Abstract

The addition of fluorescence guidance in laparoscopic procedures has gained significant interest in recent years, particularly through the use of near infrared (NIR) markers. In this work we present a novel laparoscope camera coupler based on an electrically tunable fluidic lens that permits programmable focus control and has desirable achromatic performance from the visible to the NIR. Its use extends the lower working distance limit and improves detection sensitivity, important for work with molecularly targeted fluorescence markers. We demonstrate its superior optical performance in laparoscopic fluorescence-guided surgery. In vivo results using a tumor specific molecular probe and a nonspecific NIR dye are presented.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

2016 (3)

Y. Qin and H. Hua, “Continuously zoom imaging probe for the multi-resolution foveated laparoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(4), 1175–1182 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Yeung, D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, G. A. Nicholson, N. Buchs, C. Cunningham, R. Guy, I. Lindsey, B. George, O. Jones, L. Mun Wang, R. Hompes, B. Vojnovic, F. Hamdy, and N. J. Mortensen, “Identifying Ureters In Situ Under Fluorescence During Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery,” Ann. Surg. 263(1), e1–e2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Garland, J. J. Yim, and M. Bogyo, “A Bright Future for Precision Medicine: Advances in Fluorescent Chemical Probe Design and Their Clinical Application,” Cell Chem Biol 23(1), 122–136 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

A. Laios, D. Volpi, I. D. Tullis, M. Woodward, S. Kennedy, P. N. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “A prospective pilot study of detection of sentinel lymph nodes in gynaecological cancers using a novel near infrared fluorescence imaging system,” BMC Res. Notes 8(1), 608 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Volpi, M. El-Kasti, D. Klotz, I. Tullis, A. Henricks, L. Campo, K. Myers, A. Laios, P. Thomas, T. Ng, S. Dhar, C. Becker, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “Toward Operative In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of the c-Met Proto-Oncogene for Personalization of Therapy in Ovarian Cancer,” Cancer 121(2), 202–213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

J. Glatz, P. Symvoulidis, P. Beatriz Garcia-Allende, and V. Ntziachristos, “Robust overlay schemes for the fusion of fluorescence and color channels in biological imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(4), 040501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Jewell, J. J. Huang, N. R. Abu-Rustum, G. J. Gardner, C. L. Brown, Y. Sonoda, R. R. Barakat, D. A. Levine, and M. M. Leitao., “Detection of sentinel lymph nodes in minimally invasive surgery using indocyanine green and near-infrared fluorescence imaging for uterine and cervical malignancies,” Gynecol. Oncol. 133(2), 274–277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. H. KleinJan, N. S. van den Berg, O. R. Brouwer, J. de Jong, C. Acar, E. M. Wit, E. Vegt, V. van der Noort, R. A. Valdés Olmos, F. W. van Leeuwen, and H. G. van der Poel, “Optimisation of Fluorescence Guidance During Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Sentinel Node Biopsy for Prostate Cancer,” Eur. Urol. 66(6), 991–998 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

J. Glatz, J. Varga, P. B. Garcia-Allende, M. Koch, F. R. Greten, and V. Ntziachristos, “Concurrent video-rate color and near-infrared fluorescence laparoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 101302 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Vahrmeijer, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, C. J. H. van de Velde, and J. V. Frangioni, “Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 10(9), 507–518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Venugopal, M. Park, Y. Ashitate, F. Neacsu, F. Kettenring, J. V. Frangioni, S. P. Gangadharan, and S. Gioux, “Design and characterization of an optimized simultaneous color and near-infrared fluorescence rigid endoscopic imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

D. C. Gray, E. M. Kim, V. E. Cotero, A. Bajaj, V. P. Staudinger, C. A. T. Hehir, and S. Yazdanfar, “Dual-mode laparoscopic fluorescence image-guided surgery using a single camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1880–1890 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. J. Wagner, B. E. Louie, E. Vallières, R. W. Aye, and A. S. Farivar, “Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Can Help Identify the Contralateral Phrenic Nerve During Robotic Thymectomy,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 94(2), 622–625 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

H. S. Tran Cao, S. Kaushal, C. Lee, C. S. Snyder, K. J. Thompson, S. Horgan, M. A. Talamini, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescence laparoscopy imaging of pancreatic tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model,” Surg. Endosc. 25(1), 48–54 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, M. Ijichi, J. Kaneko, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg. 97(9), 1369–1377 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

C. P. Delaney, E. Chang, A. J. Senagore, and M. Broder, “Clinical outcomes and resource utilization associated with laparoscopic and open colectomy using a large national database,” Ann. Surg. 247(5), 819–824 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

A. C. Schlaerth and N. R. Abu-Rustum, “Role of minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic cancers,” Oncologist 11(8), 895–901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Anderson, R. Harrison, P. A. Atherfold, M. J. Campbell, S. J. Darnton, J. Obszynska, and J. A. Z. Jankowski, “Met receptor signaling: a key effector in esophageal adenocarcinoma,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(20), 5936–5943 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. V. Frangioni, “In vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7(5), 626–634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: A comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol. 169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

E. H. K. Stelzer, “Contrast, resolution, pixelation, dynamic range and signal-to-noise ratio: fundamental limits to resolution in fluorescence light microscopy,” J Microsc-Oxford 189(1), 15–24 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. Friberg and S. Mattson, “On the growth rates of human malignant tumors: implications for medical decision making,” J. Surg. Oncol. 65(4), 284–297 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

V. Mais, S. Ajossa, S. Guerriero, M. Mascia, E. Solla, and G. B. Melis, “Laparoscopic versus abdominal myomectomy: a prospective, randomized trial to evaluate benefits in early outcome,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174(2), 654–658 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

U. Berggren, T. Gordh, D. Grama, U. Haglund, J. Rastad, and D. Arvidsson, “Laparoscopicversus open cholecystectomy: Hospitalization, sick leave, analgesia and trauma responses,” Br. J. Surg. 81(9), 1362–1365 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abu-Rustum, N. R.

E. L. Jewell, J. J. Huang, N. R. Abu-Rustum, G. J. Gardner, C. L. Brown, Y. Sonoda, R. R. Barakat, D. A. Levine, and M. M. Leitao., “Detection of sentinel lymph nodes in minimally invasive surgery using indocyanine green and near-infrared fluorescence imaging for uterine and cervical malignancies,” Gynecol. Oncol. 133(2), 274–277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Schlaerth and N. R. Abu-Rustum, “Role of minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic cancers,” Oncologist 11(8), 895–901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acar, C.

G. H. KleinJan, N. S. van den Berg, O. R. Brouwer, J. de Jong, C. Acar, E. M. Wit, E. Vegt, V. van der Noort, R. A. Valdés Olmos, F. W. van Leeuwen, and H. G. van der Poel, “Optimisation of Fluorescence Guidance During Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Sentinel Node Biopsy for Prostate Cancer,” Eur. Urol. 66(6), 991–998 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, A. A.

A. Laios, D. Volpi, I. D. Tullis, M. Woodward, S. Kennedy, P. N. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “A prospective pilot study of detection of sentinel lymph nodes in gynaecological cancers using a novel near infrared fluorescence imaging system,” BMC Res. Notes 8(1), 608 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Volpi, M. El-Kasti, D. Klotz, I. Tullis, A. Henricks, L. Campo, K. Myers, A. Laios, P. Thomas, T. Ng, S. Dhar, C. Becker, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “Toward Operative In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of the c-Met Proto-Oncogene for Personalization of Therapy in Ovarian Cancer,” Cancer 121(2), 202–213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, A. Laios, P. N. J. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, A. A. Ahmed, and B. Vojnovic, “A novel multiwavelength fluorescence image-guided surgery imaging system,” Proc. SPIEAdvanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems XII8935, (2014).

Ajossa, S.

V. Mais, S. Ajossa, S. Guerriero, M. Mascia, E. Solla, and G. B. Melis, “Laparoscopic versus abdominal myomectomy: a prospective, randomized trial to evaluate benefits in early outcome,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174(2), 654–658 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, M. R.

M. R. Anderson, R. Harrison, P. A. Atherfold, M. J. Campbell, S. J. Darnton, J. Obszynska, and J. A. Z. Jankowski, “Met receptor signaling: a key effector in esophageal adenocarcinoma,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(20), 5936–5943 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arianpour, A.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arvidsson, D.

U. Berggren, T. Gordh, D. Grama, U. Haglund, J. Rastad, and D. Arvidsson, “Laparoscopicversus open cholecystectomy: Hospitalization, sick leave, analgesia and trauma responses,” Br. J. Surg. 81(9), 1362–1365 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashitate, Y.

V. Venugopal, M. Park, Y. Ashitate, F. Neacsu, F. Kettenring, J. V. Frangioni, S. P. Gangadharan, and S. Gioux, “Design and characterization of an optimized simultaneous color and near-infrared fluorescence rigid endoscopic imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atherfold, P. A.

M. R. Anderson, R. Harrison, P. A. Atherfold, M. J. Campbell, S. J. Darnton, J. Obszynska, and J. A. Z. Jankowski, “Met receptor signaling: a key effector in esophageal adenocarcinoma,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(20), 5936–5943 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aye, R. W.

O. J. Wagner, B. E. Louie, E. Vallières, R. W. Aye, and A. S. Farivar, “Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Can Help Identify the Contralateral Phrenic Nerve During Robotic Thymectomy,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 94(2), 622–625 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajaj, A.

Bandai, Y.

T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, M. Ijichi, J. Kaneko, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg. 97(9), 1369–1377 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barakat, R. R.

E. L. Jewell, J. J. Huang, N. R. Abu-Rustum, G. J. Gardner, C. L. Brown, Y. Sonoda, R. R. Barakat, D. A. Levine, and M. M. Leitao., “Detection of sentinel lymph nodes in minimally invasive surgery using indocyanine green and near-infrared fluorescence imaging for uterine and cervical malignancies,” Gynecol. Oncol. 133(2), 274–277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beatriz Garcia-Allende, P.

J. Glatz, P. Symvoulidis, P. Beatriz Garcia-Allende, and V. Ntziachristos, “Robust overlay schemes for the fusion of fluorescence and color channels in biological imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(4), 040501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, C.

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Volpi, M. El-Kasti, D. Klotz, I. Tullis, A. Henricks, L. Campo, K. Myers, A. Laios, P. Thomas, T. Ng, S. Dhar, C. Becker, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “Toward Operative In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of the c-Met Proto-Oncogene for Personalization of Therapy in Ovarian Cancer,” Cancer 121(2), 202–213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berggren, U.

U. Berggren, T. Gordh, D. Grama, U. Haglund, J. Rastad, and D. Arvidsson, “Laparoscopicversus open cholecystectomy: Hospitalization, sick leave, analgesia and trauma responses,” Br. J. Surg. 81(9), 1362–1365 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogyo, M.

M. Garland, J. J. Yim, and M. Bogyo, “A Bright Future for Precision Medicine: Advances in Fluorescent Chemical Probe Design and Their Clinical Application,” Cell Chem Biol 23(1), 122–136 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouvet, M.

H. S. Tran Cao, S. Kaushal, C. Lee, C. S. Snyder, K. J. Thompson, S. Horgan, M. A. Talamini, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescence laparoscopy imaging of pancreatic tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model,” Surg. Endosc. 25(1), 48–54 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broder, M.

C. P. Delaney, E. Chang, A. J. Senagore, and M. Broder, “Clinical outcomes and resource utilization associated with laparoscopic and open colectomy using a large national database,” Ann. Surg. 247(5), 819–824 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brouwer, O. R.

G. H. KleinJan, N. S. van den Berg, O. R. Brouwer, J. de Jong, C. Acar, E. M. Wit, E. Vegt, V. van der Noort, R. A. Valdés Olmos, F. W. van Leeuwen, and H. G. van der Poel, “Optimisation of Fluorescence Guidance During Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Sentinel Node Biopsy for Prostate Cancer,” Eur. Urol. 66(6), 991–998 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, C. L.

E. L. Jewell, J. J. Huang, N. R. Abu-Rustum, G. J. Gardner, C. L. Brown, Y. Sonoda, R. R. Barakat, D. A. Levine, and M. M. Leitao., “Detection of sentinel lymph nodes in minimally invasive surgery using indocyanine green and near-infrared fluorescence imaging for uterine and cervical malignancies,” Gynecol. Oncol. 133(2), 274–277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buchs, N.

T. M. Yeung, D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, G. A. Nicholson, N. Buchs, C. Cunningham, R. Guy, I. Lindsey, B. George, O. Jones, L. Mun Wang, R. Hompes, B. Vojnovic, F. Hamdy, and N. J. Mortensen, “Identifying Ureters In Situ Under Fluorescence During Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery,” Ann. Surg. 263(1), e1–e2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, M. J.

M. R. Anderson, R. Harrison, P. A. Atherfold, M. J. Campbell, S. J. Darnton, J. Obszynska, and J. A. Z. Jankowski, “Met receptor signaling: a key effector in esophageal adenocarcinoma,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(20), 5936–5943 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campo, L.

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Volpi, M. El-Kasti, D. Klotz, I. Tullis, A. Henricks, L. Campo, K. Myers, A. Laios, P. Thomas, T. Ng, S. Dhar, C. Becker, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “Toward Operative In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of the c-Met Proto-Oncogene for Personalization of Therapy in Ovarian Cancer,” Cancer 121(2), 202–213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, E.

C. P. Delaney, E. Chang, A. J. Senagore, and M. Broder, “Clinical outcomes and resource utilization associated with laparoscopic and open colectomy using a large national database,” Ann. Surg. 247(5), 819–824 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, S. H.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cotero, V. E.

Cunningham, C.

T. M. Yeung, D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, G. A. Nicholson, N. Buchs, C. Cunningham, R. Guy, I. Lindsey, B. George, O. Jones, L. Mun Wang, R. Hompes, B. Vojnovic, F. Hamdy, and N. J. Mortensen, “Identifying Ureters In Situ Under Fluorescence During Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery,” Ann. Surg. 263(1), e1–e2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Darnton, S. J.

M. R. Anderson, R. Harrison, P. A. Atherfold, M. J. Campbell, S. J. Darnton, J. Obszynska, and J. A. Z. Jankowski, “Met receptor signaling: a key effector in esophageal adenocarcinoma,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(20), 5936–5943 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Jong, J.

G. H. KleinJan, N. S. van den Berg, O. R. Brouwer, J. de Jong, C. Acar, E. M. Wit, E. Vegt, V. van der Noort, R. A. Valdés Olmos, F. W. van Leeuwen, and H. G. van der Poel, “Optimisation of Fluorescence Guidance During Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Sentinel Node Biopsy for Prostate Cancer,” Eur. Urol. 66(6), 991–998 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delaney, C. P.

C. P. Delaney, E. Chang, A. J. Senagore, and M. Broder, “Clinical outcomes and resource utilization associated with laparoscopic and open colectomy using a large national database,” Ann. Surg. 247(5), 819–824 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhar, S.

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Volpi, M. El-Kasti, D. Klotz, I. Tullis, A. Henricks, L. Campo, K. Myers, A. Laios, P. Thomas, T. Ng, S. Dhar, C. Becker, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “Toward Operative In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of the c-Met Proto-Oncogene for Personalization of Therapy in Ovarian Cancer,” Cancer 121(2), 202–213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Kasti, M.

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Volpi, M. El-Kasti, D. Klotz, I. Tullis, A. Henricks, L. Campo, K. Myers, A. Laios, P. Thomas, T. Ng, S. Dhar, C. Becker, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “Toward Operative In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of the c-Met Proto-Oncogene for Personalization of Therapy in Ovarian Cancer,” Cancer 121(2), 202–213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farivar, A. S.

O. J. Wagner, B. E. Louie, E. Vallières, R. W. Aye, and A. S. Farivar, “Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Can Help Identify the Contralateral Phrenic Nerve During Robotic Thymectomy,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 94(2), 622–625 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Francis, C. S.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frangioni, J. V.

V. Venugopal, M. Park, Y. Ashitate, F. Neacsu, F. Kettenring, J. V. Frangioni, S. P. Gangadharan, and S. Gioux, “Design and characterization of an optimized simultaneous color and near-infrared fluorescence rigid endoscopic imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Vahrmeijer, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, C. J. H. van de Velde, and J. V. Frangioni, “Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 10(9), 507–518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. V. Frangioni, “In vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7(5), 626–634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frede, T.

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: A comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol. 169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friberg, S.

S. Friberg and S. Mattson, “On the growth rates of human malignant tumors: implications for medical decision making,” J. Surg. Oncol. 65(4), 284–297 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gangadharan, S. P.

V. Venugopal, M. Park, Y. Ashitate, F. Neacsu, F. Kettenring, J. V. Frangioni, S. P. Gangadharan, and S. Gioux, “Design and characterization of an optimized simultaneous color and near-infrared fluorescence rigid endoscopic imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia-Allende, P. B.

J. Glatz, J. Varga, P. B. Garcia-Allende, M. Koch, F. R. Greten, and V. Ntziachristos, “Concurrent video-rate color and near-infrared fluorescence laparoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 101302 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardner, G. J.

E. L. Jewell, J. J. Huang, N. R. Abu-Rustum, G. J. Gardner, C. L. Brown, Y. Sonoda, R. R. Barakat, D. A. Levine, and M. M. Leitao., “Detection of sentinel lymph nodes in minimally invasive surgery using indocyanine green and near-infrared fluorescence imaging for uterine and cervical malignancies,” Gynecol. Oncol. 133(2), 274–277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garland, M.

M. Garland, J. J. Yim, and M. Bogyo, “A Bright Future for Precision Medicine: Advances in Fluorescent Chemical Probe Design and Their Clinical Application,” Cell Chem Biol 23(1), 122–136 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

George, B.

T. M. Yeung, D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, G. A. Nicholson, N. Buchs, C. Cunningham, R. Guy, I. Lindsey, B. George, O. Jones, L. Mun Wang, R. Hompes, B. Vojnovic, F. Hamdy, and N. J. Mortensen, “Identifying Ureters In Situ Under Fluorescence During Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery,” Ann. Surg. 263(1), e1–e2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gioux, S.

V. Venugopal, M. Park, Y. Ashitate, F. Neacsu, F. Kettenring, J. V. Frangioni, S. P. Gangadharan, and S. Gioux, “Design and characterization of an optimized simultaneous color and near-infrared fluorescence rigid endoscopic imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glatz, J.

J. Glatz, P. Symvoulidis, P. Beatriz Garcia-Allende, and V. Ntziachristos, “Robust overlay schemes for the fusion of fluorescence and color channels in biological imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(4), 040501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Glatz, J. Varga, P. B. Garcia-Allende, M. Koch, F. R. Greten, and V. Ntziachristos, “Concurrent video-rate color and near-infrared fluorescence laparoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 101302 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordh, T.

U. Berggren, T. Gordh, D. Grama, U. Haglund, J. Rastad, and D. Arvidsson, “Laparoscopicversus open cholecystectomy: Hospitalization, sick leave, analgesia and trauma responses,” Br. J. Surg. 81(9), 1362–1365 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grama, D.

U. Berggren, T. Gordh, D. Grama, U. Haglund, J. Rastad, and D. Arvidsson, “Laparoscopicversus open cholecystectomy: Hospitalization, sick leave, analgesia and trauma responses,” Br. J. Surg. 81(9), 1362–1365 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gray, D. C.

Greten, F. R.

J. Glatz, J. Varga, P. B. Garcia-Allende, M. Koch, F. R. Greten, and V. Ntziachristos, “Concurrent video-rate color and near-infrared fluorescence laparoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 101302 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guerriero, S.

V. Mais, S. Ajossa, S. Guerriero, M. Mascia, E. Solla, and G. B. Melis, “Laparoscopic versus abdominal myomectomy: a prospective, randomized trial to evaluate benefits in early outcome,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174(2), 654–658 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guy, R.

T. M. Yeung, D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, G. A. Nicholson, N. Buchs, C. Cunningham, R. Guy, I. Lindsey, B. George, O. Jones, L. Mun Wang, R. Hompes, B. Vojnovic, F. Hamdy, and N. J. Mortensen, “Identifying Ureters In Situ Under Fluorescence During Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery,” Ann. Surg. 263(1), e1–e2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haglund, U.

U. Berggren, T. Gordh, D. Grama, U. Haglund, J. Rastad, and D. Arvidsson, “Laparoscopicversus open cholecystectomy: Hospitalization, sick leave, analgesia and trauma responses,” Br. J. Surg. 81(9), 1362–1365 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haldar, K.

A. Laios, D. Volpi, I. D. Tullis, M. Woodward, S. Kennedy, P. N. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “A prospective pilot study of detection of sentinel lymph nodes in gynaecological cancers using a novel near infrared fluorescence imaging system,” BMC Res. Notes 8(1), 608 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, A. Laios, P. N. J. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, A. A. Ahmed, and B. Vojnovic, “A novel multiwavelength fluorescence image-guided surgery imaging system,” Proc. SPIEAdvanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems XII8935, (2014).

Hamdy, F.

T. M. Yeung, D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, G. A. Nicholson, N. Buchs, C. Cunningham, R. Guy, I. Lindsey, B. George, O. Jones, L. Mun Wang, R. Hompes, B. Vojnovic, F. Hamdy, and N. J. Mortensen, “Identifying Ureters In Situ Under Fluorescence During Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery,” Ann. Surg. 263(1), e1–e2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harrison, R.

M. R. Anderson, R. Harrison, P. A. Atherfold, M. J. Campbell, S. J. Darnton, J. Obszynska, and J. A. Z. Jankowski, “Met receptor signaling: a key effector in esophageal adenocarcinoma,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(20), 5936–5943 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasegawa, K.

T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, M. Ijichi, J. Kaneko, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg. 97(9), 1369–1377 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hatzinger, M.

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: A comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol. 169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hehir, C. A. T.

Henricks, A.

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Volpi, M. El-Kasti, D. Klotz, I. Tullis, A. Henricks, L. Campo, K. Myers, A. Laios, P. Thomas, T. Ng, S. Dhar, C. Becker, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “Toward Operative In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of the c-Met Proto-Oncogene for Personalization of Therapy in Ovarian Cancer,” Cancer 121(2), 202–213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffman, R. M.

H. S. Tran Cao, S. Kaushal, C. Lee, C. S. Snyder, K. J. Thompson, S. Horgan, M. A. Talamini, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescence laparoscopy imaging of pancreatic tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model,” Surg. Endosc. 25(1), 48–54 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hompes, R.

T. M. Yeung, D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, G. A. Nicholson, N. Buchs, C. Cunningham, R. Guy, I. Lindsey, B. George, O. Jones, L. Mun Wang, R. Hompes, B. Vojnovic, F. Hamdy, and N. J. Mortensen, “Identifying Ureters In Situ Under Fluorescence During Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery,” Ann. Surg. 263(1), e1–e2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horgan, S.

H. S. Tran Cao, S. Kaushal, C. Lee, C. S. Snyder, K. J. Thompson, S. Horgan, M. A. Talamini, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescence laparoscopy imaging of pancreatic tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model,” Surg. Endosc. 25(1), 48–54 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hua, H.

Huang, J. J.

E. L. Jewell, J. J. Huang, N. R. Abu-Rustum, G. J. Gardner, C. L. Brown, Y. Sonoda, R. R. Barakat, D. A. Levine, and M. M. Leitao., “Detection of sentinel lymph nodes in minimally invasive surgery using indocyanine green and near-infrared fluorescence imaging for uterine and cervical malignancies,” Gynecol. Oncol. 133(2), 274–277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hutteman, M.

A. L. Vahrmeijer, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, C. J. H. van de Velde, and J. V. Frangioni, “Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 10(9), 507–518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ijichi, M.

T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, M. Ijichi, J. Kaneko, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg. 97(9), 1369–1377 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishizawa, T.

T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, M. Ijichi, J. Kaneko, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg. 97(9), 1369–1377 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jankowski, J. A. Z.

M. R. Anderson, R. Harrison, P. A. Atherfold, M. J. Campbell, S. J. Darnton, J. Obszynska, and J. A. Z. Jankowski, “Met receptor signaling: a key effector in esophageal adenocarcinoma,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(20), 5936–5943 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jewell, E. L.

E. L. Jewell, J. J. Huang, N. R. Abu-Rustum, G. J. Gardner, C. L. Brown, Y. Sonoda, R. R. Barakat, D. A. Levine, and M. M. Leitao., “Detection of sentinel lymph nodes in minimally invasive surgery using indocyanine green and near-infrared fluorescence imaging for uterine and cervical malignancies,” Gynecol. Oncol. 133(2), 274–277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, D.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, O.

T. M. Yeung, D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, G. A. Nicholson, N. Buchs, C. Cunningham, R. Guy, I. Lindsey, B. George, O. Jones, L. Mun Wang, R. Hompes, B. Vojnovic, F. Hamdy, and N. J. Mortensen, “Identifying Ureters In Situ Under Fluorescence During Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery,” Ann. Surg. 263(1), e1–e2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaneko, J.

T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, M. Ijichi, J. Kaneko, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg. 97(9), 1369–1377 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaushal, S.

H. S. Tran Cao, S. Kaushal, C. Lee, C. S. Snyder, K. J. Thompson, S. Horgan, M. A. Talamini, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescence laparoscopy imaging of pancreatic tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model,” Surg. Endosc. 25(1), 48–54 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kennedy, S.

A. Laios, D. Volpi, I. D. Tullis, M. Woodward, S. Kennedy, P. N. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “A prospective pilot study of detection of sentinel lymph nodes in gynaecological cancers using a novel near infrared fluorescence imaging system,” BMC Res. Notes 8(1), 608 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kettenring, F.

V. Venugopal, M. Park, Y. Ashitate, F. Neacsu, F. Kettenring, J. V. Frangioni, S. P. Gangadharan, and S. Gioux, “Design and characterization of an optimized simultaneous color and near-infrared fluorescence rigid endoscopic imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khanicheh, A.

Kim, E. M.

KleinJan, G. H.

G. H. KleinJan, N. S. van den Berg, O. R. Brouwer, J. de Jong, C. Acar, E. M. Wit, E. Vegt, V. van der Noort, R. A. Valdés Olmos, F. W. van Leeuwen, and H. G. van der Poel, “Optimisation of Fluorescence Guidance During Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Sentinel Node Biopsy for Prostate Cancer,” Eur. Urol. 66(6), 991–998 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klotz, D.

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Volpi, M. El-Kasti, D. Klotz, I. Tullis, A. Henricks, L. Campo, K. Myers, A. Laios, P. Thomas, T. Ng, S. Dhar, C. Becker, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “Toward Operative In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of the c-Met Proto-Oncogene for Personalization of Therapy in Ovarian Cancer,” Cancer 121(2), 202–213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, M.

J. Glatz, J. Varga, P. B. Garcia-Allende, M. Koch, F. R. Greten, and V. Ntziachristos, “Concurrent video-rate color and near-infrared fluorescence laparoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 101302 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kokudo, N.

T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, M. Ijichi, J. Kaneko, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg. 97(9), 1369–1377 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laios, A.

A. Laios, D. Volpi, I. D. Tullis, M. Woodward, S. Kennedy, P. N. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “A prospective pilot study of detection of sentinel lymph nodes in gynaecological cancers using a novel near infrared fluorescence imaging system,” BMC Res. Notes 8(1), 608 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Volpi, M. El-Kasti, D. Klotz, I. Tullis, A. Henricks, L. Campo, K. Myers, A. Laios, P. Thomas, T. Ng, S. Dhar, C. Becker, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “Toward Operative In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of the c-Met Proto-Oncogene for Personalization of Therapy in Ovarian Cancer,” Cancer 121(2), 202–213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, A. Laios, P. N. J. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, A. A. Ahmed, and B. Vojnovic, “A novel multiwavelength fluorescence image-guided surgery imaging system,” Proc. SPIEAdvanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems XII8935, (2014).

Lee, C.

H. S. Tran Cao, S. Kaushal, C. Lee, C. S. Snyder, K. J. Thompson, S. Horgan, M. A. Talamini, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescence laparoscopy imaging of pancreatic tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model,” Surg. Endosc. 25(1), 48–54 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leiner, D.

Leitao, M. M.

E. L. Jewell, J. J. Huang, N. R. Abu-Rustum, G. J. Gardner, C. L. Brown, Y. Sonoda, R. R. Barakat, D. A. Levine, and M. M. Leitao., “Detection of sentinel lymph nodes in minimally invasive surgery using indocyanine green and near-infrared fluorescence imaging for uterine and cervical malignancies,” Gynecol. Oncol. 133(2), 274–277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levine, D. A.

E. L. Jewell, J. J. Huang, N. R. Abu-Rustum, G. J. Gardner, C. L. Brown, Y. Sonoda, R. R. Barakat, D. A. Levine, and M. M. Leitao., “Detection of sentinel lymph nodes in minimally invasive surgery using indocyanine green and near-infrared fluorescence imaging for uterine and cervical malignancies,” Gynecol. Oncol. 133(2), 274–277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindsey, I.

T. M. Yeung, D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, G. A. Nicholson, N. Buchs, C. Cunningham, R. Guy, I. Lindsey, B. George, O. Jones, L. Mun Wang, R. Hompes, B. Vojnovic, F. Hamdy, and N. J. Mortensen, “Identifying Ureters In Situ Under Fluorescence During Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery,” Ann. Surg. 263(1), e1–e2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Volpi, M. El-Kasti, D. Klotz, I. Tullis, A. Henricks, L. Campo, K. Myers, A. Laios, P. Thomas, T. Ng, S. Dhar, C. Becker, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “Toward Operative In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of the c-Met Proto-Oncogene for Personalization of Therapy in Ovarian Cancer,” Cancer 121(2), 202–213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, Y. H.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Louie, B. E.

O. J. Wagner, B. E. Louie, E. Vallières, R. W. Aye, and A. S. Farivar, “Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Can Help Identify the Contralateral Phrenic Nerve During Robotic Thymectomy,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 94(2), 622–625 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mais, V.

V. Mais, S. Ajossa, S. Guerriero, M. Mascia, E. Solla, and G. B. Melis, “Laparoscopic versus abdominal myomectomy: a prospective, randomized trial to evaluate benefits in early outcome,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174(2), 654–658 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mascia, M.

V. Mais, S. Ajossa, S. Guerriero, M. Mascia, E. Solla, and G. B. Melis, “Laparoscopic versus abdominal myomectomy: a prospective, randomized trial to evaluate benefits in early outcome,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174(2), 654–658 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mattson, S.

S. Friberg and S. Mattson, “On the growth rates of human malignant tumors: implications for medical decision making,” J. Surg. Oncol. 65(4), 284–297 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melis, G. B.

V. Mais, S. Ajossa, S. Guerriero, M. Mascia, E. Solla, and G. B. Melis, “Laparoscopic versus abdominal myomectomy: a prospective, randomized trial to evaluate benefits in early outcome,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174(2), 654–658 (1996).
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F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
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Mortensen, N. J.

T. M. Yeung, D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, G. A. Nicholson, N. Buchs, C. Cunningham, R. Guy, I. Lindsey, B. George, O. Jones, L. Mun Wang, R. Hompes, B. Vojnovic, F. Hamdy, and N. J. Mortensen, “Identifying Ureters In Situ Under Fluorescence During Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery,” Ann. Surg. 263(1), e1–e2 (2016).
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Mun Wang, L.

T. M. Yeung, D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, G. A. Nicholson, N. Buchs, C. Cunningham, R. Guy, I. Lindsey, B. George, O. Jones, L. Mun Wang, R. Hompes, B. Vojnovic, F. Hamdy, and N. J. Mortensen, “Identifying Ureters In Situ Under Fluorescence During Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery,” Ann. Surg. 263(1), e1–e2 (2016).
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Myers, K.

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Volpi, M. El-Kasti, D. Klotz, I. Tullis, A. Henricks, L. Campo, K. Myers, A. Laios, P. Thomas, T. Ng, S. Dhar, C. Becker, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “Toward Operative In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of the c-Met Proto-Oncogene for Personalization of Therapy in Ovarian Cancer,” Cancer 121(2), 202–213 (2015).
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Neacsu, F.

V. Venugopal, M. Park, Y. Ashitate, F. Neacsu, F. Kettenring, J. V. Frangioni, S. P. Gangadharan, and S. Gioux, “Design and characterization of an optimized simultaneous color and near-infrared fluorescence rigid endoscopic imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, T.

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Volpi, M. El-Kasti, D. Klotz, I. Tullis, A. Henricks, L. Campo, K. Myers, A. Laios, P. Thomas, T. Ng, S. Dhar, C. Becker, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “Toward Operative In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of the c-Met Proto-Oncogene for Personalization of Therapy in Ovarian Cancer,” Cancer 121(2), 202–213 (2015).
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Nicholson, G. A.

T. M. Yeung, D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, G. A. Nicholson, N. Buchs, C. Cunningham, R. Guy, I. Lindsey, B. George, O. Jones, L. Mun Wang, R. Hompes, B. Vojnovic, F. Hamdy, and N. J. Mortensen, “Identifying Ureters In Situ Under Fluorescence During Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery,” Ann. Surg. 263(1), e1–e2 (2016).
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Ntziachristos, V.

J. Glatz, P. Symvoulidis, P. Beatriz Garcia-Allende, and V. Ntziachristos, “Robust overlay schemes for the fusion of fluorescence and color channels in biological imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(4), 040501 (2014).
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J. Glatz, J. Varga, P. B. Garcia-Allende, M. Koch, F. R. Greten, and V. Ntziachristos, “Concurrent video-rate color and near-infrared fluorescence laparoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 101302 (2013).
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Obszynska, J.

M. R. Anderson, R. Harrison, P. A. Atherfold, M. J. Campbell, S. J. Darnton, J. Obszynska, and J. A. Z. Jankowski, “Met receptor signaling: a key effector in esophageal adenocarcinoma,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(20), 5936–5943 (2006).
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V. Venugopal, M. Park, Y. Ashitate, F. Neacsu, F. Kettenring, J. V. Frangioni, S. P. Gangadharan, and S. Gioux, “Design and characterization of an optimized simultaneous color and near-infrared fluorescence rigid endoscopic imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126018 (2013).
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Pathiraja, P. N.

A. Laios, D. Volpi, I. D. Tullis, M. Woodward, S. Kennedy, P. N. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “A prospective pilot study of detection of sentinel lymph nodes in gynaecological cancers using a novel near infrared fluorescence imaging system,” BMC Res. Notes 8(1), 608 (2015).
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Pathiraja, P. N. J.

D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, A. Laios, P. N. J. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, A. A. Ahmed, and B. Vojnovic, “A novel multiwavelength fluorescence image-guided surgery imaging system,” Proc. SPIEAdvanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems XII8935, (2014).

Qiao, W.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
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Rassweiler, J.

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: A comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol. 169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
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Rastad, J.

U. Berggren, T. Gordh, D. Grama, U. Haglund, J. Rastad, and D. Arvidsson, “Laparoscopicversus open cholecystectomy: Hospitalization, sick leave, analgesia and trauma responses,” Br. J. Surg. 81(9), 1362–1365 (1994).
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J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: A comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol. 169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
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Senagore, A. J.

C. P. Delaney, E. Chang, A. J. Senagore, and M. Broder, “Clinical outcomes and resource utilization associated with laparoscopic and open colectomy using a large national database,” Ann. Surg. 247(5), 819–824 (2008).
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Snyder, C. S.

H. S. Tran Cao, S. Kaushal, C. Lee, C. S. Snyder, K. J. Thompson, S. Horgan, M. A. Talamini, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescence laparoscopy imaging of pancreatic tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model,” Surg. Endosc. 25(1), 48–54 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solla, E.

V. Mais, S. Ajossa, S. Guerriero, M. Mascia, E. Solla, and G. B. Melis, “Laparoscopic versus abdominal myomectomy: a prospective, randomized trial to evaluate benefits in early outcome,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174(2), 654–658 (1996).
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Stelzer, E. H. K.

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Symvoulidis, P.

J. Glatz, P. Symvoulidis, P. Beatriz Garcia-Allende, and V. Ntziachristos, “Robust overlay schemes for the fusion of fluorescence and color channels in biological imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(4), 040501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talamini, M.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talamini, M. A.

H. S. Tran Cao, S. Kaushal, C. Lee, C. S. Snyder, K. J. Thompson, S. Horgan, M. A. Talamini, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescence laparoscopy imaging of pancreatic tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model,” Surg. Endosc. 25(1), 48–54 (2011).
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Teber, D.

J. Rassweiler, O. Seemann, M. Schulze, D. Teber, M. Hatzinger, and T. Frede, “Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: A comparative study at a single institution,” J. Urol. 169(5), 1689–1693 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, P.

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Volpi, M. El-Kasti, D. Klotz, I. Tullis, A. Henricks, L. Campo, K. Myers, A. Laios, P. Thomas, T. Ng, S. Dhar, C. Becker, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “Toward Operative In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of the c-Met Proto-Oncogene for Personalization of Therapy in Ovarian Cancer,” Cancer 121(2), 202–213 (2015).
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Thompson, K. J.

H. S. Tran Cao, S. Kaushal, C. Lee, C. S. Snyder, K. J. Thompson, S. Horgan, M. A. Talamini, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescence laparoscopy imaging of pancreatic tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model,” Surg. Endosc. 25(1), 48–54 (2011).
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H. S. Tran Cao, S. Kaushal, C. Lee, C. S. Snyder, K. J. Thompson, S. Horgan, M. A. Talamini, R. M. Hoffman, and M. Bouvet, “Fluorescence laparoscopy imaging of pancreatic tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model,” Surg. Endosc. 25(1), 48–54 (2011).
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Tsai, F. S.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 030504 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tullis, I.

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Volpi, M. El-Kasti, D. Klotz, I. Tullis, A. Henricks, L. Campo, K. Myers, A. Laios, P. Thomas, T. Ng, S. Dhar, C. Becker, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “Toward Operative In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of the c-Met Proto-Oncogene for Personalization of Therapy in Ovarian Cancer,” Cancer 121(2), 202–213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tullis, I. D.

A. Laios, D. Volpi, I. D. Tullis, M. Woodward, S. Kennedy, P. N. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “A prospective pilot study of detection of sentinel lymph nodes in gynaecological cancers using a novel near infrared fluorescence imaging system,” BMC Res. Notes 8(1), 608 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tullis, I. D. C.

T. M. Yeung, D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, G. A. Nicholson, N. Buchs, C. Cunningham, R. Guy, I. Lindsey, B. George, O. Jones, L. Mun Wang, R. Hompes, B. Vojnovic, F. Hamdy, and N. J. Mortensen, “Identifying Ureters In Situ Under Fluorescence During Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery,” Ann. Surg. 263(1), e1–e2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, A. Laios, P. N. J. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, A. A. Ahmed, and B. Vojnovic, “A novel multiwavelength fluorescence image-guided surgery imaging system,” Proc. SPIEAdvanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems XII8935, (2014).

Vahrmeijer, A. L.

A. L. Vahrmeijer, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, C. J. H. van de Velde, and J. V. Frangioni, “Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 10(9), 507–518 (2013).
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Vallières, E.

O. J. Wagner, B. E. Louie, E. Vallières, R. W. Aye, and A. S. Farivar, “Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Can Help Identify the Contralateral Phrenic Nerve During Robotic Thymectomy,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 94(2), 622–625 (2012).
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A. L. Vahrmeijer, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, C. J. H. van de Velde, and J. V. Frangioni, “Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 10(9), 507–518 (2013).
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G. H. KleinJan, N. S. van den Berg, O. R. Brouwer, J. de Jong, C. Acar, E. M. Wit, E. Vegt, V. van der Noort, R. A. Valdés Olmos, F. W. van Leeuwen, and H. G. van der Poel, “Optimisation of Fluorescence Guidance During Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Sentinel Node Biopsy for Prostate Cancer,” Eur. Urol. 66(6), 991–998 (2014).
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van der Noort, V.

G. H. KleinJan, N. S. van den Berg, O. R. Brouwer, J. de Jong, C. Acar, E. M. Wit, E. Vegt, V. van der Noort, R. A. Valdés Olmos, F. W. van Leeuwen, and H. G. van der Poel, “Optimisation of Fluorescence Guidance During Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Sentinel Node Biopsy for Prostate Cancer,” Eur. Urol. 66(6), 991–998 (2014).
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van der Poel, H. G.

G. H. KleinJan, N. S. van den Berg, O. R. Brouwer, J. de Jong, C. Acar, E. M. Wit, E. Vegt, V. van der Noort, R. A. Valdés Olmos, F. W. van Leeuwen, and H. G. van der Poel, “Optimisation of Fluorescence Guidance During Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Sentinel Node Biopsy for Prostate Cancer,” Eur. Urol. 66(6), 991–998 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Vorst, J. R.

A. L. Vahrmeijer, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, C. J. H. van de Velde, and J. V. Frangioni, “Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 10(9), 507–518 (2013).
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van Leeuwen, F. W.

G. H. KleinJan, N. S. van den Berg, O. R. Brouwer, J. de Jong, C. Acar, E. M. Wit, E. Vegt, V. van der Noort, R. A. Valdés Olmos, F. W. van Leeuwen, and H. G. van der Poel, “Optimisation of Fluorescence Guidance During Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Sentinel Node Biopsy for Prostate Cancer,” Eur. Urol. 66(6), 991–998 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varga, J.

J. Glatz, J. Varga, P. B. Garcia-Allende, M. Koch, F. R. Greten, and V. Ntziachristos, “Concurrent video-rate color and near-infrared fluorescence laparoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 101302 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vegt, E.

G. H. KleinJan, N. S. van den Berg, O. R. Brouwer, J. de Jong, C. Acar, E. M. Wit, E. Vegt, V. van der Noort, R. A. Valdés Olmos, F. W. van Leeuwen, and H. G. van der Poel, “Optimisation of Fluorescence Guidance During Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Sentinel Node Biopsy for Prostate Cancer,” Eur. Urol. 66(6), 991–998 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venugopal, V.

V. Venugopal, M. Park, Y. Ashitate, F. Neacsu, F. Kettenring, J. V. Frangioni, S. P. Gangadharan, and S. Gioux, “Design and characterization of an optimized simultaneous color and near-infrared fluorescence rigid endoscopic imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 126018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vojnovic, B.

T. M. Yeung, D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, G. A. Nicholson, N. Buchs, C. Cunningham, R. Guy, I. Lindsey, B. George, O. Jones, L. Mun Wang, R. Hompes, B. Vojnovic, F. Hamdy, and N. J. Mortensen, “Identifying Ureters In Situ Under Fluorescence During Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery,” Ann. Surg. 263(1), e1–e2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Laios, D. Volpi, I. D. Tullis, M. Woodward, S. Kennedy, P. N. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “A prospective pilot study of detection of sentinel lymph nodes in gynaecological cancers using a novel near infrared fluorescence imaging system,” BMC Res. Notes 8(1), 608 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Volpi, M. El-Kasti, D. Klotz, I. Tullis, A. Henricks, L. Campo, K. Myers, A. Laios, P. Thomas, T. Ng, S. Dhar, C. Becker, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “Toward Operative In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of the c-Met Proto-Oncogene for Personalization of Therapy in Ovarian Cancer,” Cancer 121(2), 202–213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, A. Laios, P. N. J. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, A. A. Ahmed, and B. Vojnovic, “A novel multiwavelength fluorescence image-guided surgery imaging system,” Proc. SPIEAdvanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems XII8935, (2014).

Volpi, D.

T. M. Yeung, D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, G. A. Nicholson, N. Buchs, C. Cunningham, R. Guy, I. Lindsey, B. George, O. Jones, L. Mun Wang, R. Hompes, B. Vojnovic, F. Hamdy, and N. J. Mortensen, “Identifying Ureters In Situ Under Fluorescence During Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery,” Ann. Surg. 263(1), e1–e2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Volpi, M. El-Kasti, D. Klotz, I. Tullis, A. Henricks, L. Campo, K. Myers, A. Laios, P. Thomas, T. Ng, S. Dhar, C. Becker, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “Toward Operative In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of the c-Met Proto-Oncogene for Personalization of Therapy in Ovarian Cancer,” Cancer 121(2), 202–213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Laios, D. Volpi, I. D. Tullis, M. Woodward, S. Kennedy, P. N. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “A prospective pilot study of detection of sentinel lymph nodes in gynaecological cancers using a novel near infrared fluorescence imaging system,” BMC Res. Notes 8(1), 608 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, A. Laios, P. N. J. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, A. A. Ahmed, and B. Vojnovic, “A novel multiwavelength fluorescence image-guided surgery imaging system,” Proc. SPIEAdvanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems XII8935, (2014).

Wagner, O. J.

O. J. Wagner, B. E. Louie, E. Vallières, R. W. Aye, and A. S. Farivar, “Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Can Help Identify the Contralateral Phrenic Nerve During Robotic Thymectomy,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 94(2), 622–625 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Wit, E. M.

G. H. KleinJan, N. S. van den Berg, O. R. Brouwer, J. de Jong, C. Acar, E. M. Wit, E. Vegt, V. van der Noort, R. A. Valdés Olmos, F. W. van Leeuwen, and H. G. van der Poel, “Optimisation of Fluorescence Guidance During Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Sentinel Node Biopsy for Prostate Cancer,” Eur. Urol. 66(6), 991–998 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woodward, M.

A. Laios, D. Volpi, I. D. Tullis, M. Woodward, S. Kennedy, P. N. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “A prospective pilot study of detection of sentinel lymph nodes in gynaecological cancers using a novel near infrared fluorescence imaging system,” BMC Res. Notes 8(1), 608 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

Yeung, T. M.

T. M. Yeung, D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, G. A. Nicholson, N. Buchs, C. Cunningham, R. Guy, I. Lindsey, B. George, O. Jones, L. Mun Wang, R. Hompes, B. Vojnovic, F. Hamdy, and N. J. Mortensen, “Identifying Ureters In Situ Under Fluorescence During Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery,” Ann. Surg. 263(1), e1–e2 (2016).
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Yim, J. J.

M. Garland, J. J. Yim, and M. Bogyo, “A Bright Future for Precision Medicine: Advances in Fluorescent Chemical Probe Design and Their Clinical Application,” Cell Chem Biol 23(1), 122–136 (2016).
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Zheng, Y.

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, D. Volpi, M. El-Kasti, D. Klotz, I. Tullis, A. Henricks, L. Campo, K. Myers, A. Laios, P. Thomas, T. Ng, S. Dhar, C. Becker, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “Toward Operative In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of the c-Met Proto-Oncogene for Personalization of Therapy in Ovarian Cancer,” Cancer 121(2), 202–213 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zobel, J.

Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1)

V. Mais, S. Ajossa, S. Guerriero, M. Mascia, E. Solla, and G. B. Melis, “Laparoscopic versus abdominal myomectomy: a prospective, randomized trial to evaluate benefits in early outcome,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174(2), 654–658 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. (2)

C. P. Delaney, E. Chang, A. J. Senagore, and M. Broder, “Clinical outcomes and resource utilization associated with laparoscopic and open colectomy using a large national database,” Ann. Surg. 247(5), 819–824 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Yeung, D. Volpi, I. D. C. Tullis, G. A. Nicholson, N. Buchs, C. Cunningham, R. Guy, I. Lindsey, B. George, O. Jones, L. Mun Wang, R. Hompes, B. Vojnovic, F. Hamdy, and N. J. Mortensen, “Identifying Ureters In Situ Under Fluorescence During Laparoscopic and Open Colorectal Surgery,” Ann. Surg. 263(1), e1–e2 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Thorac. Surg. (1)

O. J. Wagner, B. E. Louie, E. Vallières, R. W. Aye, and A. S. Farivar, “Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Can Help Identify the Contralateral Phrenic Nerve During Robotic Thymectomy,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 94(2), 622–625 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

BMC Res. Notes (1)

A. Laios, D. Volpi, I. D. Tullis, M. Woodward, S. Kennedy, P. N. Pathiraja, K. Haldar, B. Vojnovic, and A. A. Ahmed, “A prospective pilot study of detection of sentinel lymph nodes in gynaecological cancers using a novel near infrared fluorescence imaging system,” BMC Res. Notes 8(1), 608 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Surg. (2)

U. Berggren, T. Gordh, D. Grama, U. Haglund, J. Rastad, and D. Arvidsson, “Laparoscopicversus open cholecystectomy: Hospitalization, sick leave, analgesia and trauma responses,” Br. J. Surg. 81(9), 1362–1365 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ishizawa, Y. Bandai, M. Ijichi, J. Kaneko, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Fluorescent cholangiography illuminating the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Br. J. Surg. 97(9), 1369–1377 (2010).
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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (9266 KB)      Demonstration of TLS tuning range and focus speed.
» Visualization 2: MP4 (5076 KB)      Sentinel lymph node imaging in mouse.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic representation showing the properties of the laparoscope exit pupil. Note that the drawing is not to scale for the sake of clarity.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Optical ray tracing for a 28 mm focal length configuration (1/3” sensor format) of the TLS. The minimum (0 degrees) and maximum (6.1 degrees) field angles are shown in blue and green respectively. (b) Modulation transfer function (MTF) of the TLS for all system wavelengths and two field angles in the tangential (T) and sagittal (S) planes. The tangential 0 degree MTF curves are identical to the sagittal ones and were not plotted for clarity. MTF curves are displayed on two separate graphs for clarity. (c) The chromatic focus shift of the TLS is shown in red for comparison with the chromatic focus shift of a commercial VIS-NIR lens used for experiments described in section §3.2.2. (d) Ray trace modeling of an alternative TLS configuration that uses two separate sensors to image fluorescence and white reflectance. The custom achromatic lens pair comprises two 60 mm focal length lenses with different glass combinations (N-BK7/N-SF5 and N-BK7/N-SF10 respectively). The largest light ray angle at the beam splitter is ~ ± 3 degrees.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) CAD section view of the custom housing that holds the optical components. (b) Image of the TLS (left) next to a conventional 28 mm laparoscope adapter (right). The generous space for filters could be readily reduced by 10 mm if required.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic and photographic (insets) representation of the experimental setup used to measure the optical performance of the lens system.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Experimental vs. modeled MTFs of the TLS at 530 nm and 800 nm illumination bands. Note that these results refer to the TLS used on its own (i.e. without laparoscope). (b) 1951 USAF resolution chart images for the TLS used with the laparoscope (top) and the LEOA28 coupler used with the laparoscope (bottom) at each spectral band and at a working distance of 20 mm. (c) Line profiles for a region of interest corresponding to group 2 element 1 (4 lp/mm) of the resolution chart. The black curves represent equivalent measurements obtained with the TLS used without laparoscope.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Illustration for the need for focusing in high sensitivity FGS. (a) Initial scene, acquired at a working distance (WD) of 100 mm, typical of that used in abdominal surgery. Images (b-d) are acquired at progressively reduced WDs, without modifying initial focus set for image (a), nor excitation power density. Images (f-h) are acquired with focus optimized at each WD. Images (b, f) show why short WDs are useful: the fluorescing region is not readily identifiable and a WD reduction helps significantly in identifying the presence of a weak, low area fluorescing region (image (c)). Optimally focused images shown in images (g, h) show the need for focusing. Images (e) and (i) are magnified regions of images (d, h) respectively and further confirm the need for focusing to reveal detail adjacent to fluorescing region. WD is the object-to-laparoscope tip distance and not the object-to-objective distance, since the latter is placed within the laparoscope body.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 In vivo evaluation of laparoscopic imaging. (a) White reflectance, (b) fluorescence and (c) combined fluorescence + white reflectance images of a subcutaneous tumor (right arrow), obtained with the TLS. Fluorescence signal of the probe accumulating in the kidney is also shown (left arrow). (d) White reflectance, (e) fluorescence and (f) combined fluorescence + white reflectance images of the left inguinal lymph node (arrows) following subcutaneous injection of ICG, obtained with the TLS. Lymphatic vessel fluorescence imaging of ICG using the TLS (g) in comparison with our previous imaging system that used an imaging lens optimized for use in the visible and NIR (h). Lens focus for both cases was set for white reflectance imaging.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Resolution in object space at different illumination spectral bands.

Equations (2)

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diopter=(31±1)×lens current(Α)+(5.68±0.09)
I max I min I max + I min ,

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