatology 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Reflectance Confocal Microscopy for Skin DiseasesR. Hofmann-Wellenhof, G. Pellacani, J. Malvehy, and H. P. Soyer, eds. (Springer, 2012).
[Crossref]

Caliber ID Inc, Technical Note on RS-G4 imager 2017 [cited 2017 07-04-2017]. Available from: http://www.caliberid.com/RS-G4-Technote0217.pdf

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cancer incidence rates in the United States. 5.4 million [3] of the 6 million new cancer cases in the US are the non-melanoma skin cancers that confocal point scanning systems have proven effective in detecting: Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) [8] and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC). [9]
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Stage-Scanning, Line Scanning Confocal Microscope in concept (a) and physical embodiment (b). The experimental result sample image (c) shows a 12-mm horizontal field of view scanned in 2 minutes without mosaicking. The sample has been cut into 4 pieces, stained (with various immersion times of 5, 10, 20 and 30 seconds) in 1mM acridine orange solution (pH=6.0), and re-assembled for imaging.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Image analysis of mirrored grating target. The image (a) is sampled along a single X or Y position to extract pixel values (b, black *) that comprise an edge trace which is fit using a sigmoidal function (b, blue line) that specifies the 10% and 90% brightness coordinates (b, red *).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Confocal image of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), acquired 10µm beneath the surface of a 4mm-thick tissue specimen with correlating histology. The inset shows a magnified view of a single tumor with characteristic pathologic features identified.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Scan Speed of Competing Technologies

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ Y = 0.79 λ N A = 0.79 × 488 n m 0.28 = 1.37 μ m
Δ X = 0.61 λ N A = 0.61 × 488 n m 0.28 = 1.06 μ m
F W H M = 1.22 λ F c D 0.849 = 5.84 μ m

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