Abstract

Since nearly 20% of breast-conserving surgeries (BCS) require re-operation, there is a clear need for developing new techniques to more accurately assess tumor resection margins intraoperatively. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of a handheld terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) system to discriminate benign from malignant breast tissue ex vivo. Forty six freshly excised breast cancer samples were scanned with a TPI handheld probe system, and histology was obtained for comparison. The image pixels on TPI were classified using (1) parameters in combination with support vector machine (SVM) and (2) Gaussian wavelet deconvolution in combination with Bayesian classification. The results were an accuracy, sensitivity, specificity of 75%, 86%, 66% for method 1, and 69%, 87%, 54% for method 2 respectively. This demonstrates the probe can discriminate invasive breast cancer from benign breast tissue with an encouraging degree of accuracy, warranting further study.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (3)

E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, H. Ashrafian, T. Athanasiou, Z. Takats, D. J. Hadjiminas, A. Darzi, and D. R. Leff, “Diagnostic Accuracy of Intraoperative Techniques for Margin Assessment in Breast Cancer Surgery: A Meta-analysis,” Ann. Surg. 265(2), 300–310 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Deng, C. Zhu, X. Ma, H. Jia, Z. Wei, Y. Xiao, and J. Xu, “Rapid Discrimination of Malignant Breast Lesions from Normal Tissues Utilizing Raman Spectroscopy System: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of In Vitro Studies,” PLoS One 11(7), e0159860 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dixon, L. Renshaw, O. Young, D. Kulkarni, T. Saleem, M. Sarfaty, R. Sreenivasan, C. Kusnick, J. Thomas, and L. J. Williams, “Intra-operative assessment of excised breast tumour margins using ClearEdge imaging device,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.  42(12), 1834–1840 (2016)

2015 (4)

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative Assessment of Final Margins with a Handheld Optical Imaging Probe During Breast-Conserving Surgery May Reduce the Reoperation Rate: Results of a Multicenter Study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ahmed, I. T. Rubio, J. M. Klaase, and M. Douek, “Surgical treatment of nonpalpable primary invasive and in situ breast cancer,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 12(11), 645–663 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Truong, H. D. Tuan, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and H. T. Nguyen, “A dielectric model of human breast tissue in terahertz regime,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(2), 699–707 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Landercasper, E. Whitacre, A. C. Degnim, and M. Al-Hamadani, “Reasons for re-excision after lumpectomy for breast cancer: insight from the American Society of Breast Surgeons Mastery(SM) database,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(10), 3185–3191 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res. 15(4), R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Balog, L. Sasi-Szabó, J. Kinross, M. R. Lewis, L. J. Muirhead, K. Veselkov, R. Mirnezami, B. Dezső, L. Damjanovich, A. Darzi, J. K. Nicholson, and Z. Takáts, “Intraoperative tissue identification using rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(194), 194ra93 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Vahrmeijer, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, C. J. van de Velde, and J. V. Frangioni, “Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 10(9), 507–518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Heil, K. Breitkreuz, M. Golatta, E. Czink, J. Dahlkamp, J. Rom, F. Schuetz, M. Blumenstein, G. Rauch, and C. Sohn, “Do reexcisions impair aesthetic outcome in breast conservation surgery? Exploratory analysis of a prospective cohort study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(2), 541–547 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345, e4505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

M. D. Keller, S. K. Majumder, M. C. Kelley, I. M. Meszoely, F. I. Boulos, G. M. Olivares, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and spectral imaging for breast surgical margin analysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 15–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. McGuire, A. A. Santillan, P. Kaur, T. Meade, J. Parbhoo, M. Mathias, C. Shamehdi, M. Davis, D. Ramos, and C. E. Cox, “Are mastectomies on the rise? A 13-year trend analysis of the selection of mastectomy versus breast conservation therapy in 5865 patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16(10), 2682–2690 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative Evaluation of Breast Tumor Margins with Optical Coherence Tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

K. S. Khan and P. F. Chien, “Evaluation of a clinical test. I: assessment of reliability,” BJOG 108(6), 562–567 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000 (2)

C. C. Park, M. Mitsumori, A. Nixon, A. Recht, J. Connolly, R. Gelman, B. Silver, S. Hetelekidis, A. Abner, J. R. Harris, and S. J. Schnitt, “Outcome at 8 years after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy for invasive breast cancer: influence of margin status and systemic therapy on local recurrence,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1668–1675 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

P. C. Stomper, D. J. D’Souza, P. A. DiNitto, and M. A. Arredondo, “Analysis of parenchymal density on mammograms in 1353 women 25-79 years old,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 167(5), 1261–1265 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abner, A.

C. C. Park, M. Mitsumori, A. Nixon, A. Recht, J. Connolly, R. Gelman, B. Silver, S. Hetelekidis, A. Abner, J. R. Harris, and S. J. Schnitt, “Outcome at 8 years after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy for invasive breast cancer: influence of margin status and systemic therapy on local recurrence,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1668–1675 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, M.

M. Ahmed, I. T. Rubio, J. M. Klaase, and M. Douek, “Surgical treatment of nonpalpable primary invasive and in situ breast cancer,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 12(11), 645–663 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Hamadani, M.

J. Landercasper, E. Whitacre, A. C. Degnim, and M. Al-Hamadani, “Reasons for re-excision after lumpectomy for breast cancer: insight from the American Society of Breast Surgeons Mastery(SM) database,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(10), 3185–3191 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Khudairi, R.

E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, H. Ashrafian, T. Athanasiou, Z. Takats, D. J. Hadjiminas, A. Darzi, and D. R. Leff, “Diagnostic Accuracy of Intraoperative Techniques for Margin Assessment in Breast Cancer Surgery: A Meta-analysis,” Ann. Surg. 265(2), 300–310 (2016).
[PubMed]

E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, J. Balog, M. Rossi, L. Gildea, A. Speller, R. Ramakrishnan, S. Shousha, Z. Takats, D. R. Leff, and A. Darzi, “Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry towards real time intraoperative oncological margin status determination in breast conserving surgery.,” in 38th Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, (San Antonio, 2016).
[Crossref]

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arredondo, M. A.

P. C. Stomper, D. J. D’Souza, P. A. DiNitto, and M. A. Arredondo, “Analysis of parenchymal density on mammograms in 1353 women 25-79 years old,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 167(5), 1261–1265 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashrafian, H.

E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, H. Ashrafian, T. Athanasiou, Z. Takats, D. J. Hadjiminas, A. Darzi, and D. R. Leff, “Diagnostic Accuracy of Intraoperative Techniques for Margin Assessment in Breast Cancer Surgery: A Meta-analysis,” Ann. Surg. 265(2), 300–310 (2016).
[PubMed]

Ashworth, P. C.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Athanasiou, T.

E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, H. Ashrafian, T. Athanasiou, Z. Takats, D. J. Hadjiminas, A. Darzi, and D. R. Leff, “Diagnostic Accuracy of Intraoperative Techniques for Margin Assessment in Breast Cancer Surgery: A Meta-analysis,” Ann. Surg. 265(2), 300–310 (2016).
[PubMed]

Balog, J.

J. Balog, L. Sasi-Szabó, J. Kinross, M. R. Lewis, L. J. Muirhead, K. Veselkov, R. Mirnezami, B. Dezső, L. Damjanovich, A. Darzi, J. K. Nicholson, and Z. Takáts, “Intraoperative tissue identification using rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(194), 194ra93 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, J. Balog, M. Rossi, L. Gildea, A. Speller, R. Ramakrishnan, S. Shousha, Z. Takats, D. R. Leff, and A. Darzi, “Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry towards real time intraoperative oncological margin status determination in breast conserving surgery.,” in 38th Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, (San Antonio, 2016).
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Barry, W. T.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
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Barth, R. J.

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res. 15(4), R61 (2013).
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Bellafiore, F. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative Evaluation of Breast Tumor Margins with Optical Coherence Tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
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I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
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Blumenstein, M.

J. Heil, K. Breitkreuz, M. Golatta, E. Czink, J. Dahlkamp, J. Rom, F. Schuetz, M. Blumenstein, G. Rauch, and C. Sohn, “Do reexcisions impair aesthetic outcome in breast conservation surgery? Exploratory analysis of a prospective cohort study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(2), 541–547 (2012).
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Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
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Boppart, S. A.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative Assessment of Final Margins with a Handheld Optical Imaging Probe During Breast-Conserving Surgery May Reduce the Reoperation Rate: Results of a Multicenter Study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
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S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
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F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative Evaluation of Breast Tumor Margins with Optical Coherence Tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
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M. D. Keller, S. K. Majumder, M. C. Kelley, I. M. Meszoely, F. I. Boulos, G. M. Olivares, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and spectral imaging for breast surgical margin analysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 15–23 (2010).
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I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
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Breitkreuz, K.

J. Heil, K. Breitkreuz, M. Golatta, E. Czink, J. Dahlkamp, J. Rom, F. Schuetz, M. Blumenstein, G. Rauch, and C. Sohn, “Do reexcisions impair aesthetic outcome in breast conservation surgery? Exploratory analysis of a prospective cohort study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(2), 541–547 (2012).
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Briggs, G.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
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Brown, J. Q.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
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Browne, J.

R. Jeevan, J. Browne, J. Van der Meulen, J. Pereira, C. Caddy, C. Sheppard, C. McGregor-Johnson, Z. Kramer, and S. Dead, “First Annual Report of the National Mastectomy and Breast Reconstruction Audit 2008” (2008).

Bydlon, T. M.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
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R. Jeevan, J. Browne, J. Van der Meulen, J. Pereira, C. Caddy, C. Sheppard, C. McGregor-Johnson, Z. Kramer, and S. Dead, “First Annual Report of the National Mastectomy and Breast Reconstruction Audit 2008” (2008).

Caddy, C. M.

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345, e4505 (2012).
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J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
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A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative Assessment of Final Margins with a Handheld Optical Imaging Probe During Breast-Conserving Surgery May Reduce the Reoperation Rate: Results of a Multicenter Study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
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Chaney, E. J.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative Evaluation of Breast Tumor Margins with Optical Coherence Tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative Assessment of Final Margins with a Handheld Optical Imaging Probe During Breast-Conserving Surgery May Reduce the Reoperation Rate: Results of a Multicenter Study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
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K. S. Khan and P. F. Chien, “Evaluation of a clinical test. I: assessment of reliability,” BJOG 108(6), 562–567 (2001).
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A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative Assessment of Final Margins with a Handheld Optical Imaging Probe During Breast-Conserving Surgery May Reduce the Reoperation Rate: Results of a Multicenter Study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
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S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
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Connolly, J.

C. C. Park, M. Mitsumori, A. Nixon, A. Recht, J. Connolly, R. Gelman, B. Silver, S. Hetelekidis, A. Abner, J. R. Harris, and S. J. Schnitt, “Outcome at 8 years after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy for invasive breast cancer: influence of margin status and systemic therapy on local recurrence,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1668–1675 (2000).
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Coolen, A. C.

A. Shalabi, M. Inoue, J. Watkins, E. De Rinaldis, and A. C. Coolen, “Bayesian clinical classification from high-dimensional data: Signatures versus variability,” Stat. Methods Med. Res. (2016).
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K. P. McGuire, A. A. Santillan, P. Kaur, T. Meade, J. Parbhoo, M. Mathias, C. Shamehdi, M. Davis, D. Ramos, and C. E. Cox, “Are mastectomies on the rise? A 13-year trend analysis of the selection of mastectomy versus breast conservation therapy in 5865 patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16(10), 2682–2690 (2009).
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Cradock, K. A.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
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Cromwell, D. A.

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345, e4505 (2012).
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Cuccia, D. J.

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res. 15(4), R61 (2013).
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Czink, E.

J. Heil, K. Breitkreuz, M. Golatta, E. Czink, J. Dahlkamp, J. Rom, F. Schuetz, M. Blumenstein, G. Rauch, and C. Sohn, “Do reexcisions impair aesthetic outcome in breast conservation surgery? Exploratory analysis of a prospective cohort study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(2), 541–547 (2012).
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D’Souza, D. J.

P. C. Stomper, D. J. D’Souza, P. A. DiNitto, and M. A. Arredondo, “Analysis of parenchymal density on mammograms in 1353 women 25-79 years old,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 167(5), 1261–1265 (1996).
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Dahlkamp, J.

J. Heil, K. Breitkreuz, M. Golatta, E. Czink, J. Dahlkamp, J. Rom, F. Schuetz, M. Blumenstein, G. Rauch, and C. Sohn, “Do reexcisions impair aesthetic outcome in breast conservation surgery? Exploratory analysis of a prospective cohort study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(2), 541–547 (2012).
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Damjanovich, L.

J. Balog, L. Sasi-Szabó, J. Kinross, M. R. Lewis, L. J. Muirhead, K. Veselkov, R. Mirnezami, B. Dezső, L. Damjanovich, A. Darzi, J. K. Nicholson, and Z. Takáts, “Intraoperative tissue identification using rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(194), 194ra93 (2013).
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Darga, D.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
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Darzi, A.

E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, H. Ashrafian, T. Athanasiou, Z. Takats, D. J. Hadjiminas, A. Darzi, and D. R. Leff, “Diagnostic Accuracy of Intraoperative Techniques for Margin Assessment in Breast Cancer Surgery: A Meta-analysis,” Ann. Surg. 265(2), 300–310 (2016).
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E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, J. Balog, M. Rossi, L. Gildea, A. Speller, R. Ramakrishnan, S. Shousha, Z. Takats, D. R. Leff, and A. Darzi, “Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry towards real time intraoperative oncological margin status determination in breast conserving surgery.,” in 38th Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, (San Antonio, 2016).
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Davis, M.

K. P. McGuire, A. A. Santillan, P. Kaur, T. Meade, J. Parbhoo, M. Mathias, C. Shamehdi, M. Davis, D. Ramos, and C. E. Cox, “Are mastectomies on the rise? A 13-year trend analysis of the selection of mastectomy versus breast conservation therapy in 5865 patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16(10), 2682–2690 (2009).
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De Rinaldis, E.

A. Shalabi, M. Inoue, J. Watkins, E. De Rinaldis, and A. C. Coolen, “Bayesian clinical classification from high-dimensional data: Signatures versus variability,” Stat. Methods Med. Res. (2016).
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Dead, S.

R. Jeevan, J. Browne, J. Van der Meulen, J. Pereira, C. Caddy, C. Sheppard, C. McGregor-Johnson, Z. Kramer, and S. Dead, “First Annual Report of the National Mastectomy and Breast Reconstruction Audit 2008” (2008).

Degnim, A. C.

J. Landercasper, E. Whitacre, A. C. Degnim, and M. Al-Hamadani, “Reasons for re-excision after lumpectomy for breast cancer: insight from the American Society of Breast Surgeons Mastery(SM) database,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(10), 3185–3191 (2014).
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K. Deng, C. Zhu, X. Ma, H. Jia, Z. Wei, Y. Xiao, and J. Xu, “Rapid Discrimination of Malignant Breast Lesions from Normal Tissues Utilizing Raman Spectroscopy System: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of In Vitro Studies,” PLoS One 11(7), e0159860 (2016).
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J. Balog, L. Sasi-Szabó, J. Kinross, M. R. Lewis, L. J. Muirhead, K. Veselkov, R. Mirnezami, B. Dezső, L. Damjanovich, A. Darzi, J. K. Nicholson, and Z. Takáts, “Intraoperative tissue identification using rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(194), 194ra93 (2013).
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DiNitto, P. A.

P. C. Stomper, D. J. D’Souza, P. A. DiNitto, and M. A. Arredondo, “Analysis of parenchymal density on mammograms in 1353 women 25-79 years old,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 167(5), 1261–1265 (1996).
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J. M. Dixon, L. Renshaw, O. Young, D. Kulkarni, T. Saleem, M. Sarfaty, R. Sreenivasan, C. Kusnick, J. Thomas, and L. J. Williams, “Intra-operative assessment of excised breast tumour margins using ClearEdge imaging device,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.  42(12), 1834–1840 (2016)

Douek, M.

M. Ahmed, I. T. Rubio, J. M. Klaase, and M. Douek, “Surgical treatment of nonpalpable primary invasive and in situ breast cancer,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 12(11), 645–663 (2015).
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S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
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B. C. Truong, H. D. Tuan, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and H. T. Nguyen, “A dielectric model of human breast tissue in terahertz regime,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(2), 699–707 (2015).
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A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
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A. L. Vahrmeijer, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, C. J. van de Velde, and J. V. Frangioni, “Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 10(9), 507–518 (2013).
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A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative Assessment of Final Margins with a Handheld Optical Imaging Probe During Breast-Conserving Surgery May Reduce the Reoperation Rate: Results of a Multicenter Study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
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Gallagher, J.

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
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Gallagher, J. E.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
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Gelman, R.

C. C. Park, M. Mitsumori, A. Nixon, A. Recht, J. Connolly, R. Gelman, B. Silver, S. Hetelekidis, A. Abner, J. R. Harris, and S. J. Schnitt, “Outcome at 8 years after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy for invasive breast cancer: influence of margin status and systemic therapy on local recurrence,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1668–1675 (2000).
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Geradts, J.

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
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L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
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Gildea, L.

E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, J. Balog, M. Rossi, L. Gildea, A. Speller, R. Ramakrishnan, S. Shousha, Z. Takats, D. R. Leff, and A. Darzi, “Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry towards real time intraoperative oncological margin status determination in breast conserving surgery.,” in 38th Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, (San Antonio, 2016).
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K. P. McGuire, A. A. Santillan, P. Kaur, T. Meade, J. Parbhoo, M. Mathias, C. Shamehdi, M. Davis, D. Ramos, and C. E. Cox, “Are mastectomies on the rise? A 13-year trend analysis of the selection of mastectomy versus breast conservation therapy in 5865 patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16(10), 2682–2690 (2009).
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M. D. Keller, S. K. Majumder, M. C. Kelley, I. M. Meszoely, F. I. Boulos, G. M. Olivares, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and spectral imaging for breast surgical margin analysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 15–23 (2010).
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J. Balog, L. Sasi-Szabó, J. Kinross, M. R. Lewis, L. J. Muirhead, K. Veselkov, R. Mirnezami, B. Dezső, L. Damjanovich, A. Darzi, J. K. Nicholson, and Z. Takáts, “Intraoperative tissue identification using rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(194), 194ra93 (2013).
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C. C. Park, M. Mitsumori, A. Nixon, A. Recht, J. Connolly, R. Gelman, B. Silver, S. Hetelekidis, A. Abner, J. R. Harris, and S. J. Schnitt, “Outcome at 8 years after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy for invasive breast cancer: influence of margin status and systemic therapy on local recurrence,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1668–1675 (2000).
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S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
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J. Balog, L. Sasi-Szabó, J. Kinross, M. R. Lewis, L. J. Muirhead, K. Veselkov, R. Mirnezami, B. Dezső, L. Damjanovich, A. Darzi, J. K. Nicholson, and Z. Takáts, “Intraoperative tissue identification using rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(194), 194ra93 (2013).
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M. D. Keller, S. K. Majumder, M. C. Kelley, I. M. Meszoely, F. I. Boulos, G. M. Olivares, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and spectral imaging for breast surgical margin analysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 15–23 (2010).
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Parbhoo, J.

K. P. McGuire, A. A. Santillan, P. Kaur, T. Meade, J. Parbhoo, M. Mathias, C. Shamehdi, M. Davis, D. Ramos, and C. E. Cox, “Are mastectomies on the rise? A 13-year trend analysis of the selection of mastectomy versus breast conservation therapy in 5865 patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16(10), 2682–2690 (2009).
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Pereira, J.

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345, e4505 (2012).
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Pickard, D.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
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Pinder, S.

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Pogue, B. W.

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Provenzano, E.

Purushotham, A. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
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A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
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Ramakrishnan, R.

E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, J. Balog, M. Rossi, L. Gildea, A. Speller, R. Ramakrishnan, S. Shousha, Z. Takats, D. R. Leff, and A. Darzi, “Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry towards real time intraoperative oncological margin status determination in breast conserving surgery.,” in 38th Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, (San Antonio, 2016).
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K. P. McGuire, A. A. Santillan, P. Kaur, T. Meade, J. Parbhoo, M. Mathias, C. Shamehdi, M. Davis, D. Ramos, and C. E. Cox, “Are mastectomies on the rise? A 13-year trend analysis of the selection of mastectomy versus breast conservation therapy in 5865 patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16(10), 2682–2690 (2009).
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J. Heil, K. Breitkreuz, M. Golatta, E. Czink, J. Dahlkamp, J. Rom, F. Schuetz, M. Blumenstein, G. Rauch, and C. Sohn, “Do reexcisions impair aesthetic outcome in breast conservation surgery? Exploratory analysis of a prospective cohort study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(2), 541–547 (2012).
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S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
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C. C. Park, M. Mitsumori, A. Nixon, A. Recht, J. Connolly, R. Gelman, B. Silver, S. Hetelekidis, A. Abner, J. R. Harris, and S. J. Schnitt, “Outcome at 8 years after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy for invasive breast cancer: influence of margin status and systemic therapy on local recurrence,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1668–1675 (2000).
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J. M. Dixon, L. Renshaw, O. Young, D. Kulkarni, T. Saleem, M. Sarfaty, R. Sreenivasan, C. Kusnick, J. Thomas, and L. J. Williams, “Intra-operative assessment of excised breast tumour margins using ClearEdge imaging device,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.  42(12), 1834–1840 (2016)

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L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
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I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
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A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res. 15(4), R61 (2013).
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J. Heil, K. Breitkreuz, M. Golatta, E. Czink, J. Dahlkamp, J. Rom, F. Schuetz, M. Blumenstein, G. Rauch, and C. Sohn, “Do reexcisions impair aesthetic outcome in breast conservation surgery? Exploratory analysis of a prospective cohort study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(2), 541–547 (2012).
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I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
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E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, J. Balog, M. Rossi, L. Gildea, A. Speller, R. Ramakrishnan, S. Shousha, Z. Takats, D. R. Leff, and A. Darzi, “Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry towards real time intraoperative oncological margin status determination in breast conserving surgery.,” in 38th Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, (San Antonio, 2016).
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F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative Evaluation of Breast Tumor Margins with Optical Coherence Tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
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Santillan, A. A.

K. P. McGuire, A. A. Santillan, P. Kaur, T. Meade, J. Parbhoo, M. Mathias, C. Shamehdi, M. Davis, D. Ramos, and C. E. Cox, “Are mastectomies on the rise? A 13-year trend analysis of the selection of mastectomy versus breast conservation therapy in 5865 patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16(10), 2682–2690 (2009).
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Sarfaty, M.

J. M. Dixon, L. Renshaw, O. Young, D. Kulkarni, T. Saleem, M. Sarfaty, R. Sreenivasan, C. Kusnick, J. Thomas, and L. J. Williams, “Intra-operative assessment of excised breast tumour margins using ClearEdge imaging device,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.  42(12), 1834–1840 (2016)

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J. Balog, L. Sasi-Szabó, J. Kinross, M. R. Lewis, L. J. Muirhead, K. Veselkov, R. Mirnezami, B. Dezső, L. Damjanovich, A. Darzi, J. K. Nicholson, and Z. Takáts, “Intraoperative tissue identification using rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(194), 194ra93 (2013).
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Saunders, C.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
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A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative Assessment of Final Margins with a Handheld Optical Imaging Probe During Breast-Conserving Surgery May Reduce the Reoperation Rate: Results of a Multicenter Study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
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A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative Assessment of Final Margins with a Handheld Optical Imaging Probe During Breast-Conserving Surgery May Reduce the Reoperation Rate: Results of a Multicenter Study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
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Schnitt, S. J.

C. C. Park, M. Mitsumori, A. Nixon, A. Recht, J. Connolly, R. Gelman, B. Silver, S. Hetelekidis, A. Abner, J. R. Harris, and S. J. Schnitt, “Outcome at 8 years after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy for invasive breast cancer: influence of margin status and systemic therapy on local recurrence,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1668–1675 (2000).
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J. Heil, K. Breitkreuz, M. Golatta, E. Czink, J. Dahlkamp, J. Rom, F. Schuetz, M. Blumenstein, G. Rauch, and C. Sohn, “Do reexcisions impair aesthetic outcome in breast conservation surgery? Exploratory analysis of a prospective cohort study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(2), 541–547 (2012).
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A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res. 15(4), R61 (2013).
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Scott Carney, P.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative Assessment of Final Margins with a Handheld Optical Imaging Probe During Breast-Conserving Surgery May Reduce the Reoperation Rate: Results of a Multicenter Study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
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K. P. McGuire, A. A. Santillan, P. Kaur, T. Meade, J. Parbhoo, M. Mathias, C. Shamehdi, M. Davis, D. Ramos, and C. E. Cox, “Are mastectomies on the rise? A 13-year trend analysis of the selection of mastectomy versus breast conservation therapy in 5865 patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16(10), 2682–2690 (2009).
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S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
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Sheppard, C.

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345, e4505 (2012).
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Shousha, S.

E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, J. Balog, M. Rossi, L. Gildea, A. Speller, R. Ramakrishnan, S. Shousha, Z. Takats, D. R. Leff, and A. Darzi, “Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry towards real time intraoperative oncological margin status determination in breast conserving surgery.,” in 38th Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, (San Antonio, 2016).
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Silver, B.

C. C. Park, M. Mitsumori, A. Nixon, A. Recht, J. Connolly, R. Gelman, B. Silver, S. Hetelekidis, A. Abner, J. R. Harris, and S. J. Schnitt, “Outcome at 8 years after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy for invasive breast cancer: influence of margin status and systemic therapy on local recurrence,” J. Clin. Oncol. 18(8), 1668–1675 (2000).
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Sohn, C.

J. Heil, K. Breitkreuz, M. Golatta, E. Czink, J. Dahlkamp, J. Rom, F. Schuetz, M. Blumenstein, G. Rauch, and C. Sohn, “Do reexcisions impair aesthetic outcome in breast conservation surgery? Exploratory analysis of a prospective cohort study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(2), 541–547 (2012).
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S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
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Speller, A.

E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, J. Balog, M. Rossi, L. Gildea, A. Speller, R. Ramakrishnan, S. Shousha, Z. Takats, D. R. Leff, and A. Darzi, “Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry towards real time intraoperative oncological margin status determination in breast conserving surgery.,” in 38th Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, (San Antonio, 2016).
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Sreenivasan, R.

J. M. Dixon, L. Renshaw, O. Young, D. Kulkarni, T. Saleem, M. Sarfaty, R. Sreenivasan, C. Kusnick, J. Thomas, and L. J. Williams, “Intra-operative assessment of excised breast tumour margins using ClearEdge imaging device,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.  42(12), 1834–1840 (2016)

St John, E. R.

E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, H. Ashrafian, T. Athanasiou, Z. Takats, D. J. Hadjiminas, A. Darzi, and D. R. Leff, “Diagnostic Accuracy of Intraoperative Techniques for Margin Assessment in Breast Cancer Surgery: A Meta-analysis,” Ann. Surg. 265(2), 300–310 (2016).
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C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
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Sundaram, M.

S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
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Tafra, L.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative Assessment of Final Margins with a Handheld Optical Imaging Probe During Breast-Conserving Surgery May Reduce the Reoperation Rate: Results of a Multicenter Study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
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Takats, Z.

E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, H. Ashrafian, T. Athanasiou, Z. Takats, D. J. Hadjiminas, A. Darzi, and D. R. Leff, “Diagnostic Accuracy of Intraoperative Techniques for Margin Assessment in Breast Cancer Surgery: A Meta-analysis,” Ann. Surg. 265(2), 300–310 (2016).
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E. R. St John, R. Al-Khudairi, J. Balog, M. Rossi, L. Gildea, A. Speller, R. Ramakrishnan, S. Shousha, Z. Takats, D. R. Leff, and A. Darzi, “Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry towards real time intraoperative oncological margin status determination in breast conserving surgery.,” in 38th Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, (San Antonio, 2016).
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Takáts, Z.

J. Balog, L. Sasi-Szabó, J. Kinross, M. R. Lewis, L. J. Muirhead, K. Veselkov, R. Mirnezami, B. Dezső, L. Damjanovich, A. Darzi, J. K. Nicholson, and Z. Takáts, “Intraoperative tissue identification using rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(194), 194ra93 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, J.

J. M. Dixon, L. Renshaw, O. Young, D. Kulkarni, T. Saleem, M. Sarfaty, R. Sreenivasan, C. Kusnick, J. Thomas, and L. J. Williams, “Intra-operative assessment of excised breast tumour margins using ClearEdge imaging device,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.  42(12), 1834–1840 (2016)

Trivella, M.

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345, e4505 (2012).
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Tromberg, B. J.

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res. 15(4), R61 (2013).
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Truong, B. C.

B. C. Truong, H. D. Tuan, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and H. T. Nguyen, “A dielectric model of human breast tissue in terahertz regime,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(2), 699–707 (2015).
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B. C. Truong, H. D. Tuan, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and H. T. Nguyen, “A dielectric model of human breast tissue in terahertz regime,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(2), 699–707 (2015).
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S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
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R. Jeevan, J. Browne, J. Van der Meulen, J. Pereira, C. Caddy, C. Sheppard, C. McGregor-Johnson, Z. Kramer, and S. Dead, “First Annual Report of the National Mastectomy and Breast Reconstruction Audit 2008” (2008).

van der Meulen, J. H.

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345, e4505 (2012).
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van der Vorst, J. R.

A. L. Vahrmeijer, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, C. J. van de Velde, and J. V. Frangioni, “Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 10(9), 507–518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veselkov, K.

J. Balog, L. Sasi-Szabó, J. Kinross, M. R. Lewis, L. J. Muirhead, K. Veselkov, R. Mirnezami, B. Dezső, L. Damjanovich, A. Darzi, J. K. Nicholson, and Z. Takáts, “Intraoperative tissue identification using rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(194), 194ra93 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallace, V. P.

B. C. Truong, H. D. Tuan, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and H. T. Nguyen, “A dielectric model of human breast tissue in terahertz regime,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(2), 699–707 (2015).
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A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watkins, J.

A. Shalabi, M. Inoue, J. Watkins, E. De Rinaldis, and A. C. Coolen, “Bayesian clinical classification from high-dimensional data: Signatures versus variability,” Stat. Methods Med. Res. (2016).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z.

K. Deng, C. Zhu, X. Ma, H. Jia, Z. Wei, Y. Xiao, and J. Xu, “Rapid Discrimination of Malignant Breast Lesions from Normal Tissues Utilizing Raman Spectroscopy System: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of In Vitro Studies,” PLoS One 11(7), e0159860 (2016).
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Wells, W. A.

A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res. 15(4), R61 (2013).
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J. M. Dixon, L. Renshaw, O. Young, D. Kulkarni, T. Saleem, M. Sarfaty, R. Sreenivasan, C. Kusnick, J. Thomas, and L. J. Williams, “Intra-operative assessment of excised breast tumour margins using ClearEdge imaging device,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.  42(12), 1834–1840 (2016)

Xiao, Y.

K. Deng, C. Zhu, X. Ma, H. Jia, Z. Wei, Y. Xiao, and J. Xu, “Rapid Discrimination of Malignant Breast Lesions from Normal Tissues Utilizing Raman Spectroscopy System: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of In Vitro Studies,” PLoS One 11(7), e0159860 (2016).
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J. M. Dixon, L. Renshaw, O. Young, D. Kulkarni, T. Saleem, M. Sarfaty, R. Sreenivasan, C. Kusnick, J. Thomas, and L. J. Williams, “Intra-operative assessment of excised breast tumour margins using ClearEdge imaging device,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.  42(12), 1834–1840 (2016)

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A. M. Laughney, V. Krishnaswamy, E. J. Rizzo, M. C. Schwab, R. J. Barth, D. J. Cuccia, B. J. Tromberg, K. D. Paulsen, B. W. Pogue, and W. A. Wells, “Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Breast Cancer Res. 15(4), R61 (2013).
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F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative Evaluation of Breast Tumor Margins with Optical Coherence Tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
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S. J. Erickson-Bhatt, R. M. Nolan, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, J. Putney, D. Darga, D. T. McCormick, A. J. Cittadine, A. M. Zysk, M. Marjanovic, E. J. Chaney, G. L. Monroy, F. A. South, K. A. Cradock, Z. G. Liu, M. Sundaram, P. S. Ray, and S. A. Boppart, “Real-time imaging of the resection bed using a handheld probe to reduce incidence of microscopic positive margins in cancer surgery,” Cancer Res. 75(18), 3706–3712 (2015).
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A. L. Vahrmeijer, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, C. J. van de Velde, and J. V. Frangioni, “Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 10(9), 507–518 (2013).
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Opt. Express (1)

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K. Deng, C. Zhu, X. Ma, H. Jia, Z. Wei, Y. Xiao, and J. Xu, “Rapid Discrimination of Malignant Breast Lesions from Normal Tissues Utilizing Raman Spectroscopy System: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of In Vitro Studies,” PLoS One 11(7), e0159860 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, M. L. Caldwell, J. E. Gallagher, M. Junker, L. G. Wilke, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Optical spectral surveillance of breast tissue landscapes for detection of residual disease in breast tumor margins,” PLoS One 8(7), e69906 (2013).
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Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. (1)

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

Radiology (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
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P. C. Ashworth, P. O’Kelly, A. D. Purushotham, S. E. Pinder, M. Kontos, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “An intra-operative THz probe for use during the surgical removal of breast tumors,” in Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves,2008. IRMMW-THz 2008. 33rd International Conference on, 2008), 1–3.
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[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of TPI handheld probe system. The emitted laser pulses are split into a “pump beam” and a “probe beam”. The pump beam is guided through the optical fibers in the umbilical cord, and subsequently incident on the photoconductive emitter to produce THz pulses. The probe beam is guided onto the photoconductive detector to detect the THz pulses reflected from the tissue sample. By altering the path length of the probe beam, the time of arrival at the detector in respect to the incident THz pulse can be changed, thus sampling the THz pulse in the time domain.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TPI handheld probe system. (A) Main unit with computer monitor, handheld imaging probe and black umbilical cord (visible on the right). (B) Close up of the handheld imaging probe. (C) Close up of the head of the imaging probe showing the black quartz window. The probe scans an area of 15 x 2 mm, and acquires data from 26 pixels (red).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Correlating TPI with histopathology. (A) Typical impulse function from breast tissue containing a high percentage of tumor, fibrous, and adipose cells, and air, respectively. Clear differences are seen between the impulse functions from air and from tissue, and between adipose and tumor/fibrous tissue, especially at time points t = 7.97 ps, t = 8.93 ps, and t = 9.67 ps (black arrows). (B) TPI image from sample based on the amplitude of the impulse function at t = 7.97ps. A clear contrast can be seen at the air-tissue interface at pixel 5 and pixel 17. Note an ‘edge effect’ at these interfaces, causing a distortion in the impulse functions of these pixels. (C) Digital histopathology slide of the same tissue sample. By using the photograph of the sample in combination with the air-tissue interface visible in the TPI image, the TPI 15 x 2 mm scan area can be accurately mapped onto the histopathology slide (black rectangle). The pixels are displayed as intermittent horizontal lines at 0.6 mm distance in the scan window. Pixel 5 – 17 contain invasive ductal/no special type (NST) carcinoma; the percentage of tumor cells in each of these pixel areas ranges between 5 – 10%. The tissue immediately surrounding the tumor cells (background) is composed of fibrous tissue, whilst fatty adipose tissue is seen inferiorly.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TPI measurement of tissue sample. (A) TPI handheld probe measurement of tissue sample positioned in histology cassette. Note that the head of the imaging probe tightly fits in the cassette, which facilitates applying a consistent pressure throughout the measurement, while preventing displacement of the probe. (B) Photograph of the tissue sample obtained after the sample was scanned. The imprint of the scan window on the sample is clearly visible. This photograph was used to facilitate accurate correlation of TPI data with histopathology. (C) Photograph of tissue sample after it was inked. Inking was performed to enable spatial orienation of the sample when analysed microscopically by the pathologist.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AUROC analysis to evaluate the discriminative power of the amplitude parameter for time indices 5.0 – 12.6 ps. The highest AUROC values of 0.72 and 0.70 were found at t = 9.42 ps and t = 10.05 ps respectively, and these two parameters were therefore selected for tissue classification with SVM.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Visualization of the selected parameters used in SVM classification. Each parameter is displayed in red.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Two-dimensional parametric plot (A) and SVM classification results (B) for the combination of parameters P1 and P6 that performed best in terms of accuracy.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Pixel characteristics analysis data set. A total of 257 pixels were included in the TPI data set: 115 tumor pixels, 116 fibrous pixels and 26 pure adipose pixels. The tumor pixels predominantly consisted of invasive ductal/no special type carcinoma (N = 92) and invasive lobular carcinoma (N = 19). Most of the tumor pixels contained a low to moderate percentage of tumor cells ranging between 1 – 60% (N = 98). Almost all tumor cells had a background of pure fibrous tissue; only 5 had a background containing a mix of fibrous and adipose. Most of the fibrous pixels had a high percentage of fibrous cells ranging between 81 – 100% (N = 91). Only 26 of the 257 pixels consisted of pure adipose tissue.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Overview of selected time domain and frequency domain parameters and their AUROC values.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Performance of heuristic parameters with SVM classification, and wavelet deconvolution with Bayesian classification. SVM classification results are shown for individual parameters and parameter combinations that performed best in terms of accuracy. The best individual parameter and parameter combination is underlined.

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