Abstract

Fiber-optic endomicroscopes open new avenues for the application of non-linear optics to novel in vivo applications. To achieve focus scanning in vivo, shape memory alloy (SMA) wires have been used to move optical elements in miniature endomicroscopes. However, this method has various limitations, making it difficult to achieve accurate and reliable depth scanning. Here we present a feedback-controlled SMA depth scanner. With a Hall effect sensor, contraction of the SMA wire can be tracked in real time, rendering accurate and robust control of motion. The SMA depth scanner can achieve up to 490 µm travel and with open-loop operation, it can move more than 350 µm within one second. With the feedback loop engaged, submicron positioning accuracy was achieved along with superior positioning stability. The high-precision positioning capability of the SMA depth scanner was verified by depth-resolved nonlinear endomicroscopic imaging of mouse brain samples.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Zhang, M. L. Akins, K. Murari, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, K. Luby-Phelps, M. Mahendroo, and X. Li, “A compact fiber-optic SHG scanning endomicroscope and its application to visualize cervical remodeling during pregnancy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(32), 12878–12883 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, “A miniature head-mounted two-photon microscope. high-resolution brain imaging in freely moving animals,” Neuron 31(6), 903–912 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. T. Myaing, D. J. MacDonald, and X. Li, “Fiber-optic scanning two-photon fluorescence endoscope,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1076–1078 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. W. Liang, K. Murari, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Increased illumination uniformity and reduced photodamage offered by the Lissajous scanning in fiber-optic two-photon endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021108 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. Mavadia, J. Xi, Y. Chen, and X. Li, “An all-fiber-optic endoscopy platform for simultaneous OCT and fluorescence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2851–2859 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. K. Campbell, Y. Fainman, and A. Groisman, “Pneumatically actuated adaptive lenses with millisecond response time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171111 (2007).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Wu and X. Li, “Combined influences of chromatic aberration and scattering in depth-resolved two-photon fluorescence endospectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(4), 1234–1243 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. B. F. Grewe, F. F. Voigt, M. van ’t Hoff, and F. Helmchen, “Fast two-layer two-photon imaging of neuronal cell populations using an electrically tunable lens,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 2035–2046 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Wu, Y. Zhang, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy with focus scanning by using shape memory alloy actuation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 060506 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  21. E. A. Susaki, K. Tainaka, D. Perrin, H. Yukinaga, A. Kuno, and H. R. Ueda, “Advanced CUBIC protocols for whole-brain and whole-body clearing and imaging,” Nat. Protoc. 10(11), 1709–1727 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S. H. Kang, M. Fukaya, J. K. Yang, J. D. Rothstein, and D. E. Bergles, “NG2+ CNS glial progenitors remain committed to the oligodendrocyte lineage in postnatal life and following neurodegeneration,” Neuron 68(4), 668–681 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

E. A. Susaki, K. Tainaka, D. Perrin, H. Yukinaga, A. Kuno, and H. R. Ueda, “Advanced CUBIC protocols for whole-brain and whole-body clearing and imaging,” Nat. Protoc. 10(11), 1709–1727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

Y. Zhang, M. L. Akins, K. Murari, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, K. Luby-Phelps, M. Mahendroo, and X. Li, “A compact fiber-optic SHG scanning endomicroscope and its application to visualize cervical remodeling during pregnancy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(32), 12878–12883 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liang, K. Murari, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Increased illumination uniformity and reduced photodamage offered by the Lissajous scanning in fiber-optic two-photon endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mavadia, J. Xi, Y. Chen, and X. Li, “An all-fiber-optic endoscopy platform for simultaneous OCT and fluorescence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2851–2859 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Grewe, F. F. Voigt, M. van ’t Hoff, and F. Helmchen, “Fast two-layer two-photon imaging of neuronal cell populations using an electrically tunable lens,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 2035–2046 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

Y. Wu and X. Li, “Combined influences of chromatic aberration and scattering in depth-resolved two-photon fluorescence endospectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(4), 1234–1243 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Kang, M. Fukaya, J. K. Yang, J. D. Rothstein, and D. E. Bergles, “NG2+ CNS glial progenitors remain committed to the oligodendrocyte lineage in postnatal life and following neurodegeneration,” Neuron 68(4), 668–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, Y. Zhang, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy with focus scanning by using shape memory alloy actuation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 060506 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

C. S. Liu, P. D. Lin, P. H. Lin, S. S. Ke, Y. H. Chang, and J. B. Horng, “Design and characterization of miniature auto-focusing voice coil motor actuator for cell phone camera applications,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 45(1), 155–159 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y.-C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, J. Xi, M. J. Cobb, and X. Li, “Scanning fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy with miniature aspherical compound lens and multimode fiber collector,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 953–955 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

X. Zeng and H. Jiang, “Tunable liquid microlens actuated by infrared light-responsive hydrogel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151101 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

K. Campbell, Y. Fainman, and A. Groisman, “Pneumatically actuated adaptive lenses with millisecond response time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171111 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

S. M. Dutta and F. H. Ghorbel, “Differential hysteresis modeling of a shape memory alloy wire actuator,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 10(2), 189–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, “A miniature head-mounted two-photon microscope. high-resolution brain imaging in freely moving animals,” Neuron 31(6), 903–912 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

C.-Y. Su, Y. Stepanenko, J. Svoboda, and T.-P. Leung, “Robust adaptive control of a class of nonlinear systems with unknown backlash-like hysteresis,” IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr. 45(12), 2427–2432 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

K. Otsuka and X. Ren, “Recent developments in the research of shape memory alloys,” Intermetallics 7(5), 511–528 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ahn, Y.-C.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y.-C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akins, M. L.

Y. Zhang, M. L. Akins, K. Murari, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, K. Luby-Phelps, M. Mahendroo, and X. Li, “A compact fiber-optic SHG scanning endomicroscope and its application to visualize cervical remodeling during pregnancy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(32), 12878–12883 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergles, D. E.

S. H. Kang, M. Fukaya, J. K. Yang, J. D. Rothstein, and D. E. Bergles, “NG2+ CNS glial progenitors remain committed to the oligodendrocyte lineage in postnatal life and following neurodegeneration,” Neuron 68(4), 668–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, C. M.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, K.

K. Campbell, Y. Fainman, and A. Groisman, “Pneumatically actuated adaptive lenses with millisecond response time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. H.

C. S. Liu, P. D. Lin, P. H. Lin, S. S. Ke, Y. H. Chang, and J. B. Horng, “Design and characterization of miniature auto-focusing voice coil motor actuator for cell phone camera applications,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 45(1), 155–159 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

W. Liang, K. Murari, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Increased illumination uniformity and reduced photodamage offered by the Lissajous scanning in fiber-optic two-photon endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mavadia, J. Xi, Y. Chen, and X. Li, “An all-fiber-optic endoscopy platform for simultaneous OCT and fluorescence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2851–2859 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y.-C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cobb, M. J.

Cranfield, C.

Denk, W.

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, “A miniature head-mounted two-photon microscope. high-resolution brain imaging in freely moving animals,” Neuron 31(6), 903–912 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dutta, S. M.

S. M. Dutta and F. H. Ghorbel, “Differential hysteresis modeling of a shape memory alloy wire actuator,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 10(2), 189–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fainman, Y.

K. Campbell, Y. Fainman, and A. Groisman, “Pneumatically actuated adaptive lenses with millisecond response time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fee, M. S.

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, “A miniature head-mounted two-photon microscope. high-resolution brain imaging in freely moving animals,” Neuron 31(6), 903–912 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

Fukaya, M.

S. H. Kang, M. Fukaya, J. K. Yang, J. D. Rothstein, and D. E. Bergles, “NG2+ CNS glial progenitors remain committed to the oligodendrocyte lineage in postnatal life and following neurodegeneration,” Neuron 68(4), 668–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghorbel, F. H.

S. M. Dutta and F. H. Ghorbel, “Differential hysteresis modeling of a shape memory alloy wire actuator,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 10(2), 189–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

Grewe, B. F.

Groisman, A.

K. Campbell, Y. Fainman, and A. Groisman, “Pneumatically actuated adaptive lenses with millisecond response time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

Helmchen, F.

B. F. Grewe, F. F. Voigt, M. van ’t Hoff, and F. Helmchen, “Fast two-layer two-photon imaging of neuronal cell populations using an electrically tunable lens,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 2035–2046 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, “A miniature head-mounted two-photon microscope. high-resolution brain imaging in freely moving animals,” Neuron 31(6), 903–912 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, Y. S.

Y. M. Lim, J. Lee, J. Park, B. Kim, J. O. Park, S. H. Kim, and Y. S. Hong, “A self-propelling endoscopic system,” IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems2, 1117–1122 (2001).

Horng, J. B.

C. S. Liu, P. D. Lin, P. H. Lin, S. S. Ke, Y. H. Chang, and J. B. Horng, “Design and characterization of miniature auto-focusing voice coil motor actuator for cell phone camera applications,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 45(1), 155–159 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jain, A.

Jiang, H.

X. Zeng and H. Jiang, “Tunable liquid microlens actuated by infrared light-responsive hydrogel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jung, W.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y.-C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, S. H.

S. H. Kang, M. Fukaya, J. K. Yang, J. D. Rothstein, and D. E. Bergles, “NG2+ CNS glial progenitors remain committed to the oligodendrocyte lineage in postnatal life and following neurodegeneration,” Neuron 68(4), 668–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ke, S. S.

C. S. Liu, P. D. Lin, P. H. Lin, S. S. Ke, Y. H. Chang, and J. B. Horng, “Design and characterization of miniature auto-focusing voice coil motor actuator for cell phone camera applications,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 45(1), 155–159 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.

Y. M. Lim, J. Lee, J. Park, B. Kim, J. O. Park, S. H. Kim, and Y. S. Hong, “A self-propelling endoscopic system,” IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems2, 1117–1122 (2001).

Kim, S. H.

Y. M. Lim, J. Lee, J. Park, B. Kim, J. O. Park, S. H. Kim, and Y. S. Hong, “A self-propelling endoscopic system,” IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems2, 1117–1122 (2001).

Kobat, D.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuno, A.

E. A. Susaki, K. Tainaka, D. Perrin, H. Yukinaga, A. Kuno, and H. R. Ueda, “Advanced CUBIC protocols for whole-brain and whole-body clearing and imaging,” Nat. Protoc. 10(11), 1709–1727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

Y. M. Lim, J. Lee, J. Park, B. Kim, J. O. Park, S. H. Kim, and Y. S. Hong, “A self-propelling endoscopic system,” IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems2, 1117–1122 (2001).

Leung, T.-P.

C.-Y. Su, Y. Stepanenko, J. Svoboda, and T.-P. Leung, “Robust adaptive control of a class of nonlinear systems with unknown backlash-like hysteresis,” IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr. 45(12), 2427–2432 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, M.-J.

Y. Zhang, M. L. Akins, K. Murari, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, K. Luby-Phelps, M. Mahendroo, and X. Li, “A compact fiber-optic SHG scanning endomicroscope and its application to visualize cervical remodeling during pregnancy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(32), 12878–12883 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liang, K. Murari, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Increased illumination uniformity and reduced photodamage offered by the Lissajous scanning in fiber-optic two-photon endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, Y. Zhang, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy with focus scanning by using shape memory alloy actuation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 060506 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Y. Zhang, M. L. Akins, K. Murari, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, K. Luby-Phelps, M. Mahendroo, and X. Li, “A compact fiber-optic SHG scanning endomicroscope and its application to visualize cervical remodeling during pregnancy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(32), 12878–12883 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liang, K. Murari, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Increased illumination uniformity and reduced photodamage offered by the Lissajous scanning in fiber-optic two-photon endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mavadia, J. Xi, Y. Chen, and X. Li, “An all-fiber-optic endoscopy platform for simultaneous OCT and fluorescence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2851–2859 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu and X. Li, “Combined influences of chromatic aberration and scattering in depth-resolved two-photon fluorescence endospectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(4), 1234–1243 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, Y. Zhang, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy with focus scanning by using shape memory alloy actuation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 060506 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, J. Xi, M. J. Cobb, and X. Li, “Scanning fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy with miniature aspherical compound lens and multimode fiber collector,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 953–955 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Myaing, D. J. MacDonald, and X. Li, “Fiber-optic scanning two-photon fluorescence endoscope,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1076–1078 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, W.

W. Liang, K. Murari, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Increased illumination uniformity and reduced photodamage offered by the Lissajous scanning in fiber-optic two-photon endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, Y. M.

Y. M. Lim, J. Lee, J. Park, B. Kim, J. O. Park, S. H. Kim, and Y. S. Hong, “A self-propelling endoscopic system,” IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems2, 1117–1122 (2001).

Lin, P. D.

C. S. Liu, P. D. Lin, P. H. Lin, S. S. Ke, Y. H. Chang, and J. B. Horng, “Design and characterization of miniature auto-focusing voice coil motor actuator for cell phone camera applications,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 45(1), 155–159 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, P. H.

C. S. Liu, P. D. Lin, P. H. Lin, S. S. Ke, Y. H. Chang, and J. B. Horng, “Design and characterization of miniature auto-focusing voice coil motor actuator for cell phone camera applications,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 45(1), 155–159 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. S.

C. S. Liu, P. D. Lin, P. H. Lin, S. S. Ke, Y. H. Chang, and J. B. Horng, “Design and characterization of miniature auto-focusing voice coil motor actuator for cell phone camera applications,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 45(1), 155–159 (2009).
[Crossref]

Luby-Phelps, K.

Y. Zhang, M. L. Akins, K. Murari, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, K. Luby-Phelps, M. Mahendroo, and X. Li, “A compact fiber-optic SHG scanning endomicroscope and its application to visualize cervical remodeling during pregnancy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(32), 12878–12883 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacDonald, D. J.

Mahendroo, M.

Y. Zhang, M. L. Akins, K. Murari, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, K. Luby-Phelps, M. Mahendroo, and X. Li, “A compact fiber-optic SHG scanning endomicroscope and its application to visualize cervical remodeling during pregnancy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(32), 12878–12883 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mavadia, J.

McCormick, D.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y.-C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murari, K.

Y. Zhang, M. L. Akins, K. Murari, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, K. Luby-Phelps, M. Mahendroo, and X. Li, “A compact fiber-optic SHG scanning endomicroscope and its application to visualize cervical remodeling during pregnancy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(32), 12878–12883 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liang, K. Murari, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Increased illumination uniformity and reduced photodamage offered by the Lissajous scanning in fiber-optic two-photon endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myaing, M. T.

Otsuka, K.

K. Otsuka and X. Ren, “Recent developments in the research of shape memory alloys,” Intermetallics 7(5), 511–528 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ouzounov, D. G.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.

Y. M. Lim, J. Lee, J. Park, B. Kim, J. O. Park, S. H. Kim, and Y. S. Hong, “A self-propelling endoscopic system,” IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems2, 1117–1122 (2001).

Park, J. O.

Y. M. Lim, J. Lee, J. Park, B. Kim, J. O. Park, S. H. Kim, and Y. S. Hong, “A self-propelling endoscopic system,” IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems2, 1117–1122 (2001).

Pavlova, I.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perrin, D.

E. A. Susaki, K. Tainaka, D. Perrin, H. Yukinaga, A. Kuno, and H. R. Ueda, “Advanced CUBIC protocols for whole-brain and whole-body clearing and imaging,” Nat. Protoc. 10(11), 1709–1727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, X.

K. Otsuka and X. Ren, “Recent developments in the research of shape memory alloys,” Intermetallics 7(5), 511–528 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rivera, D. R.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rothstein, J. D.

S. H. Kang, M. Fukaya, J. K. Yang, J. D. Rothstein, and D. E. Bergles, “NG2+ CNS glial progenitors remain committed to the oligodendrocyte lineage in postnatal life and following neurodegeneration,” Neuron 68(4), 668–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stepanenko, Y.

C.-Y. Su, Y. Stepanenko, J. Svoboda, and T.-P. Leung, “Robust adaptive control of a class of nonlinear systems with unknown backlash-like hysteresis,” IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr. 45(12), 2427–2432 (2000).
[Crossref]

Su, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Su, Y. Stepanenko, J. Svoboda, and T.-P. Leung, “Robust adaptive control of a class of nonlinear systems with unknown backlash-like hysteresis,” IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr. 45(12), 2427–2432 (2000).
[Crossref]

Su, J.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y.-C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Susaki, E. A.

E. A. Susaki, K. Tainaka, D. Perrin, H. Yukinaga, A. Kuno, and H. R. Ueda, “Advanced CUBIC protocols for whole-brain and whole-body clearing and imaging,” Nat. Protoc. 10(11), 1709–1727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svoboda, J.

C.-Y. Su, Y. Stepanenko, J. Svoboda, and T.-P. Leung, “Robust adaptive control of a class of nonlinear systems with unknown backlash-like hysteresis,” IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr. 45(12), 2427–2432 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tainaka, K.

E. A. Susaki, K. Tainaka, D. Perrin, H. Yukinaga, A. Kuno, and H. R. Ueda, “Advanced CUBIC protocols for whole-brain and whole-body clearing and imaging,” Nat. Protoc. 10(11), 1709–1727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, S.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y.-C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tank, D. W.

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, “A miniature head-mounted two-photon microscope. high-resolution brain imaging in freely moving animals,” Neuron 31(6), 903–912 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y.-C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ueda, H. R.

E. A. Susaki, K. Tainaka, D. Perrin, H. Yukinaga, A. Kuno, and H. R. Ueda, “Advanced CUBIC protocols for whole-brain and whole-body clearing and imaging,” Nat. Protoc. 10(11), 1709–1727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van ’t Hoff, M.

Voigt, F. F.

Webb, W. W.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Xi, J.

J. Mavadia, J. Xi, Y. Chen, and X. Li, “An all-fiber-optic endoscopy platform for simultaneous OCT and fluorescence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2851–2859 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, M. L. Akins, K. Murari, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, K. Luby-Phelps, M. Mahendroo, and X. Li, “A compact fiber-optic SHG scanning endomicroscope and its application to visualize cervical remodeling during pregnancy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(32), 12878–12883 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, Y. Zhang, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy with focus scanning by using shape memory alloy actuation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 060506 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, J. Xi, M. J. Cobb, and X. Li, “Scanning fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy with miniature aspherical compound lens and multimode fiber collector,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 953–955 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, H.

Xie, T.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y.-C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J. K.

S. H. Kang, M. Fukaya, J. K. Yang, J. D. Rothstein, and D. E. Bergles, “NG2+ CNS glial progenitors remain committed to the oligodendrocyte lineage in postnatal life and following neurodegeneration,” Neuron 68(4), 668–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yukinaga, H.

E. A. Susaki, K. Tainaka, D. Perrin, H. Yukinaga, A. Kuno, and H. R. Ueda, “Advanced CUBIC protocols for whole-brain and whole-body clearing and imaging,” Nat. Protoc. 10(11), 1709–1727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, X.

X. Zeng and H. Jiang, “Tunable liquid microlens actuated by infrared light-responsive hydrogel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, M. L. Akins, K. Murari, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, K. Luby-Phelps, M. Mahendroo, and X. Li, “A compact fiber-optic SHG scanning endomicroscope and its application to visualize cervical remodeling during pregnancy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(32), 12878–12883 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liang, K. Murari, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Increased illumination uniformity and reduced photodamage offered by the Lissajous scanning in fiber-optic two-photon endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, Y. Zhang, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy with focus scanning by using shape memory alloy actuation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 060506 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Campbell, Y. Fainman, and A. Groisman, “Pneumatically actuated adaptive lenses with millisecond response time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171111 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng and H. Jiang, “Tunable liquid microlens actuated by infrared light-responsive hydrogel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr. (1)

C.-Y. Su, Y. Stepanenko, J. Svoboda, and T.-P. Leung, “Robust adaptive control of a class of nonlinear systems with unknown backlash-like hysteresis,” IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr. 45(12), 2427–2432 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Magn. (1)

C. S. Liu, P. D. Lin, P. H. Lin, S. S. Ke, Y. H. Chang, and J. B. Horng, “Design and characterization of miniature auto-focusing voice coil motor actuator for cell phone camera applications,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 45(1), 155–159 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. (1)

S. M. Dutta and F. H. Ghorbel, “Differential hysteresis modeling of a shape memory alloy wire actuator,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. 10(2), 189–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

Intermetallics (1)

K. Otsuka and X. Ren, “Recent developments in the research of shape memory alloys,” Intermetallics 7(5), 511–528 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

Y. Wu, Y. Zhang, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy with focus scanning by using shape memory alloy actuation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 060506 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y.-C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034005 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liang, K. Murari, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Increased illumination uniformity and reduced photodamage offered by the Lissajous scanning in fiber-optic two-photon endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

E. A. Susaki, K. Tainaka, D. Perrin, H. Yukinaga, A. Kuno, and H. R. Ueda, “Advanced CUBIC protocols for whole-brain and whole-body clearing and imaging,” Nat. Protoc. 10(11), 1709–1727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuron (2)

S. H. Kang, M. Fukaya, J. K. Yang, J. D. Rothstein, and D. E. Bergles, “NG2+ CNS glial progenitors remain committed to the oligodendrocyte lineage in postnatal life and following neurodegeneration,” Neuron 68(4), 668–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, “A miniature head-mounted two-photon microscope. high-resolution brain imaging in freely moving animals,” Neuron 31(6), 903–912 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, M. L. Akins, K. Murari, J. Xi, M.-J. Li, K. Luby-Phelps, M. Mahendroo, and X. Li, “A compact fiber-optic SHG scanning endomicroscope and its application to visualize cervical remodeling during pregnancy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(32), 12878–12883 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

K. J. Åström and T. Hägglund, PID Controllers: Theory, Design, and Tuning (Instrument Society of America, 1995).

Y. M. Lim, J. Lee, J. Park, B. Kim, J. O. Park, S. H. Kim, and Y. S. Hong, “A self-propelling endoscopic system,” IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems2, 1117–1122 (2001).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Hysteresis response of the SMA wire. (b) Susceptibility of the SMA wire to ambient temperature change.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Block diagram of the feedback loop. (b) Photo of a Hall effect sensor. (c) Photo of the MCU and circuitry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Functional illustration of the depth scanner. (b) Perspective view of the depth scanner without the outer housing. (c) Picture of the SMA depth scanner with the encased endomicroscope.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Hall effect sensor calibration curve

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of the 3D endomicroscopic imaging system. GP: Grating Pair; DM: Dichroic Mirror; BP: Band-pass Filter; SP: Short-pass Filter; PMT: Photomultiplier Tube; CL: Coupling Lens; DCF: Double-clad Fiber; FRS: Fiber-optic Resonant Scanner; EM: Endomicroscope.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Open-loop rapid operation of the SMA depth scanner. (b) Close-loop operation of the SMA depth scanner. (c) Stability of the SMA scanner in open/close-loop operations. (d) Perturbation test for close-loop operation of the SMA scanner.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Depth-resolved blood vessel in the CUBIC mouse brain. (b) Depth-resolved somata and processes of OPCs in the Pdgfra-creER; RCE:loxP brain. (c) Depth-resolved somata and processes (myelin sheath internodes of oligodendrocytes) in the MOBP-EGFP brain. OPC: oligodendrocyte precursor cell.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Key Parameters of the SMA Wire

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