Abstract

Quantification of airway compliance can aid in the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive airway disorders by detecting regions vulnerable to collapse. Here we evaluate the ability of a swept-source anatomic optical coherence tomography (SSaOCT) system to quantify airway cross-sectional compliance (CC) by measuring changes in the luminal cross-sectional area (CSA) under physiologically relevant pressures of 10–40 cmH2O. The accuracy and precision of CC measurements are determined using simulations of non-uniform rotation distortion (NURD) endemic to endoscopic scanning, and experiments performed in a simplified tube phantom and ex vivo porcine tracheas. NURD simulations show that CC measurements are typically more accurate than that of the CSAs from which they are derived. Phantom measurements of CSA versus pressure exhibit high linearity (R2>0.99), validating the dynamic range of the SSaOCT system. Tracheas also exhibited high linearity (R2 = 0.98) suggestive of linear elasticity, while CC measurements were obtained with typically ± 12% standard error.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

G. K. Sharma, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, J. Jing, Z. Chen, B. J.-F. Wong, and S. Verma, “Quantitative Evaluation of Adult Subglottic Stenosis Using Intraoperative Long-range Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 125(10), 815–822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Bu, H. Price, S. Mitran, C. Zdanski, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Swept-source anatomic optical coherence elastography of porcine trachea,” Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 9689, 968923 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Strohl, J. P. Butler, and A. Malhotra, “Mechanical properties of the upper airway,” Compr. Physiol. 2(3), 1853–1872 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (2)

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Persak, S. Sin, J. M. McDonough, R. Arens, and D. M. Wootton, “Noninvasive estimation of pharyngeal airway resistance and compliance in children based on volume-gated dynamic MRI and computational fluid dynamics,” J. Appl. Physiol. 111(6), 1819–1827 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

D. J. Brenner and E. J. Hall, “Computed tomography--an increasing source of radiation exposure,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(22), 2277–2284 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

S. D. Murgu and H. G. Colt, “Tracheobronchomalacia and excessive dynamic airway collapse,” Respirology 11(4), 388–406 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. W. Bollen, G. T. J. van Well, T. Sherry, R. J. Beale, S. Shah, G. Findlay, M. Monchi, J.-D. Chiche, N. Weiler, C. S. Uiterwaal, and A. J. van Vught, “High frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional mechanical ventilation in adult respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN24242669],” Crit. Care 9(4), R430–R439 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

2002 (2)

T. Young, P. E. Peppard, and D. J. Gottlieb, “Epidemiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: a population health perspective,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165(9), 1217–1239 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Rowley, C. S. Sanders, B. R. Zahn, and M. S. Badr, “Gender differences in upper airway compliance during NREM sleep: role of neck circumference,” J. Appl. Physiol. 92(6), 2535–2541 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1991 (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. C. Gleadhill, A. R. Schwartz, N. Schubert, R. A. Wise, S. Permutt, and P. L. Smith, “Upper airway collapsibility in snorers and in patients with obstructive hypopnea and apnea,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 143(6), 1300–1303 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

S. T. Kuna, D. G. Bedi, and C. Ryckman, “Effect of Nasal Airway Positive Pressure on Upper Airway Size and Configuration,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 138(4), 969–975 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

S. P. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, “Theory of elasticity,” Eng. Soc. Monogr. 7, 806 (1970).

1969 (1)

J. Mead, “Contribution of compliance of airways to frequency-dependent behavior of lungs,” J. Appl. Physiol. 26(5), 670–673 (1969).
[PubMed]

Aguirre, A. D.

Alexandrov, S.

Arens, R.

S. C. Persak, S. Sin, J. M. McDonough, R. Arens, and D. M. Wootton, “Noninvasive estimation of pharyngeal airway resistance and compliance in children based on volume-gated dynamic MRI and computational fluid dynamics,” J. Appl. Physiol. 111(6), 1819–1827 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, N. K. Rubin, M. E. Carroll, A. I. Pack, J. Liu, and J. K. Udupa, “Upper airway size analysis by magnetic resonance imaging of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(1), 65–70 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J.

Armstrong, J. J.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badr, M. S.

J. A. Rowley, C. S. Sanders, B. R. Zahn, and M. S. Badr, “Gender differences in upper airway compliance during NREM sleep: role of neck circumference,” J. Appl. Physiol. 92(6), 2535–2541 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, V. A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beale, R. J.

C. W. Bollen, G. T. J. van Well, T. Sherry, R. J. Beale, S. Shah, G. Findlay, M. Monchi, J.-D. Chiche, N. Weiler, C. S. Uiterwaal, and A. J. van Vught, “High frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional mechanical ventilation in adult respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN24242669],” Crit. Care 9(4), R430–R439 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bedi, D. G.

S. T. Kuna, D. G. Bedi, and C. Ryckman, “Effect of Nasal Airway Positive Pressure on Upper Airway Size and Configuration,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 138(4), 969–975 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bollen, C. W.

C. W. Bollen, G. T. J. van Well, T. Sherry, R. J. Beale, S. Shah, G. Findlay, M. Monchi, J.-D. Chiche, N. Weiler, C. S. Uiterwaal, and A. J. van Vught, “High frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional mechanical ventilation in adult respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN24242669],” Crit. Care 9(4), R430–R439 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Brenner, D. J.

D. J. Brenner and E. J. Hall, “Computed tomography--an increasing source of radiation exposure,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(22), 2277–2284 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bu, R.

R. Bu, H. Price, S. Mitran, C. Zdanski, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Swept-source anatomic optical coherence elastography of porcine trachea,” Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 9689, 968923 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butler, J. P.

K. P. Strohl, J. P. Butler, and A. Malhotra, “Mechanical properties of the upper airway,” Compr. Physiol. 2(3), 1853–1872 (2012).
[PubMed]

Carroll, M. E.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, N. K. Rubin, M. E. Carroll, A. I. Pack, J. Liu, and J. K. Udupa, “Upper airway size analysis by magnetic resonance imaging of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(1), 65–70 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

G. K. Sharma, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, J. Jing, Z. Chen, B. J.-F. Wong, and S. Verma, “Quantitative Evaluation of Adult Subglottic Stenosis Using Intraoperative Long-range Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 125(10), 815–822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiche, J.-D.

C. W. Bollen, G. T. J. van Well, T. Sherry, R. J. Beale, S. Shah, G. Findlay, M. Monchi, J.-D. Chiche, N. Weiler, C. S. Uiterwaal, and A. J. van Vught, “High frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional mechanical ventilation in adult respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN24242669],” Crit. Care 9(4), R430–R439 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin Loy, A.

G. K. Sharma, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, J. Jing, Z. Chen, B. J.-F. Wong, and S. Verma, “Quantitative Evaluation of Adult Subglottic Stenosis Using Intraoperative Long-range Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 125(10), 815–822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choma, M.

Cisonni, J.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colt, H. G.

S. D. Murgu and H. G. Colt, “Tracheobronchomalacia and excessive dynamic airway collapse,” Respirology 11(4), 388–406 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corbin, A. M.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, N. K. Rubin, M. E. Carroll, A. I. Pack, J. Liu, and J. K. Udupa, “Upper airway size analysis by magnetic resonance imaging of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(1), 65–70 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curatolo, A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lau, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, D. K. Gerstmann, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging true 3D endoscopic anatomy by incorporating magnetic tracking with optical coherence tomography: proof-of-principle for airways,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27173–27180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eastwood, P.

Eastwood, P. R.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elliott, N. S. J.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Findlay, G.

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
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Hsiung, P.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Ikeno, F.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
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Izatt, J.

James, A. L.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
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Jang, I.-K.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
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Jing, J.

G. K. Sharma, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, J. Jing, Z. Chen, B. J.-F. Wong, and S. Verma, “Quantitative Evaluation of Adult Subglottic Stenosis Using Intraoperative Long-range Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 125(10), 815–822 (2016).
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J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110507 (2012).
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Kimbell, J.

King, A. J. C.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
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Kirk, R. W.

Kuna, S. T.

S. T. Kuna, D. G. Bedi, and C. Ryckman, “Effect of Nasal Airway Positive Pressure on Upper Airway Size and Configuration,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 138(4), 969–975 (1988).
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Lau, B.

Lau, G. T.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
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Leigh, M.

Leigh, M. S.

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
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J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, N. K. Rubin, M. E. Carroll, A. I. Pack, J. Liu, and J. K. Udupa, “Upper airway size analysis by magnetic resonance imaging of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(1), 65–70 (2003).
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J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110507 (2012).
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J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
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Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
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Maddison, K. J.

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
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S. C. Persak, S. Sin, J. M. McDonough, R. Arens, and D. M. Wootton, “Noninvasive estimation of pharyngeal airway resistance and compliance in children based on volume-gated dynamic MRI and computational fluid dynamics,” J. Appl. Physiol. 111(6), 1819–1827 (2011).
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R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, N. K. Rubin, M. E. Carroll, A. I. Pack, J. Liu, and J. K. Udupa, “Upper airway size analysis by magnetic resonance imaging of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(1), 65–70 (2003).
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J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lau, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, D. K. Gerstmann, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging true 3D endoscopic anatomy by incorporating magnetic tracking with optical coherence tomography: proof-of-principle for airways,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27173–27180 (2010).
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J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
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Oldenburg, A. L.

R. Bu, H. Price, S. Mitran, C. Zdanski, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Swept-source anatomic optical coherence elastography of porcine trachea,” Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 9689, 968923 (2016).
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K. Wijesundara, C. Zdanski, J. Kimbell, H. Price, N. Iftimia, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Quantitative upper airway endoscopy with swept-source anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(3), 788–799 (2014).
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R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, N. K. Rubin, M. E. Carroll, A. I. Pack, J. Liu, and J. K. Udupa, “Upper airway size analysis by magnetic resonance imaging of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(1), 65–70 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paduch, A.

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peppard, P. E.

T. Young, P. E. Peppard, and D. J. Gottlieb, “Epidemiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: a population health perspective,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165(9), 1217–1239 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Permutt, S.

I. C. Gleadhill, A. R. Schwartz, N. Schubert, R. A. Wise, S. Permutt, and P. L. Smith, “Upper airway collapsibility in snorers and in patients with obstructive hypopnea and apnea,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 143(6), 1300–1303 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Persak, S. C.

S. C. Persak, S. Sin, J. M. McDonough, R. Arens, and D. M. Wootton, “Noninvasive estimation of pharyngeal airway resistance and compliance in children based on volume-gated dynamic MRI and computational fluid dynamics,” J. Appl. Physiol. 111(6), 1819–1827 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petersen, C.

Philippe, D. L.

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Price, H.

R. Bu, H. Price, S. Mitran, C. Zdanski, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Swept-source anatomic optical coherence elastography of porcine trachea,” Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 9689, 968923 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wijesundara, C. Zdanski, J. Kimbell, H. Price, N. Iftimia, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Quantitative upper airway endoscopy with swept-source anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(3), 788–799 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regli, A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. A. Rowley, C. S. Sanders, B. R. Zahn, and M. S. Badr, “Gender differences in upper airway compliance during NREM sleep: role of neck circumference,” J. Appl. Physiol. 92(6), 2535–2541 (2002).
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Rubin, N. K.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, N. K. Rubin, M. E. Carroll, A. I. Pack, J. Liu, and J. K. Udupa, “Upper airway size analysis by magnetic resonance imaging of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(1), 65–70 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryckman, C.

S. T. Kuna, D. G. Bedi, and C. Ryckman, “Effect of Nasal Airway Positive Pressure on Upper Airway Size and Configuration,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 138(4), 969–975 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sampson, D.

Sampson, D. D.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lau, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, D. K. Gerstmann, and D. D. Sampson, “Imaging true 3D endoscopic anatomy by incorporating magnetic tracking with optical coherence tomography: proof-of-principle for airways,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27173–27180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanders, C. S.

J. A. Rowley, C. S. Sanders, B. R. Zahn, and M. S. Badr, “Gender differences in upper airway compliance during NREM sleep: role of neck circumference,” J. Appl. Physiol. 92(6), 2535–2541 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M.

Schmitt, J.

Schneider, K.

Schubert, N.

I. C. Gleadhill, A. R. Schwartz, N. Schubert, R. A. Wise, S. Permutt, and P. L. Smith, “Upper airway collapsibility in snorers and in patients with obstructive hypopnea and apnea,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 143(6), 1300–1303 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, A. R.

I. C. Gleadhill, A. R. Schwartz, N. Schubert, R. A. Wise, S. Permutt, and P. L. Smith, “Upper airway collapsibility in snorers and in patients with obstructive hypopnea and apnea,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 143(6), 1300–1303 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwer, S.

Shah, S.

C. W. Bollen, G. T. J. van Well, T. Sherry, R. J. Beale, S. Shah, G. Findlay, M. Monchi, J.-D. Chiche, N. Weiler, C. S. Uiterwaal, and A. J. van Vught, “High frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional mechanical ventilation in adult respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN24242669],” Crit. Care 9(4), R430–R439 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, G. K.

G. K. Sharma, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, J. Jing, Z. Chen, B. J.-F. Wong, and S. Verma, “Quantitative Evaluation of Adult Subglottic Stenosis Using Intraoperative Long-range Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 125(10), 815–822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shepherd, K. L.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sherry, T.

C. W. Bollen, G. T. J. van Well, T. Sherry, R. J. Beale, S. Shah, G. Findlay, M. Monchi, J.-D. Chiche, N. Weiler, C. S. Uiterwaal, and A. J. van Vught, “High frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional mechanical ventilation in adult respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN24242669],” Crit. Care 9(4), R430–R439 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sin, S.

S. C. Persak, S. Sin, J. M. McDonough, R. Arens, and D. M. Wootton, “Noninvasive estimation of pharyngeal airway resistance and compliance in children based on volume-gated dynamic MRI and computational fluid dynamics,” J. Appl. Physiol. 111(6), 1819–1827 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, P. L.

I. C. Gleadhill, A. R. Schwartz, N. Schubert, R. A. Wise, S. Permutt, and P. L. Smith, “Upper airway collapsibility in snorers and in patients with obstructive hypopnea and apnea,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 143(6), 1300–1303 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strohl, K. P.

K. P. Strohl, J. P. Butler, and A. Malhotra, “Mechanical properties of the upper airway,” Compr. Physiol. 2(3), 1853–1872 (2012).
[PubMed]

Su, E.

G. K. Sharma, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, J. Jing, Z. Chen, B. J.-F. Wong, and S. Verma, “Quantitative Evaluation of Adult Subglottic Stenosis Using Intraoperative Long-range Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 125(10), 815–822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suzuki, Y.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Timoshenko, S. P.

S. P. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, “Theory of elasticity,” Eng. Soc. Monogr. 7, 806 (1970).

Udupa, J. K.

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, N. K. Rubin, M. E. Carroll, A. I. Pack, J. Liu, and J. K. Udupa, “Upper airway size analysis by magnetic resonance imaging of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(1), 65–70 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uiterwaal, C. S.

C. W. Bollen, G. T. J. van Well, T. Sherry, R. J. Beale, S. Shah, G. Findlay, M. Monchi, J.-D. Chiche, N. Weiler, C. S. Uiterwaal, and A. J. van Vught, “High frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional mechanical ventilation in adult respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN24242669],” Crit. Care 9(4), R430–R439 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uribe-Patarroyo, N.

van Vught, A. J.

C. W. Bollen, G. T. J. van Well, T. Sherry, R. J. Beale, S. Shah, G. Findlay, M. Monchi, J.-D. Chiche, N. Weiler, C. S. Uiterwaal, and A. J. van Vught, “High frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional mechanical ventilation in adult respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN24242669],” Crit. Care 9(4), R430–R439 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Well, G. T. J.

C. W. Bollen, G. T. J. van Well, T. Sherry, R. J. Beale, S. Shah, G. Findlay, M. Monchi, J.-D. Chiche, N. Weiler, C. S. Uiterwaal, and A. J. van Vught, “High frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional mechanical ventilation in adult respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN24242669],” Crit. Care 9(4), R430–R439 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verma, S.

G. K. Sharma, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, J. Jing, Z. Chen, B. J.-F. Wong, and S. Verma, “Quantitative Evaluation of Adult Subglottic Stenosis Using Intraoperative Long-range Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 125(10), 815–822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. H.

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walton, I.

Weiler, N.

C. W. Bollen, G. T. J. van Well, T. Sherry, R. J. Beale, S. Shah, G. Findlay, M. Monchi, J.-D. Chiche, N. Weiler, C. S. Uiterwaal, and A. J. van Vught, “High frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional mechanical ventilation in adult respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN24242669],” Crit. Care 9(4), R430–R439 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wijesundara, K.

Williamson, J. P.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wise, R. A.

I. C. Gleadhill, A. R. Schwartz, N. Schubert, R. A. Wise, S. Permutt, and P. L. Smith, “Upper airway collapsibility in snorers and in patients with obstructive hypopnea and apnea,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 143(6), 1300–1303 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, B. J. F.

J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, B. J.-F.

G. K. Sharma, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, J. Jing, Z. Chen, B. J.-F. Wong, and S. Verma, “Quantitative Evaluation of Adult Subglottic Stenosis Using Intraoperative Long-range Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 125(10), 815–822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wootton, D. M.

S. C. Persak, S. Sin, J. M. McDonough, R. Arens, and D. M. Wootton, “Noninvasive estimation of pharyngeal airway resistance and compliance in children based on volume-gated dynamic MRI and computational fluid dynamics,” J. Appl. Physiol. 111(6), 1819–1827 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yeung, A. C.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoneyama, R.

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, T.

T. Young, P. E. Peppard, and D. J. Gottlieb, “Epidemiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: a population health perspective,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165(9), 1217–1239 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zahn, B. R.

J. A. Rowley, C. S. Sanders, B. R. Zahn, and M. S. Badr, “Gender differences in upper airway compliance during NREM sleep: role of neck circumference,” J. Appl. Physiol. 92(6), 2535–2541 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zdanski, C.

R. Bu, H. Price, S. Mitran, C. Zdanski, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Swept-source anatomic optical coherence elastography of porcine trachea,” Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 9689, 968923 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wijesundara, C. Zdanski, J. Kimbell, H. Price, N. Iftimia, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Quantitative upper airway endoscopy with swept-source anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(3), 788–799 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zvyagin, A.

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (4)

T. Young, P. E. Peppard, and D. J. Gottlieb, “Epidemiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: a population health perspective,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165(9), 1217–1239 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Arens, J. M. McDonough, A. M. Corbin, N. K. Rubin, M. E. Carroll, A. I. Pack, J. Liu, and J. K. Udupa, “Upper airway size analysis by magnetic resonance imaging of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(1), 65–70 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. (2)

I. C. Gleadhill, A. R. Schwartz, N. Schubert, R. A. Wise, S. Permutt, and P. L. Smith, “Upper airway collapsibility in snorers and in patients with obstructive hypopnea and apnea,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 143(6), 1300–1303 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Kuna, D. G. Bedi, and C. Ryckman, “Effect of Nasal Airway Positive Pressure on Upper Airway Size and Configuration,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 138(4), 969–975 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. (1)

G. K. Sharma, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, J. Jing, Z. Chen, B. J.-F. Wong, and S. Verma, “Quantitative Evaluation of Adult Subglottic Stenosis Using Intraoperative Long-range Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 125(10), 815–822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Compr. Physiol. (1)

K. P. Strohl, J. P. Butler, and A. Malhotra, “Mechanical properties of the upper airway,” Compr. Physiol. 2(3), 1853–1872 (2012).
[PubMed]

Crit. Care (1)

C. W. Bollen, G. T. J. van Well, T. Sherry, R. J. Beale, S. Shah, G. Findlay, M. Monchi, J.-D. Chiche, N. Weiler, C. S. Uiterwaal, and A. J. van Vught, “High frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional mechanical ventilation in adult respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN24242669],” Crit. Care 9(4), R430–R439 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eng. Soc. Monogr. (1)

S. P. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, “Theory of elasticity,” Eng. Soc. Monogr. 7, 806 (1970).

J. Appl. Physiol. (3)

J. Mead, “Contribution of compliance of airways to frequency-dependent behavior of lungs,” J. Appl. Physiol. 26(5), 670–673 (1969).
[PubMed]

J. A. Rowley, C. S. Sanders, B. R. Zahn, and M. S. Badr, “Gender differences in upper airway compliance during NREM sleep: role of neck circumference,” J. Appl. Physiol. 92(6), 2535–2541 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Persak, S. Sin, J. M. McDonough, R. Arens, and D. M. Wootton, “Noninvasive estimation of pharyngeal airway resistance and compliance in children based on volume-gated dynamic MRI and computational fluid dynamics,” J. Appl. Physiol. 111(6), 1819–1827 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomech. (1)

J. Cisonni, A. D. Lucey, J. H. Walsh, A. J. C. King, N. S. J. Elliott, D. D. Sampson, P. R. Eastwood, and D. R. Hillman, “Effect of the velopharynx on intraluminal pressures in reconstructed pharynges derived from individuals with and without sleep apnea,” J. Biomech. 46(14), 2504–2512 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. Jing, J. Zhang, A. C. Loy, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “High-speed upper-airway imaging using full-range optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sleep Res. (1)

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea,” J. Sleep Res. 17(2), 230–238 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

D. J. Brenner and E. J. Hall, “Computed tomography--an increasing source of radiation exposure,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357(22), 2277–2284 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng (1)

R. Bu, H. Price, S. Mitran, C. Zdanski, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Swept-source anatomic optical coherence elastography of porcine trachea,” Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 9689, 968923 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Respirology (1)

S. D. Murgu and H. G. Colt, “Tracheobronchomalacia and excessive dynamic airway collapse,” Respirology 11(4), 388–406 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

Y. Kawase, Y. Suzuki, F. Ikeno, R. Yoneyama, K. Hoshino, H. Q. Ly, G. T. Lau, M. Hayase, A. C. Yeung, R. J. Hajjar, and I.-K. Jang, “Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33(1), 67–73 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Cambridge University Engineering Department, Materials Data Book (Cambridge, 2003).

J. B. Lisauskas and M. Siebes, “Investigation of plaque biomechanics from intravascular ultrasound images using finite element modeling,” in IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 1997), Vol. 2, pp. 887–888.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the aOCT system for upper airway endoscopy, and ball lens fiber-optic catheter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of the compliance measurement setup with the SSaOCT system and ventilator for phantom experiments. The ventilator is connected to the system to provide positive inspiratory pressure into the tube phantom, and the pressure value is recorded by the digitizer. The helical scan of the catheter inside the tube is enlarged to show the detailed pattern.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Notched tube 3D model and its corresponding aOCT 3D reconstruction. (a) 3D model of the notched tube; (b) aOCT 3D reconstruction from different perspectives; (c) and (d) plot of luminal surfaces comparing the aOCT data (red) with the surface from the design drawing (blue); in (d), NURD is apparent as a mis-alignment of the aOCT notches.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

NURD simulation model. (a) Two-step function of rotation rate with average rotation rate ω0 (the rotation rate given by the scanner), slow and fast rotation rates ωs and ωf; respectively, and degree of distortion κ indicating the fraction of the sweep at ωs; (b) Geometry of catheter position (offset of l0 from the center of the circular lumen with radius a), and catheter sweep angle (initiating a rotation rate of ωs at angle θ0 relative to the offset); as the rotation waveform is assumed to be periodic, there are analytical relationships between these parameters.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

NURD simulations showing reconstructed circular cross-section geometries at p = 30cmH2O and corresponding CSA and CC error ( δ CSA , δ CC ) measurements; in each case, one parameter is varied while the rest remain constant. For each parameter, the comparisons of geometries with and without NURD ( A 0 , A NURD ) are shown for three conditions corresponding to the positions indicated on the plots of CSA and CC errors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

aOCT imaging and compliance measurement of a tube phantom. (a) Cross-section deformation under different pressures at a single axial position; (b) Linear regression analysis used to determine CC at positions 1, 2 and 3; (c) CSA change under different pressures across the entire aOCT scan, with indication of positions 1, 2 and 3; (d) Corresponding CC with error bars determined from the regression analysis standard error.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

aOCT imaging and compliance measurement of one of the ex vivo porcine tracheas. (a) Representative 2D slices under different applied pressures; (b) Comparison of 3D aOCT reconstructions at 0 cmH2O and 40 cmH2O; (c) Plots of CSA under different pressures versus distance; (d) Corresponding CC versus distance with standard error as the error bar.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Compliance results from porcine trachea ex vivo experiment

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ r = A r 2 +B, σ θ = A r 2 +B, σ z =B,
A= a 2 b 2 ( p o p i ) b 2 a 2 , B= p i a 2 p o b 2 b 2 a 2 .
ε θ = 1 E ( σ θ ν( σ r + σ z ) ).
ε θ = u r + v rθ .
Δa=a( ε θ ( r=a, p i = p o +Δp ) ε θ ( r=a, p i = p o ) )
Δa=aΔpx, x= 1 E b 2 ( 1+ν )+ a 2 ( 12ν ) ( b 2 a 2 ) .
CSA=π ( a+Δa ) 2 =π a 2 ( 1+Δpx ) 2 ,
CC= CSA ( Δp ) =2π a 2 ( x+Δp x 2 )2π a 2 x.

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