Abstract

Label-free multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) has recently shown superior performance in visualizing the morphology of human vasculature, especially of smaller vessels, compared to ultrasonography. Herein, we extend these observations towards MSOT interrogation of macrovascular endothelial function. We employed a real-time handheld MSOT scanner to assess flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), a technique used to characterize endothelial function. A data processing scheme was developed to quantify the dimensions and diameter changes of arteries in humans and determine wall distensibility parameters. By enabling high-resolution delineation of the blood-vessel wall in a cross-sectional fashion, the findings suggest MSOT as a capable alternative to ultrasonography for clinical FMD measurements.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  23. B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

A. Taruttis, A. C. Timmermans, P. C. Wouters, M. Kacprowicz, G. M. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, “Optoacoustic Imaging of Human Vasculature: Feasibility by Using a Handheld Probe,” Radiology 281(1), 256–263 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

A. Taruttis and V. Ntziachristos, “Advances in real-time multispectral optoacoustic imaging and its applications,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 219–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. Dima, N. C. Burton, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral optoacoustic tomography at 64, 128, and 256 channels,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3), 036021 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rosenthal, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, “Acoustic Inversion in Optoacoustic Tomography: A Review,” Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. 9(4), 318–336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

X. L. Deán-Ben and D. Razansky, “Functional optoacoustic human angiography with handheld video rate three dimensional scanner,” Photoacoustics 1(3-4), 68–73 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Charakida, E. de Groot, S. P. Loukogeorgakis, T. Khan, T. Lüscher, J. J. Kastelein, T. Gasser, and J. E. Deanfield, “Variability and reproducibility of flow-mediated dilatation in a multicentre clinical trial,” Eur. Heart J. 34(45), 3501–3507 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

A. Y. Nasr, “The radial artery and its variations: anatomical study and clinical implications,” Folia Morphol. (Warsz) 71(4), 252–262 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dima and V. Ntziachristos, “Non-invasive carotid imaging using optoacoustic tomography,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25044–25057 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Baltgaile, “Arterial wall dynamics,” Perspectives in Medicine 1, 146–151 (2012).

2011 (1)

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Development of a catheter for combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(1), 014901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

F. A. Chaudhry, S. Bangalore, S. Upadya, A. Shah, H. Eftekhari, D. Pudpud, and C. M. Sehgal, “Cross-sectional imaging identifies flow-mediated vasodilatation more accurately compared with longitudinal imaging,” J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 20(12), 1380–1385 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Peretz, D. F. Leotta, J. H. Sullivan, C. A. Trenga, F. N. Sands, M. R. Aulet, M. Paun, E. A. Gill, and J. D. Kaufman, “Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery: an investigation of methods requiring further standardization,” BMC Cardiovasc. Disord. 7(1), 11 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

F. U. Mattace-Raso, T. J. van der Cammen, A. Hofman, N. M. van Popele, M. L. Bos, M. A. Schalekamp, R. Asmar, R. S. Reneman, A. P. Hoeks, M. M. Breteler, and J. C. Witteman, “Arterial stiffness and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: the Rotterdam Study,” Circulation 113(5), 657–663 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Huang and J. A. Vita, “Effects of systemic inflammation on endothelium-dependent vasodilation,” Trends Cardiovasc. Med. 16(1), 15–20 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

H. A. R. Hadi, C. S. Carr, and J. Al Suwaidi, “Endothelial dysfunction: cardiovascular risk factors, therapy, and outcome,” Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 1(3), 183–198 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004 (1)

R. G. Kolkman, J. H. Klaessens, E. Hondebrink, J. C. Hopman, F. F. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, J. M. Thijssen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic determination of blood vessel diameter,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(20), 4745–4756 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

M. C. Corretti, T. J. Anderson, E. J. Benjamin, D. Celermajer, F. Charbonneau, M. A. Creager, J. Deanfield, H. Drexler, M. Gerhard-Herman, D. Herrington, P. Vallance, J. Vita, and R. Vogel, “Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: a report of the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(2), 257–265 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Dalli, L. Segarra, J. Ruvira, E. Esteban, A. Cabrera, R. Lliso, E. López, E. Llopis, and J. F. Sotillo, “[Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in healthy men, men with risk factors, and men with acute myocardial infarction. Importance of occlusion-cuff position],” Rev. Esp. Cardiol. 55(9), 928–935 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. F. O’Rourke, A. Pauca, and X. J. Jiang, “Pulse wave analysis,” Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 51(6), 507–522 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Fitzgibbon, M. Pilu, and R. Fisher, “Direct least square fitting of ellipses,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 21(5), 476–480 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. R. Adams, J. Robinson, K. E. Sorensen, J. E. Deanfield, and D. S. Celermajer, “Normal ranges for brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation: A non-invasive ultrasound test of arterial endothelial function,” J. Vasc. Invest. 2(3), 146–150 (1996).

1995 (1)

M. A. Gimbrone., “Vascular endothelium: an integrator of pathophysiologic stimuli in atherosclerosis,” Am. J. Cardiol. 75(6), 67B–70B (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

N. Otsu, “A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[Crossref]

Adams, M. R.

M. R. Adams, J. Robinson, K. E. Sorensen, J. E. Deanfield, and D. S. Celermajer, “Normal ranges for brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation: A non-invasive ultrasound test of arterial endothelial function,” J. Vasc. Invest. 2(3), 146–150 (1996).

Aikawa, E.

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al Suwaidi, J.

H. A. R. Hadi, C. S. Carr, and J. Al Suwaidi, “Endothelial dysfunction: cardiovascular risk factors, therapy, and outcome,” Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 1(3), 183–198 (2005).
[PubMed]

Amirian, J.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, T. J.

M. C. Corretti, T. J. Anderson, E. J. Benjamin, D. Celermajer, F. Charbonneau, M. A. Creager, J. Deanfield, H. Drexler, M. Gerhard-Herman, D. Herrington, P. Vallance, J. Vita, and R. Vogel, “Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: a report of the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(2), 257–265 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asmar, R.

F. U. Mattace-Raso, T. J. van der Cammen, A. Hofman, N. M. van Popele, M. L. Bos, M. A. Schalekamp, R. Asmar, R. S. Reneman, A. P. Hoeks, M. M. Breteler, and J. C. Witteman, “Arterial stiffness and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: the Rotterdam Study,” Circulation 113(5), 657–663 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aulet, M. R.

A. Peretz, D. F. Leotta, J. H. Sullivan, C. A. Trenga, F. N. Sands, M. R. Aulet, M. Paun, E. A. Gill, and J. D. Kaufman, “Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery: an investigation of methods requiring further standardization,” BMC Cardiovasc. Disord. 7(1), 11 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltgaile, G.

G. Baltgaile, “Arterial wall dynamics,” Perspectives in Medicine 1, 146–151 (2012).

Bangalore, S.

F. A. Chaudhry, S. Bangalore, S. Upadya, A. Shah, H. Eftekhari, D. Pudpud, and C. M. Sehgal, “Cross-sectional imaging identifies flow-mediated vasodilatation more accurately compared with longitudinal imaging,” J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 20(12), 1380–1385 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benjamin, E. J.

M. C. Corretti, T. J. Anderson, E. J. Benjamin, D. Celermajer, F. Charbonneau, M. A. Creager, J. Deanfield, H. Drexler, M. Gerhard-Herman, D. Herrington, P. Vallance, J. Vita, and R. Vogel, “Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: a report of the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(2), 257–265 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bos, M. L.

F. U. Mattace-Raso, T. J. van der Cammen, A. Hofman, N. M. van Popele, M. L. Bos, M. A. Schalekamp, R. Asmar, R. S. Reneman, A. P. Hoeks, M. M. Breteler, and J. C. Witteman, “Arterial stiffness and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: the Rotterdam Study,” Circulation 113(5), 657–663 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Botnaru, I.

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breteler, M. M.

F. U. Mattace-Raso, T. J. van der Cammen, A. Hofman, N. M. van Popele, M. L. Bos, M. A. Schalekamp, R. Asmar, R. S. Reneman, A. P. Hoeks, M. M. Breteler, and J. C. Witteman, “Arterial stiffness and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: the Rotterdam Study,” Circulation 113(5), 657–663 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burton, N. C.

A. Dima, N. C. Burton, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral optoacoustic tomography at 64, 128, and 256 channels,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3), 036021 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cabrera, A.

E. Dalli, L. Segarra, J. Ruvira, E. Esteban, A. Cabrera, R. Lliso, E. López, E. Llopis, and J. F. Sotillo, “[Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in healthy men, men with risk factors, and men with acute myocardial infarction. Importance of occlusion-cuff position],” Rev. Esp. Cardiol. 55(9), 928–935 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calfon, M. A.

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carr, C. S.

H. A. R. Hadi, C. S. Carr, and J. Al Suwaidi, “Endothelial dysfunction: cardiovascular risk factors, therapy, and outcome,” Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 1(3), 183–198 (2005).
[PubMed]

Celermajer, D.

M. C. Corretti, T. J. Anderson, E. J. Benjamin, D. Celermajer, F. Charbonneau, M. A. Creager, J. Deanfield, H. Drexler, M. Gerhard-Herman, D. Herrington, P. Vallance, J. Vita, and R. Vogel, “Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: a report of the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(2), 257–265 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Celermajer, D. S.

M. R. Adams, J. Robinson, K. E. Sorensen, J. E. Deanfield, and D. S. Celermajer, “Normal ranges for brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation: A non-invasive ultrasound test of arterial endothelial function,” J. Vasc. Invest. 2(3), 146–150 (1996).

Charakida, M.

M. Charakida, E. de Groot, S. P. Loukogeorgakis, T. Khan, T. Lüscher, J. J. Kastelein, T. Gasser, and J. E. Deanfield, “Variability and reproducibility of flow-mediated dilatation in a multicentre clinical trial,” Eur. Heart J. 34(45), 3501–3507 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charbonneau, F.

M. C. Corretti, T. J. Anderson, E. J. Benjamin, D. Celermajer, F. Charbonneau, M. A. Creager, J. Deanfield, H. Drexler, M. Gerhard-Herman, D. Herrington, P. Vallance, J. Vita, and R. Vogel, “Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: a report of the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(2), 257–265 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaudhry, F. A.

F. A. Chaudhry, S. Bangalore, S. Upadya, A. Shah, H. Eftekhari, D. Pudpud, and C. M. Sehgal, “Cross-sectional imaging identifies flow-mediated vasodilatation more accurately compared with longitudinal imaging,” J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 20(12), 1380–1385 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corretti, M. C.

M. C. Corretti, T. J. Anderson, E. J. Benjamin, D. Celermajer, F. Charbonneau, M. A. Creager, J. Deanfield, H. Drexler, M. Gerhard-Herman, D. Herrington, P. Vallance, J. Vita, and R. Vogel, “Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: a report of the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(2), 257–265 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Creager, M. A.

M. C. Corretti, T. J. Anderson, E. J. Benjamin, D. Celermajer, F. Charbonneau, M. A. Creager, J. Deanfield, H. Drexler, M. Gerhard-Herman, D. Herrington, P. Vallance, J. Vita, and R. Vogel, “Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: a report of the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(2), 257–265 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalli, E.

E. Dalli, L. Segarra, J. Ruvira, E. Esteban, A. Cabrera, R. Lliso, E. López, E. Llopis, and J. F. Sotillo, “[Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in healthy men, men with risk factors, and men with acute myocardial infarction. Importance of occlusion-cuff position],” Rev. Esp. Cardiol. 55(9), 928–935 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Groot, E.

M. Charakida, E. de Groot, S. P. Loukogeorgakis, T. Khan, T. Lüscher, J. J. Kastelein, T. Gasser, and J. E. Deanfield, “Variability and reproducibility of flow-mediated dilatation in a multicentre clinical trial,” Eur. Heart J. 34(45), 3501–3507 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Mul, F. F.

R. G. Kolkman, J. H. Klaessens, E. Hondebrink, J. C. Hopman, F. F. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, J. M. Thijssen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic determination of blood vessel diameter,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(20), 4745–4756 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deán-Ben, X. L.

X. L. Deán-Ben and D. Razansky, “Functional optoacoustic human angiography with handheld video rate three dimensional scanner,” Photoacoustics 1(3-4), 68–73 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deanfield, J.

M. C. Corretti, T. J. Anderson, E. J. Benjamin, D. Celermajer, F. Charbonneau, M. A. Creager, J. Deanfield, H. Drexler, M. Gerhard-Herman, D. Herrington, P. Vallance, J. Vita, and R. Vogel, “Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: a report of the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(2), 257–265 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deanfield, J. E.

M. Charakida, E. de Groot, S. P. Loukogeorgakis, T. Khan, T. Lüscher, J. J. Kastelein, T. Gasser, and J. E. Deanfield, “Variability and reproducibility of flow-mediated dilatation in a multicentre clinical trial,” Eur. Heart J. 34(45), 3501–3507 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Adams, J. Robinson, K. E. Sorensen, J. E. Deanfield, and D. S. Celermajer, “Normal ranges for brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation: A non-invasive ultrasound test of arterial endothelial function,” J. Vasc. Invest. 2(3), 146–150 (1996).

Dima, A.

A. Dima, N. C. Burton, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral optoacoustic tomography at 64, 128, and 256 channels,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3), 036021 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dima and V. Ntziachristos, “Non-invasive carotid imaging using optoacoustic tomography,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25044–25057 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. C. Corretti, T. J. Anderson, E. J. Benjamin, D. Celermajer, F. Charbonneau, M. A. Creager, J. Deanfield, H. Drexler, M. Gerhard-Herman, D. Herrington, P. Vallance, J. Vita, and R. Vogel, “Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: a report of the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(2), 257–265 (2002).
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F. A. Chaudhry, S. Bangalore, S. Upadya, A. Shah, H. Eftekhari, D. Pudpud, and C. M. Sehgal, “Cross-sectional imaging identifies flow-mediated vasodilatation more accurately compared with longitudinal imaging,” J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 20(12), 1380–1385 (2007).
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B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
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A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Development of a catheter for combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(1), 014901 (2010).
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E. Dalli, L. Segarra, J. Ruvira, E. Esteban, A. Cabrera, R. Lliso, E. López, E. Llopis, and J. F. Sotillo, “[Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in healthy men, men with risk factors, and men with acute myocardial infarction. Importance of occlusion-cuff position],” Rev. Esp. Cardiol. 55(9), 928–935 (2002).
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A. Fitzgibbon, M. Pilu, and R. Fisher, “Direct least square fitting of ellipses,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 21(5), 476–480 (1999).
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A. Fitzgibbon, M. Pilu, and R. Fisher, “Direct least square fitting of ellipses,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 21(5), 476–480 (1999).
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C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
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M. Charakida, E. de Groot, S. P. Loukogeorgakis, T. Khan, T. Lüscher, J. J. Kastelein, T. Gasser, and J. E. Deanfield, “Variability and reproducibility of flow-mediated dilatation in a multicentre clinical trial,” Eur. Heart J. 34(45), 3501–3507 (2013).
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M. C. Corretti, T. J. Anderson, E. J. Benjamin, D. Celermajer, F. Charbonneau, M. A. Creager, J. Deanfield, H. Drexler, M. Gerhard-Herman, D. Herrington, P. Vallance, J. Vita, and R. Vogel, “Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: a report of the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(2), 257–265 (2002).
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Gill, E. A.

A. Peretz, D. F. Leotta, J. H. Sullivan, C. A. Trenga, F. N. Sands, M. R. Aulet, M. Paun, E. A. Gill, and J. D. Kaufman, “Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery: an investigation of methods requiring further standardization,” BMC Cardiovasc. Disord. 7(1), 11 (2007).
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M. A. Gimbrone., “Vascular endothelium: an integrator of pathophysiologic stimuli in atherosclerosis,” Am. J. Cardiol. 75(6), 67B–70B (1995).
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Hadi, H. A. R.

H. A. R. Hadi, C. S. Carr, and J. Al Suwaidi, “Endothelial dysfunction: cardiovascular risk factors, therapy, and outcome,” Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 1(3), 183–198 (2005).
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Herrington, D.

M. C. Corretti, T. J. Anderson, E. J. Benjamin, D. Celermajer, F. Charbonneau, M. A. Creager, J. Deanfield, H. Drexler, M. Gerhard-Herman, D. Herrington, P. Vallance, J. Vita, and R. Vogel, “Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: a report of the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39(2), 257–265 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoeks, A. P.

F. U. Mattace-Raso, T. J. van der Cammen, A. Hofman, N. M. van Popele, M. L. Bos, M. A. Schalekamp, R. Asmar, R. S. Reneman, A. P. Hoeks, M. M. Breteler, and J. C. Witteman, “Arterial stiffness and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: the Rotterdam Study,” Circulation 113(5), 657–663 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofman, A.

F. U. Mattace-Raso, T. J. van der Cammen, A. Hofman, N. M. van Popele, M. L. Bos, M. A. Schalekamp, R. Asmar, R. S. Reneman, A. P. Hoeks, M. M. Breteler, and J. C. Witteman, “Arterial stiffness and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: the Rotterdam Study,” Circulation 113(5), 657–663 (2006).
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Hondebrink, E.

R. G. Kolkman, J. H. Klaessens, E. Hondebrink, J. C. Hopman, F. F. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, J. M. Thijssen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic determination of blood vessel diameter,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(20), 4745–4756 (2004).
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R. G. Kolkman, J. H. Klaessens, E. Hondebrink, J. C. Hopman, F. F. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, J. M. Thijssen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic determination of blood vessel diameter,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(20), 4745–4756 (2004).
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A. L. Huang and J. A. Vita, “Effects of systemic inflammation on endothelium-dependent vasodilation,” Trends Cardiovasc. Med. 16(1), 15–20 (2006).
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C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaffer, F. A.

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, X. J.

M. F. O’Rourke, A. Pauca, and X. J. Jiang, “Pulse wave analysis,” Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 51(6), 507–522 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kacprowicz, M.

A. Taruttis, A. C. Timmermans, P. C. Wouters, M. Kacprowicz, G. M. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, “Optoacoustic Imaging of Human Vasculature: Feasibility by Using a Handheld Probe,” Radiology 281(1), 256–263 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karpiouk, A.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karpiouk, A. B.

A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Development of a catheter for combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(1), 014901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kastelein, J. J.

M. Charakida, E. de Groot, S. P. Loukogeorgakis, T. Khan, T. Lüscher, J. J. Kastelein, T. Gasser, and J. E. Deanfield, “Variability and reproducibility of flow-mediated dilatation in a multicentre clinical trial,” Eur. Heart J. 34(45), 3501–3507 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaufman, J. D.

A. Peretz, D. F. Leotta, J. H. Sullivan, C. A. Trenga, F. N. Sands, M. R. Aulet, M. Paun, E. A. Gill, and J. D. Kaufman, “Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery: an investigation of methods requiring further standardization,” BMC Cardiovasc. Disord. 7(1), 11 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, T.

M. Charakida, E. de Groot, S. P. Loukogeorgakis, T. Khan, T. Lüscher, J. J. Kastelein, T. Gasser, and J. E. Deanfield, “Variability and reproducibility of flow-mediated dilatation in a multicentre clinical trial,” Eur. Heart J. 34(45), 3501–3507 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klaessens, J. H.

R. G. Kolkman, J. H. Klaessens, E. Hondebrink, J. C. Hopman, F. F. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, J. M. Thijssen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic determination of blood vessel diameter,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(20), 4745–4756 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolkman, R. G.

R. G. Kolkman, J. H. Klaessens, E. Hondebrink, J. C. Hopman, F. F. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, J. M. Thijssen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic determination of blood vessel diameter,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(20), 4745–4756 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leotta, D. F.

A. Peretz, D. F. Leotta, J. H. Sullivan, C. A. Trenga, F. N. Sands, M. R. Aulet, M. Paun, E. A. Gill, and J. D. Kaufman, “Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery: an investigation of methods requiring further standardization,” BMC Cardiovasc. Disord. 7(1), 11 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Libby, P.

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Litovsky, S.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lliso, R.

E. Dalli, L. Segarra, J. Ruvira, E. Esteban, A. Cabrera, R. Lliso, E. López, E. Llopis, and J. F. Sotillo, “[Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in healthy men, men with risk factors, and men with acute myocardial infarction. Importance of occlusion-cuff position],” Rev. Esp. Cardiol. 55(9), 928–935 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Llopis, E.

E. Dalli, L. Segarra, J. Ruvira, E. Esteban, A. Cabrera, R. Lliso, E. López, E. Llopis, and J. F. Sotillo, “[Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in healthy men, men with risk factors, and men with acute myocardial infarction. Importance of occlusion-cuff position],” Rev. Esp. Cardiol. 55(9), 928–935 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

López, E.

E. Dalli, L. Segarra, J. Ruvira, E. Esteban, A. Cabrera, R. Lliso, E. López, E. Llopis, and J. F. Sotillo, “[Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in healthy men, men with risk factors, and men with acute myocardial infarction. Importance of occlusion-cuff position],” Rev. Esp. Cardiol. 55(9), 928–935 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loukogeorgakis, S. P.

M. Charakida, E. de Groot, S. P. Loukogeorgakis, T. Khan, T. Lüscher, J. J. Kastelein, T. Gasser, and J. E. Deanfield, “Variability and reproducibility of flow-mediated dilatation in a multicentre clinical trial,” Eur. Heart J. 34(45), 3501–3507 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lüscher, T.

M. Charakida, E. de Groot, S. P. Loukogeorgakis, T. Khan, T. Lüscher, J. J. Kastelein, T. Gasser, and J. E. Deanfield, “Variability and reproducibility of flow-mediated dilatation in a multicentre clinical trial,” Eur. Heart J. 34(45), 3501–3507 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mattace-Raso, F. U.

F. U. Mattace-Raso, T. J. van der Cammen, A. Hofman, N. M. van Popele, M. L. Bos, M. A. Schalekamp, R. Asmar, R. S. Reneman, A. P. Hoeks, M. M. Breteler, and J. C. Witteman, “Arterial stiffness and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: the Rotterdam Study,” Circulation 113(5), 657–663 (2006).
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A. Y. Nasr, “The radial artery and its variations: anatomical study and clinical implications,” Folia Morphol. (Warsz) 71(4), 252–262 (2012).
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Ntziachristos, V.

A. Taruttis, A. C. Timmermans, P. C. Wouters, M. Kacprowicz, G. M. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, “Optoacoustic Imaging of Human Vasculature: Feasibility by Using a Handheld Probe,” Radiology 281(1), 256–263 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Taruttis and V. Ntziachristos, “Advances in real-time multispectral optoacoustic imaging and its applications,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 219–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Dima, N. C. Burton, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral optoacoustic tomography at 64, 128, and 256 channels,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3), 036021 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rosenthal, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, “Acoustic Inversion in Optoacoustic Tomography: A Review,” Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. 9(4), 318–336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dima and V. Ntziachristos, “Non-invasive carotid imaging using optoacoustic tomography,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25044–25057 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Rourke, M. F.

M. F. O’Rourke, A. Pauca, and X. J. Jiang, “Pulse wave analysis,” Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 51(6), 507–522 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Otsu, N.

N. Otsu, “A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
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Pauca, A.

M. F. O’Rourke, A. Pauca, and X. J. Jiang, “Pulse wave analysis,” Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 51(6), 507–522 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paun, M.

A. Peretz, D. F. Leotta, J. H. Sullivan, C. A. Trenga, F. N. Sands, M. R. Aulet, M. Paun, E. A. Gill, and J. D. Kaufman, “Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery: an investigation of methods requiring further standardization,” BMC Cardiovasc. Disord. 7(1), 11 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peretz, A.

A. Peretz, D. F. Leotta, J. H. Sullivan, C. A. Trenga, F. N. Sands, M. R. Aulet, M. Paun, E. A. Gill, and J. D. Kaufman, “Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery: an investigation of methods requiring further standardization,” BMC Cardiovasc. Disord. 7(1), 11 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pilu, M.

A. Fitzgibbon, M. Pilu, and R. Fisher, “Direct least square fitting of ellipses,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 21(5), 476–480 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pudpud, D.

F. A. Chaudhry, S. Bangalore, S. Upadya, A. Shah, H. Eftekhari, D. Pudpud, and C. M. Sehgal, “Cross-sectional imaging identifies flow-mediated vasodilatation more accurately compared with longitudinal imaging,” J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 20(12), 1380–1385 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Razansky, D.

A. Rosenthal, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, “Acoustic Inversion in Optoacoustic Tomography: A Review,” Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. 9(4), 318–336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. L. Deán-Ben and D. Razansky, “Functional optoacoustic human angiography with handheld video rate three dimensional scanner,” Photoacoustics 1(3-4), 68–73 (2013).
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Reneman, R. S.

F. U. Mattace-Raso, T. J. van der Cammen, A. Hofman, N. M. van Popele, M. L. Bos, M. A. Schalekamp, R. Asmar, R. S. Reneman, A. P. Hoeks, M. M. Breteler, and J. C. Witteman, “Arterial stiffness and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: the Rotterdam Study,” Circulation 113(5), 657–663 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, J.

M. R. Adams, J. Robinson, K. E. Sorensen, J. E. Deanfield, and D. S. Celermajer, “Normal ranges for brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation: A non-invasive ultrasound test of arterial endothelial function,” J. Vasc. Invest. 2(3), 146–150 (1996).

Rosenthal, A.

A. Rosenthal, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, “Acoustic Inversion in Optoacoustic Tomography: A Review,” Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. 9(4), 318–336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruvira, J.

E. Dalli, L. Segarra, J. Ruvira, E. Esteban, A. Cabrera, R. Lliso, E. López, E. Llopis, and J. F. Sotillo, “[Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in healthy men, men with risk factors, and men with acute myocardial infarction. Importance of occlusion-cuff position],” Rev. Esp. Cardiol. 55(9), 928–935 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sands, F. N.

A. Peretz, D. F. Leotta, J. H. Sullivan, C. A. Trenga, F. N. Sands, M. R. Aulet, M. Paun, E. A. Gill, and J. D. Kaufman, “Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery: an investigation of methods requiring further standardization,” BMC Cardiovasc. Disord. 7(1), 11 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schalekamp, M. A.

F. U. Mattace-Raso, T. J. van der Cammen, A. Hofman, N. M. van Popele, M. L. Bos, M. A. Schalekamp, R. Asmar, R. S. Reneman, A. P. Hoeks, M. M. Breteler, and J. C. Witteman, “Arterial stiffness and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: the Rotterdam Study,” Circulation 113(5), 657–663 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Segarra, L.

E. Dalli, L. Segarra, J. Ruvira, E. Esteban, A. Cabrera, R. Lliso, E. López, E. Llopis, and J. F. Sotillo, “[Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in healthy men, men with risk factors, and men with acute myocardial infarction. Importance of occlusion-cuff position],” Rev. Esp. Cardiol. 55(9), 928–935 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sehgal, C. M.

F. A. Chaudhry, S. Bangalore, S. Upadya, A. Shah, H. Eftekhari, D. Pudpud, and C. M. Sehgal, “Cross-sectional imaging identifies flow-mediated vasodilatation more accurately compared with longitudinal imaging,” J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 20(12), 1380–1385 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, A.

F. A. Chaudhry, S. Bangalore, S. Upadya, A. Shah, H. Eftekhari, D. Pudpud, and C. M. Sehgal, “Cross-sectional imaging identifies flow-mediated vasodilatation more accurately compared with longitudinal imaging,” J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 20(12), 1380–1385 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smalling, R.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorensen, K. E.

M. R. Adams, J. Robinson, K. E. Sorensen, J. E. Deanfield, and D. S. Celermajer, “Normal ranges for brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation: A non-invasive ultrasound test of arterial endothelial function,” J. Vasc. Invest. 2(3), 146–150 (1996).

Sotillo, J. F.

E. Dalli, L. Segarra, J. Ruvira, E. Esteban, A. Cabrera, R. Lliso, E. López, E. Llopis, and J. F. Sotillo, “[Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in healthy men, men with risk factors, and men with acute myocardial infarction. Importance of occlusion-cuff position],” Rev. Esp. Cardiol. 55(9), 928–935 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steenbergen, W.

R. G. Kolkman, J. H. Klaessens, E. Hondebrink, J. C. Hopman, F. F. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, J. M. Thijssen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic determination of blood vessel diameter,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(20), 4745–4756 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sullivan, J. H.

A. Peretz, D. F. Leotta, J. H. Sullivan, C. A. Trenga, F. N. Sands, M. R. Aulet, M. Paun, E. A. Gill, and J. D. Kaufman, “Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery: an investigation of methods requiring further standardization,” BMC Cardiovasc. Disord. 7(1), 11 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taruttis, A.

A. Taruttis, A. C. Timmermans, P. C. Wouters, M. Kacprowicz, G. M. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, “Optoacoustic Imaging of Human Vasculature: Feasibility by Using a Handheld Probe,” Radiology 281(1), 256–263 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Taruttis and V. Ntziachristos, “Advances in real-time multispectral optoacoustic imaging and its applications,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 219–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thijssen, J. M.

R. G. Kolkman, J. H. Klaessens, E. Hondebrink, J. C. Hopman, F. F. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, J. M. Thijssen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic determination of blood vessel diameter,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(20), 4745–4756 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Timmermans, A. C.

A. Taruttis, A. C. Timmermans, P. C. Wouters, M. Kacprowicz, G. M. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, “Optoacoustic Imaging of Human Vasculature: Feasibility by Using a Handheld Probe,” Radiology 281(1), 256–263 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trenga, C. A.

A. Peretz, D. F. Leotta, J. H. Sullivan, C. A. Trenga, F. N. Sands, M. R. Aulet, M. Paun, E. A. Gill, and J. D. Kaufman, “Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery: an investigation of methods requiring further standardization,” BMC Cardiovasc. Disord. 7(1), 11 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Upadya, S.

F. A. Chaudhry, S. Bangalore, S. Upadya, A. Shah, H. Eftekhari, D. Pudpud, and C. M. Sehgal, “Cross-sectional imaging identifies flow-mediated vasodilatation more accurately compared with longitudinal imaging,” J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 20(12), 1380–1385 (2007).
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Vallance, P.

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R. G. Kolkman, J. H. Klaessens, E. Hondebrink, J. C. Hopman, F. F. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, J. M. Thijssen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic determination of blood vessel diameter,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(20), 4745–4756 (2004).
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Radiology (1)

A. Taruttis, A. C. Timmermans, P. C. Wouters, M. Kacprowicz, G. M. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, “Optoacoustic Imaging of Human Vasculature: Feasibility by Using a Handheld Probe,” Radiology 281(1), 256–263 (2016).
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A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Development of a catheter for combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(1), 014901 (2010).
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C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine green enables near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lipid-rich, inflamed atherosclerotic plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
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B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) imaging of the radial artery in the forearm region (Subject #1). (a) Gray-scale optoacoustic image of the radial artery and neighboring vessels obtained at 800nm prior to occlusion. (b) Same image as in (a) using a different color map with the white dashed line indicating the vascular structure of interest and the red dashed line indicating the circumscribing ellipse. (c) Result of attenuation correction step after applying the enhancement mask on the area marked with the white dashed line. The thick white arrow in the marked area indicates the direction of linear signal amplification. (d) Segmented lumen of the radial artery. (e) Final fitted ellipse with its major and minor axis representing the radial artery. All scale bars are 3mm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT)-derived readouts of the minor and major axes of the fitted ellipse over the flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) measurement. (a) Axes fluctuations before complete arterial occlusion. (b) Axes fluctuations after a 5-min avascularization (total occlusion) period. (c) Minor axis changes over a 6-second period after release of arterial occlusion. Expanded from the boxed area in (b). (d) Fluctuations of the minor axis length during a cardiac cycle after arterial occlusion marked also in (c).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 MSOT-derived distensibility parameters of the radial artery and FMD responses. Beat-to-beat arterial distensibility before (a) and after (b) occlusion, respectively for Subject #1. Black bars: estimated area-based cross-sectional distensibility (CD), Red bars: diameter-based distensibility or wall strain (WS). (c) MSOT-derived FMD responses for all subjects (n = 4).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison between MSOT and US imaging of the radial artery. (a) Characteristic MSOT frame of the radial artery cross-section of Subject #4 at rest. (b) Characteristic US frame of the radial artery cross-section of Subject #4 at rest. The dashed lines delineate the vascular complex of interest in both images. (c) Manually measured cross-sectional arterial axes lengths for Subjects #2-4 extracted from US and MSOT images before and 60 sec after occlusion. BD: Baseline Diameter, HD: Hyperemia Diameter.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

WS= DsDd Dd
CD= AsAd Ad
EA= παβ 4
FMD= HDBD BD ×100%

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