Abstract

Histological studies have shown that morphometric changes at the microscopic level of choriocapillaris (CC) occur with aging and disease onset, and therefore may be sensitive biomarkers of outer retinal health. However, visualizing CC at this level in the living human eye is challenging because its microvascular is tightly interconnected and weakly reflecting. In this study, we address these challenges by developing and validating a method based on adaptive optics optical coherence tomography with angiography (AO-OCTA) that provides the necessary 3D resolution and image contrast to visualize and quantify these microscopic details. The complex network of anastomotic CC capillaries was successfully imaged in nine healthy subjects (26 to 68 years of age) and at seven retinal eccentricities across the macula. Using these images, four fundamental morphometric parameters of CC were characterized: retinal pigment epithelium-to-CC depth separation (17.5 ± 2.1 µm), capillary diameter (17.4 ± 2.3 µm), normalized capillary density (0.53 ± 0.08), and capillary length per unit area (50.4 ± 9.5 mm−1). AO-OCTA results were consistent with histologic studies and, unlike OCTA, showed clear delineation of CC capillaries, a requirement for measuring three of the four morphometric parameters. Success in younger and older eyes establishes a path for testing aging and disease effects in larger populations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative morphometry of choriocapillaris at the level of individual capillaries in the living human retina.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (6)

Z. Liu, O. P. Kocaoglu, and D. T. Miller, “3D Imaging of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in the Living Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 533–543 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, S. Chan, J. Y. Yang, B. You, Y. X. Wang, J. B. Jonas, and W. B. Wei, “Vascular Density in Retina and Choriocapillaris as Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 168, 95–109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Alten, P. Heiduschka, C. R. Clemens, and N. Eter, “Exploring choriocapillaris under reticular pseudodrusen using OCT-Angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(11), 2165–2173 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Gorczynska, J. V. Migacz, R. J. Zawadzki, A. G. Capps, and J. S. Werner, “Comparison of amplitude-decorrelation, speckle-variance and phase-variance OCT angiography methods for imaging the human retina and choroid,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 911–942 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, K. Kurokawa, Y.-J. Hong, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Noise-immune complex correlation for optical coherence angiography based on standard and Jones matrix optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(4), 1525–1548 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, K. Kurokawa, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Photoreceptor disc shedding in the living human eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(11), 4554–4568 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

Z. Liu, O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, and D. T. Miller, “Modal content of living human cone photoreceptors,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3378–3404 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

B. A. Shafer, J. E. Kriske, O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, Z. Liu, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography processing using a graphics processing unit,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2014, 3877–3880 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. Biesemeier, T. Taubitz, S. Julien, E. Yoeruek, and U. Schraermeyer, “Choriocapillaris breakdown precedes retinal degeneration in age-related macular degeneration,” Neurobiol. Aging 35(11), 2562–2573 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, I. Jahan, and Y. Yasuno, “Noise statistics of phase-resolved optical coherence tomography imaging: single-and dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4830–4848 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, R. D. Ferguson, R. S. Jonnal, Z. Liu, Q. Wang, D. X. Hammer, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography with dynamic retinal tracking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2262–2284 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, Z. Liu, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 1 MHz,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4186–4200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

B. Braaf, K. V. Vienola, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, K. A. Vermeer, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time eye motion correction in phase-resolved OCT angiography with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(1), 51–65 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, O. P. Kocaoglu, and D. T. Miller, “In-the-plane design of an off-axis ophthalmic adaptive optics system using toroidal mirrors,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(12), 3007–3029 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), 81499 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (6)

M. L. Gabriele, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, L. Kagemann, J. Xu, L. S. Folio, and J. S. Schuman, “Optical Coherence Tomography: History, Current Status, and Laboratory Work,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2425–2436 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, J. D. Messinger, K. R. Sloan, A. Mitra, G. McGwin, and R. F. Spaide, “Human chorioretinal layer thicknesses measured in macula-wide, high-resolution histologic sections,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 3943–3954 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, S. Lee, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, A. E. Herde, J. C. Derby, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging cone photoreceptors in three dimensions and in time using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 748–763 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. An, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “Using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography to achieve comprehensive depth resolved microvasculature mapping for human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106013 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Statistical Properties of Phase-Decorrelation in Phase-Resolved Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography,” Med. Imaging, IEEE 28(6), 814–821 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

M. Mujat, B. H. Park, B. Cense, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Autocalibration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography spectrometers for in vivo quantitative retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041205 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

C. W. Spraul, G. E. Lang, G. K. G. E. Lang, and H. E. Grossniklaus, “Morphometric changes of the choriocapillaris and the choroidal vasculature in eyes with advanced glaucomatous changes,” Vision Res. 42(7), 923–932 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. J. Moore and G. M. Clover, “The Effect of Age on the Macromolecular Permeability of Human Bruch’s Membrane,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(12), 2970–2975 (2001).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

C. W. Spraul, G. E. Lang, H. E. Grossniklaus, and G. K. Lang, “Histologic and Morphometric Analysis of the Choroid, BrM and RPE in Postmortem Eyes With AMD and Histologic Examination of Surgically Excised CNV Membranes,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 44, 10–32 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

A. F. Frangi, W. J. Niessen, K. L. Vincken, and M. A. Viergever, “Multiscale vessel enhancement filtering,” Medial Image Comput. Comput. Invervention - MICCAI’98. Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1496(1496), 130–137 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Steger, “An unbiased detector of curvilinear structures,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20(2), 113–125 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

C. W. Spraul, G. E. Lang, and H. E. Grossniklaus, “Morphometric analysis of the choroid, Bruch’s membrane, and retinal pigment epithelium in eyes with age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37(13), 2724–2735 (1996).
[PubMed]

1994 (3)

R. S. Ramrattan, T. L. van der Schaft, C. M. Mooy, W. C. de Bruijn, P. G. H. Mulder, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Morphometric analysis of Bruch’s membrane, the choriocapillaris, and the choroid in aging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(6), 2857–2864 (1994).
[PubMed]

D. S. McLeod and G. A. Lutty, “High-resolution histologic analysis of the human choroidal vasculature,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(11), 3799–3811 (1994).
[PubMed]

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, “Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232(6), 361–367 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. Moreira, “Improved multilook techniques applied to SAR and SCANSAR imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 29(4), 529–534 (1991).
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1990 (1)

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1963 (1)

E. Friedman, T. R. Smith, and T. Kuwabara, “Senile choroidal vascular patterns and drusen,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 69(2), 220–230 (1963).
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F. Alten, P. Heiduschka, C. R. Clemens, and N. Eter, “Exploring choriocapillaris under reticular pseudodrusen using OCT-Angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(11), 2165–2173 (2016).
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A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, “Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232(6), 361–367 (1994).
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Choi, W.

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F. Alten, P. Heiduschka, C. R. Clemens, and N. Eter, “Exploring choriocapillaris under reticular pseudodrusen using OCT-Angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(11), 2165–2173 (2016).
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de Boer, J. F.

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J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27(2), 145–152 (1986).
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Duker, J. S.

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), 81499 (2013).
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A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, and D. F. Edgar, “Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 232(6), 361–367 (1994).
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Eter, N.

F. Alten, P. Heiduschka, C. R. Clemens, and N. Eter, “Exploring choriocapillaris under reticular pseudodrusen using OCT-Angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(11), 2165–2173 (2016).
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Fingler, J.

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D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
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Fitch, K. A.

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27(2), 145–152 (1986).
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Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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M. L. Gabriele, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, L. Kagemann, J. Xu, L. S. Folio, and J. S. Schuman, “Optical Coherence Tomography: History, Current Status, and Laboratory Work,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2425–2436 (2011).
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Fraser, S.

Fraser, S. E.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
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D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
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Friedman, E.

E. Friedman, T. R. Smith, and T. Kuwabara, “Senile choroidal vascular patterns and drusen,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 69(2), 220–230 (1963).
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Fujimoto, J. G.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), 81499 (2013).
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Gabriele, M. L.

M. L. Gabriele, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, L. Kagemann, J. Xu, L. S. Folio, and J. S. Schuman, “Optical Coherence Tomography: History, Current Status, and Laboratory Work,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2425–2436 (2011).
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Gao, S. S.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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Gao, W.

Gorczynska, I.

Grajciar, B.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
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Grossniklaus, H. E.

C. W. Spraul, G. E. Lang, G. K. G. E. Lang, and H. E. Grossniklaus, “Morphometric changes of the choriocapillaris and the choroidal vasculature in eyes with advanced glaucomatous changes,” Vision Res. 42(7), 923–932 (2002).
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C. W. Spraul, G. E. Lang, H. E. Grossniklaus, and G. K. Lang, “Histologic and Morphometric Analysis of the Choroid, BrM and RPE in Postmortem Eyes With AMD and Histologic Examination of Surgically Excised CNV Membranes,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 44, 10–32 (1999).
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C. W. Spraul, G. E. Lang, and H. E. Grossniklaus, “Morphometric analysis of the choroid, Bruch’s membrane, and retinal pigment epithelium in eyes with age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37(13), 2724–2735 (1996).
[PubMed]

Grulkowski, I.

Hammer, D. X.

Heiduschka, P.

F. Alten, P. Heiduschka, C. R. Clemens, and N. Eter, “Exploring choriocapillaris under reticular pseudodrusen using OCT-Angiography,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 254(11), 2165–2173 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herde, A. E.

Hong, Y.-J.

Hornegger, J.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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Huang, D.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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Huber, R.

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), 81499 (2013).
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C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
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Hwang, T. S.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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Ishikawa, H.

M. L. Gabriele, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, L. Kagemann, J. Xu, L. S. Folio, and J. S. Schuman, “Optical Coherence Tomography: History, Current Status, and Laboratory Work,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2425–2436 (2011).
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Jahan, I.

Jaillon, F.

Jayaraman, V.

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), 81499 (2013).
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Jia, Y.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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Jonas, J. B.

Q. Wang, S. Chan, J. Y. Yang, B. You, Y. X. Wang, J. B. Jonas, and W. B. Wei, “Vascular Density in Retina and Choriocapillaris as Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 168, 95–109 (2016).
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Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R. S.

Julien, S.

A. Biesemeier, T. Taubitz, S. Julien, E. Yoeruek, and U. Schraermeyer, “Choriocapillaris breakdown precedes retinal degeneration in age-related macular degeneration,” Neurobiol. Aging 35(11), 2562–2573 (2014).
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Kagemann, L.

M. L. Gabriele, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, L. Kagemann, J. Xu, L. S. Folio, and J. S. Schuman, “Optical Coherence Tomography: History, Current Status, and Laboratory Work,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2425–2436 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, T.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
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Kocaoglu, O. P.

O. P. Kocaoglu, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, K. Kurokawa, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Photoreceptor disc shedding in the living human eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(11), 4554–4568 (2016).
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Z. Liu, O. P. Kocaoglu, and D. T. Miller, “3D Imaging of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in the Living Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 533–543 (2016).
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Z. Liu, O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, and D. T. Miller, “Modal content of living human cone photoreceptors,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3378–3404 (2015).
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O. P. Kocaoglu, R. D. Ferguson, R. S. Jonnal, Z. Liu, Q. Wang, D. X. Hammer, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography with dynamic retinal tracking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2262–2284 (2014).
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O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, Z. Liu, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 1 MHz,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4186–4200 (2014).
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B. A. Shafer, J. E. Kriske, O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, Z. Liu, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography processing using a graphics processing unit,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2014, 3877–3880 (2014).
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Z. Liu, O. P. Kocaoglu, and D. T. Miller, “In-the-plane design of an off-axis ophthalmic adaptive optics system using toroidal mirrors,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(12), 3007–3029 (2013).
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R. S. Jonnal, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, S. Lee, and D. T. Miller, “Phase-sensitive imaging of the outer retina using optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(1), 104–124 (2012).
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O. P. Kocaoglu, S. Lee, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, A. E. Herde, J. C. Derby, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging cone photoreceptors in three dimensions and in time using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 748–763 (2011).
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Kowalczyk, A.

Kriske, J. E.

B. A. Shafer, J. E. Kriske, O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, Z. Liu, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography processing using a graphics processing unit,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2014, 3877–3880 (2014).
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Kurokawa, K.

Kuwabara, T.

E. Friedman, T. R. Smith, and T. Kuwabara, “Senile choroidal vascular patterns and drusen,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 69(2), 220–230 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lang, G. E.

C. W. Spraul, G. E. Lang, G. K. G. E. Lang, and H. E. Grossniklaus, “Morphometric changes of the choriocapillaris and the choroidal vasculature in eyes with advanced glaucomatous changes,” Vision Res. 42(7), 923–932 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Spraul, G. E. Lang, H. E. Grossniklaus, and G. K. Lang, “Histologic and Morphometric Analysis of the Choroid, BrM and RPE in Postmortem Eyes With AMD and Histologic Examination of Surgically Excised CNV Membranes,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 44, 10–32 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. W. Spraul, G. E. Lang, and H. E. Grossniklaus, “Morphometric analysis of the choroid, Bruch’s membrane, and retinal pigment epithelium in eyes with age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37(13), 2724–2735 (1996).
[PubMed]

Lang, G. K.

C. W. Spraul, G. E. Lang, H. E. Grossniklaus, and G. K. Lang, “Histologic and Morphometric Analysis of the Choroid, BrM and RPE in Postmortem Eyes With AMD and Histologic Examination of Surgically Excised CNV Membranes,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 44, 10–32 (1999).
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Lang, G. K. G. E.

C. W. Spraul, G. E. Lang, G. K. G. E. Lang, and H. E. Grossniklaus, “Morphometric changes of the choriocapillaris and the choroidal vasculature in eyes with advanced glaucomatous changes,” Vision Res. 42(7), 923–932 (2002).
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Lauer, A. K.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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Lee, J. J.

B. A. Shafer, J. E. Kriske, O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, Z. Liu, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography processing using a graphics processing unit,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2014, 3877–3880 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lee, S.

Leitgeb, R. A.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
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Liu, J. J.

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), 81499 (2013).
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Liu, Z.

Lu, C. D.

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), 81499 (2013).
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Miller, D. T.

O. P. Kocaoglu, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, K. Kurokawa, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Photoreceptor disc shedding in the living human eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(11), 4554–4568 (2016).
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Z. Liu, O. P. Kocaoglu, and D. T. Miller, “3D Imaging of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in the Living Human Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 533–543 (2016).
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Z. Liu, O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, and D. T. Miller, “Modal content of living human cone photoreceptors,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3378–3404 (2015).
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O. P. Kocaoglu, R. D. Ferguson, R. S. Jonnal, Z. Liu, Q. Wang, D. X. Hammer, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography with dynamic retinal tracking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2262–2284 (2014).
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O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, Z. Liu, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 1 MHz,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4186–4200 (2014).
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[PubMed]

Z. Liu, O. P. Kocaoglu, and D. T. Miller, “In-the-plane design of an off-axis ophthalmic adaptive optics system using toroidal mirrors,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(12), 3007–3029 (2013).
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R. S. Jonnal, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, S. Lee, and D. T. Miller, “Phase-sensitive imaging of the outer retina using optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(1), 104–124 (2012).
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O. P. Kocaoglu, S. Lee, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, A. E. Herde, J. C. Derby, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging cone photoreceptors in three dimensions and in time using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 748–763 (2011).
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B. Cense, W. Gao, J. M. Brown, S. M. Jones, R. S. Jonnal, M. Mujat, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, and D. T. Miller, “Retinal imaging with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21634–21651 (2009).
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R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
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M. L. Gabriele, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, L. Kagemann, J. Xu, L. S. Folio, and J. S. Schuman, “Optical Coherence Tomography: History, Current Status, and Laboratory Work,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2425–2436 (2011).
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D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
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B. A. Shafer, J. E. Kriske, O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, Z. Liu, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography processing using a graphics processing unit,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2014, 3877–3880 (2014).
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C. A. Curcio, J. D. Messinger, K. R. Sloan, A. Mitra, G. McGwin, and R. F. Spaide, “Human chorioretinal layer thicknesses measured in macula-wide, high-resolution histologic sections,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 3943–3954 (2011).
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C. A. Curcio, J. D. Messinger, K. R. Sloan, A. Mitra, G. McGwin, and R. F. Spaide, “Human chorioretinal layer thicknesses measured in macula-wide, high-resolution histologic sections,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 3943–3954 (2011).
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Z. Liu, O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, and D. T. Miller, “Modal content of living human cone photoreceptors,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3378–3404 (2015).
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O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, Z. Liu, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 1 MHz,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4186–4200 (2014).
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B. A. Shafer, J. E. Kriske, O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, Z. Liu, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography processing using a graphics processing unit,” Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2014, 3877–3880 (2014).
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L. An, T. T. Shen, and R. K. Wang, “Using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography to achieve comprehensive depth resolved microvasculature mapping for human retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106013 (2011).
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Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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Xu, J.

M. L. Gabriele, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, L. Kagemann, J. Xu, L. S. Folio, and J. S. Schuman, “Optical Coherence Tomography: History, Current Status, and Laboratory Work,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(5), 2425–2436 (2011).
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Q. Wang, S. Chan, J. Y. Yang, B. You, Y. X. Wang, J. B. Jonas, and W. B. Wei, “Vascular Density in Retina and Choriocapillaris as Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 168, 95–109 (2016).
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Yang, Q.

Yasuno, Y.

Yoeruek, E.

A. Biesemeier, T. Taubitz, S. Julien, E. Yoeruek, and U. Schraermeyer, “Choriocapillaris breakdown precedes retinal degeneration in age-related macular degeneration,” Neurobiol. Aging 35(11), 2562–2573 (2014).
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Yoneya, S.

S. Yoneya and M. O. Tso, “Angioarchitecture of the human choroid,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105(5), 681–687 (1987).
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You, B.

Q. Wang, S. Chan, J. Y. Yang, B. You, Y. X. Wang, J. B. Jonas, and W. B. Wei, “Vascular Density in Retina and Choriocapillaris as Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 168, 95–109 (2016).
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Yun, S.-H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, Y.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

Q. Wang, S. Chan, J. Y. Yang, B. You, Y. X. Wang, J. B. Jonas, and W. B. Wei, “Vascular Density in Retina and Choriocapillaris as Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 168, 95–109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

E. Friedman, T. R. Smith, and T. Kuwabara, “Senile choroidal vascular patterns and drusen,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 69(2), 220–230 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yoneya and M. O. Tso, “Angioarchitecture of the human choroid,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105(5), 681–687 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (12)

R. Motaghiannezam and S. Fraser, “Logarithmic intensity and speckle-based motion contrast methods for human retinal vasculature visualization using swept source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(3), 503–521 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. V. Vienola, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, K. A. Vermeer, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time eye motion correction in phase-resolved OCT angiography with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(1), 51–65 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, S. Lee, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, A. E. Herde, J. C. Derby, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging cone photoreceptors in three dimensions and in time using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 748–763 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, and D. T. Miller, “Modal content of living human cone photoreceptors,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3378–3404 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, S. Lee, and D. T. Miller, “Phase-sensitive imaging of the outer retina using optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(1), 104–124 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, R. D. Ferguson, R. S. Jonnal, Z. Liu, Q. Wang, D. X. Hammer, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography with dynamic retinal tracking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2262–2284 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, Z. Liu, F. Zhang, K. Kurokawa, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Photoreceptor disc shedding in the living human eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(11), 4554–4568 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, K. Kurokawa, Y.-J. Hong, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Noise-immune complex correlation for optical coherence angiography based on standard and Jones matrix optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(4), 1525–1548 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, O. P. Kocaoglu, and D. T. Miller, “In-the-plane design of an off-axis ophthalmic adaptive optics system using toroidal mirrors,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(12), 3007–3029 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, Z. Liu, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 1 MHz,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4186–4200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (10690 KB)      Visualization 1
» Visualization 2: AVI (3604 KB)      Visualization 2

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flowchart of post-processing steps for reconstructing intensity and angiographic volumes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of intensity and angiographic maps of the wide-field collage constructed from AO-OCT volumes of the retina and choroid of subject G. (a) Wide-field SLO image from Heidelberg Spectralis denotes location of 4° × 2° AO-OCT collage, (b) The superposition of AO-OCT (in grey) and AO-OCTA (in red) B-scan projections indicate depth location of each band. En face images of intensity (left) and angiography (right) are shown extracted from the AO-OCT volume at (c) ONL-HFL interface, (d) IS/OS + COST, (e) CC, (f) 20 μm below CC, and (g) 30 μm below CC. Visualization 1 shows an en face side-by-side fly-through of the AO-OCT and AO-OCTA volumes with projected B-scans to mark depth location.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A representative histologic section of CC at posterior pole of adult human [5] is shown for comparison and scaled to AO-OCTA en face images in Fig. 2. (b) Binary image is generated from CC angiographic image in Fig. 2(e) and used to determine normalized capillary density and capillary length per area. (c) Greyscale and circumferential average of two-dimensional power spectrum of CC angiographic image in Fig. 2(e).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Perspective view highlights the choriocapillaris bed as extracted from the wide-field AO-OCTA collage of subject G. Corresponding video (Visualization 2) shows fly-through of the AO-OCTA volume and the continuum of vasculature connections between CC and Sattler’s layer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

RPE-to-CC depth separation. (a) Representative AO-OCT intensity (gray scale) and AO-OCTA (red scale) B-scan projections and averaged A-scan profiles are shown superimposed. Volumes were acquired 3° temporal to the fovea of Subject G. (b) RPE-to-CC depth separation for the nine subjects is plotted against age with error bars denoting the standard deviation of measurements across retinal eccentricity. Red line is the linear regression fit.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

En face AO-OCTA images of CC layer for all subjects and retinal eccentricities imaged. Both (a) angiographic and (b) corresponding binary images are shown with subjects ordered by age.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Capillary diameter and (b) normalized capillary density as a function of age. Error bars denote the standard deviation of measurements across retinal eccentricities. Red lines are the linear regression fits. For comparison in (a), the gray background indicates the capillary diameter range reported in the histologic study of Olver et al. [40]. For comparison in (b), the blue line indicates the linear fit reported in the histologic study by Ramrattan et al. [1].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Average capillary length per en face area of CC as a function of age. Error bars denote standard deviation of measurements across retinal eccentricities. Red line is the linear regression fit.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Maximum SNR in the volume and CC layer are plotted as a function of age. Error bar denotes the standard deviation across retinal eccentricities. (b) The en face AO-OCT images (first row) and binary images (second row) of Subject A at 6° retinal eccentricity at different SNR. (c) The normalized capillary density of all subjects at 6° retinal eccentricity is plotted as a function of SNR. Black solid line is a 3rd-order polynomial fit to the subject data.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Subject information.

Equations (5)

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ρ f ( x,z )= | C f ( x,z ) | S f ( x,z ) S f+1 ( x,z ) ,
Δ φ bulk,f ( x )=arg( z C f ( x,z ) ),
ρ f ¯ ( x,z )= | C f ( x,z ) e ( iΔ φ bulk,f ( x ) ) | S f ( x,z ) S f+1 ( x,z ) .
ρ bulk,f ( x )= ρ f ¯ ( x, argmax z | C f ( x,z ) | ).
ρ f ' ( x,z )= m | C f ( x,z ) e ( iΔ φ bulk,f ( x ) ) ρ bulk,f,m 1 ( x ) | m ε f,m ( x,z ) S f,m ( x,z ) S f+1,m ( x,z ) ,

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