Abstract

We developed a handheld optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) system using a 100-kHz swept-source laser. The handheld probe weighs 0.4 kg and measures 20.6 × 12.8 × 4.6 cm3. The system has dedicated features for handheld operation. The probe is equipped with a mini iris camera for easy alignment. Real-time display of the en face OCT and cross-sectional OCT images in the system allows accurately locating the imaging target. Fast automatic focusing was achieved by an electrically tunable lens controlled by a golden-section search algorithm. An extended axial imaging range of 6 mm allows easy alignment. A registration algorithm using cross-correlation to register adjacent OCT B-frames with propagation from the central frame was used to effectively minimize motion artifacts in volumetric OCTA images captured in relatively short durations of 1 and 2.1 seconds. 2.5 × 2.5 mm (200 × 200 pixels) and 3.5 × 3.5 mm (300 × 300 pixels) retinal angiograms were demonstrated on two awake adult human subjects without the use of any mydriatic eye drops.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Split-spectrum phase-gradient optical coherence tomography angiography

Gangjun Liu, Yali Jia, Alex D. Pechauer, Rahul Chandwani, and David Huang
Biomed. Opt. Express 7(8) 2943-2954 (2016)

Hematocrit dependence of flow signal in optical coherence tomography angiography

Jianlong Yang, Johnny Su, Jie Wang, Silu Men, Yali Jia, David Huang, and Gangjun Liu
Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2) 776-789 (2017)

Blood flow velocity quantification using split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography

Jason Tokayer, Yali Jia, Al-Hafeez Dhalla, and David Huang
Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10) 1909-1924 (2013)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. G. J. Jaffe and J. Caprioli, “Optical coherence tomography to detect and manage retinal disease and glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(1), 156–169 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. C. K. Leung, C. Y. Cheung, R. N. Weinreb, Q. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, L. Huang, C. P. Pang, and D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a variability and diagnostic performance study,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1257–1263, 1263.e1–1263.e2 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. G. Liu, A. J. Lin, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “A comparison of Doppler optical coherence tomography methods,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2669–2680 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int J Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. W. Scott, S. Farsiu, L. B. Enyedi, D. K. Wallace, and C. A. Toth, “Imaging the infant retina with a hand-held spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(2), 364–373.e2 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. Jung, J. Kim, M. Jeon, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(3), 741–744 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. I. Sayegh, R. M. Nolan, W. Jung, J. Kim, D. T. McCormick, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Comparison of a MEMS-based handheld OCT scanner with a commercial desktop OCT system for retinal evaluation,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 3(3), 10 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  15. C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 293–311 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Handheld simultaneous scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography system,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2307–2321 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “True color scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography handheld probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 3204–3216 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, T. DuBose, A. Cynthia Toth, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children using an ultracompact handheld probe,” Nat. Photonics 10(9), 580–584 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. G. Liu, Y. Jia, A. D. Pechauer, R. Chandwani, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum phase-gradient optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(8), 2943–2954 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, B. Lee, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. Cable, M. F. Kraus, K. Liang, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2931–2949 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. American National Standard Institute (ANSI). American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers (2000).
  22. J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optic tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. Kiefer, “Sequential minimax search for a maximum,” Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 4(3), 502–506 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  25. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (3rd ed.), New York: Cambridge University Press (2007).
  26. S. Ricco, M. Chen, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, and J. Schuman, “Correcting motion artifacts in retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography via image registration,” Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 12(Pt 1), 100–107 (2009).
    [PubMed]
  27. T. M. Jørgensen and B. Sander, “Contrast enhancement of retinal B-scans from OCT3/Stratus by image registration—clinical application,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642608 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman, and J. R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 156–158 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, S. S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Correction of motion artifacts and scanning beam distortions in 3D ophthalmic optical coherence tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642607 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  33. B. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, L. Tang, W. D. Ramdas, J. R. Vingerling, N. M. Jansonius, K. Lee, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3-D method for the correction of axial artifacts in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2403–2416 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal Imaging and Image analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images--a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “System and Methods for Image segmentation in N- dimensional space” US Patent 7,995,810.
  38. G. Liu, O. Tan, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Postprocessing algorithms to minimize fixed-pattern artifact and reduce trigger jitter in swept source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9824–9834 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1890–1908 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, T. DuBose, A. Cynthia Toth, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children using an ultracompact handheld probe,” Nat. Photonics 10(9), 580–584 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, Y. Jia, A. D. Pechauer, R. Chandwani, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum phase-gradient optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(8), 2943–2954 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

G. Liu, O. Tan, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Postprocessing algorithms to minimize fixed-pattern artifact and reduce trigger jitter in swept source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9824–9834 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int J Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. I. Sayegh, R. M. Nolan, W. Jung, J. Kim, D. T. McCormick, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Comparison of a MEMS-based handheld OCT scanner with a commercial desktop OCT system for retinal evaluation,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 3(3), 10 (2014).
[PubMed]

C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 293–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, B. Lee, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. Cable, M. F. Kraus, K. Liang, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2931–2949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “True color scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography handheld probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 3204–3216 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal Imaging and Image analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

S. Ricco, M. Chen, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, and J. Schuman, “Correcting motion artifacts in retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography via image registration,” Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 12(Pt 1), 100–107 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. W. Scott, S. Farsiu, L. B. Enyedi, D. K. Wallace, and C. A. Toth, “Imaging the infant retina with a hand-held spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(2), 364–373.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Leung, C. Y. Cheung, R. N. Weinreb, Q. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, L. Huang, C. P. Pang, and D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a variability and diagnostic performance study,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1257–1263, 1263.e1–1263.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman, and J. R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 156–158 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optic tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

T. M. Jørgensen and B. Sander, “Contrast enhancement of retinal B-scans from OCT3/Stratus by image registration—clinical application,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642608 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, S. S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Correction of motion artifacts and scanning beam distortions in 3D ophthalmic optical coherence tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642607 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images--a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

G. J. Jaffe and J. Caprioli, “Optical coherence tomography to detect and manage retinal disease and glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(1), 156–169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1953 (1)

J. Kiefer, “Sequential minimax search for a maximum,” Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 4(3), 502–506 (1953).
[Crossref]

Abramoff, M. D.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abràmoff, M. D.

Ahsen, O. O.

Aljasem, K.

K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optic tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
[Crossref]

Antony, B.

Bailey, S. T.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Bock, R.

Boppart, S. A.

S. I. Sayegh, R. M. Nolan, W. Jung, J. Kim, D. T. McCormick, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Comparison of a MEMS-based handheld OCT scanner with a commercial desktop OCT system for retinal evaluation,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 3(3), 10 (2014).
[PubMed]

W. Jung, J. Kim, M. Jeon, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(3), 741–744 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

Caprioli, J.

G. J. Jaffe and J. Caprioli, “Optical coherence tomography to detect and manage retinal disease and glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(1), 156–169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandwani, R.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, Y. Jia, A. D. Pechauer, R. Chandwani, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum phase-gradient optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(8), 2943–2954 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaney, E. J.

S. I. Sayegh, R. M. Nolan, W. Jung, J. Kim, D. T. McCormick, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Comparison of a MEMS-based handheld OCT scanner with a commercial desktop OCT system for retinal evaluation,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 3(3), 10 (2014).
[PubMed]

W. Jung, J. Kim, M. Jeon, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(3), 741–744 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D. Z.

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images--a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

S. Ricco, M. Chen, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, and J. Schuman, “Correcting motion artifacts in retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography via image registration,” Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 12(Pt 1), 100–107 (2009).
[PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cheung, C. Y.

C. K. Leung, C. Y. Cheung, R. N. Weinreb, Q. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, L. Huang, C. P. Pang, and D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a variability and diagnostic performance study,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1257–1263, 1263.e1–1263.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S. S.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, S. S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Correction of motion artifacts and scanning beam distortions in 3D ophthalmic optical coherence tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642607 (2007).
[Crossref]

Choi, W.

Cooney, M. J.

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cynthia Toth, A.

F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, T. DuBose, A. Cynthia Toth, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children using an ultracompact handheld probe,” Nat. Photonics 10(9), 580–584 (2016).
[Crossref]

Davis, E.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Carlo, T. E.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int J Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dongye, C.

DuBose, T.

F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, T. DuBose, A. Cynthia Toth, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children using an ultracompact handheld probe,” Nat. Photonics 10(9), 580–584 (2016).
[Crossref]

Duker, J. S.

Edmunds, B.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enyedi, L. B.

A. W. Scott, S. Farsiu, L. B. Enyedi, D. K. Wallace, and C. A. Toth, “Imaging the infant retina with a hand-held spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(2), 364–373.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, N.

C. K. Leung, C. Y. Cheung, R. N. Weinreb, Q. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, L. Huang, C. P. Pang, and D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a variability and diagnostic performance study,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1257–1263, 1263.e1–1263.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farsiu, S.

F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, T. DuBose, A. Cynthia Toth, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children using an ultracompact handheld probe,” Nat. Photonics 10(9), 580–584 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “True color scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography handheld probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 3204–3216 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Handheld simultaneous scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography system,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2307–2321 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. W. Scott, S. Farsiu, L. B. Enyedi, D. K. Wallace, and C. A. Toth, “Imaging the infant retina with a hand-held spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(2), 364–373.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fienup, J. R.

Flaxel, C. J.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. Liu, O. Tan, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Postprocessing algorithms to minimize fixed-pattern artifact and reduce trigger jitter in swept source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9824–9834 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, B. Lee, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. Cable, M. F. Kraus, K. Liang, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2931–2949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 293–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuller, A. R.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, S. S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Correction of motion artifacts and scanning beam distortions in 3D ophthalmic optical coherence tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642607 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gao, S. S.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, O. Tan, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Postprocessing algorithms to minimize fixed-pattern artifact and reduce trigger jitter in swept source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9824–9834 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garvin, M. K.

B. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, L. Tang, W. D. Ramdas, J. R. Vingerling, N. M. Jansonius, K. Lee, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3-D method for the correction of axial artifacts in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2403–2416 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal Imaging and Image analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gruber, A.

Grulkowski, I.

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

Hamann, B.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, S. S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Correction of motion artifacts and scanning beam distortions in 3D ophthalmic optical coherence tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642607 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hanson, S. R.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

G. Liu, Y. Jia, A. D. Pechauer, R. Chandwani, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum phase-gradient optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(8), 2943–2954 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, O. Tan, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Postprocessing algorithms to minimize fixed-pattern artifact and reduce trigger jitter in swept source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9824–9834 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, L.

C. K. Leung, C. Y. Cheung, R. N. Weinreb, Q. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, L. Huang, C. P. Pang, and D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a variability and diagnostic performance study,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1257–1263, 1263.e1–1263.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Hurst, S.

Hwang, T. S.

Ishibazawa, A.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

S. Ricco, M. Chen, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, and J. Schuman, “Correcting motion artifacts in retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography via image registration,” Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 12(Pt 1), 100–107 (2009).
[PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jacques, S. L.

Jaffe, G. J.

G. J. Jaffe and J. Caprioli, “Optical coherence tomography to detect and manage retinal disease and glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(1), 156–169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jansonius, N. M.

Jayaraman, V.

Jeon, M.

W. Jung, J. Kim, M. Jeon, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(3), 741–744 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, Y. Jia, A. D. Pechauer, R. Chandwani, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum phase-gradient optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(8), 2943–2954 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Jørgensen, T. M.

T. M. Jørgensen and B. Sander, “Contrast enhancement of retinal B-scans from OCT3/Stratus by image registration—clinical application,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642608 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jung, W.

S. I. Sayegh, R. M. Nolan, W. Jung, J. Kim, D. T. McCormick, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Comparison of a MEMS-based handheld OCT scanner with a commercial desktop OCT system for retinal evaluation,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 3(3), 10 (2014).
[PubMed]

W. Jung, J. Kim, M. Jeon, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(3), 741–744 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kampik, A.

Kardon, R.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiefer, J.

J. Kiefer, “Sequential minimax search for a maximum,” Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 4(3), 502–506 (1953).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

S. I. Sayegh, R. M. Nolan, W. Jung, J. Kim, D. T. McCormick, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Comparison of a MEMS-based handheld OCT scanner with a commercial desktop OCT system for retinal evaluation,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 3(3), 10 (2014).
[PubMed]

W. Jung, J. Kim, M. Jeon, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(3), 741–744 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klancnik, J. M.

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, M. L.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, T.

Kraus, M. F.

Kwon, Y. H.

Lam, D. S.

C. K. Leung, C. Y. Cheung, R. N. Weinreb, Q. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, L. Huang, C. P. Pang, and D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a variability and diagnostic performance study,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1257–1263, 1263.e1–1263.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

LaRocca, F.

Lee, B.

Lee, H.-C.

Lee, K.

Leung, C. K.

C. K. Leung, C. Y. Cheung, R. N. Weinreb, Q. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, L. Huang, C. P. Pang, and D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a variability and diagnostic performance study,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1257–1263, 1263.e1–1263.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D.

Li, H.

C. K. Leung, C. Y. Cheung, R. N. Weinreb, Q. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, L. Huang, C. P. Pang, and D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a variability and diagnostic performance study,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1257–1263, 1263.e1–1263.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, K.

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images--a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, K.

Lin, A. J.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, Y. Jia, A. D. Pechauer, R. Chandwani, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum phase-gradient optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(8), 2943–2954 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, O. Tan, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Postprocessing algorithms to minimize fixed-pattern artifact and reduce trigger jitter in swept source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9824–9834 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, A. J. Lin, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “A comparison of Doppler optical coherence tomography methods,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2669–2680 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

C. K. Leung, C. Y. Cheung, R. N. Weinreb, Q. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, L. Huang, C. P. Pang, and D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a variability and diagnostic performance study,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1257–1263, 1263.e1–1263.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lombardi, L.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C. D.

Ma, Z.

Mayer, M. A.

McCormick, D. T.

S. I. Sayegh, R. M. Nolan, W. Jung, J. Kim, D. T. McCormick, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Comparison of a MEMS-based handheld OCT scanner with a commercial desktop OCT system for retinal evaluation,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 3(3), 10 (2014).
[PubMed]

Morrison, J. C.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagaoka, T.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nankivil, D.

Neubauer, A.

Nolan, R. M.

S. I. Sayegh, R. M. Nolan, W. Jung, J. Kim, D. T. McCormick, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Comparison of a MEMS-based handheld OCT scanner with a commercial desktop OCT system for retinal evaluation,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 3(3), 10 (2014).
[PubMed]

Omae, T.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pang, C. P.

C. K. Leung, C. Y. Cheung, R. N. Weinreb, Q. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, L. Huang, C. P. Pang, and D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a variability and diagnostic performance study,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1257–1263, 1263.e1–1263.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pechauer, A. D.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, Y. Jia, A. D. Pechauer, R. Chandwani, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum phase-gradient optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(8), 2943–2954 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, O. Tan, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Postprocessing algorithms to minimize fixed-pattern artifact and reduce trigger jitter in swept source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9824–9834 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 293–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, B. Lee, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. Cable, M. F. Kraus, K. Liang, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2931–2949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, Q.

C. K. Leung, C. Y. Cheung, R. N. Weinreb, Q. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, L. Huang, C. P. Pang, and D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a variability and diagnostic performance study,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1257–1263, 1263.e1–1263.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramdas, W. D.

Reznicek, L.

Ricco, S.

S. Ricco, M. Chen, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, and J. Schuman, “Correcting motion artifacts in retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography via image registration,” Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 12(Pt 1), 100–107 (2009).
[PubMed]

Romano, A.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int J Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, S. R.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sander, B.

T. M. Jørgensen and B. Sander, “Contrast enhancement of retinal B-scans from OCT3/Stratus by image registration—clinical application,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642608 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sayegh, S. I.

S. I. Sayegh, R. M. Nolan, W. Jung, J. Kim, D. T. McCormick, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Comparison of a MEMS-based handheld OCT scanner with a commercial desktop OCT system for retinal evaluation,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 3(3), 10 (2014).
[PubMed]

Schuman, J.

S. Ricco, M. Chen, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, and J. Schuman, “Correcting motion artifacts in retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography via image registration,” Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 12(Pt 1), 100–107 (2009).
[PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scott, A. W.

A. W. Scott, S. Farsiu, L. B. Enyedi, D. K. Wallace, and C. A. Toth, “Imaging the infant retina with a hand-held spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(2), 364–373.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seifert, A.

K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optic tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sogawa, K.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonka, M.

B. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, L. Tang, W. D. Ramdas, J. R. Vingerling, N. M. Jansonius, K. Lee, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3-D method for the correction of axial artifacts in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2403–2416 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal Imaging and Image analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images--a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spaide, R. F.

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stewart, C. N.

S. I. Sayegh, R. M. Nolan, W. Jung, J. Kim, D. T. McCormick, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Comparison of a MEMS-based handheld OCT scanner with a commercial desktop OCT system for retinal evaluation,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 3(3), 10 (2014).
[PubMed]

W. Jung, J. Kim, M. Jeon, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(3), 741–744 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J. P.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, A.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takusagawa, H. L.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

G. Liu, O. Tan, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Postprocessing algorithms to minimize fixed-pattern artifact and reduce trigger jitter in swept source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9824–9834 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, L.

Tang, M.

J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tani, T.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thurman, S. T.

Toth, C. A.

A. W. Scott, S. Farsiu, L. B. Enyedi, D. K. Wallace, and C. A. Toth, “Imaging the infant retina with a hand-held spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(2), 364–373.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

Vingerling, J. R.

Waheed, N. K.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int J Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallace, D. K.

A. W. Scott, S. Farsiu, L. B. Enyedi, D. K. Wallace, and C. A. Toth, “Imaging the infant retina with a hand-held spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(2), 364–373.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Wang, Z.

Weinreb, R. N.

C. K. Leung, C. Y. Cheung, R. N. Weinreb, Q. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, L. Huang, C. P. Pang, and D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a variability and diagnostic performance study,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1257–1263, 1263.e1–1263.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werber, A.

K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optic tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
[Crossref]

Werner, J. S.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, S. S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Correction of motion artifacts and scanning beam distortions in 3D ophthalmic optical coherence tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642607 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wieser, W.

Wiley, D. F.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, S. S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Correction of motion artifacts and scanning beam distortions in 3D ophthalmic optical coherence tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642607 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wilson, D. J.

P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wollstein, G.

S. Ricco, M. Chen, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, and J. Schuman, “Correcting motion artifacts in retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography via image registration,” Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 12(Pt 1), 100–107 (2009).
[PubMed]

Wu, X.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images--a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, G.

C. K. Leung, C. Y. Cheung, R. N. Weinreb, Q. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, L. Huang, C. P. Pang, and D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a variability and diagnostic performance study,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1257–1263, 1263.e1–1263.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokota, H.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshida, A.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zang, P.

Zappe, H.

K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optic tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zawadzki, R. J.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, S. S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Correction of motion artifacts and scanning beam distortions in 3D ophthalmic optical coherence tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642607 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (3)

G. J. Jaffe and J. Caprioli, “Optical coherence tomography to detect and manage retinal disease and glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(1), 156–169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. W. Scott, S. Farsiu, L. B. Enyedi, D. K. Wallace, and C. A. Toth, “Imaging the infant retina with a hand-held spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(2), 364–373.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (11)

G. Liu, Y. Jia, A. D. Pechauer, R. Chandwani, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum phase-gradient optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(8), 2943–2954 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, B. Lee, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. Cable, M. F. Kraus, K. Liang, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2931–2949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 293–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Handheld simultaneous scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography system,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2307–2321 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “True color scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography handheld probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 3204–3216 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, A. J. Lin, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “A comparison of Doppler optical coherence tomography methods,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2669–2680 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zang, G. Liu, M. Zhang, C. Dongye, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated motion correction using parallel-strip registration for wide-field en face OCT angiogram,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2823–2836 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, L. Tang, W. D. Ramdas, J. R. Vingerling, N. M. Jansonius, K. Lee, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3-D method for the correction of axial artifacts in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2403–2416 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1890–1908 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. D. Abràmoff, M. K. Garvin, and M. Sonka, “Retinal Imaging and Image analysis,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 3, 169–208 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

W. Jung, J. Kim, M. Jeon, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(3), 741–744 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images--a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int J Retina Vitreous (1)

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int J Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

K. Aljasem, A. Werber, A. Seifert, and H. Zappe, “Fiber optic tunable probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044012 (2008).
[Crossref]

JAMA Ophthalmol. (2)

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv (1)

S. Ricco, M. Chen, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, and J. Schuman, “Correcting motion artifacts in retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography via image registration,” Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 12(Pt 1), 100–107 (2009).
[PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, T. DuBose, A. Cynthia Toth, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children using an ultracompact handheld probe,” Nat. Photonics 10(9), 580–584 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmology (2)

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Leung, C. Y. Cheung, R. N. Weinreb, Q. Qiu, S. Liu, H. Li, G. Xu, N. Fan, L. Huang, C. P. Pang, and D. S. Lam, “Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a variability and diagnostic performance study,” Ophthalmology 116(7), 1257–1263, 1263.e1–1263.e2 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Am. Math. Soc. (1)

J. Kiefer, “Sequential minimax search for a maximum,” Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 4(3), 502–506 (1953).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, S. S. Choi, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Correction of motion artifacts and scanning beam distortions in 3D ophthalmic optical coherence tomography imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642607 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. M. Jørgensen and B. Sander, “Contrast enhancement of retinal B-scans from OCT3/Stratus by image registration—clinical application,” Proc. SPIE 6426, 642608 (2007).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. I. Sayegh, R. M. Nolan, W. Jung, J. Kim, D. T. McCormick, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Comparison of a MEMS-based handheld OCT scanner with a commercial desktop OCT system for retinal evaluation,” Transl. Vis. Sci. Technol. 3(3), 10 (2014).
[PubMed]

Other (3)

American National Standard Institute (ANSI). American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers (2000).

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “System and Methods for Image segmentation in N- dimensional space” US Patent 7,995,810.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (3rd ed.), New York: Cambridge University Press (2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The configuration of the 1050-nm swept-source OCT system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of the handheld OCTA probe. (b) 3-dimensional (3D) perspective view of the probe including all the optical components and the designed plastic case for mounting and holding. (c) Photograph of the handheld OCTA probe with 3D-printed enclosure.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The photograph shows the imaging a volunteer with the handheld OCTA system. The iris camera image is used for initial alignment for find the pupil. After that, summed-voxel projection OCT and the cross-sectional OCT images are used to guide the operation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The golden section search algorithm for automatic focus tuning. z 1 and z 2 are the two initial boundaries of the search region. Two extra intensities ( I( z 3 ) and I( z 4 ) ) at the golden ratio distance from the initial boundaries are then calculated based on the intensities at the two boundaries. The search region is narrowed down by comparing I( z 2 )  and I( z 4 ) . The boundaries of the search region are updated according to the values at z 3 and z 4 . The values of z 3 and z 4 are then the replaced by the values of z 3 and z 4 accordingly. This process is repeated until the difference between I( z 2 )  and I( z 4 ) is smaller than a pre-defined threshold.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Iteration numbers required in the automatic focus tuning process. The black dash-line was from theoretical simulation based on the golden section search algorithm, and the red dots were the measured results from two experiments. The maximum and majority of the iteration numbers is 21.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The processing flowchart for generating en face retinal OCTA. A propagation-based OCT image registration algorithm was used to correct the motion artifact as shown in the red box. Registration between adjacent images was propagated from the reference image to all the rest images. The motion corrected image volume was segmented with a 3D graph search segmentation software. En face retina OCTA was generated based on the segmentation results.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 3D rendering of retina OCT image set before (a) (c) and after (b) (d) image registration. The results of one x-fast scan (a) (b) and one y-fast scan (c) (d) are employed for comparison. (e), (f), (g) and (h) are OCTA volumes corresponding to (a), (b), (c) and (d).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Comparison of the two orthogonal cross-sectional slices (red and green lines in a) extracted from the registered and unregistered 3D rendering volumes. The gray image is the OCT B-scan reflectance and the overlaid red color represents the OCTA. (a) The 3D rendering result for the registered volume. (b-d) The cross-sectional images along the y direction (red line location in a) extracted from the unregistered x-fast volume, the registered x-fast volume, and the registered y-fast volume. (e-f) The cross-sectional images along the x direction (green line location in a) extracted from the registered y-fast volume, the registered y-fast volume, and the registered x-fast volume.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Demonstration of the axial imaging range before and after the frequency doubling of the k-clock. The gray image is the OCT B-scan intensity and the overlaid red color represents the OCTA.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 En face retina OCTA around the fovea (a) and ONH (b) from a healthy eye by using the scan protocol 2.5 × 2.5 mm2 (200 × 200 data points).
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 En face OCTA around the fovea (a) and the ONH (b) from a health eye by using the scan protocol 3.5 × 3.5 mm2 (300 × 300 data points).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

z 3 = z 1 +0.618( z 2 z 1 ),
z 4 = z 2 +0.618( z 1 z 2 ).

Metrics