Abstract

We investigate spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry for monitoring biomolecules at surfaces of nanoparticles. For the modeling of polarimetric light scattering off surface-adsorbed core-shell nanoparticles, we employ an extension of the exact solution for the scattering by particles near a substrate presented by Bobbert and Vlieger, which offers insight beyond that of the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium approximation. Varying thickness and refractive index of a model bio-organic shell results in systematic and characteristic changes in spectroscopic parameters Ψ and Δ. The salient features and trends in modeled spectra are in qualitative agreement with experimental data for antibody immobilization and fibronectin biorecognition at surfaces of gold nanoparticles on a silicon substrate, but achieving a full quantitative agreement will require including additional effects, such as nanoparticle-substrate interactions, into the model.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (4)

M. C. Lo Giudice, L. M. Herda, E. Polo, and K. A. Dawson, “In situ characterization of nanoparticle biomolecular interactions in complex biological media by flow cytometry,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13475 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Spampinato, M. A. Parracino, R. La Spina, F. Rossi, and G. Ceccone, “Surface Analysis of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Thiol-Modified Glucose SAMs for Biosensor Applications,” Front Chem. 4, 8 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Markel, “Introduction to the Maxwell Garnett approximation: tutorial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33(7), 1244–1256 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

H. Y. Xie, M. Chen, Y. C. Chang, and R. S. Moirangthem, “Efficient simulation for light scattering from plasmonic core-shell nanospheres on a substrate for biosensing,” Plasmonics 10(4), 847–860 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. A. Belsey, A. G. Shard, and C. Minelli, “Analysis of protein coatings on gold nanoparticles by XPS and liquid-based particle sizing techniques,” Biointerphases 10(1), 019012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (4)

N. C. Bell, C. Minelli, and A. G. Shard, “Quantitation of IgG protein adsorption to gold nanoparticles using particle size measurement,” Anal. Methods 5(18), 4591–4601 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. P. Fears, D. Y. Petrovykh, and T. D. Clark, “Evaluating protocols and analytical methods for peptide adsorption experiments,” Biointerphases 8(1), 20 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Fears, T. D. Clark, and D. Y. Petrovykh, “Residue-dependent adsorption of model oligopeptides on gold,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(40), 15040–15052 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Cho, H. Holback, K. C. Liu, S. A. Abouelmagd, J. Park, and Y. Yeo, “Nanoparticle characterization: state of the art, challenges, and emerging technologies,” Mol. Pharm. 10(6), 2093–2110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

G. Doria, J. Conde, B. Veigas, L. Giestas, C. Almeida, M. Assunção, J. Rosa, and P. V. Baptista, “Noble metal nanoparticles for biosensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 12(2), 1657–1687 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Leira, T. Sobrino, M. Blanco, F. Campos, M. Rodríguez-Yáñez, M. Castellanos, O. Moldes, M. Millán, A. Dávalos, and J. Castillo, “A higher body temperature is associated with haemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute stroke untreated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA),” Clin. Sci. 122(3), 113–119 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Moirangthem, M. T. Yaseen, P. K. Wei, J. Y. Cheng, and Y. C. Chang, “Enhanced localized plasmonic detections using partially-embedded gold nanoparticles and ellipsometric measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(5), 899–910 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

R. S. Moirangthem, Y. C. Chang, and P. K. Wei, “Ellipsometry study on gold-nanoparticle-coated gold thin film for biosensing application,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(9), 2569–2576 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11), 328–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. S. To and K. S. Midwood, “Plasma and cellular fibronectin: distinct and independent functions during tissue repair,” Fibrogenesis Tissue Repair 4(1), 21 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. E. Nel, L. Mädler, D. Velegol, T. Xia, E. M. V. Hoek, P. Somasundaran, F. Klaessig, V. Castranova, and M. Thompson, “Understanding biophysicochemical interactions at the nano-bio interface,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 543–557 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wan, H. L. Chen, Y. S. Lin, S. Y. Chuang, J. Shieh, and S. H. Chen, “Using spectroscopic ellipsometry to characterize and apply the optical constants of hollow gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 3(4), 960–970 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. Kubo, A. Diaz, Y. Tang, T. S. Mayer, I. C. Khoo, and T. E. Mallouk, “Tunability of the refractive index of gold nanoparticle dispersions,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3418–3423 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. Serena, M. Blanco, M. Castellanos, Y. Silva, J. Vivancos, M. A. Moro, R. Leira, I. Lizasoain, J. Castillo, and A. Dávalos, “The prediction of malignant cerebral infarction by molecular brain barrier disruption markers,” Stroke 36(9), 1921–1926 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

1998 (1)

L. Guemouri, J. Ogier, and J. J. Ramsden, “Optical properties of protein monolayers during assembly,” J. Chem. Phys. 109(8), 3265–3268 (1998).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1986 (2)

P. Bobbert and J. Vlieger, “Light scattering by a Sphere on a Substrate,” Physica A 137(1), 209–242 (1986).
[Crossref]

P. Bobbert, J. Vlieger, and R. Greef, “Light reflection from a Substrate Sparsely seeded with spheres – Comparison with an ellipsometric experiment,” Physica 137(1-2), 243–257 (1986).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

R. Barer and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractive index of concentrated protein solutions,” Nature 173, 821–822 (1954)

1919 (1)

H. Weyl, “The propagation of electromagnetic waves over a plane conductor,” Ann. Phys. 60, 481–500 (1919).
[Crossref]

1908 (1)

G. Mie, “Beitrage zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell Koloïdaler Metallösungen,” Ann. Phys. 330(3), 377–445 (1908).
[Crossref]

Abouelmagd, S. A.

E. J. Cho, H. Holback, K. C. Liu, S. A. Abouelmagd, J. Park, and Y. Yeo, “Nanoparticle characterization: state of the art, challenges, and emerging technologies,” Mol. Pharm. 10(6), 2093–2110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almeida, C.

G. Doria, J. Conde, B. Veigas, L. Giestas, C. Almeida, M. Assunção, J. Rosa, and P. V. Baptista, “Noble metal nanoparticles for biosensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 12(2), 1657–1687 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Araujo, J. R.

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arwin, H.

T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11), 328–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Assunção, M.

G. Doria, J. Conde, B. Veigas, L. Giestas, C. Almeida, M. Assunção, J. Rosa, and P. V. Baptista, “Noble metal nanoparticles for biosensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 12(2), 1657–1687 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baptista, P. V.

G. Doria, J. Conde, B. Veigas, L. Giestas, C. Almeida, M. Assunção, J. Rosa, and P. V. Baptista, “Noble metal nanoparticles for biosensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 12(2), 1657–1687 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barer, R.

R. Barer and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractive index of concentrated protein solutions,” Nature 173, 821–822 (1954)

Bell, N. C.

N. C. Bell, C. Minelli, and A. G. Shard, “Quantitation of IgG protein adsorption to gold nanoparticles using particle size measurement,” Anal. Methods 5(18), 4591–4601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Belsey, N. A.

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Belsey, A. G. Shard, and C. Minelli, “Analysis of protein coatings on gold nanoparticles by XPS and liquid-based particle sizing techniques,” Biointerphases 10(1), 019012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanco, M.

R. Leira, T. Sobrino, M. Blanco, F. Campos, M. Rodríguez-Yáñez, M. Castellanos, O. Moldes, M. Millán, A. Dávalos, and J. Castillo, “A higher body temperature is associated with haemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute stroke untreated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA),” Clin. Sci. 122(3), 113–119 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Serena, M. Blanco, M. Castellanos, Y. Silva, J. Vivancos, M. A. Moro, R. Leira, I. Lizasoain, J. Castillo, and A. Dávalos, “The prediction of malignant cerebral infarction by molecular brain barrier disruption markers,” Stroke 36(9), 1921–1926 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bobbert, P.

P. Bobbert and J. Vlieger, “Light scattering by a Sphere on a Substrate,” Physica A 137(1), 209–242 (1986).
[Crossref]

P. Bobbert, J. Vlieger, and R. Greef, “Light reflection from a Substrate Sparsely seeded with spheres – Comparison with an ellipsometric experiment,” Physica 137(1-2), 243–257 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bock, B.

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brüner, P.

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campos, F.

R. Leira, T. Sobrino, M. Blanco, F. Campos, M. Rodríguez-Yáñez, M. Castellanos, O. Moldes, M. Millán, A. Dávalos, and J. Castillo, “A higher body temperature is associated with haemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute stroke untreated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA),” Clin. Sci. 122(3), 113–119 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cant, D. J.

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castellanos, M.

R. Leira, T. Sobrino, M. Blanco, F. Campos, M. Rodríguez-Yáñez, M. Castellanos, O. Moldes, M. Millán, A. Dávalos, and J. Castillo, “A higher body temperature is associated with haemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute stroke untreated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA),” Clin. Sci. 122(3), 113–119 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Serena, M. Blanco, M. Castellanos, Y. Silva, J. Vivancos, M. A. Moro, R. Leira, I. Lizasoain, J. Castillo, and A. Dávalos, “The prediction of malignant cerebral infarction by molecular brain barrier disruption markers,” Stroke 36(9), 1921–1926 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castillo, J.

R. Leira, T. Sobrino, M. Blanco, F. Campos, M. Rodríguez-Yáñez, M. Castellanos, O. Moldes, M. Millán, A. Dávalos, and J. Castillo, “A higher body temperature is associated with haemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute stroke untreated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA),” Clin. Sci. 122(3), 113–119 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Serena, M. Blanco, M. Castellanos, Y. Silva, J. Vivancos, M. A. Moro, R. Leira, I. Lizasoain, J. Castillo, and A. Dávalos, “The prediction of malignant cerebral infarction by molecular brain barrier disruption markers,” Stroke 36(9), 1921–1926 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castner, D. G.

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castranova, V.

A. E. Nel, L. Mädler, D. Velegol, T. Xia, E. M. V. Hoek, P. Somasundaran, F. Klaessig, V. Castranova, and M. Thompson, “Understanding biophysicochemical interactions at the nano-bio interface,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 543–557 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ceccone, G.

V. Spampinato, M. A. Parracino, R. La Spina, F. Rossi, and G. Ceccone, “Surface Analysis of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Thiol-Modified Glucose SAMs for Biosensor Applications,” Front Chem. 4, 8 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Y. C.

Chen, H. L.

D. Wan, H. L. Chen, Y. S. Lin, S. Y. Chuang, J. Shieh, and S. H. Chen, “Using spectroscopic ellipsometry to characterize and apply the optical constants of hollow gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 3(4), 960–970 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

H. Y. Xie, M. Chen, Y. C. Chang, and R. S. Moirangthem, “Efficient simulation for light scattering from plasmonic core-shell nanospheres on a substrate for biosensing,” Plasmonics 10(4), 847–860 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. H.

D. Wan, H. L. Chen, Y. S. Lin, S. Y. Chuang, J. Shieh, and S. H. Chen, “Using spectroscopic ellipsometry to characterize and apply the optical constants of hollow gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 3(4), 960–970 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. Y.

Cho, E. J.

E. J. Cho, H. Holback, K. C. Liu, S. A. Abouelmagd, J. Park, and Y. Yeo, “Nanoparticle characterization: state of the art, challenges, and emerging technologies,” Mol. Pharm. 10(6), 2093–2110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuang, S. Y.

D. Wan, H. L. Chen, Y. S. Lin, S. Y. Chuang, J. Shieh, and S. H. Chen, “Using spectroscopic ellipsometry to characterize and apply the optical constants of hollow gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 3(4), 960–970 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, T. D.

K. P. Fears, D. Y. Petrovykh, and T. D. Clark, “Evaluating protocols and analytical methods for peptide adsorption experiments,” Biointerphases 8(1), 20 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Fears, T. D. Clark, and D. Y. Petrovykh, “Residue-dependent adsorption of model oligopeptides on gold,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(40), 15040–15052 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conde, J.

G. Doria, J. Conde, B. Veigas, L. Giestas, C. Almeida, M. Assunção, J. Rosa, and P. V. Baptista, “Noble metal nanoparticles for biosensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 12(2), 1657–1687 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Counsell, J. D.

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dávalos, A.

R. Leira, T. Sobrino, M. Blanco, F. Campos, M. Rodríguez-Yáñez, M. Castellanos, O. Moldes, M. Millán, A. Dávalos, and J. Castillo, “A higher body temperature is associated with haemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute stroke untreated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA),” Clin. Sci. 122(3), 113–119 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Serena, M. Blanco, M. Castellanos, Y. Silva, J. Vivancos, M. A. Moro, R. Leira, I. Lizasoain, J. Castillo, and A. Dávalos, “The prediction of malignant cerebral infarction by molecular brain barrier disruption markers,” Stroke 36(9), 1921–1926 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dawson, K. A.

M. C. Lo Giudice, L. M. Herda, E. Polo, and K. A. Dawson, “In situ characterization of nanoparticle biomolecular interactions in complex biological media by flow cytometry,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13475 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Beule, P. A.

Diaz, A.

S. Kubo, A. Diaz, Y. Tang, T. S. Mayer, I. C. Khoo, and T. E. Mallouk, “Tunability of the refractive index of gold nanoparticle dispersions,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3418–3423 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dietrich, P. M.

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
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G. Doria, J. Conde, B. Veigas, L. Giestas, C. Almeida, M. Assunção, J. Rosa, and P. V. Baptista, “Noble metal nanoparticles for biosensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 12(2), 1657–1687 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Ehrman, S. H.

Engelhard, M. H.

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fearn, S.

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fears, K. P.

K. P. Fears, T. D. Clark, and D. Y. Petrovykh, “Residue-dependent adsorption of model oligopeptides on gold,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(40), 15040–15052 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Fears, D. Y. Petrovykh, and T. D. Clark, “Evaluating protocols and analytical methods for peptide adsorption experiments,” Biointerphases 8(1), 20 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galhardo, C. E.

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Germer, T. A.

Giestas, L.

G. Doria, J. Conde, B. Veigas, L. Giestas, C. Almeida, M. Assunção, J. Rosa, and P. V. Baptista, “Noble metal nanoparticles for biosensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 12(2), 1657–1687 (2012).
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P. Bobbert, J. Vlieger, and R. Greef, “Light reflection from a Substrate Sparsely seeded with spheres – Comparison with an ellipsometric experiment,” Physica 137(1-2), 243–257 (1986).
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L. Guemouri, J. Ogier, and J. J. Ramsden, “Optical properties of protein monolayers during assembly,” J. Chem. Phys. 109(8), 3265–3268 (1998).
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Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herda, L. M.

M. C. Lo Giudice, L. M. Herda, E. Polo, and K. A. Dawson, “In situ characterization of nanoparticle biomolecular interactions in complex biological media by flow cytometry,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13475 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoek, E. M. V.

A. E. Nel, L. Mädler, D. Velegol, T. Xia, E. M. V. Hoek, P. Somasundaran, F. Klaessig, V. Castranova, and M. Thompson, “Understanding biophysicochemical interactions at the nano-bio interface,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 543–557 (2009).
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Holback, H.

E. J. Cho, H. Holback, K. C. Liu, S. A. Abouelmagd, J. Park, and Y. Yeo, “Nanoparticle characterization: state of the art, challenges, and emerging technologies,” Mol. Pharm. 10(6), 2093–2110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalbe, H.

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
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Kaplan, B.

Khoo, I. C.

S. Kubo, A. Diaz, Y. Tang, T. S. Mayer, I. C. Khoo, and T. E. Mallouk, “Tunability of the refractive index of gold nanoparticle dispersions,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3418–3423 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. H.

Klaessig, F.

A. E. Nel, L. Mädler, D. Velegol, T. Xia, E. M. V. Hoek, P. Somasundaran, F. Klaessig, V. Castranova, and M. Thompson, “Understanding biophysicochemical interactions at the nano-bio interface,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 543–557 (2009).
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Kubo, S.

S. Kubo, A. Diaz, Y. Tang, T. S. Mayer, I. C. Khoo, and T. E. Mallouk, “Tunability of the refractive index of gold nanoparticle dispersions,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3418–3423 (2007).
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La Spina, R.

V. Spampinato, M. A. Parracino, R. La Spina, F. Rossi, and G. Ceccone, “Surface Analysis of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Thiol-Modified Glucose SAMs for Biosensor Applications,” Front Chem. 4, 8 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lartundo-Rojas, L.

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
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Leira, R.

R. Leira, T. Sobrino, M. Blanco, F. Campos, M. Rodríguez-Yáñez, M. Castellanos, O. Moldes, M. Millán, A. Dávalos, and J. Castillo, “A higher body temperature is associated with haemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute stroke untreated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA),” Clin. Sci. 122(3), 113–119 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Serena, M. Blanco, M. Castellanos, Y. Silva, J. Vivancos, M. A. Moro, R. Leira, I. Lizasoain, J. Castillo, and A. Dávalos, “The prediction of malignant cerebral infarction by molecular brain barrier disruption markers,” Stroke 36(9), 1921–1926 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Y. S.

D. Wan, H. L. Chen, Y. S. Lin, S. Y. Chuang, J. Shieh, and S. H. Chen, “Using spectroscopic ellipsometry to characterize and apply the optical constants of hollow gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 3(4), 960–970 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, K. C.

E. J. Cho, H. Holback, K. C. Liu, S. A. Abouelmagd, J. Park, and Y. Yeo, “Nanoparticle characterization: state of the art, challenges, and emerging technologies,” Mol. Pharm. 10(6), 2093–2110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lizasoain, I.

J. Serena, M. Blanco, M. Castellanos, Y. Silva, J. Vivancos, M. A. Moro, R. Leira, I. Lizasoain, J. Castillo, and A. Dávalos, “The prediction of malignant cerebral infarction by molecular brain barrier disruption markers,” Stroke 36(9), 1921–1926 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo Giudice, M. C.

M. C. Lo Giudice, L. M. Herda, E. Polo, and K. A. Dawson, “In situ characterization of nanoparticle biomolecular interactions in complex biological media by flow cytometry,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13475 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luftman, H. S.

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mädler, L.

A. E. Nel, L. Mädler, D. Velegol, T. Xia, E. M. V. Hoek, P. Somasundaran, F. Klaessig, V. Castranova, and M. Thompson, “Understanding biophysicochemical interactions at the nano-bio interface,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 543–557 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mallouk, T. E.

S. Kubo, A. Diaz, Y. Tang, T. S. Mayer, I. C. Khoo, and T. E. Mallouk, “Tunability of the refractive index of gold nanoparticle dispersions,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3418–3423 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markel, V. A.

Mayer, T. S.

S. Kubo, A. Diaz, Y. Tang, T. S. Mayer, I. C. Khoo, and T. E. Mallouk, “Tunability of the refractive index of gold nanoparticle dispersions,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3418–3423 (2007).
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Midwood, K. S.

W. S. To and K. S. Midwood, “Plasma and cellular fibronectin: distinct and independent functions during tissue repair,” Fibrogenesis Tissue Repair 4(1), 21 (2011).
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Mie, G.

G. Mie, “Beitrage zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell Koloïdaler Metallösungen,” Ann. Phys. 330(3), 377–445 (1908).
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Millán, M.

R. Leira, T. Sobrino, M. Blanco, F. Campos, M. Rodríguez-Yáñez, M. Castellanos, O. Moldes, M. Millán, A. Dávalos, and J. Castillo, “A higher body temperature is associated with haemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute stroke untreated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA),” Clin. Sci. 122(3), 113–119 (2012).
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Minelli, C.

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
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N. A. Belsey, A. G. Shard, and C. Minelli, “Analysis of protein coatings on gold nanoparticles by XPS and liquid-based particle sizing techniques,” Biointerphases 10(1), 019012 (2015).
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N. C. Bell, C. Minelli, and A. G. Shard, “Quantitation of IgG protein adsorption to gold nanoparticles using particle size measurement,” Anal. Methods 5(18), 4591–4601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moirangthem, R. S.

Moldes, O.

R. Leira, T. Sobrino, M. Blanco, F. Campos, M. Rodríguez-Yáñez, M. Castellanos, O. Moldes, M. Millán, A. Dávalos, and J. Castillo, “A higher body temperature is associated with haemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute stroke untreated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA),” Clin. Sci. 122(3), 113–119 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moro, M. A.

J. Serena, M. Blanco, M. Castellanos, Y. Silva, J. Vivancos, M. A. Moro, R. Leira, I. Lizasoain, J. Castillo, and A. Dávalos, “The prediction of malignant cerebral infarction by molecular brain barrier disruption markers,” Stroke 36(9), 1921–1926 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mulholland, G. W.

Nel, A. E.

A. E. Nel, L. Mädler, D. Velegol, T. Xia, E. M. V. Hoek, P. Somasundaran, F. Klaessig, V. Castranova, and M. Thompson, “Understanding biophysicochemical interactions at the nano-bio interface,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 543–557 (2009).
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Nunney, T. S.

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
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T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11), 328–376 (2011).
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L. Guemouri, J. Ogier, and J. J. Ramsden, “Optical properties of protein monolayers during assembly,” J. Chem. Phys. 109(8), 3265–3268 (1998).
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Park, J.

E. J. Cho, H. Holback, K. C. Liu, S. A. Abouelmagd, J. Park, and Y. Yeo, “Nanoparticle characterization: state of the art, challenges, and emerging technologies,” Mol. Pharm. 10(6), 2093–2110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parracino, M. A.

V. Spampinato, M. A. Parracino, R. La Spina, F. Rossi, and G. Ceccone, “Surface Analysis of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Thiol-Modified Glucose SAMs for Biosensor Applications,” Front Chem. 4, 8 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrovykh, D. Y.

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Yaseen, M. T.

Yeo, Y.

E. J. Cho, H. Holback, K. C. Liu, S. A. Abouelmagd, J. Park, and Y. Yeo, “Nanoparticle characterization: state of the art, challenges, and emerging technologies,” Mol. Pharm. 10(6), 2093–2110 (2013).
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Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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ACS Nano (1)

D. Wan, H. L. Chen, Y. S. Lin, S. Y. Chuang, J. Shieh, and S. H. Chen, “Using spectroscopic ellipsometry to characterize and apply the optical constants of hollow gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 3(4), 960–970 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Methods (1)

N. C. Bell, C. Minelli, and A. G. Shard, “Quantitation of IgG protein adsorption to gold nanoparticles using particle size measurement,” Anal. Methods 5(18), 4591–4601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ann. Phys. (2)

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[Crossref]

H. Weyl, “The propagation of electromagnetic waves over a plane conductor,” Ann. Phys. 60, 481–500 (1919).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biointerphases (2)

K. P. Fears, D. Y. Petrovykh, and T. D. Clark, “Evaluating protocols and analytical methods for peptide adsorption experiments,” Biointerphases 8(1), 20 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Belsey, A. G. Shard, and C. Minelli, “Analysis of protein coatings on gold nanoparticles by XPS and liquid-based particle sizing techniques,” Biointerphases 10(1), 019012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Clin. Sci. (1)

R. Leira, T. Sobrino, M. Blanco, F. Campos, M. Rodríguez-Yáñez, M. Castellanos, O. Moldes, M. Millán, A. Dávalos, and J. Castillo, “A higher body temperature is associated with haemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute stroke untreated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA),” Clin. Sci. 122(3), 113–119 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fibrogenesis Tissue Repair (1)

W. S. To and K. S. Midwood, “Plasma and cellular fibronectin: distinct and independent functions during tissue repair,” Fibrogenesis Tissue Repair 4(1), 21 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Front Chem. (1)

V. Spampinato, M. A. Parracino, R. La Spina, F. Rossi, and G. Ceccone, “Surface Analysis of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Thiol-Modified Glucose SAMs for Biosensor Applications,” Front Chem. 4, 8 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces (1)

N. A. Belsey, D. J. Cant, C. Minelli, J. R. Araujo, B. Bock, P. Brüner, D. G. Castner, G. Ceccone, J. D. Counsell, P. M. Dietrich, M. H. Engelhard, S. Fearn, C. E. Galhardo, H. Kalbe, J. Won Kim, L. Lartundo-Rojas, H. S. Luftman, T. S. Nunney, J. Pseiner, E. F. Smith, V. Spampinato, J. M. Sturm, A. G. Thomas, J. P. Treacy, L. Veith, M. Wagstaffe, H. Wang, M. Wang, Y. C. Wang, W. Werner, L. Yang, and A. G. Shard, “Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study on measuring the thickness and chemistry of nanoparticle coatings using XPS and LEIS,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 120(42), 24070–24079 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

K. P. Fears, T. D. Clark, and D. Y. Petrovykh, “Residue-dependent adsorption of model oligopeptides on gold,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(40), 15040–15052 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Guemouri, J. Ogier, and J. J. Ramsden, “Optical properties of protein monolayers during assembly,” J. Chem. Phys. 109(8), 3265–3268 (1998).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Mol. Pharm. (1)

E. J. Cho, H. Holback, K. C. Liu, S. A. Abouelmagd, J. Park, and Y. Yeo, “Nanoparticle characterization: state of the art, challenges, and emerging technologies,” Mol. Pharm. 10(6), 2093–2110 (2013).
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Nano Lett. (1)

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Nat. Commun. (1)

M. C. Lo Giudice, L. M. Herda, E. Polo, and K. A. Dawson, “In situ characterization of nanoparticle biomolecular interactions in complex biological media by flow cytometry,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13475 (2016).
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Nat. Mater. (2)

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Nature (1)

R. Barer and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractive index of concentrated protein solutions,” Nature 173, 821–822 (1954)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Physica (1)

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[Crossref]

Physica A (1)

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[Crossref]

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H. Y. Xie, M. Chen, Y. C. Chang, and R. S. Moirangthem, “Efficient simulation for light scattering from plasmonic core-shell nanospheres on a substrate for biosensing,” Plasmonics 10(4), 847–860 (2015).
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Prog. Surf. Sci. (1)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Light scattering geometry considered in the model. A particle with a core dielectric constant εp with a shell of multiple coatings (εa, εb, …) is placed next to a substrate (εs) at a distance.γ The angle of incidence of the light is θ i ;VI and VIR are the incident and reflected waves from the surface, respectively; WS is the light scattered directly by the sphere and WSR is the light scattered by the sphere and reflected by the substrate surface. The dielectric constant ε0 corresponds to the environment surrounding the sphere.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic view of the functionalization process and the final detection/biorecognition model system. a) Native oxide on Si surface functionalized with PLL; b) AuNPs adsorbed on the PLL-modified surface; c) AuNPs functionalized with a heterobifunctional linker; d) antibody immobilization on the AuNP surface; e) target protein capture/recognition by the antibody.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM image of AuNPs (ca 20 nm diameter) on PLL-functionalized Si substrate. Surface density is ca 20 particles/µm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ellipsometric parameters, (Ψ and Δ for AuNPs on model substrates calculated from Bobbert-Vlieger model assuming different surface densities. Nanoparticle gold core diameter is 20 nm, AOI is 65°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ψ and Δ calculated through Bobbert Vlieger model of AuNPs covered with a 10 nm shell having different refractive index values. Surface density is 20 particles/µm2, gold core diameter is 20 nm, AOI is 65°. Arrows are added as guides-for-the-eye to highlight the trend.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ψ and Δ calculated through Bobbert-Vlieger model of AuNPs with different shell thickness. Surface density is 20 particles/µm2, gold core diameter is 20 nm, AOI is 65° and refractive index for the shell is 1.4. Arrows are added as guides-for-the-eye to highlight the trend. Inset: δ Ψ=Ψ(450nm)Ψ(λ) and δ Δ=Δ(450nm)Δ(λ)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ψ and Δ calculated through Bobbert Vlieger model of bare AuNPs having different diameters.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison between Bobbert-Vlieger model (AuNPs 20 nm diameter at 20 particles/µm2) and Maxwell-Garnett model (layer of gold of 20 nm and 10 nm thickness and 99% void).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental ellipsometry data for a model implementation of an immunoassay based on AuNPs.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Predictions of the Bobbert-Vlieger model for a model implementation of an immunoassay based on AuNPs.

Equations (2)

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W s = ( 1BA ) 1 B( V I + V IR ),
R p R s =tan( Ψ ) e iΔ

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