Abstract

In this study, a sensitive fluorescence sensor was developed for the detection of small, fluorescence-labeled particles dispersed in a solution. The prototype system comprises of a laser confocal optical system and a mechanical sample stage to detect photon bursting of fluorescence-labeled small particles in sample volumes less than 5 μL within 3 minutes. To examine the feasibility of the prototype system as a diagnostic tool, assemblages of rotavirus and fluorescence-labeled antibody were analyzed. The detection sensitivity for rotavirus was 1 × 104 pfu/mL. Rotavirus in stool samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis was also detected. The advantages and disadvantages of this immunosensor with respect to ELISA and RT-PCR, the current gold standards for virus detection, are discussed.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. I. Glass, U. D. Parashar, J. S. Bresee, R. Turcios, T. K. Fischer, M. A. Widdowson, B. Jiang, and J. R. Gentsch, “Rotavirus vaccines: current prospects and future challenges,” Lancet 368(9532), 323–332 (2006).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  14. A. Koltermann, U. Kettling, J. Bieschke, T. Winkler, and M. Eigen, “Rapid assay processing by integration of dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy: high throughput screening for enzyme activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(4), 1421–1426 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. N. O. Petersen, “Scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. I. Theory and simulation of aggregation measurements,” Biophys. J. 49(4), 809–815 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. N. O. Petersen, P. L. Höddelius, P. W. Wiseman, O. Seger, and K. E. Magnusson, “Quantitation of membrane receptor distributions by image correlation spectroscopy: concept and application,” Biophys. J. 65(3), 1135–1146 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. H. Li, L. Ying, J. J. Green, S. Balasubramanian, and D. Klenerman, “Ultrasensitive Coincidence Fluorescence Detection of Single DNA Molecules,” Anal. Chem. 75(7), 1664–1670 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. C.-Y. Zhang and L. W. Johnson, “Homogenous rapid detection of nucleic acids using two-color quantum dots,” Analyst (Lond.) 131(4), 484–488 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. J. B. Edel, P. Lahoud, A. E. G. Cass, and A. J. deMello, “Discrimination Between Single Escherichia Coli Cells Using Time-Resolved Confocal Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 111(5), 1129–1134 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J. Bieschke, A. Giese, W. Schulz-Schaeffer, I. Zerr, S. Poser, M. Eigen, and H. Kretzschmar, “Ultrasensitive detection of pathological prion protein aggregates by dual-color scanning for intensely fluorescent targets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5468–5473 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. M. Kostka, T. Högen, K. M. Danzer, J. Levin, M. Habeck, A. Wirth, R. Wagner, C. G. Glabe, S. Finger, U. Heinzelmann, P. Garidel, W. Duan, C. A. Ross, H. Kretzschmar, and A. Giese, “Single Particle Characterization of Iron-Induced Pore-Forming α-Synuclein Oligomers,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(16), 10992–11003 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. C. Y. Zhang and L. W. Johnson, “Simple and accurate quantification of quantum dots via single-particle counting,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(12), 3750–3751 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. T. Lan, J. Wang, C. Dong, X. Huang, and J. Ren, “Homogeneous immunoassays by using photon burst counting technique of single gold nanoparticles,” Talanta 132, 698–704 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. S. Urasawa, T. Urasawa, and K. Taniguchi, “Three human rotavirus serotypes demonstrated by plaque neutralization of isolated strains,” Infect. Immun. 38(2), 781–784 (1982).
    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. T. Urasawa, S. Urasawa, and K. Taniguchi, “Sequential passages of human rotavirus in MA-104 cells,” Microbiol. Immunol. 25(10), 1025–1035 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. E. A. Wandera, S. Mohammad, S. Komoto, Y. Maeno, J. Nyangao, T. Ide, C. Kathiiko, E. Odoyo, T. Tsuji, K. Taniguchi, and Y. Ichinose, “Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Central Kenya before vaccine introduction, 2009-2014,” J. Med. Virol. 89(5), 809–817 (2017).
    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. V. Gouvea, R. I. Glass, P. Woods, K. Taniguchi, H. F. Clark, B. Forrester, and Z. Y. Fang, “Polymerase chain reaction amplification and typing of rotavirus nucleic acid from stool specimens,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 28(2), 276–282 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  34. K. Taniguchi, T. Urasawa, N. Kobayashi, M. Gorziglia, and S. Urasawa, “Nucleotide sequence of VP4 and VP7 genes of human rotaviruses with subgroup I specificity and long RNA pattern: implication for new G serotype specificity,” J. Virol. 64(11), 5640–5644 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  35. J. Johnson, Y. Chen, and J. D. Mueller, “Characterization of brightness and stoichiometry of bright particles by flow-fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 99(9), 3084–3092 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. D. Magde, W. W. Webb, and E. L. Elson, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. III. Uniform translation and laminar flow,” Biopolymers 17(2), 361–376 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  37. J. W. Mellors, C. R. Rinaldo, P. Gupta, R. M. White, J. A. Todd, and L. A. Kingsley, “Prognosis in HIV-1 infection predicted by the quantity of virus in plasma,” Science 272(5265), 1167–1170 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. J. S. Towner, P. E. Rollin, D. G. Bausch, A. Sanchez, S. M. Crary, M. Vincent, W. F. Lee, C. F. Spiropoulou, T. G. Ksiazek, M. Lukwiya, F. Kaducu, R. Downing, and S. T. Nichol, “Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome,” J. Virol. 78(8), 4330–4341 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. S. I. de la Cruz-Hernández, H. Flores-Aguilar, S. González-Mateos, I. López-Martinez, C. Alpuche-Aranda, J. E. Ludert, and R. M. del Angel, “Determination of viremia and concentration of circulating nonstructural protein 1 in patients infected with dengue virus in Mexico,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 88(3), 446–454 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

E. A. Wandera, S. Mohammad, S. Komoto, Y. Maeno, J. Nyangao, T. Ide, C. Kathiiko, E. Odoyo, T. Tsuji, K. Taniguchi, and Y. Ichinose, “Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Central Kenya before vaccine introduction, 2009-2014,” J. Med. Virol. 89(5), 809–817 (2017).
[PubMed]

2015 (1)

T. Lan, J. Wang, C. Dong, X. Huang, and J. Ren, “Homogeneous immunoassays by using photon burst counting technique of single gold nanoparticles,” Talanta 132, 698–704 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

S. I. de la Cruz-Hernández, H. Flores-Aguilar, S. González-Mateos, I. López-Martinez, C. Alpuche-Aranda, J. E. Ludert, and R. M. del Angel, “Determination of viremia and concentration of circulating nonstructural protein 1 in patients infected with dengue virus in Mexico,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 88(3), 446–454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

J. E. Tate, A. H. Burton, C. Boschi-Pinto, A. D. Steele, J. Duque, U. D. Parashar, and WHO-coordinated Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network, “2008 estimate of worldwide rotavirus-associated mortality in children younger than 5 years before the introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 12(2), 136–141 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

J. Johnson, Y. Chen, and J. D. Mueller, “Characterization of brightness and stoichiometry of bright particles by flow-fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 99(9), 3084–3092 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

D. I. Bernstein, “Rotavirus overview,” Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 28(3Suppl), S50–S53 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Grimwood and S. B. Lambert, “Rotavirus vaccines: opportunities and challenges,” Hum. Vaccin. 5(2), 57–69 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. Kostka, T. Högen, K. M. Danzer, J. Levin, M. Habeck, A. Wirth, R. Wagner, C. G. Glabe, S. Finger, U. Heinzelmann, P. Garidel, W. Duan, C. A. Ross, H. Kretzschmar, and A. Giese, “Single Particle Characterization of Iron-Induced Pore-Forming α-Synuclein Oligomers,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(16), 10992–11003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Zhang and L. W. Johnson, “Simple and accurate quantification of quantum dots via single-particle counting,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(12), 3750–3751 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

J. B. Edel, P. Lahoud, A. E. G. Cass, and A. J. deMello, “Discrimination Between Single Escherichia Coli Cells Using Time-Resolved Confocal Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 111(5), 1129–1134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Simpson, S. Wittet, J. Bonilla, K. Gamazina, L. Cooley, and J. L. Winkler, “Use of formative research in developing a knowledge translation approach to rotavirus vaccine introduction in developing countries,” BMC Public Health 7(1), 281 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

R. I. Glass, U. D. Parashar, J. S. Bresee, R. Turcios, T. K. Fischer, M. A. Widdowson, B. Jiang, and J. R. Gentsch, “Rotavirus vaccines: current prospects and future challenges,” Lancet 368(9532), 323–332 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Nalefski, C. M. D’Antoni, E. P. Ferrell, J. A. Lloyd, H. Qiu, J. L. Harris, and D. H. Whitney, “Single-Molecule Detection for Femtomolar Quantification of Proteins in Heterogeneous Immunoassays,” Clin. Chem. 52(11), 2172–2175 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Zhang and L. W. Johnson, “Homogenous rapid detection of nucleic acids using two-color quantum dots,” Analyst (Lond.) 131(4), 484–488 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

Y. Amano and Q. Cheng, “Detection of influenza virus: traditional approaches and development of biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 381(1), 156–164 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Giese, B. Bader, J. Bieschke, G. Schaffar, S. Odoy, P. J. Kahle, C. Haass, and H. Kretzschmar, “Single particle detection and characterization of synuclein co-aggregation,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 333(4), 1202–1210 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. K. Fischer and J. R. Gentsch, “Rotavirus typing methods and algorithms,” Rev. Med. Virol. 14(2), 71–82 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Towner, P. E. Rollin, D. G. Bausch, A. Sanchez, S. M. Crary, M. Vincent, W. F. Lee, C. F. Spiropoulou, T. G. Ksiazek, M. Lukwiya, F. Kaducu, R. Downing, and S. T. Nichol, “Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome,” J. Virol. 78(8), 4330–4341 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

H. Li, L. Ying, J. J. Green, S. Balasubramanian, and D. Klenerman, “Ultrasensitive Coincidence Fluorescence Detection of Single DNA Molecules,” Anal. Chem. 75(7), 1664–1670 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. Bieschke, A. Giese, W. Schulz-Schaeffer, I. Zerr, S. Poser, M. Eigen, and H. Kretzschmar, “Ultrasensitive detection of pathological prion protein aggregates by dual-color scanning for intensely fluorescent targets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5468–5473 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

Y. Chen, J. D. Müller, P. T. So, and E. Gratton, “The photon counting histogram in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 77(1), 553–567 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

A. Koltermann, U. Kettling, J. Bieschke, T. Winkler, and M. Eigen, “Rapid assay processing by integration of dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy: high throughput screening for enzyme activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(4), 1421–1426 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

J. W. Mellors, C. R. Rinaldo, P. Gupta, R. M. White, J. A. Todd, and L. A. Kingsley, “Prognosis in HIV-1 infection predicted by the quantity of virus in plasma,” Science 272(5265), 1167–1170 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Bishop, “Natural history of human rotavirus infection,” Arch. Virol. Suppl. 12, 119–128 (1996).
[PubMed]

1993 (2)

R. Rigler, Ü. Mets, J. Widengren, and P. Kask, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with high count rate and low background: analysis of translational diffusion,” Eur. Biophys. J. 22(3), 169–175 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. O. Petersen, P. L. Höddelius, P. W. Wiseman, O. Seger, and K. E. Magnusson, “Quantitation of membrane receptor distributions by image correlation spectroscopy: concept and application,” Biophys. J. 65(3), 1135–1146 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1990 (2)

V. Gouvea, R. I. Glass, P. Woods, K. Taniguchi, H. F. Clark, B. Forrester, and Z. Y. Fang, “Polymerase chain reaction amplification and typing of rotavirus nucleic acid from stool specimens,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 28(2), 276–282 (1990).
[PubMed]

K. Taniguchi, T. Urasawa, N. Kobayashi, M. Gorziglia, and S. Urasawa, “Nucleotide sequence of VP4 and VP7 genes of human rotaviruses with subgroup I specificity and long RNA pattern: implication for new G serotype specificity,” J. Virol. 64(11), 5640–5644 (1990).
[PubMed]

1987 (1)

K. Taniguchi, T. Urasawa, Y. Morita, H. B. Greenberg, and S. Urasawa, “Direct serotyping of human rotavirus in stools by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using serotype 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-specific monoclonal antibodies to VP7,” J. Infect. Dis. 155(6), 1159–1166 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

N. O. Petersen, “Scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. I. Theory and simulation of aggregation measurements,” Biophys. J. 49(4), 809–815 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. O. Petersen, D. C. Johnson, and M. J. Schlesinger, “Scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. II. Application to virus glycoprotein aggregation,” Biophys. J. 49(4), 817–820 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

S. Urasawa, T. Urasawa, K. Taniguchi, and S. Chiba, “Serotype determination of human rotavirus isolates and antibody prevalence in pediatric population in Hokkaido, Japan,” Arch. Virol. 81(1-2), 1–12 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

K. Taniguchi, S. Urasawa, and T. Urasawa, “Electrophoretic analysis of RNA segments of human rotaviruses cultivated in cell culture,” J. Gen. Virol. 60(1), 171–175 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Urasawa, T. Urasawa, and K. Taniguchi, “Three human rotavirus serotypes demonstrated by plaque neutralization of isolated strains,” Infect. Immun. 38(2), 781–784 (1982).
[PubMed]

1981 (1)

T. Urasawa, S. Urasawa, and K. Taniguchi, “Sequential passages of human rotavirus in MA-104 cells,” Microbiol. Immunol. 25(10), 1025–1035 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

D. Magde, W. W. Webb, and E. L. Elson, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. III. Uniform translation and laminar flow,” Biopolymers 17(2), 361–376 (1978).
[Crossref]

1974 (2)

D. Magde, E. L. Elson, and W. W. Webb, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. II. An experimental realization,” Biopolymers 13(1), 29–61 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Elson and D. Magde, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. I. Conceptual basis and theory,” Biopolymers 13(1), 1–27 (1974).
[Crossref]

Alpuche-Aranda, C.

S. I. de la Cruz-Hernández, H. Flores-Aguilar, S. González-Mateos, I. López-Martinez, C. Alpuche-Aranda, J. E. Ludert, and R. M. del Angel, “Determination of viremia and concentration of circulating nonstructural protein 1 in patients infected with dengue virus in Mexico,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 88(3), 446–454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amano, Y.

Y. Amano and Q. Cheng, “Detection of influenza virus: traditional approaches and development of biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 381(1), 156–164 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bader, B.

A. Giese, B. Bader, J. Bieschke, G. Schaffar, S. Odoy, P. J. Kahle, C. Haass, and H. Kretzschmar, “Single particle detection and characterization of synuclein co-aggregation,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 333(4), 1202–1210 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balasubramanian, S.

H. Li, L. Ying, J. J. Green, S. Balasubramanian, and D. Klenerman, “Ultrasensitive Coincidence Fluorescence Detection of Single DNA Molecules,” Anal. Chem. 75(7), 1664–1670 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bausch, D. G.

J. S. Towner, P. E. Rollin, D. G. Bausch, A. Sanchez, S. M. Crary, M. Vincent, W. F. Lee, C. F. Spiropoulou, T. G. Ksiazek, M. Lukwiya, F. Kaducu, R. Downing, and S. T. Nichol, “Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome,” J. Virol. 78(8), 4330–4341 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernstein, D. I.

D. I. Bernstein, “Rotavirus overview,” Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 28(3Suppl), S50–S53 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bieschke, J.

A. Giese, B. Bader, J. Bieschke, G. Schaffar, S. Odoy, P. J. Kahle, C. Haass, and H. Kretzschmar, “Single particle detection and characterization of synuclein co-aggregation,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 333(4), 1202–1210 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bieschke, A. Giese, W. Schulz-Schaeffer, I. Zerr, S. Poser, M. Eigen, and H. Kretzschmar, “Ultrasensitive detection of pathological prion protein aggregates by dual-color scanning for intensely fluorescent targets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5468–5473 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Koltermann, U. Kettling, J. Bieschke, T. Winkler, and M. Eigen, “Rapid assay processing by integration of dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy: high throughput screening for enzyme activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(4), 1421–1426 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bishop, R. F.

R. F. Bishop, “Natural history of human rotavirus infection,” Arch. Virol. Suppl. 12, 119–128 (1996).
[PubMed]

Bonilla, J.

E. Simpson, S. Wittet, J. Bonilla, K. Gamazina, L. Cooley, and J. L. Winkler, “Use of formative research in developing a knowledge translation approach to rotavirus vaccine introduction in developing countries,” BMC Public Health 7(1), 281 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boschi-Pinto, C.

J. E. Tate, A. H. Burton, C. Boschi-Pinto, A. D. Steele, J. Duque, U. D. Parashar, and WHO-coordinated Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network, “2008 estimate of worldwide rotavirus-associated mortality in children younger than 5 years before the introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 12(2), 136–141 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bresee, J. S.

R. I. Glass, U. D. Parashar, J. S. Bresee, R. Turcios, T. K. Fischer, M. A. Widdowson, B. Jiang, and J. R. Gentsch, “Rotavirus vaccines: current prospects and future challenges,” Lancet 368(9532), 323–332 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burton, A. H.

J. E. Tate, A. H. Burton, C. Boschi-Pinto, A. D. Steele, J. Duque, U. D. Parashar, and WHO-coordinated Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network, “2008 estimate of worldwide rotavirus-associated mortality in children younger than 5 years before the introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 12(2), 136–141 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cass, A. E. G.

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J. Johnson, Y. Chen, and J. D. Mueller, “Characterization of brightness and stoichiometry of bright particles by flow-fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 99(9), 3084–3092 (2010).
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J. B. Edel, P. Lahoud, A. E. G. Cass, and A. J. deMello, “Discrimination Between Single Escherichia Coli Cells Using Time-Resolved Confocal Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 111(5), 1129–1134 (2007).
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T. Lan, J. Wang, C. Dong, X. Huang, and J. Ren, “Homogeneous immunoassays by using photon burst counting technique of single gold nanoparticles,” Talanta 132, 698–704 (2015).
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J. S. Towner, P. E. Rollin, D. G. Bausch, A. Sanchez, S. M. Crary, M. Vincent, W. F. Lee, C. F. Spiropoulou, T. G. Ksiazek, M. Lukwiya, F. Kaducu, R. Downing, and S. T. Nichol, “Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome,” J. Virol. 78(8), 4330–4341 (2004).
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M. Kostka, T. Högen, K. M. Danzer, J. Levin, M. Habeck, A. Wirth, R. Wagner, C. G. Glabe, S. Finger, U. Heinzelmann, P. Garidel, W. Duan, C. A. Ross, H. Kretzschmar, and A. Giese, “Single Particle Characterization of Iron-Induced Pore-Forming α-Synuclein Oligomers,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(16), 10992–11003 (2008).
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E. A. Nalefski, C. M. D’Antoni, E. P. Ferrell, J. A. Lloyd, H. Qiu, J. L. Harris, and D. H. Whitney, “Single-Molecule Detection for Femtomolar Quantification of Proteins in Heterogeneous Immunoassays,” Clin. Chem. 52(11), 2172–2175 (2006).
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M. Kostka, T. Högen, K. M. Danzer, J. Levin, M. Habeck, A. Wirth, R. Wagner, C. G. Glabe, S. Finger, U. Heinzelmann, P. Garidel, W. Duan, C. A. Ross, H. Kretzschmar, and A. Giese, “Single Particle Characterization of Iron-Induced Pore-Forming α-Synuclein Oligomers,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(16), 10992–11003 (2008).
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T. K. Fischer and J. R. Gentsch, “Rotavirus typing methods and algorithms,” Rev. Med. Virol. 14(2), 71–82 (2004).
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S. I. de la Cruz-Hernández, H. Flores-Aguilar, S. González-Mateos, I. López-Martinez, C. Alpuche-Aranda, J. E. Ludert, and R. M. del Angel, “Determination of viremia and concentration of circulating nonstructural protein 1 in patients infected with dengue virus in Mexico,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 88(3), 446–454 (2013).
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V. Gouvea, R. I. Glass, P. Woods, K. Taniguchi, H. F. Clark, B. Forrester, and Z. Y. Fang, “Polymerase chain reaction amplification and typing of rotavirus nucleic acid from stool specimens,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 28(2), 276–282 (1990).
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E. Simpson, S. Wittet, J. Bonilla, K. Gamazina, L. Cooley, and J. L. Winkler, “Use of formative research in developing a knowledge translation approach to rotavirus vaccine introduction in developing countries,” BMC Public Health 7(1), 281 (2007).
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M. Kostka, T. Högen, K. M. Danzer, J. Levin, M. Habeck, A. Wirth, R. Wagner, C. G. Glabe, S. Finger, U. Heinzelmann, P. Garidel, W. Duan, C. A. Ross, H. Kretzschmar, and A. Giese, “Single Particle Characterization of Iron-Induced Pore-Forming α-Synuclein Oligomers,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(16), 10992–11003 (2008).
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T. K. Fischer and J. R. Gentsch, “Rotavirus typing methods and algorithms,” Rev. Med. Virol. 14(2), 71–82 (2004).
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M. Kostka, T. Högen, K. M. Danzer, J. Levin, M. Habeck, A. Wirth, R. Wagner, C. G. Glabe, S. Finger, U. Heinzelmann, P. Garidel, W. Duan, C. A. Ross, H. Kretzschmar, and A. Giese, “Single Particle Characterization of Iron-Induced Pore-Forming α-Synuclein Oligomers,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(16), 10992–11003 (2008).
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A. Giese, B. Bader, J. Bieschke, G. Schaffar, S. Odoy, P. J. Kahle, C. Haass, and H. Kretzschmar, “Single particle detection and characterization of synuclein co-aggregation,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 333(4), 1202–1210 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bieschke, A. Giese, W. Schulz-Schaeffer, I. Zerr, S. Poser, M. Eigen, and H. Kretzschmar, “Ultrasensitive detection of pathological prion protein aggregates by dual-color scanning for intensely fluorescent targets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5468–5473 (2000).
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M. Kostka, T. Högen, K. M. Danzer, J. Levin, M. Habeck, A. Wirth, R. Wagner, C. G. Glabe, S. Finger, U. Heinzelmann, P. Garidel, W. Duan, C. A. Ross, H. Kretzschmar, and A. Giese, “Single Particle Characterization of Iron-Induced Pore-Forming α-Synuclein Oligomers,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(16), 10992–11003 (2008).
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R. I. Glass, U. D. Parashar, J. S. Bresee, R. Turcios, T. K. Fischer, M. A. Widdowson, B. Jiang, and J. R. Gentsch, “Rotavirus vaccines: current prospects and future challenges,” Lancet 368(9532), 323–332 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Gouvea, R. I. Glass, P. Woods, K. Taniguchi, H. F. Clark, B. Forrester, and Z. Y. Fang, “Polymerase chain reaction amplification and typing of rotavirus nucleic acid from stool specimens,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 28(2), 276–282 (1990).
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S. I. de la Cruz-Hernández, H. Flores-Aguilar, S. González-Mateos, I. López-Martinez, C. Alpuche-Aranda, J. E. Ludert, and R. M. del Angel, “Determination of viremia and concentration of circulating nonstructural protein 1 in patients infected with dengue virus in Mexico,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 88(3), 446–454 (2013).
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V. Gouvea, R. I. Glass, P. Woods, K. Taniguchi, H. F. Clark, B. Forrester, and Z. Y. Fang, “Polymerase chain reaction amplification and typing of rotavirus nucleic acid from stool specimens,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 28(2), 276–282 (1990).
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Y. Chen, J. D. Müller, P. T. So, and E. Gratton, “The photon counting histogram in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 77(1), 553–567 (1999).
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A. Giese, B. Bader, J. Bieschke, G. Schaffar, S. Odoy, P. J. Kahle, C. Haass, and H. Kretzschmar, “Single particle detection and characterization of synuclein co-aggregation,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 333(4), 1202–1210 (2005).
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M. Kostka, T. Högen, K. M. Danzer, J. Levin, M. Habeck, A. Wirth, R. Wagner, C. G. Glabe, S. Finger, U. Heinzelmann, P. Garidel, W. Duan, C. A. Ross, H. Kretzschmar, and A. Giese, “Single Particle Characterization of Iron-Induced Pore-Forming α-Synuclein Oligomers,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(16), 10992–11003 (2008).
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E. A. Nalefski, C. M. D’Antoni, E. P. Ferrell, J. A. Lloyd, H. Qiu, J. L. Harris, and D. H. Whitney, “Single-Molecule Detection for Femtomolar Quantification of Proteins in Heterogeneous Immunoassays,” Clin. Chem. 52(11), 2172–2175 (2006).
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M. Kostka, T. Högen, K. M. Danzer, J. Levin, M. Habeck, A. Wirth, R. Wagner, C. G. Glabe, S. Finger, U. Heinzelmann, P. Garidel, W. Duan, C. A. Ross, H. Kretzschmar, and A. Giese, “Single Particle Characterization of Iron-Induced Pore-Forming α-Synuclein Oligomers,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(16), 10992–11003 (2008).
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M. Kostka, T. Högen, K. M. Danzer, J. Levin, M. Habeck, A. Wirth, R. Wagner, C. G. Glabe, S. Finger, U. Heinzelmann, P. Garidel, W. Duan, C. A. Ross, H. Kretzschmar, and A. Giese, “Single Particle Characterization of Iron-Induced Pore-Forming α-Synuclein Oligomers,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(16), 10992–11003 (2008).
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T. Lan, J. Wang, C. Dong, X. Huang, and J. Ren, “Homogeneous immunoassays by using photon burst counting technique of single gold nanoparticles,” Talanta 132, 698–704 (2015).
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E. A. Wandera, S. Mohammad, S. Komoto, Y. Maeno, J. Nyangao, T. Ide, C. Kathiiko, E. Odoyo, T. Tsuji, K. Taniguchi, and Y. Ichinose, “Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Central Kenya before vaccine introduction, 2009-2014,” J. Med. Virol. 89(5), 809–817 (2017).
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R. I. Glass, U. D. Parashar, J. S. Bresee, R. Turcios, T. K. Fischer, M. A. Widdowson, B. Jiang, and J. R. Gentsch, “Rotavirus vaccines: current prospects and future challenges,” Lancet 368(9532), 323–332 (2006).
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J. S. Towner, P. E. Rollin, D. G. Bausch, A. Sanchez, S. M. Crary, M. Vincent, W. F. Lee, C. F. Spiropoulou, T. G. Ksiazek, M. Lukwiya, F. Kaducu, R. Downing, and S. T. Nichol, “Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome,” J. Virol. 78(8), 4330–4341 (2004).
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A. Giese, B. Bader, J. Bieschke, G. Schaffar, S. Odoy, P. J. Kahle, C. Haass, and H. Kretzschmar, “Single particle detection and characterization of synuclein co-aggregation,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 333(4), 1202–1210 (2005).
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E. A. Wandera, S. Mohammad, S. Komoto, Y. Maeno, J. Nyangao, T. Ide, C. Kathiiko, E. Odoyo, T. Tsuji, K. Taniguchi, and Y. Ichinose, “Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Central Kenya before vaccine introduction, 2009-2014,” J. Med. Virol. 89(5), 809–817 (2017).
[PubMed]

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A. Koltermann, U. Kettling, J. Bieschke, T. Winkler, and M. Eigen, “Rapid assay processing by integration of dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy: high throughput screening for enzyme activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(4), 1421–1426 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kingsley, L. A.

J. W. Mellors, C. R. Rinaldo, P. Gupta, R. M. White, J. A. Todd, and L. A. Kingsley, “Prognosis in HIV-1 infection predicted by the quantity of virus in plasma,” Science 272(5265), 1167–1170 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klenerman, D.

H. Li, L. Ying, J. J. Green, S. Balasubramanian, and D. Klenerman, “Ultrasensitive Coincidence Fluorescence Detection of Single DNA Molecules,” Anal. Chem. 75(7), 1664–1670 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, N.

K. Taniguchi, T. Urasawa, N. Kobayashi, M. Gorziglia, and S. Urasawa, “Nucleotide sequence of VP4 and VP7 genes of human rotaviruses with subgroup I specificity and long RNA pattern: implication for new G serotype specificity,” J. Virol. 64(11), 5640–5644 (1990).
[PubMed]

Koltermann, A.

A. Koltermann, U. Kettling, J. Bieschke, T. Winkler, and M. Eigen, “Rapid assay processing by integration of dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy: high throughput screening for enzyme activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(4), 1421–1426 (1998).
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Komoto, S.

E. A. Wandera, S. Mohammad, S. Komoto, Y. Maeno, J. Nyangao, T. Ide, C. Kathiiko, E. Odoyo, T. Tsuji, K. Taniguchi, and Y. Ichinose, “Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Central Kenya before vaccine introduction, 2009-2014,” J. Med. Virol. 89(5), 809–817 (2017).
[PubMed]

Kostka, M.

M. Kostka, T. Högen, K. M. Danzer, J. Levin, M. Habeck, A. Wirth, R. Wagner, C. G. Glabe, S. Finger, U. Heinzelmann, P. Garidel, W. Duan, C. A. Ross, H. Kretzschmar, and A. Giese, “Single Particle Characterization of Iron-Induced Pore-Forming α-Synuclein Oligomers,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(16), 10992–11003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kretzschmar, H.

M. Kostka, T. Högen, K. M. Danzer, J. Levin, M. Habeck, A. Wirth, R. Wagner, C. G. Glabe, S. Finger, U. Heinzelmann, P. Garidel, W. Duan, C. A. Ross, H. Kretzschmar, and A. Giese, “Single Particle Characterization of Iron-Induced Pore-Forming α-Synuclein Oligomers,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(16), 10992–11003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Giese, B. Bader, J. Bieschke, G. Schaffar, S. Odoy, P. J. Kahle, C. Haass, and H. Kretzschmar, “Single particle detection and characterization of synuclein co-aggregation,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 333(4), 1202–1210 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bieschke, A. Giese, W. Schulz-Schaeffer, I. Zerr, S. Poser, M. Eigen, and H. Kretzschmar, “Ultrasensitive detection of pathological prion protein aggregates by dual-color scanning for intensely fluorescent targets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5468–5473 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ksiazek, T. G.

J. S. Towner, P. E. Rollin, D. G. Bausch, A. Sanchez, S. M. Crary, M. Vincent, W. F. Lee, C. F. Spiropoulou, T. G. Ksiazek, M. Lukwiya, F. Kaducu, R. Downing, and S. T. Nichol, “Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome,” J. Virol. 78(8), 4330–4341 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lahoud, P.

J. B. Edel, P. Lahoud, A. E. G. Cass, and A. J. deMello, “Discrimination Between Single Escherichia Coli Cells Using Time-Resolved Confocal Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 111(5), 1129–1134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lambert, S. B.

K. Grimwood and S. B. Lambert, “Rotavirus vaccines: opportunities and challenges,” Hum. Vaccin. 5(2), 57–69 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lan, T.

T. Lan, J. Wang, C. Dong, X. Huang, and J. Ren, “Homogeneous immunoassays by using photon burst counting technique of single gold nanoparticles,” Talanta 132, 698–704 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W. F.

J. S. Towner, P. E. Rollin, D. G. Bausch, A. Sanchez, S. M. Crary, M. Vincent, W. F. Lee, C. F. Spiropoulou, T. G. Ksiazek, M. Lukwiya, F. Kaducu, R. Downing, and S. T. Nichol, “Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome,” J. Virol. 78(8), 4330–4341 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levin, J.

M. Kostka, T. Högen, K. M. Danzer, J. Levin, M. Habeck, A. Wirth, R. Wagner, C. G. Glabe, S. Finger, U. Heinzelmann, P. Garidel, W. Duan, C. A. Ross, H. Kretzschmar, and A. Giese, “Single Particle Characterization of Iron-Induced Pore-Forming α-Synuclein Oligomers,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(16), 10992–11003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

H. Li, L. Ying, J. J. Green, S. Balasubramanian, and D. Klenerman, “Ultrasensitive Coincidence Fluorescence Detection of Single DNA Molecules,” Anal. Chem. 75(7), 1664–1670 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lloyd, J. A.

E. A. Nalefski, C. M. D’Antoni, E. P. Ferrell, J. A. Lloyd, H. Qiu, J. L. Harris, and D. H. Whitney, “Single-Molecule Detection for Femtomolar Quantification of Proteins in Heterogeneous Immunoassays,” Clin. Chem. 52(11), 2172–2175 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

López-Martinez, I.

S. I. de la Cruz-Hernández, H. Flores-Aguilar, S. González-Mateos, I. López-Martinez, C. Alpuche-Aranda, J. E. Ludert, and R. M. del Angel, “Determination of viremia and concentration of circulating nonstructural protein 1 in patients infected with dengue virus in Mexico,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 88(3), 446–454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ludert, J. E.

S. I. de la Cruz-Hernández, H. Flores-Aguilar, S. González-Mateos, I. López-Martinez, C. Alpuche-Aranda, J. E. Ludert, and R. M. del Angel, “Determination of viremia and concentration of circulating nonstructural protein 1 in patients infected with dengue virus in Mexico,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 88(3), 446–454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lukwiya, M.

J. S. Towner, P. E. Rollin, D. G. Bausch, A. Sanchez, S. M. Crary, M. Vincent, W. F. Lee, C. F. Spiropoulou, T. G. Ksiazek, M. Lukwiya, F. Kaducu, R. Downing, and S. T. Nichol, “Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome,” J. Virol. 78(8), 4330–4341 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maeno, Y.

E. A. Wandera, S. Mohammad, S. Komoto, Y. Maeno, J. Nyangao, T. Ide, C. Kathiiko, E. Odoyo, T. Tsuji, K. Taniguchi, and Y. Ichinose, “Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Central Kenya before vaccine introduction, 2009-2014,” J. Med. Virol. 89(5), 809–817 (2017).
[PubMed]

Magde, D.

D. Magde, W. W. Webb, and E. L. Elson, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. III. Uniform translation and laminar flow,” Biopolymers 17(2), 361–376 (1978).
[Crossref]

E. L. Elson and D. Magde, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. I. Conceptual basis and theory,” Biopolymers 13(1), 1–27 (1974).
[Crossref]

D. Magde, E. L. Elson, and W. W. Webb, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. II. An experimental realization,” Biopolymers 13(1), 29–61 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magnusson, K. E.

N. O. Petersen, P. L. Höddelius, P. W. Wiseman, O. Seger, and K. E. Magnusson, “Quantitation of membrane receptor distributions by image correlation spectroscopy: concept and application,” Biophys. J. 65(3), 1135–1146 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mellors, J. W.

J. W. Mellors, C. R. Rinaldo, P. Gupta, R. M. White, J. A. Todd, and L. A. Kingsley, “Prognosis in HIV-1 infection predicted by the quantity of virus in plasma,” Science 272(5265), 1167–1170 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mets, Ü.

R. Rigler, Ü. Mets, J. Widengren, and P. Kask, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with high count rate and low background: analysis of translational diffusion,” Eur. Biophys. J. 22(3), 169–175 (1993).
[Crossref]

Mohammad, S.

E. A. Wandera, S. Mohammad, S. Komoto, Y. Maeno, J. Nyangao, T. Ide, C. Kathiiko, E. Odoyo, T. Tsuji, K. Taniguchi, and Y. Ichinose, “Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Central Kenya before vaccine introduction, 2009-2014,” J. Med. Virol. 89(5), 809–817 (2017).
[PubMed]

Morita, Y.

K. Taniguchi, T. Urasawa, Y. Morita, H. B. Greenberg, and S. Urasawa, “Direct serotyping of human rotavirus in stools by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using serotype 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-specific monoclonal antibodies to VP7,” J. Infect. Dis. 155(6), 1159–1166 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mueller, J. D.

J. Johnson, Y. Chen, and J. D. Mueller, “Characterization of brightness and stoichiometry of bright particles by flow-fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 99(9), 3084–3092 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, J. D.

Y. Chen, J. D. Müller, P. T. So, and E. Gratton, “The photon counting histogram in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 77(1), 553–567 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nalefski, E. A.

E. A. Nalefski, C. M. D’Antoni, E. P. Ferrell, J. A. Lloyd, H. Qiu, J. L. Harris, and D. H. Whitney, “Single-Molecule Detection for Femtomolar Quantification of Proteins in Heterogeneous Immunoassays,” Clin. Chem. 52(11), 2172–2175 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nichol, S. T.

J. S. Towner, P. E. Rollin, D. G. Bausch, A. Sanchez, S. M. Crary, M. Vincent, W. F. Lee, C. F. Spiropoulou, T. G. Ksiazek, M. Lukwiya, F. Kaducu, R. Downing, and S. T. Nichol, “Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome,” J. Virol. 78(8), 4330–4341 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nyangao, J.

E. A. Wandera, S. Mohammad, S. Komoto, Y. Maeno, J. Nyangao, T. Ide, C. Kathiiko, E. Odoyo, T. Tsuji, K. Taniguchi, and Y. Ichinose, “Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Central Kenya before vaccine introduction, 2009-2014,” J. Med. Virol. 89(5), 809–817 (2017).
[PubMed]

Odoy, S.

A. Giese, B. Bader, J. Bieschke, G. Schaffar, S. Odoy, P. J. Kahle, C. Haass, and H. Kretzschmar, “Single particle detection and characterization of synuclein co-aggregation,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 333(4), 1202–1210 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Odoyo, E.

E. A. Wandera, S. Mohammad, S. Komoto, Y. Maeno, J. Nyangao, T. Ide, C. Kathiiko, E. Odoyo, T. Tsuji, K. Taniguchi, and Y. Ichinose, “Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Central Kenya before vaccine introduction, 2009-2014,” J. Med. Virol. 89(5), 809–817 (2017).
[PubMed]

Parashar, U. D.

J. E. Tate, A. H. Burton, C. Boschi-Pinto, A. D. Steele, J. Duque, U. D. Parashar, and WHO-coordinated Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network, “2008 estimate of worldwide rotavirus-associated mortality in children younger than 5 years before the introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 12(2), 136–141 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Glass, U. D. Parashar, J. S. Bresee, R. Turcios, T. K. Fischer, M. A. Widdowson, B. Jiang, and J. R. Gentsch, “Rotavirus vaccines: current prospects and future challenges,” Lancet 368(9532), 323–332 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petersen, N. O.

N. O. Petersen, P. L. Höddelius, P. W. Wiseman, O. Seger, and K. E. Magnusson, “Quantitation of membrane receptor distributions by image correlation spectroscopy: concept and application,” Biophys. J. 65(3), 1135–1146 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. O. Petersen, “Scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. I. Theory and simulation of aggregation measurements,” Biophys. J. 49(4), 809–815 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. O. Petersen, D. C. Johnson, and M. J. Schlesinger, “Scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. II. Application to virus glycoprotein aggregation,” Biophys. J. 49(4), 817–820 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poser, S.

J. Bieschke, A. Giese, W. Schulz-Schaeffer, I. Zerr, S. Poser, M. Eigen, and H. Kretzschmar, “Ultrasensitive detection of pathological prion protein aggregates by dual-color scanning for intensely fluorescent targets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5468–5473 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, H.

Qiu, H.

E. A. Nalefski, C. M. D’Antoni, E. P. Ferrell, J. A. Lloyd, H. Qiu, J. L. Harris, and D. H. Whitney, “Single-Molecule Detection for Femtomolar Quantification of Proteins in Heterogeneous Immunoassays,” Clin. Chem. 52(11), 2172–2175 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, J.

T. Lan, J. Wang, C. Dong, X. Huang, and J. Ren, “Homogeneous immunoassays by using photon burst counting technique of single gold nanoparticles,” Talanta 132, 698–704 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rigler, R.

R. Rigler, Ü. Mets, J. Widengren, and P. Kask, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with high count rate and low background: analysis of translational diffusion,” Eur. Biophys. J. 22(3), 169–175 (1993).
[Crossref]

Rinaldo, C. R.

J. W. Mellors, C. R. Rinaldo, P. Gupta, R. M. White, J. A. Todd, and L. A. Kingsley, “Prognosis in HIV-1 infection predicted by the quantity of virus in plasma,” Science 272(5265), 1167–1170 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rollin, P. E.

J. S. Towner, P. E. Rollin, D. G. Bausch, A. Sanchez, S. M. Crary, M. Vincent, W. F. Lee, C. F. Spiropoulou, T. G. Ksiazek, M. Lukwiya, F. Kaducu, R. Downing, and S. T. Nichol, “Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome,” J. Virol. 78(8), 4330–4341 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ross, C. A.

M. Kostka, T. Högen, K. M. Danzer, J. Levin, M. Habeck, A. Wirth, R. Wagner, C. G. Glabe, S. Finger, U. Heinzelmann, P. Garidel, W. Duan, C. A. Ross, H. Kretzschmar, and A. Giese, “Single Particle Characterization of Iron-Induced Pore-Forming α-Synuclein Oligomers,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(16), 10992–11003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanchez, A.

J. S. Towner, P. E. Rollin, D. G. Bausch, A. Sanchez, S. M. Crary, M. Vincent, W. F. Lee, C. F. Spiropoulou, T. G. Ksiazek, M. Lukwiya, F. Kaducu, R. Downing, and S. T. Nichol, “Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome,” J. Virol. 78(8), 4330–4341 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaffar, G.

A. Giese, B. Bader, J. Bieschke, G. Schaffar, S. Odoy, P. J. Kahle, C. Haass, and H. Kretzschmar, “Single particle detection and characterization of synuclein co-aggregation,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 333(4), 1202–1210 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlesinger, M. J.

N. O. Petersen, D. C. Johnson, and M. J. Schlesinger, “Scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. II. Application to virus glycoprotein aggregation,” Biophys. J. 49(4), 817–820 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulz-Schaeffer, W.

J. Bieschke, A. Giese, W. Schulz-Schaeffer, I. Zerr, S. Poser, M. Eigen, and H. Kretzschmar, “Ultrasensitive detection of pathological prion protein aggregates by dual-color scanning for intensely fluorescent targets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5468–5473 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seger, O.

N. O. Petersen, P. L. Höddelius, P. W. Wiseman, O. Seger, and K. E. Magnusson, “Quantitation of membrane receptor distributions by image correlation spectroscopy: concept and application,” Biophys. J. 65(3), 1135–1146 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simpson, E.

E. Simpson, S. Wittet, J. Bonilla, K. Gamazina, L. Cooley, and J. L. Winkler, “Use of formative research in developing a knowledge translation approach to rotavirus vaccine introduction in developing countries,” BMC Public Health 7(1), 281 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

So, P. T.

Y. Chen, J. D. Müller, P. T. So, and E. Gratton, “The photon counting histogram in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 77(1), 553–567 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spiropoulou, C. F.

J. S. Towner, P. E. Rollin, D. G. Bausch, A. Sanchez, S. M. Crary, M. Vincent, W. F. Lee, C. F. Spiropoulou, T. G. Ksiazek, M. Lukwiya, F. Kaducu, R. Downing, and S. T. Nichol, “Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome,” J. Virol. 78(8), 4330–4341 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steele, A. D.

J. E. Tate, A. H. Burton, C. Boschi-Pinto, A. D. Steele, J. Duque, U. D. Parashar, and WHO-coordinated Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network, “2008 estimate of worldwide rotavirus-associated mortality in children younger than 5 years before the introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 12(2), 136–141 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taniguchi, K.

E. A. Wandera, S. Mohammad, S. Komoto, Y. Maeno, J. Nyangao, T. Ide, C. Kathiiko, E. Odoyo, T. Tsuji, K. Taniguchi, and Y. Ichinose, “Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Central Kenya before vaccine introduction, 2009-2014,” J. Med. Virol. 89(5), 809–817 (2017).
[PubMed]

V. Gouvea, R. I. Glass, P. Woods, K. Taniguchi, H. F. Clark, B. Forrester, and Z. Y. Fang, “Polymerase chain reaction amplification and typing of rotavirus nucleic acid from stool specimens,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 28(2), 276–282 (1990).
[PubMed]

K. Taniguchi, T. Urasawa, N. Kobayashi, M. Gorziglia, and S. Urasawa, “Nucleotide sequence of VP4 and VP7 genes of human rotaviruses with subgroup I specificity and long RNA pattern: implication for new G serotype specificity,” J. Virol. 64(11), 5640–5644 (1990).
[PubMed]

K. Taniguchi, T. Urasawa, Y. Morita, H. B. Greenberg, and S. Urasawa, “Direct serotyping of human rotavirus in stools by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using serotype 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-specific monoclonal antibodies to VP7,” J. Infect. Dis. 155(6), 1159–1166 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Urasawa, T. Urasawa, K. Taniguchi, and S. Chiba, “Serotype determination of human rotavirus isolates and antibody prevalence in pediatric population in Hokkaido, Japan,” Arch. Virol. 81(1-2), 1–12 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Urasawa, T. Urasawa, and K. Taniguchi, “Three human rotavirus serotypes demonstrated by plaque neutralization of isolated strains,” Infect. Immun. 38(2), 781–784 (1982).
[PubMed]

K. Taniguchi, S. Urasawa, and T. Urasawa, “Electrophoretic analysis of RNA segments of human rotaviruses cultivated in cell culture,” J. Gen. Virol. 60(1), 171–175 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Urasawa, S. Urasawa, and K. Taniguchi, “Sequential passages of human rotavirus in MA-104 cells,” Microbiol. Immunol. 25(10), 1025–1035 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tate, J. E.

J. E. Tate, A. H. Burton, C. Boschi-Pinto, A. D. Steele, J. Duque, U. D. Parashar, and WHO-coordinated Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network, “2008 estimate of worldwide rotavirus-associated mortality in children younger than 5 years before the introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Infect. Dis. 12(2), 136–141 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Todd, J. A.

J. W. Mellors, C. R. Rinaldo, P. Gupta, R. M. White, J. A. Todd, and L. A. Kingsley, “Prognosis in HIV-1 infection predicted by the quantity of virus in plasma,” Science 272(5265), 1167–1170 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Towner, J. S.

J. S. Towner, P. E. Rollin, D. G. Bausch, A. Sanchez, S. M. Crary, M. Vincent, W. F. Lee, C. F. Spiropoulou, T. G. Ksiazek, M. Lukwiya, F. Kaducu, R. Downing, and S. T. Nichol, “Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome,” J. Virol. 78(8), 4330–4341 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsuji, T.

E. A. Wandera, S. Mohammad, S. Komoto, Y. Maeno, J. Nyangao, T. Ide, C. Kathiiko, E. Odoyo, T. Tsuji, K. Taniguchi, and Y. Ichinose, “Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Central Kenya before vaccine introduction, 2009-2014,” J. Med. Virol. 89(5), 809–817 (2017).
[PubMed]

Turcios, R.

R. I. Glass, U. D. Parashar, J. S. Bresee, R. Turcios, T. K. Fischer, M. A. Widdowson, B. Jiang, and J. R. Gentsch, “Rotavirus vaccines: current prospects and future challenges,” Lancet 368(9532), 323–332 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urasawa, S.

K. Taniguchi, T. Urasawa, N. Kobayashi, M. Gorziglia, and S. Urasawa, “Nucleotide sequence of VP4 and VP7 genes of human rotaviruses with subgroup I specificity and long RNA pattern: implication for new G serotype specificity,” J. Virol. 64(11), 5640–5644 (1990).
[PubMed]

K. Taniguchi, T. Urasawa, Y. Morita, H. B. Greenberg, and S. Urasawa, “Direct serotyping of human rotavirus in stools by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using serotype 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-specific monoclonal antibodies to VP7,” J. Infect. Dis. 155(6), 1159–1166 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Urasawa, T. Urasawa, K. Taniguchi, and S. Chiba, “Serotype determination of human rotavirus isolates and antibody prevalence in pediatric population in Hokkaido, Japan,” Arch. Virol. 81(1-2), 1–12 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Urasawa, T. Urasawa, and K. Taniguchi, “Three human rotavirus serotypes demonstrated by plaque neutralization of isolated strains,” Infect. Immun. 38(2), 781–784 (1982).
[PubMed]

K. Taniguchi, S. Urasawa, and T. Urasawa, “Electrophoretic analysis of RNA segments of human rotaviruses cultivated in cell culture,” J. Gen. Virol. 60(1), 171–175 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Urasawa, S. Urasawa, and K. Taniguchi, “Sequential passages of human rotavirus in MA-104 cells,” Microbiol. Immunol. 25(10), 1025–1035 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urasawa, T.

K. Taniguchi, T. Urasawa, N. Kobayashi, M. Gorziglia, and S. Urasawa, “Nucleotide sequence of VP4 and VP7 genes of human rotaviruses with subgroup I specificity and long RNA pattern: implication for new G serotype specificity,” J. Virol. 64(11), 5640–5644 (1990).
[PubMed]

K. Taniguchi, T. Urasawa, Y. Morita, H. B. Greenberg, and S. Urasawa, “Direct serotyping of human rotavirus in stools by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using serotype 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-specific monoclonal antibodies to VP7,” J. Infect. Dis. 155(6), 1159–1166 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Urasawa, T. Urasawa, K. Taniguchi, and S. Chiba, “Serotype determination of human rotavirus isolates and antibody prevalence in pediatric population in Hokkaido, Japan,” Arch. Virol. 81(1-2), 1–12 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Urasawa, T. Urasawa, and K. Taniguchi, “Three human rotavirus serotypes demonstrated by plaque neutralization of isolated strains,” Infect. Immun. 38(2), 781–784 (1982).
[PubMed]

K. Taniguchi, S. Urasawa, and T. Urasawa, “Electrophoretic analysis of RNA segments of human rotaviruses cultivated in cell culture,” J. Gen. Virol. 60(1), 171–175 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Urasawa, S. Urasawa, and K. Taniguchi, “Sequential passages of human rotavirus in MA-104 cells,” Microbiol. Immunol. 25(10), 1025–1035 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vincent, M.

J. S. Towner, P. E. Rollin, D. G. Bausch, A. Sanchez, S. M. Crary, M. Vincent, W. F. Lee, C. F. Spiropoulou, T. G. Ksiazek, M. Lukwiya, F. Kaducu, R. Downing, and S. T. Nichol, “Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome,” J. Virol. 78(8), 4330–4341 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, R.

M. Kostka, T. Högen, K. M. Danzer, J. Levin, M. Habeck, A. Wirth, R. Wagner, C. G. Glabe, S. Finger, U. Heinzelmann, P. Garidel, W. Duan, C. A. Ross, H. Kretzschmar, and A. Giese, “Single Particle Characterization of Iron-Induced Pore-Forming α-Synuclein Oligomers,” J. Biol. Chem. 283(16), 10992–11003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wandera, E. A.

E. A. Wandera, S. Mohammad, S. Komoto, Y. Maeno, J. Nyangao, T. Ide, C. Kathiiko, E. Odoyo, T. Tsuji, K. Taniguchi, and Y. Ichinose, “Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Central Kenya before vaccine introduction, 2009-2014,” J. Med. Virol. 89(5), 809–817 (2017).
[PubMed]

Wang, J.

T. Lan, J. Wang, C. Dong, X. Huang, and J. Ren, “Homogeneous immunoassays by using photon burst counting technique of single gold nanoparticles,” Talanta 132, 698–704 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

D. Magde, W. W. Webb, and E. L. Elson, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. III. Uniform translation and laminar flow,” Biopolymers 17(2), 361–376 (1978).
[Crossref]

D. Magde, E. L. Elson, and W. W. Webb, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. II. An experimental realization,” Biopolymers 13(1), 29–61 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, R. M.

J. W. Mellors, C. R. Rinaldo, P. Gupta, R. M. White, J. A. Todd, and L. A. Kingsley, “Prognosis in HIV-1 infection predicted by the quantity of virus in plasma,” Science 272(5265), 1167–1170 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whitney, D. H.

E. A. Nalefski, C. M. D’Antoni, E. P. Ferrell, J. A. Lloyd, H. Qiu, J. L. Harris, and D. H. Whitney, “Single-Molecule Detection for Femtomolar Quantification of Proteins in Heterogeneous Immunoassays,” Clin. Chem. 52(11), 2172–2175 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Widdowson, M. A.

R. I. Glass, U. D. Parashar, J. S. Bresee, R. Turcios, T. K. Fischer, M. A. Widdowson, B. Jiang, and J. R. Gentsch, “Rotavirus vaccines: current prospects and future challenges,” Lancet 368(9532), 323–332 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Widengren, J.

R. Rigler, Ü. Mets, J. Widengren, and P. Kask, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with high count rate and low background: analysis of translational diffusion,” Eur. Biophys. J. 22(3), 169–175 (1993).
[Crossref]

Winkler, J. L.

E. Simpson, S. Wittet, J. Bonilla, K. Gamazina, L. Cooley, and J. L. Winkler, “Use of formative research in developing a knowledge translation approach to rotavirus vaccine introduction in developing countries,” BMC Public Health 7(1), 281 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winkler, T.

A. Koltermann, U. Kettling, J. Bieschke, T. Winkler, and M. Eigen, “Rapid assay processing by integration of dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy: high throughput screening for enzyme activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(4), 1421–1426 (1998).
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Wirth, A.

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Zerr, I.

J. Bieschke, A. Giese, W. Schulz-Schaeffer, I. Zerr, S. Poser, M. Eigen, and H. Kretzschmar, “Ultrasensitive detection of pathological prion protein aggregates by dual-color scanning for intensely fluorescent targets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5468–5473 (2000).
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C.-Y. Zhang and L. W. Johnson, “Homogenous rapid detection of nucleic acids using two-color quantum dots,” Analyst (Lond.) 131(4), 484–488 (2006).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (A) A schematic overview of the fluorescence sensor system. (B) Front view of the prototype and enlarged view of the upper side (the mechanical sample stage).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Principle of detection for rotavirus-antibody assemblages by the photon burst counting.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (A) A schema of the custom-designed well glass slide. (B) Upper view of the product. (C) Droplet shapes on normal glass (left) and the product (right).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (A) The burst counts of fluorescent polystyrene beads (106 particles/mL, 100 nm in diameter) with different confocal region sizes (n = 3). The confocal regions were formed by a combination of the pinhole size (diameter) and the objective lens magnification, indicated beneath each bar. (B) Estimation of the signal-to-noise ratio with different confocal region sizes. A solution containing fluorescent polystyrene beads (106 particles/mL) and fluorescein (10 nM) was assayed. Ratios of the photon burst intensity to the noise level were obtained.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Voltage outputs produced by the emission of fluorescence photons in samples containing rotavirus (1 × 106, and 3 × 104 pfu/mL) (left) or no virus (right) and a fluorescence-labeled anti-VP6 antibody.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (A) The burst counts of rotavirus bound to a fluorescence-labeled anti-VP6 antibody with (red line) and without (blue line) motion of the sample stage (n = 3). (B) The burst counts of rotavirus inactivated by heating at 60 °C for 3 h (blue line), γ-ray irradiation with 25 kGy (red line), or treatment with a detergent (0.02% Triton-X100; green line) (n = 3).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Burst counts of rotavirus bound to a fluorescence-labeled anti-VP6 antibody in a positive stool specimen (red line) and a rotavirus-negative stool specimen (blue line) (n = 3).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 A waterfall plot of the burst counts of each of 183 stool specimens (diluted 5-fold). Red and blue bars indicate rotavirus-positive and rotavirus-negative samples, respectively.

Equations (1)

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T = B + N× σ

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