Abstract

A method is presented for discriminating between malignant and benign pigmented skin lesions based on multispectral and multi-angle images. It is discussed how to retrieve maps of physiology properties and morphometric parameters from recorded images using a bio-optical model, radiative transfer calculations, and nonlinear inversion, and how to employ automated zooming to extract lesion and surrounding masks. Training and validation of a classification scheme for separation between benign and malignant tissue yielded sensitivity/specificity ranging from 97%/97% for application to a small dataset comprised of lesions not used for training and validation to 99%/93% for application to a larger dataset.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

D. Wielowieyska-Szybinska, K. Biatek-Gals, K. Podolec, and A. Wojas-Pelc, “The use of reflectance confocal microscopy for examination of benign and malignant skin tumors,” Postep. Derm. Alergol. 6, 380–387 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

E. A. Kupetsky and L. K. Ferris, “The diagnostic evaluation of MelaFind multi-spectral objective computer vision system,” Expert Opin. Med. Diagn. 7, 405–411 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

C. Herman, “Emerging technologies for the detection of melanoma: achieving better outcomes,” Clin. Cosmet. Investig. Dermatol. 5, 195–212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72, 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. M. Walter, H. C. Morris, E. Humphrys, P. N. Hall, A. T. Prevost, N. Burrows, L. Bradshaw, E. C. F. Wilson, P. Norris, J. Walls, M. Johnson, A. L. Kinmouth, and J. D. Emery, “Effect of adding a diagnostic aid to best practice to manage suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care: randomised controlled trial,” BMJ,  345:e4110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

G. Monheit, A. B. Cognetta, L. Ferris, H. Rabinovitz, K. Gross, M. Martini, J. M. Grichnik, M. Mihm, V. G. Prieto, P. Googe, R. King, A. Toledano, N. Kabelev, M. Wojton, and D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “The performance of MelaFind: a prospective multicenter study,” Arch. Dermatol. 147, 188–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. J. Divito and L. K. Ferris, “Advances and short comings in the early diagnosis of melanoma,” Melanoma Res. 20, 450–458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Swanson, S. D. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, E. R. Sommersten, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical Transfer Diagnosis of Pigmented Lesions,” Dermatol. Surg. 36, 1979–1986 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

P. Guitera, G. Pellacani, C. Longo, S. Seidenari, M. Avramidis, and S. W. Menzies, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy enhances secondary evaluation of melanocytic lesions,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129, 131–138 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Tech. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, E. R. Sommersten, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-Vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. Pellacani, A. M. Cesinari, and S. Seidenai, “Reflectance mode confocal microscopy of pigmented skin lesions – improvement ooin melanoma diagnostic specificity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 53, 979–985 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, P. Juzenas, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Reflectance spectra of pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the UV spectral region,” Photochem. Photobiol. 80, 450–455 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avramidis, M.

P. Guitera, G. Pellacani, C. Longo, S. Seidenari, M. Avramidis, and S. W. Menzies, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy enhances secondary evaluation of melanocytic lesions,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129, 131–138 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berking, C.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Biatek-Gals, K.

D. Wielowieyska-Szybinska, K. Biatek-Gals, K. Podolec, and A. Wojas-Pelc, “The use of reflectance confocal microscopy for examination of benign and malignant skin tumors,” Postep. Derm. Alergol. 6, 380–387 (2014).
[Crossref]

Birgersson, U.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Biryulina, M. S.

D. L. Swanson, S. D. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, E. R. Sommersten, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical Transfer Diagnosis of Pigmented Lesions,” Dermatol. Surg. 36, 1979–1986 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Tech. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, E. R. Sommersten, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-Vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. L. Swanson, R. V. Venneugues, S. Q. Vicensio, J. Garioch, M. S. Biryulina, G. A. Ryzhikov, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis differentiating benign and malignant pigmented lesions in simulated primary care practice,” to be submitted, 2017.

Bradshaw, L.

F. M. Walter, H. C. Morris, E. Humphrys, P. N. Hall, A. T. Prevost, N. Burrows, L. Bradshaw, E. C. F. Wilson, P. Norris, J. Walls, M. Johnson, A. L. Kinmouth, and J. D. Emery, “Effect of adding a diagnostic aid to best practice to manage suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care: randomised controlled trial,” BMJ,  345:e4110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burrows, N.

F. M. Walter, H. C. Morris, E. Humphrys, P. N. Hall, A. T. Prevost, N. Burrows, L. Bradshaw, E. C. F. Wilson, P. Norris, J. Walls, M. Johnson, A. L. Kinmouth, and J. D. Emery, “Effect of adding a diagnostic aid to best practice to manage suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care: randomised controlled trial,” BMJ,  345:e4110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castellana, F. S.

D. L. Swanson, S. D. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, E. R. Sommersten, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical Transfer Diagnosis of Pigmented Lesions,” Dermatol. Surg. 36, 1979–1986 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Tech. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. L. Swanson, R. V. Venneugues, S. Q. Vicensio, J. Garioch, M. S. Biryulina, G. A. Ryzhikov, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis differentiating benign and malignant pigmented lesions in simulated primary care practice,” to be submitted, 2017.

Cesinari, A. M.

G. Pellacani, A. M. Cesinari, and S. Seidenai, “Reflectance mode confocal microscopy of pigmented skin lesions – improvement ooin melanoma diagnostic specificity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 53, 979–985 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cognetta, A. B.

G. Monheit, A. B. Cognetta, L. Ferris, H. Rabinovitz, K. Gross, M. Martini, J. M. Grichnik, M. Mihm, V. G. Prieto, P. Googe, R. King, A. Toledano, N. Kabelev, M. Wojton, and D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “The performance of MelaFind: a prospective multicenter study,” Arch. Dermatol. 147, 188–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Curiel-Lewandrowski, C.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Davis, S.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dirschka, T.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Divito, S. J.

S. J. Divito and L. K. Ferris, “Advances and short comings in the early diagnosis of melanoma,” Melanoma Res. 20, 450–458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emery, J. D.

F. M. Walter, H. C. Morris, E. Humphrys, P. N. Hall, A. T. Prevost, N. Burrows, L. Bradshaw, E. C. F. Wilson, P. Norris, J. Walls, M. Johnson, A. L. Kinmouth, and J. D. Emery, “Effect of adding a diagnostic aid to best practice to manage suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care: randomised controlled trial,” BMJ,  345:e4110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferris, L.

G. Monheit, A. B. Cognetta, L. Ferris, H. Rabinovitz, K. Gross, M. Martini, J. M. Grichnik, M. Mihm, V. G. Prieto, P. Googe, R. King, A. Toledano, N. Kabelev, M. Wojton, and D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “The performance of MelaFind: a prospective multicenter study,” Arch. Dermatol. 147, 188–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ferris, L. K.

E. A. Kupetsky and L. K. Ferris, “The diagnostic evaluation of MelaFind multi-spectral objective computer vision system,” Expert Opin. Med. Diagn. 7, 405–411 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Divito and L. K. Ferris, “Advances and short comings in the early diagnosis of melanoma,” Melanoma Res. 20, 450–458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foerster, V.

V. Foerster, “Optical scanners for melanoma detection” [Issues in emerging health technologies, Issue 123]. Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, Ottawa (2014).

Garioch, J.

D. L. Swanson, R. V. Venneugues, S. Q. Vicensio, J. Garioch, M. S. Biryulina, G. A. Ryzhikov, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis differentiating benign and malignant pigmented lesions in simulated primary care practice,” to be submitted, 2017.

Googe, P.

G. Monheit, A. B. Cognetta, L. Ferris, H. Rabinovitz, K. Gross, M. Martini, J. M. Grichnik, M. Mihm, V. G. Prieto, P. Googe, R. King, A. Toledano, N. Kabelev, M. Wojton, and D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “The performance of MelaFind: a prospective multicenter study,” Arch. Dermatol. 147, 188–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grichnik, J. M.

G. Monheit, A. B. Cognetta, L. Ferris, H. Rabinovitz, K. Gross, M. Martini, J. M. Grichnik, M. Mihm, V. G. Prieto, P. Googe, R. King, A. Toledano, N. Kabelev, M. Wojton, and D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “The performance of MelaFind: a prospective multicenter study,” Arch. Dermatol. 147, 188–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gross, K.

G. Monheit, A. B. Cognetta, L. Ferris, H. Rabinovitz, K. Gross, M. Martini, J. M. Grichnik, M. Mihm, V. G. Prieto, P. Googe, R. King, A. Toledano, N. Kabelev, M. Wojton, and D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “The performance of MelaFind: a prospective multicenter study,” Arch. Dermatol. 147, 188–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grossmann, D.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guitera, P.

P. Guitera, G. Pellacani, C. Longo, S. Seidenari, M. Avramidis, and S. W. Menzies, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy enhances secondary evaluation of melanocytic lesions,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129, 131–138 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gutkowicz-Krusin, D.

G. Monheit, A. B. Cognetta, L. Ferris, H. Rabinovitz, K. Gross, M. Martini, J. M. Grichnik, M. Mihm, V. G. Prieto, P. Googe, R. King, A. Toledano, N. Kabelev, M. Wojton, and D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “The performance of MelaFind: a prospective multicenter study,” Arch. Dermatol. 147, 188–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hall, P. N.

F. M. Walter, H. C. Morris, E. Humphrys, P. N. Hall, A. T. Prevost, N. Burrows, L. Bradshaw, E. C. F. Wilson, P. Norris, J. Walls, M. Johnson, A. L. Kinmouth, and J. D. Emery, “Effect of adding a diagnostic aid to best practice to manage suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care: randomised controlled trial,” BMJ,  345:e4110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamre, B.

D. L. Swanson, S. D. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, E. R. Sommersten, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical Transfer Diagnosis of Pigmented Lesions,” Dermatol. Surg. 36, 1979–1986 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Tech. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. L. Swanson, R. V. Venneugues, S. Q. Vicensio, J. Garioch, M. S. Biryulina, G. A. Ryzhikov, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis differentiating benign and malignant pigmented lesions in simulated primary care practice,” to be submitted, 2017.

Hauschild, A.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Henderson, C.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Herman, C.

C. Herman, “Emerging technologies for the detection of melanoma: achieving better outcomes,” Clin. Cosmet. Investig. Dermatol. 5, 195–212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofmann-Wellenhof, R.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Humphrys, E.

F. M. Walter, H. C. Morris, E. Humphrys, P. N. Hall, A. T. Prevost, N. Burrows, L. Bradshaw, E. C. F. Wilson, P. Norris, J. Walls, M. Johnson, A. L. Kinmouth, and J. D. Emery, “Effect of adding a diagnostic aid to best practice to manage suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care: randomised controlled trial,” BMJ,  345:e4110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, M.

F. M. Walter, H. C. Morris, E. Humphrys, P. N. Hall, A. T. Prevost, N. Burrows, L. Bradshaw, E. C. F. Wilson, P. Norris, J. Walls, M. Johnson, A. L. Kinmouth, and J. D. Emery, “Effect of adding a diagnostic aid to best practice to manage suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care: randomised controlled trial,” BMJ,  345:e4110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juzenas, P.

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, P. Juzenas, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Reflectance spectra of pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the UV spectral region,” Photochem. Photobiol. 80, 450–455 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kabelev, N.

G. Monheit, A. B. Cognetta, L. Ferris, H. Rabinovitz, K. Gross, M. Martini, J. M. Grichnik, M. Mihm, V. G. Prieto, P. Googe, R. King, A. Toledano, N. Kabelev, M. Wojton, and D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “The performance of MelaFind: a prospective multicenter study,” Arch. Dermatol. 147, 188–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

King, R.

G. Monheit, A. B. Cognetta, L. Ferris, H. Rabinovitz, K. Gross, M. Martini, J. M. Grichnik, M. Mihm, V. G. Prieto, P. Googe, R. King, A. Toledano, N. Kabelev, M. Wojton, and D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “The performance of MelaFind: a prospective multicenter study,” Arch. Dermatol. 147, 188–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kinmouth, A. L.

F. M. Walter, H. C. Morris, E. Humphrys, P. N. Hall, A. T. Prevost, N. Burrows, L. Bradshaw, E. C. F. Wilson, P. Norris, J. Walls, M. Johnson, A. L. Kinmouth, and J. D. Emery, “Effect of adding a diagnostic aid to best practice to manage suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care: randomised controlled trial,” BMJ,  345:e4110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kupetsky, E. A.

E. A. Kupetsky and L. K. Ferris, “The diagnostic evaluation of MelaFind multi-spectral objective computer vision system,” Expert Opin. Med. Diagn. 7, 405–411 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laman, S.

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Tech. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[Crossref]

Laman, S. D.

D. L. Swanson, S. D. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, E. R. Sommersten, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical Transfer Diagnosis of Pigmented Lesions,” Dermatol. Surg. 36, 1979–1986 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Longo, C.

P. Guitera, G. Pellacani, C. Longo, S. Seidenari, M. Avramidis, and S. W. Menzies, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy enhances secondary evaluation of melanocytic lesions,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129, 131–138 (2009).
[Crossref]

Loquai, C.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lui, H.

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72, 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malvehy, J.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Martini, M.

G. Monheit, A. B. Cognetta, L. Ferris, H. Rabinovitz, K. Gross, M. Martini, J. M. Grichnik, M. Mihm, V. G. Prieto, P. Googe, R. King, A. Toledano, N. Kabelev, M. Wojton, and D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “The performance of MelaFind: a prospective multicenter study,” Arch. Dermatol. 147, 188–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

McLean, D.

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72, 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menzies, S. W.

P. Guitera, G. Pellacani, C. Longo, S. Seidenari, M. Avramidis, and S. W. Menzies, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy enhances secondary evaluation of melanocytic lesions,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129, 131–138 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mihm, M.

G. Monheit, A. B. Cognetta, L. Ferris, H. Rabinovitz, K. Gross, M. Martini, J. M. Grichnik, M. Mihm, V. G. Prieto, P. Googe, R. King, A. Toledano, N. Kabelev, M. Wojton, and D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “The performance of MelaFind: a prospective multicenter study,” Arch. Dermatol. 147, 188–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Moan, J.

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, E. R. Sommersten, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-Vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, P. Juzenas, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Reflectance spectra of pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the UV spectral region,” Photochem. Photobiol. 80, 450–455 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohr, P.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Monheit, G.

G. Monheit, A. B. Cognetta, L. Ferris, H. Rabinovitz, K. Gross, M. Martini, J. M. Grichnik, M. Mihm, V. G. Prieto, P. Googe, R. King, A. Toledano, N. Kabelev, M. Wojton, and D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “The performance of MelaFind: a prospective multicenter study,” Arch. Dermatol. 147, 188–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Morris, H. C.

F. M. Walter, H. C. Morris, E. Humphrys, P. N. Hall, A. T. Prevost, N. Burrows, L. Bradshaw, E. C. F. Wilson, P. Norris, J. Walls, M. Johnson, A. L. Kinmouth, and J. D. Emery, “Effect of adding a diagnostic aid to best practice to manage suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care: randomised controlled trial,” BMJ,  345:e4110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Motley, R.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, K. P.

D. L. Swanson, S. D. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, E. R. Sommersten, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical Transfer Diagnosis of Pigmented Lesions,” Dermatol. Surg. 36, 1979–1986 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Tech. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, E. R. Sommersten, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-Vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, P. Juzenas, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Reflectance spectra of pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the UV spectral region,” Photochem. Photobiol. 80, 450–455 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norris, P.

F. M. Walter, H. C. Morris, E. Humphrys, P. N. Hall, A. T. Prevost, N. Burrows, L. Bradshaw, E. C. F. Wilson, P. Norris, J. Walls, M. Johnson, A. L. Kinmouth, and J. D. Emery, “Effect of adding a diagnostic aid to best practice to manage suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care: randomised controlled trial,” BMJ,  345:e4110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olah, J.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paoli, J.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pellacani, G.

P. Guitera, G. Pellacani, C. Longo, S. Seidenari, M. Avramidis, and S. W. Menzies, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy enhances secondary evaluation of melanocytic lesions,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129, 131–138 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Pellacani, A. M. Cesinari, and S. Seidenai, “Reflectance mode confocal microscopy of pigmented skin lesions – improvement ooin melanoma diagnostic specificity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 53, 979–985 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podolec, K.

D. Wielowieyska-Szybinska, K. Biatek-Gals, K. Podolec, and A. Wojas-Pelc, “The use of reflectance confocal microscopy for examination of benign and malignant skin tumors,” Postep. Derm. Alergol. 6, 380–387 (2014).
[Crossref]

Prevost, A. T.

F. M. Walter, H. C. Morris, E. Humphrys, P. N. Hall, A. T. Prevost, N. Burrows, L. Bradshaw, E. C. F. Wilson, P. Norris, J. Walls, M. Johnson, A. L. Kinmouth, and J. D. Emery, “Effect of adding a diagnostic aid to best practice to manage suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care: randomised controlled trial,” BMJ,  345:e4110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prieto, V. G.

G. Monheit, A. B. Cognetta, L. Ferris, H. Rabinovitz, K. Gross, M. Martini, J. M. Grichnik, M. Mihm, V. G. Prieto, P. Googe, R. King, A. Toledano, N. Kabelev, M. Wojton, and D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “The performance of MelaFind: a prospective multicenter study,” Arch. Dermatol. 147, 188–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rabinovitz, H.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Monheit, A. B. Cognetta, L. Ferris, H. Rabinovitz, K. Gross, M. Martini, J. M. Grichnik, M. Mihm, V. G. Prieto, P. Googe, R. King, A. Toledano, N. Kabelev, M. Wojton, and D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “The performance of MelaFind: a prospective multicenter study,” Arch. Dermatol. 147, 188–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reinhold, U.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ryzhikov, G. A.

D. L. Swanson, S. D. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, E. R. Sommersten, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical Transfer Diagnosis of Pigmented Lesions,” Dermatol. Surg. 36, 1979–1986 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Tech. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, E. R. Sommersten, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-Vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. L. Swanson, R. V. Venneugues, S. Q. Vicensio, J. Garioch, M. S. Biryulina, G. A. Ryzhikov, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis differentiating benign and malignant pigmented lesions in simulated primary care practice,” to be submitted, 2017.

Schadendorf, D.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seidenai, S.

G. Pellacani, A. M. Cesinari, and S. Seidenai, “Reflectance mode confocal microscopy of pigmented skin lesions – improvement ooin melanoma diagnostic specificity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 53, 979–985 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seidenari, S.

P. Guitera, G. Pellacani, C. Longo, S. Seidenari, M. Avramidis, and S. W. Menzies, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy enhances secondary evaluation of melanocytic lesions,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129, 131–138 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sommersten, E. R.

D. L. Swanson, S. D. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, E. R. Sommersten, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical Transfer Diagnosis of Pigmented Lesions,” Dermatol. Surg. 36, 1979–1986 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, E. R. Sommersten, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-Vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stamnes, J. J.

D. L. Swanson, S. D. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, E. R. Sommersten, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical Transfer Diagnosis of Pigmented Lesions,” Dermatol. Surg. 36, 1979–1986 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Tech. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, E. R. Sommersten, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-Vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, P. Juzenas, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Reflectance spectra of pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the UV spectral region,” Photochem. Photobiol. 80, 450–455 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Swanson, R. V. Venneugues, S. Q. Vicensio, J. Garioch, M. S. Biryulina, G. A. Ryzhikov, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis differentiating benign and malignant pigmented lesions in simulated primary care practice,” to be submitted, 2017.

Stamnes, K.

D. L. Swanson, S. D. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, E. R. Sommersten, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical Transfer Diagnosis of Pigmented Lesions,” Dermatol. Surg. 36, 1979–1986 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Tech. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, E. R. Sommersten, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-Vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, P. Juzenas, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Reflectance spectra of pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the UV spectral region,” Photochem. Photobiol. 80, 450–455 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Swanson, R. V. Venneugues, S. Q. Vicensio, J. Garioch, M. S. Biryulina, G. A. Ryzhikov, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis differentiating benign and malignant pigmented lesions in simulated primary care practice,” to be submitted, 2017.

Swanson, D. L.

D. L. Swanson, S. D. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, E. R. Sommersten, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical Transfer Diagnosis of Pigmented Lesions,” Dermatol. Surg. 36, 1979–1986 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Tech. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. L. Swanson, R. V. Venneugues, S. Q. Vicensio, J. Garioch, M. S. Biryulina, G. A. Ryzhikov, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis differentiating benign and malignant pigmented lesions in simulated primary care practice,” to be submitted, 2017.

Toledano, A.

G. Monheit, A. B. Cognetta, L. Ferris, H. Rabinovitz, K. Gross, M. Martini, J. M. Grichnik, M. Mihm, V. G. Prieto, P. Googe, R. King, A. Toledano, N. Kabelev, M. Wojton, and D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “The performance of MelaFind: a prospective multicenter study,” Arch. Dermatol. 147, 188–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Venneugues, R. V.

D. L. Swanson, R. V. Venneugues, S. Q. Vicensio, J. Garioch, M. S. Biryulina, G. A. Ryzhikov, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis differentiating benign and malignant pigmented lesions in simulated primary care practice,” to be submitted, 2017.

Vicensio, S. Q.

D. L. Swanson, R. V. Venneugues, S. Q. Vicensio, J. Garioch, M. S. Biryulina, G. A. Ryzhikov, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis differentiating benign and malignant pigmented lesions in simulated primary care practice,” to be submitted, 2017.

Walls, J.

F. M. Walter, H. C. Morris, E. Humphrys, P. N. Hall, A. T. Prevost, N. Burrows, L. Bradshaw, E. C. F. Wilson, P. Norris, J. Walls, M. Johnson, A. L. Kinmouth, and J. D. Emery, “Effect of adding a diagnostic aid to best practice to manage suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care: randomised controlled trial,” BMJ,  345:e4110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walter, F. M.

F. M. Walter, H. C. Morris, E. Humphrys, P. N. Hall, A. T. Prevost, N. Burrows, L. Bradshaw, E. C. F. Wilson, P. Norris, J. Walls, M. Johnson, A. L. Kinmouth, and J. D. Emery, “Effect of adding a diagnostic aid to best practice to manage suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care: randomised controlled trial,” BMJ,  345:e4110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welzel, J.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wenger, H.

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wielowieyska-Szybinska, D.

D. Wielowieyska-Szybinska, K. Biatek-Gals, K. Podolec, and A. Wojas-Pelc, “The use of reflectance confocal microscopy for examination of benign and malignant skin tumors,” Postep. Derm. Alergol. 6, 380–387 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wilson, E. C. F.

F. M. Walter, H. C. Morris, E. Humphrys, P. N. Hall, A. T. Prevost, N. Burrows, L. Bradshaw, E. C. F. Wilson, P. Norris, J. Walls, M. Johnson, A. L. Kinmouth, and J. D. Emery, “Effect of adding a diagnostic aid to best practice to manage suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care: randomised controlled trial,” BMJ,  345:e4110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wojas-Pelc, A.

D. Wielowieyska-Szybinska, K. Biatek-Gals, K. Podolec, and A. Wojas-Pelc, “The use of reflectance confocal microscopy for examination of benign and malignant skin tumors,” Postep. Derm. Alergol. 6, 380–387 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wojton, M.

G. Monheit, A. B. Cognetta, L. Ferris, H. Rabinovitz, K. Gross, M. Martini, J. M. Grichnik, M. Mihm, V. G. Prieto, P. Googe, R. King, A. Toledano, N. Kabelev, M. Wojton, and D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “The performance of MelaFind: a prospective multicenter study,” Arch. Dermatol. 147, 188–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72, 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72, 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, L.

D. L. Swanson, S. D. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, E. R. Sommersten, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical Transfer Diagnosis of Pigmented Lesions,” Dermatol. Surg. 36, 1979–1986 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Tech. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, E. R. Sommersten, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-Vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, P. Juzenas, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Reflectance spectra of pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the UV spectral region,” Photochem. Photobiol. 80, 450–455 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Swanson, R. V. Venneugues, S. Q. Vicensio, J. Garioch, M. S. Biryulina, G. A. Ryzhikov, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis differentiating benign and malignant pigmented lesions in simulated primary care practice,” to be submitted, 2017.

Arch. Dermatol. (1)

G. Monheit, A. B. Cognetta, L. Ferris, H. Rabinovitz, K. Gross, M. Martini, J. M. Grichnik, M. Mihm, V. G. Prieto, P. Googe, R. King, A. Toledano, N. Kabelev, M. Wojton, and D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, “The performance of MelaFind: a prospective multicenter study,” Arch. Dermatol. 147, 188–194 (2011).
[Crossref]

BMJ (1)

F. M. Walter, H. C. Morris, E. Humphrys, P. N. Hall, A. T. Prevost, N. Burrows, L. Bradshaw, E. C. F. Wilson, P. Norris, J. Walls, M. Johnson, A. L. Kinmouth, and J. D. Emery, “Effect of adding a diagnostic aid to best practice to manage suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care: randomised controlled trial,” BMJ,  345:e4110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Dermatology (1)

J. Malvehy, A. Hauschild, C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, P. Mohr, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, R. Motley, C. Berking, D. Grossmann, J. Paoli, C. Loquai, J. Olah, U. Reinhold, H. Wenger, T. Dirschka, S. Davis, C. Henderson, H. Rabinovitz, J. Welzel, D. Schadendorf, and U. Birgersson, “Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety,” Br. J. Dermatology 171, 1099–1107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cancer Res. (1)

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72, 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Cosmet. Investig. Dermatol. (1)

C. Herman, “Emerging technologies for the detection of melanoma: achieving better outcomes,” Clin. Cosmet. Investig. Dermatol. 5, 195–212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dermatol. Surg. (1)

D. L. Swanson, S. D. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, E. R. Sommersten, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical Transfer Diagnosis of Pigmented Lesions,” Dermatol. Surg. 36, 1979–1986 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Expert Opin. Med. Diagn. (1)

E. A. Kupetsky and L. K. Ferris, “The diagnostic evaluation of MelaFind multi-spectral objective computer vision system,” Expert Opin. Med. Diagn. 7, 405–411 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1)

G. Pellacani, A. M. Cesinari, and S. Seidenai, “Reflectance mode confocal microscopy of pigmented skin lesions – improvement ooin melanoma diagnostic specificity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 53, 979–985 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

P. Guitera, G. Pellacani, C. Longo, S. Seidenari, M. Avramidis, and S. W. Menzies, “In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy enhances secondary evaluation of melanocytic lesions,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 129, 131–138 (2009).
[Crossref]

Melanoma Res. (1)

S. J. Divito and L. K. Ferris, “Advances and short comings in the early diagnosis of melanoma,” Melanoma Res. 20, 450–458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, P. Juzenas, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Reflectance spectra of pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the UV spectral region,” Photochem. Photobiol. 80, 450–455 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

K. P. Nielsen, L. Zhao, G. A. Ryzhikov, M. S. Biryulina, E. R. Sommersten, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan, “Retrieval of the physiological state of human skin from UV-Vis reflectance spectra: A feasibility study,” Photochem. Photobiol. B 93, 23–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Postep. Derm. Alergol. (1)

D. Wielowieyska-Szybinska, K. Biatek-Gals, K. Podolec, and A. Wojas-Pelc, “The use of reflectance confocal microscopy for examination of benign and malignant skin tumors,” Postep. Derm. Alergol. 6, 380–387 (2014).
[Crossref]

Skin Res. Tech. (1)

D. L. Swanson, S. Laman, M. S. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. A. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis of pigmented lesions: a pilot study,” Skin Res. Tech. 15, 330–337 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

D. L. Swanson, R. V. Venneugues, S. Q. Vicensio, J. Garioch, M. S. Biryulina, G. A. Ryzhikov, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes, “Optical transfer diagnosis differentiating benign and malignant pigmented lesions in simulated primary care practice,” to be submitted, 2017.

V. Foerster, “Optical scanners for melanoma detection” [Issues in emerging health technologies, Issue 123]. Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, Ottawa (2014).

Verisante AuraTM [Internet], “Vancouver: Verisante Technology,” 2014 [cited 2014 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.verisante.com/products/aura/

P. Fayerman, “Vancouver skin cancer detection device ready for market: Nobel prize-winning research behind it” [Internet]. Vancouver: Vancouver Sun; 2013Dec14. [cited 2014 Feb 20]. Available from: http://blogs.vancouversun.com/2013/12/14/vancouver-skin-cancer-detection-device-ready-for-market-nobel-prize-winning-research-behind-it/

MelaFind [Internet]. Irvington (NY): MELA Sciences; 2014. What is MelaFind; 2014 [cited 2014 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.melafind.com/patients/about-melafind

SIMSYSTM MoleMateTM [Internet]. Mississauga (ON): MedX Health Corporation. 2014 [cited 2014 Feb 20]. Available from: http://simsys-molemate.com/

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the OTD system with its handheld unit placed in a docking station, and with cables connecting it to a power supply and a laptop PC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the inner parts of the handheld OTD unit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3D sketch of the inner parts of the handheld OTD unit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ray trace of the OTD imaging system. IS: Image sensor: L1: Camera lens; L2: Correcting lens 1; L3: Correcting lens 2; M1: Plane mirror for central view image; M2, M3: Plane mirrors for upper 30° oblique view image; M4, M5: Plane mirrors for lower 45° oblique view image; W: Sapphire glass window.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dermoscopic image of a melanoma.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Corresponding RGB image and maps of physiology properties and morphometric parameters for the melanoma in Fig. 5 obtained from OTD recordings and processing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dermoscopic image of a compound nevus.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Corresponding RGB image and maps of physiology properties and morphometric parameters for the compound nevus in Fig. 7 obtained from OTD recordings and processing.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Two histograms: class 1 (red) and class 2 (blue), and corresponding smooth representations.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Cumulative distributions corresponding to the smooth histograms in Figure 1. Class 1 (red) and Class 2 (blue).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Flow chart of the steps followed to obtain a diagnostic indication by a team of experts.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Diagnoses of lesions used for training and validation.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Sensitivity (red) and specificity (blue) for 144 different randomly drawn training and validation sets, each consisting of 137 lesions considered to be suspicious. According to biopsy results, 34 lesions were malignant and 103 were benign.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Sensitivity (red) and specificity (blue) for 144 different randomly drawn training and validation sets, each consisting of 267 lesions of which 34 were malignant (according to biopsy), and 233 were benign (according to dermoscopy).

Equations (28)

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E ( p i ) = Ω λ i p i ( r ) ln [ λ i p i ( r ) ] d r ; λ i = [ Ω p i ( r ) d r ] 1
E i j = 1 2 [ E ( p i ) E ( p j ) + Ω λ i p i ( r ) ln [ λ j p j ( r ) ] d r + Ω λ j p j ( r ) ln [ λ i p i ( r ) ] d r ] .
D = w p .
p j * = { 1 0 + 1 if p j < μ j 0.7 σ j if μ j 0.7 σ j < p j < μ j + 0.7 σ j if p j > μ j + 0.7 σ j
C ± = { T 1 ± , T 2 ± , , T N ± } ; t ± = { t 1 ± , t 2 ± , , t N ± }
C = t + C + + t C .
D = w ˜ p ˜
J 0 ( w ˜ ) = 1 σ 1 D * ( w ˜ ) exp { [ D D 1 ] 2 2 σ 1 2 } d D + 1 σ 2 D * ( w ˜ ) exp { [ D D 2 ] 2 2 σ 2 2 } d D
D = e p ˜
D ˜ = sign ( δ m 1 | δ m 1 | max 1 / M ; δ m 1 = m 2 = 1 M 2 ( r m 1 , m 2 ( 1 ) + ϵ ) m 2 = 1 M 2 ( r m 1 , m 2 ( 2 ) + ϵ )
S = k = 1 K m = 1 M ( k ) [ 0 D max ( d r m ( k ) ( 1 ) / d D ) d D ] 2 e m ( k ) e m ( k ) T ;
A = number of correct assessments number of all assessments .
A = N 1 Se + N 2 Sp N 1 + N 2 .
A = 34 × 0.20 + 103 × 0.95 34 + 103 = 0.39 .
A < 100 , 000 2 , 500 , 000 = 0.04 .
A = 100 , 000 × 0.95 + ( 2 , 500 , 000 100 , 000 ) × 0.20 2 , 500 , 000 = 0.23
A = 34 × 0.95 + 233 × 0.85 34 + 233 = 0.86 .
I m = [ I λ 1 , m , I λ 2 , m , , I λ 10 , m ] T ; I = [ I λ 1 , I λ 2 , , I λ 10 ] T
C ^ = 1 M 1 m = 1 M Δ I m [ Δ I m ] T
C ^ = 1 L = 1 L C ^
J 0 = [ i λ i , n i ˜ λ i , n ] T [ C ^ ] 1 [ i λ i , n i ˜ λ i , n ]
F ( c ) = S ( c ) × tanh ( 10 c + 1 C )
S ( c ) = i = 1 L 1 S i ( c ) .
V ^ ( q ) = 1 M q 1 i = 1 M q ( p i ( q ) p ( q ) ) ( p i ( q ) p ( q ) ) T
D ^ = [ V ^ ( 2 ) ] 1 / 2 [ V ^ ( 1 ) ] [ V ^ ( 2 ) ] 1 / 2
D ^ d α = α d α
p ˜ = { d α 1 Δ p , d α 2 Δ p , , d α min Δ p } .
D = w ˜ p ˜

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