Abstract

We demonstrate highly sensitive detection of viruses using terahertz split-ring resonators with various capacitive gap widths. Two types of viruses, with sizes ranging from 60 nm (PRD1) to 30 nm (MS2), were detected at low densities on the metamaterial surface. The dielectric constants of the virus layers in the THz frequency range were first measured using thick films, and the large values found identified them as efficient target substances for dielectric sensing. We observed the resonance-frequency shift of the THz metamaterial following deposition of the viruses on the surface at low-density. The resonance shift was higher for the MS2 virus, which has a relatively large dielectric constant. The frequency shift increases with surface density until saturation and the sensitivity is then obtained from the initial slope. Significantly, the sensitivity increases by about 13 times as the gap width in the metamaterials is decreased from 3 µm to 200 nm. This results from a combination of size-related factors, leading to field enhancement accompanying strong field localization.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
In-vivo digital wavefront sensing using swept source OCT

Abhishek Kumar, Lara M. Wurster, Matthias Salas, Laurin Ginner, Wolfgang Drexler, and Rainer A. Leitgeb
Biomed. Opt. Express 8(7) 3369-3382 (2017)

Terahertz metamaterial sensing on polystyrene microbeads: shape dependence

S. J. Park, S. W. Jun, A. R. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn
Opt. Mater. Express 5(10) 2150-2155 (2015)

Label-free optical detection of action potential in mammalian neurons

Subrata Batabyal, Sarmishtha Satpathy, Loan Bui, Young-Tae Kim, Samarendra Mohanty, Robert Bachoo, and Digant P. Davé
Biomed. Opt. Express 8(8) 3700-3713 (2017)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, and R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5(5), 607–625 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. A. Erlich, Principles and Applications for DNA Amplification, PCR Technology (2015), pp. 1–246.
  3. J. Vinjé, “Advances in laboratory methods for detection and typing of norovirus,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 53(2), 373–381 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. Pachl, J. A. Todd, D. G. Kern, P. J. Sheridan, S. J. Fong, M. Stempien, B. Hoo, D. Besemer, T. Yeghiazarian, B. Irvine, J. Kolberg, R. Kokka, P. Neuwald, and M. S. Urdea, “Rapid and precise quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma using a branched DNA signal amplification assay,” J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8(5), 446–454 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. P. Belgrader, W. Benett, D. Hadley, J. Richards, P. Stratton, R. Mariella, and F. Milanovich, “PCR detection of bacteria in seven minutes,” Science 284(5413), 449–450 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Menikh, R. MacColl, C. A. Mannella, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz biosensing technology: frontiers and progress,” ChemPhysChem 3(8), 655–658 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. J. Park, A. R. Kim, J. T. Hong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Crystallization kinetics of lead halide perovskite film monitored by in-situ terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(2), 401–406 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. J. Park, S. W. Jun, A. R. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Terahertz metamaterial sensing on polystyrene microbeads: Shape dependence,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(10), 2150–2155 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33(3), 245–291 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. W. Withayachumnankul, H. Lin, K. Serita, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, M. Tonouchi, C. Fumeaux, and D. Abbott, “Sub-diffraction thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3345–3352 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. Yahiaoui, S. Tan, L. Cong, R. Singh, F. Yan, and W. Zhang, “Multispectral terahertz sensing with highly flexible ultrathin metamaterial absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(8), 083103 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. J. Park, S. A. N. Yoon, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant measurements of thin films and liquids using terahertz metamaterials,” RSC Advances 6(73), 69381–69386 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. G. A. Shin and M. D. Sobsey, “Inactivation of norovirus by chlorine disinfection of water,” Water Res. 42(17), 4562–4568 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. K. S. Bae and G. A. Shin, “Inactivation of various bacteriophages by different ultraviolet technologies: Development of a reliable virus indicator system for water reuse,” Environ. Eng. Res. 21(4), 350–354 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. P. Tenggara, S. J. Park, H. T. Yudistira, Y. H. Ahn, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterials using electrohydrodynamic jet printing for sensitive detection of yeast,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 27(3), 035009 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, S. Han, Y.-M. Bahk, N. Park, and D.-S. Kim, “Colossal absorption of molecules inside single terahertz nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1782–1786 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. J. Y. Kim, B. J. Kang, Y. M. Bahk, Y. S. Kim, J. Park, W. T. Kim, J. Rhie, S. Han, H. Jeon, C. H. Park, F. Rotermund, and D. S. Kim, “Tunnelling current-voltage characteristics of Angstrom gaps measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29103 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. O. K. Suwal, J. Rhie, N. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Nonresonant 104 Terahertz Field Enhancement with 5-nm Slits,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45638 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

S. J. Park, A. R. Kim, J. T. Hong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Crystallization kinetics of lead halide perovskite film monitored by in-situ terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(2), 401–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Tenggara, S. J. Park, H. T. Yudistira, Y. H. Ahn, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterials using electrohydrodynamic jet printing for sensitive detection of yeast,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 27(3), 035009 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. K. Suwal, J. Rhie, N. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Nonresonant 104 Terahertz Field Enhancement with 5-nm Slits,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45638 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

J. Y. Kim, B. J. Kang, Y. M. Bahk, Y. S. Kim, J. Park, W. T. Kim, J. Rhie, S. Han, H. Jeon, C. H. Park, F. Rotermund, and D. S. Kim, “Tunnelling current-voltage characteristics of Angstrom gaps measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29103 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Bae and G. A. Shin, “Inactivation of various bacteriophages by different ultraviolet technologies: Development of a reliable virus indicator system for water reuse,” Environ. Eng. Res. 21(4), 350–354 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, S. A. N. Yoon, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant measurements of thin films and liquids using terahertz metamaterials,” RSC Advances 6(73), 69381–69386 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

R. Yahiaoui, S. Tan, L. Cong, R. Singh, F. Yan, and W. Zhang, “Multispectral terahertz sensing with highly flexible ultrathin metamaterial absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(8), 083103 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vinjé, “Advances in laboratory methods for detection and typing of norovirus,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 53(2), 373–381 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, S. W. Jun, A. R. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Terahertz metamaterial sensing on polystyrene microbeads: Shape dependence,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(10), 2150–2155 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (4)

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, S. Han, Y.-M. Bahk, N. Park, and D.-S. Kim, “Colossal absorption of molecules inside single terahertz nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1782–1786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Menikh, R. MacColl, C. A. Mannella, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz biosensing technology: frontiers and progress,” ChemPhysChem 3(8), 655–658 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, and R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5(5), 607–625 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Belgrader, W. Benett, D. Hadley, J. Richards, P. Stratton, R. Mariella, and F. Milanovich, “PCR detection of bacteria in seven minutes,” Science 284(5413), 449–450 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

C. Pachl, J. A. Todd, D. G. Kern, P. J. Sheridan, S. J. Fong, M. Stempien, B. Hoo, D. Besemer, T. Yeghiazarian, B. Irvine, J. Kolberg, R. Kokka, P. Neuwald, and M. S. Urdea, “Rapid and precise quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma using a branched DNA signal amplification assay,” J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8(5), 446–454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abbott, D.

W. Withayachumnankul, H. Lin, K. Serita, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, M. Tonouchi, C. Fumeaux, and D. Abbott, “Sub-diffraction thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3345–3352 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, K. J.

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, S. Han, Y.-M. Bahk, N. Park, and D.-S. Kim, “Colossal absorption of molecules inside single terahertz nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1782–1786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. H.

A. P. Tenggara, S. J. Park, H. T. Yudistira, Y. H. Ahn, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterials using electrohydrodynamic jet printing for sensitive detection of yeast,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 27(3), 035009 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, A. R. Kim, J. T. Hong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Crystallization kinetics of lead halide perovskite film monitored by in-situ terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(2), 401–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, S. A. N. Yoon, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant measurements of thin films and liquids using terahertz metamaterials,” RSC Advances 6(73), 69381–69386 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, S. W. Jun, A. R. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Terahertz metamaterial sensing on polystyrene microbeads: Shape dependence,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(10), 2150–2155 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Al-Naib, I.

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33(3), 245–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, K. S.

K. S. Bae and G. A. Shin, “Inactivation of various bacteriophages by different ultraviolet technologies: Development of a reliable virus indicator system for water reuse,” Environ. Eng. Res. 21(4), 350–354 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bahk, Y. M.

J. Y. Kim, B. J. Kang, Y. M. Bahk, Y. S. Kim, J. Park, W. T. Kim, J. Rhie, S. Han, H. Jeon, C. H. Park, F. Rotermund, and D. S. Kim, “Tunnelling current-voltage characteristics of Angstrom gaps measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29103 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bahk, Y.-M.

H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, S. Han, Y.-M. Bahk, N. Park, and D.-S. Kim, “Colossal absorption of molecules inside single terahertz nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1782–1786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belgrader, P.

P. Belgrader, W. Benett, D. Hadley, J. Richards, P. Stratton, R. Mariella, and F. Milanovich, “PCR detection of bacteria in seven minutes,” Science 284(5413), 449–450 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benett, W.

P. Belgrader, W. Benett, D. Hadley, J. Richards, P. Stratton, R. Mariella, and F. Milanovich, “PCR detection of bacteria in seven minutes,” Science 284(5413), 449–450 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Besemer, D.

C. Pachl, J. A. Todd, D. G. Kern, P. J. Sheridan, S. J. Fong, M. Stempien, B. Hoo, D. Besemer, T. Yeghiazarian, B. Irvine, J. Kolberg, R. Kokka, P. Neuwald, and M. S. Urdea, “Rapid and precise quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma using a branched DNA signal amplification assay,” J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8(5), 446–454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhaskaran, M.

Brenckle, M. A.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

Bresee, J. S.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, and R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5(5), 607–625 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byun, D.

A. P. Tenggara, S. J. Park, H. T. Yudistira, Y. H. Ahn, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterials using electrohydrodynamic jet printing for sensitive detection of yeast,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 27(3), 035009 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chieffo, L. R.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S. B.

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. J.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cong, L.

R. Yahiaoui, S. Tan, L. Cong, R. Singh, F. Yan, and W. Zhang, “Multispectral terahertz sensing with highly flexible ultrathin metamaterial absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(8), 083103 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dietz, V.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, and R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5(5), 607–625 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ekmekci, E.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fan, K.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fong, S. J.

C. Pachl, J. A. Todd, D. G. Kern, P. J. Sheridan, S. J. Fong, M. Stempien, B. Hoo, D. Besemer, T. Yeghiazarian, B. Irvine, J. Kolberg, R. Kokka, P. Neuwald, and M. S. Urdea, “Rapid and precise quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma using a branched DNA signal amplification assay,” J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8(5), 446–454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fumeaux, C.

Gossard, A. C.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Griffin, P. M.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, and R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5(5), 607–625 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, C.

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hadley, D.

P. Belgrader, W. Benett, D. Hadley, J. Richards, P. Stratton, R. Mariella, and F. Milanovich, “PCR detection of bacteria in seven minutes,” Science 284(5413), 449–450 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J.

Han, S.

J. Y. Kim, B. J. Kang, Y. M. Bahk, Y. S. Kim, J. Park, W. T. Kim, J. Rhie, S. Han, H. Jeon, C. H. Park, F. Rotermund, and D. S. Kim, “Tunnelling current-voltage characteristics of Angstrom gaps measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29103 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, S. Han, Y.-M. Bahk, N. Park, and D.-S. Kim, “Colossal absorption of molecules inside single terahertz nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1782–1786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, S. T.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, J. T.

S. J. Park, A. R. Kim, J. T. Hong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Crystallization kinetics of lead halide perovskite film monitored by in-situ terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(2), 401–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hoo, B.

C. Pachl, J. A. Todd, D. G. Kern, P. J. Sheridan, S. J. Fong, M. Stempien, B. Hoo, D. Besemer, T. Yeghiazarian, B. Irvine, J. Kolberg, R. Kokka, P. Neuwald, and M. S. Urdea, “Rapid and precise quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma using a branched DNA signal amplification assay,” J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8(5), 446–454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Irvine, B.

C. Pachl, J. A. Todd, D. G. Kern, P. J. Sheridan, S. J. Fong, M. Stempien, B. Hoo, D. Besemer, T. Yeghiazarian, B. Irvine, J. Kolberg, R. Kokka, P. Neuwald, and M. S. Urdea, “Rapid and precise quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma using a branched DNA signal amplification assay,” J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8(5), 446–454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, H.

J. Y. Kim, B. J. Kang, Y. M. Bahk, Y. S. Kim, J. Park, W. T. Kim, J. Rhie, S. Han, H. Jeon, C. H. Park, F. Rotermund, and D. S. Kim, “Tunnelling current-voltage characteristics of Angstrom gaps measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29103 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jun, S. W.

Kang, B. J.

J. Y. Kim, B. J. Kang, Y. M. Bahk, Y. S. Kim, J. Park, W. T. Kim, J. Rhie, S. Han, H. Jeon, C. H. Park, F. Rotermund, and D. S. Kim, “Tunnelling current-voltage characteristics of Angstrom gaps measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29103 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaplan, D. L.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kern, D. G.

C. Pachl, J. A. Todd, D. G. Kern, P. J. Sheridan, S. J. Fong, M. Stempien, B. Hoo, D. Besemer, T. Yeghiazarian, B. Irvine, J. Kolberg, R. Kokka, P. Neuwald, and M. S. Urdea, “Rapid and precise quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma using a branched DNA signal amplification assay,” J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8(5), 446–454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, A. R.

S. J. Park, A. R. Kim, J. T. Hong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Crystallization kinetics of lead halide perovskite film monitored by in-situ terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(2), 401–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, S. W. Jun, A. R. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Terahertz metamaterial sensing on polystyrene microbeads: Shape dependence,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(10), 2150–2155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. S.

O. K. Suwal, J. Rhie, N. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Nonresonant 104 Terahertz Field Enhancement with 5-nm Slits,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45638 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Kim, B. J. Kang, Y. M. Bahk, Y. S. Kim, J. Park, W. T. Kim, J. Rhie, S. Han, H. Jeon, C. H. Park, F. Rotermund, and D. S. Kim, “Tunnelling current-voltage characteristics of Angstrom gaps measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29103 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-S.

H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, S. Han, Y.-M. Bahk, N. Park, and D.-S. Kim, “Colossal absorption of molecules inside single terahertz nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1782–1786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. S.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. Y.

J. Y. Kim, B. J. Kang, Y. M. Bahk, Y. S. Kim, J. Park, W. T. Kim, J. Rhie, S. Han, H. Jeon, C. H. Park, F. Rotermund, and D. S. Kim, “Tunnelling current-voltage characteristics of Angstrom gaps measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29103 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, N.

O. K. Suwal, J. Rhie, N. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Nonresonant 104 Terahertz Field Enhancement with 5-nm Slits,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45638 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, W. T.

J. Y. Kim, B. J. Kang, Y. M. Bahk, Y. S. Kim, J. Park, W. T. Kim, J. Rhie, S. Han, H. Jeon, C. H. Park, F. Rotermund, and D. S. Kim, “Tunnelling current-voltage characteristics of Angstrom gaps measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29103 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. S.

J. Y. Kim, B. J. Kang, Y. M. Bahk, Y. S. Kim, J. Park, W. T. Kim, J. Rhie, S. Han, H. Jeon, C. H. Park, F. Rotermund, and D. S. Kim, “Tunnelling current-voltage characteristics of Angstrom gaps measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29103 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kokka, R.

C. Pachl, J. A. Todd, D. G. Kern, P. J. Sheridan, S. J. Fong, M. Stempien, B. Hoo, D. Besemer, T. Yeghiazarian, B. Irvine, J. Kolberg, R. Kokka, P. Neuwald, and M. S. Urdea, “Rapid and precise quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma using a branched DNA signal amplification assay,” J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8(5), 446–454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolberg, J.

C. Pachl, J. A. Todd, D. G. Kern, P. J. Sheridan, S. J. Fong, M. Stempien, B. Hoo, D. Besemer, T. Yeghiazarian, B. Irvine, J. Kolberg, R. Kokka, P. Neuwald, and M. S. Urdea, “Rapid and precise quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma using a branched DNA signal amplification assay,” J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8(5), 446–454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

S. J. Park, A. R. Kim, J. T. Hong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Crystallization kinetics of lead halide perovskite film monitored by in-situ terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(2), 401–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

Liu, H.

S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

MacColl, R.

S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Menikh, R. MacColl, C. A. Mannella, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz biosensing technology: frontiers and progress,” ChemPhysChem 3(8), 655–658 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mannella, C. A.

A. Menikh, R. MacColl, C. A. Mannella, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz biosensing technology: frontiers and progress,” ChemPhysChem 3(8), 655–658 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mariella, R.

P. Belgrader, W. Benett, D. Hadley, J. Richards, P. Stratton, R. Mariella, and F. Milanovich, “PCR detection of bacteria in seven minutes,” Science 284(5413), 449–450 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCaig, L. F.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, and R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5(5), 607–625 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mead, P. S.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, and R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5(5), 607–625 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menikh, A.

A. Menikh, R. MacColl, C. A. Mannella, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz biosensing technology: frontiers and progress,” ChemPhysChem 3(8), 655–658 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mickan, S. P.

S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milanovich, F.

P. Belgrader, W. Benett, D. Hadley, J. Richards, P. Stratton, R. Mariella, and F. Milanovich, “PCR detection of bacteria in seven minutes,” Science 284(5413), 449–450 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mondia, J. P.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Munch, J.

S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuwald, P.

C. Pachl, J. A. Todd, D. G. Kern, P. J. Sheridan, S. J. Fong, M. Stempien, B. Hoo, D. Besemer, T. Yeghiazarian, B. Irvine, J. Kolberg, R. Kokka, P. Neuwald, and M. S. Urdea, “Rapid and precise quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma using a branched DNA signal amplification assay,” J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8(5), 446–454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. F.

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33(3), 245–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Omenetto, F. G.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pachl, C.

C. Pachl, J. A. Todd, D. G. Kern, P. J. Sheridan, S. J. Fong, M. Stempien, B. Hoo, D. Besemer, T. Yeghiazarian, B. Irvine, J. Kolberg, R. Kokka, P. Neuwald, and M. S. Urdea, “Rapid and precise quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma using a branched DNA signal amplification assay,” J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8(5), 446–454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, X.

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, C. H.

J. Y. Kim, B. J. Kang, Y. M. Bahk, Y. S. Kim, J. Park, W. T. Kim, J. Rhie, S. Han, H. Jeon, C. H. Park, F. Rotermund, and D. S. Kim, “Tunnelling current-voltage characteristics of Angstrom gaps measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29103 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, D. J.

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, H. R.

H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, S. Han, Y.-M. Bahk, N. Park, and D.-S. Kim, “Colossal absorption of molecules inside single terahertz nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1782–1786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.

J. Y. Kim, B. J. Kang, Y. M. Bahk, Y. S. Kim, J. Park, W. T. Kim, J. Rhie, S. Han, H. Jeon, C. H. Park, F. Rotermund, and D. S. Kim, “Tunnelling current-voltage characteristics of Angstrom gaps measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29103 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J. K.

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, J. Y.

S. J. Park, A. R. Kim, J. T. Hong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Crystallization kinetics of lead halide perovskite film monitored by in-situ terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(2), 401–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, N.

H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, S. Han, Y.-M. Bahk, N. Park, and D.-S. Kim, “Colossal absorption of molecules inside single terahertz nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1782–1786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S. J.

A. P. Tenggara, S. J. Park, H. T. Yudistira, Y. H. Ahn, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterials using electrohydrodynamic jet printing for sensitive detection of yeast,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 27(3), 035009 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, A. R. Kim, J. T. Hong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Crystallization kinetics of lead halide perovskite film monitored by in-situ terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(2), 401–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, S. A. N. Yoon, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant measurements of thin films and liquids using terahertz metamaterials,” RSC Advances 6(73), 69381–69386 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, S. W. Jun, A. R. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Terahertz metamaterial sensing on polystyrene microbeads: Shape dependence,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(10), 2150–2155 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, W. K.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quan, B.

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rhie, J.

O. K. Suwal, J. Rhie, N. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Nonresonant 104 Terahertz Field Enhancement with 5-nm Slits,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45638 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Kim, B. J. Kang, Y. M. Bahk, Y. S. Kim, J. Park, W. T. Kim, J. Rhie, S. Han, H. Jeon, C. H. Park, F. Rotermund, and D. S. Kim, “Tunnelling current-voltage characteristics of Angstrom gaps measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29103 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards, J.

P. Belgrader, W. Benett, D. Hadley, J. Richards, P. Stratton, R. Mariella, and F. Milanovich, “PCR detection of bacteria in seven minutes,” Science 284(5413), 449–450 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rotermund, F.

J. Y. Kim, B. J. Kang, Y. M. Bahk, Y. S. Kim, J. Park, W. T. Kim, J. Rhie, S. Han, H. Jeon, C. H. Park, F. Rotermund, and D. S. Kim, “Tunnelling current-voltage characteristics of Angstrom gaps measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29103 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Serita, K.

Shah, C. M.

Shapiro, C.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, and R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5(5), 607–625 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheridan, P. J.

C. Pachl, J. A. Todd, D. G. Kern, P. J. Sheridan, S. J. Fong, M. Stempien, B. Hoo, D. Besemer, T. Yeghiazarian, B. Irvine, J. Kolberg, R. Kokka, P. Neuwald, and M. S. Urdea, “Rapid and precise quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma using a branched DNA signal amplification assay,” J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8(5), 446–454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, G. A.

K. S. Bae and G. A. Shin, “Inactivation of various bacteriophages by different ultraviolet technologies: Development of a reliable virus indicator system for water reuse,” Environ. Eng. Res. 21(4), 350–354 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. A. Shin and M. D. Sobsey, “Inactivation of norovirus by chlorine disinfection of water,” Water Res. 42(17), 4562–4568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siebert, S. M.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yahiaoui, S. Tan, L. Cong, R. Singh, F. Yan, and W. Zhang, “Multispectral terahertz sensing with highly flexible ultrathin metamaterial absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(8), 083103 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slutsker, L.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, and R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5(5), 607–625 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smirnova, E.

Sobsey, M. D.

G. A. Shin and M. D. Sobsey, “Inactivation of norovirus by chlorine disinfection of water,” Water Res. 42(17), 4562–4568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, B. H.

S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sriram, S.

Stempien, M.

C. Pachl, J. A. Todd, D. G. Kern, P. J. Sheridan, S. J. Fong, M. Stempien, B. Hoo, D. Besemer, T. Yeghiazarian, B. Irvine, J. Kolberg, R. Kokka, P. Neuwald, and M. S. Urdea, “Rapid and precise quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma using a branched DNA signal amplification assay,” J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8(5), 446–454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stratton, P.

P. Belgrader, W. Benett, D. Hadley, J. Richards, P. Stratton, R. Mariella, and F. Milanovich, “PCR detection of bacteria in seven minutes,” Science 284(5413), 449–450 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strikwerda, A. C.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Suwal, O. K.

O. K. Suwal, J. Rhie, N. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Nonresonant 104 Terahertz Field Enhancement with 5-nm Slits,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45638 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, S.

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yahiaoui, S. Tan, L. Cong, R. Singh, F. Yan, and W. Zhang, “Multispectral terahertz sensing with highly flexible ultrathin metamaterial absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(8), 083103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tao, H.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tauxe, R. V.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, and R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5(5), 607–625 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tenggara, A. P.

A. P. Tenggara, S. J. Park, H. T. Yudistira, Y. H. Ahn, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterials using electrohydrodynamic jet printing for sensitive detection of yeast,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 27(3), 035009 (2017).
[Crossref]

Todd, J. A.

C. Pachl, J. A. Todd, D. G. Kern, P. J. Sheridan, S. J. Fong, M. Stempien, B. Hoo, D. Besemer, T. Yeghiazarian, B. Irvine, J. Kolberg, R. Kokka, P. Neuwald, and M. S. Urdea, “Rapid and precise quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma using a branched DNA signal amplification assay,” J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8(5), 446–454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonouchi, M.

Urdea, M. S.

C. Pachl, J. A. Todd, D. G. Kern, P. J. Sheridan, S. J. Fong, M. Stempien, B. Hoo, D. Besemer, T. Yeghiazarian, B. Irvine, J. Kolberg, R. Kokka, P. Neuwald, and M. S. Urdea, “Rapid and precise quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma using a branched DNA signal amplification assay,” J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8(5), 446–454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vinjé, J.

J. Vinjé, “Advances in laboratory methods for detection and typing of norovirus,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 53(2), 373–381 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Withayachumnankul, W.

Wu, X.

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yahiaoui, R.

R. Yahiaoui, S. Tan, L. Cong, R. Singh, F. Yan, and W. Zhang, “Multispectral terahertz sensing with highly flexible ultrathin metamaterial absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(8), 083103 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, F.

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yahiaoui, S. Tan, L. Cong, R. Singh, F. Yan, and W. Zhang, “Multispectral terahertz sensing with highly flexible ultrathin metamaterial absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(8), 083103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yeghiazarian, T.

C. Pachl, J. A. Todd, D. G. Kern, P. J. Sheridan, S. J. Fong, M. Stempien, B. Hoo, D. Besemer, T. Yeghiazarian, B. Irvine, J. Kolberg, R. Kokka, P. Neuwald, and M. S. Urdea, “Rapid and precise quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma using a branched DNA signal amplification assay,” J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8(5), 446–454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yim, J. H.

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoon, S. A. N.

S. J. Park, S. A. N. Yoon, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant measurements of thin films and liquids using terahertz metamaterials,” RSC Advances 6(73), 69381–69386 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yudistira, H. T.

A. P. Tenggara, S. J. Park, H. T. Yudistira, Y. H. Ahn, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterials using electrohydrodynamic jet printing for sensitive detection of yeast,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 27(3), 035009 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yahiaoui, S. Tan, L. Cong, R. Singh, F. Yan, and W. Zhang, “Multispectral terahertz sensing with highly flexible ultrathin metamaterial absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(8), 083103 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. C.

A. Menikh, R. MacColl, C. A. Mannella, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz biosensing technology: frontiers and progress,” ChemPhysChem 3(8), 655–658 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zide, J. M. O.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

ChemPhysChem (1)

A. Menikh, R. MacColl, C. A. Mannella, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz biosensing technology: frontiers and progress,” ChemPhysChem 3(8), 655–658 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Emerg. Infect. Dis. (1)

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, and R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5(5), 607–625 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Environ. Eng. Res. (1)

K. S. Bae and G. A. Shin, “Inactivation of various bacteriophages by different ultraviolet technologies: Development of a reliable virus indicator system for water reuse,” Environ. Eng. Res. 21(4), 350–354 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. (1)

C. Pachl, J. A. Todd, D. G. Kern, P. J. Sheridan, S. J. Fong, M. Stempien, B. Hoo, D. Besemer, T. Yeghiazarian, B. Irvine, J. Kolberg, R. Kokka, P. Neuwald, and M. S. Urdea, “Rapid and precise quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma using a branched DNA signal amplification assay,” J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8(5), 446–454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Yahiaoui, S. Tan, L. Cong, R. Singh, F. Yan, and W. Zhang, “Multispectral terahertz sensing with highly flexible ultrathin metamaterial absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(8), 083103 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Clin. Microbiol. (1)

J. Vinjé, “Advances in laboratory methods for detection and typing of norovirus,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 53(2), 373–381 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (1)

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33(3), 245–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

A. P. Tenggara, S. J. Park, H. T. Yudistira, Y. H. Ahn, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterials using electrohydrodynamic jet printing for sensitive detection of yeast,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 27(3), 035009 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (2)

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. H. Yim, J. K. Park, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant engineering of single-walled carbon nanotube films for metamaterials and plasmonic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(22), 3950–3957 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, A. R. Kim, J. T. Hong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Crystallization kinetics of lead halide perovskite film monitored by in-situ terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(2), 401–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

H. R. Park, K. J. Ahn, S. Han, Y.-M. Bahk, N. Park, and D.-S. Kim, “Colossal absorption of molecules inside single terahertz nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1782–1786 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. P. Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, “Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3789–3795 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

RSC Advances (1)

S. J. Park, S. A. N. Yoon, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant measurements of thin films and liquids using terahertz metamaterials,” RSC Advances 6(73), 69381–69386 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

J. Y. Kim, B. J. Kang, Y. M. Bahk, Y. S. Kim, J. Park, W. T. Kim, J. Rhie, S. Han, H. Jeon, C. H. Park, F. Rotermund, and D. S. Kim, “Tunnelling current-voltage characteristics of Angstrom gaps measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29103 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. K. Suwal, J. Rhie, N. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Nonresonant 104 Terahertz Field Enhancement with 5-nm Slits,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45638 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Belgrader, W. Benett, D. Hadley, J. Richards, P. Stratton, R. Mariella, and F. Milanovich, “PCR detection of bacteria in seven minutes,” Science 284(5413), 449–450 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Water Res. (1)

G. A. Shin and M. D. Sobsey, “Inactivation of norovirus by chlorine disinfection of water,” Water Res. 42(17), 4562–4568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. A. Erlich, Principles and Applications for DNA Amplification, PCR Technology (2015), pp. 1–246.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of THz nano-gap metamaterial sensing of viruses. (b) SEM image of viruses deposited on a THz nano-gap metamaterial sensor with a gap width (w) of 200 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of dielectric constant measurements of virus layers using THz metamaterials. THz transmission amplitude versus frequency, before and after deposition of a layer of (b) PRD1 and (c) MS2. A dielectric constant of 3.48 (PRD1) and 3.83 (MS2) is observed from the resonant frequency shift. Plots of frequency-dependent, complex dielectric constants of the (d) PRD1 and (e) MS2 layers, obtained from THz transmission through thick virus films. The thicknesses of the PRD1 and MS2 layers were 300 µm and 150 µm, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized THz transmission amplitudes of THz metamaterials (w = 2 µm) after deposition of (a) PRD1 and (b) MS2 at surface density of 4/µm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized THz transmission amplitudes of THz metamaterials after deposition of PRD1 at various surface densities for gap width of (a) w = 3 µm (b) w = 200 nm. (c) Resonant frequency shift (Δf) as a function of surface density for various gap widths in the range 0.2–3.0 μm. (d) Sensitivity of THz metamaterials for sensing PRD1 as a function of gap width, fitted to a 1/w function.