Abstract

Photoacoustic (PA) spectral analysis (PASA) is a recently developed approach for quantifying molecular components and microscopic architectures in tissue. The PASA relies on signals with sufficient temporal length and narrow dynamic range for statistics based analysis. However, the optical and acoustic attenuation within the biological tissue make it difficult to acquire desirable signals from deep locations in biological tissue for PASA. This study proposes an interstitial PASA approach. By combining a fiber optics diffuser and a small aperture needle hydrophone, a fine needle PA probe facilitates PASA in deep tissue. A prototype probe has been fabricated and tested in quantifying the prostate cancer cell concentrations in vitro and lipid infiltrated hepatocyte in liver ex vivo. Experiment results show that the needle probe could potentially provide pathologic information of the tissues.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. N. E. Fleshner, M. O’Sullivan, and W. R. Fair, “Prevalence and predictors of a positive repeat transrectal ultrasound guided needle biopsy of the prostate,” J. Urol. 158(2), 505–508 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. F. Rabbani, N. Stroumbakis, B. R. Kava, M. S. Cookson, and W. R. Fair, “Incidence and clinical significance of false-negative sextant prostate biopsies,” J. Urol. 159(4), 1247–1250 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. A. V. Taira, G. S. Merrick, R. W. Galbreath, H. Andreini, W. Taubenslag, R. Curtis, W. M. Butler, E. Adamovich, and K. E. Wallner, “Performance of transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy in detecting prostate cancer in the initial and repeat biopsy setting,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 13(1), 71–77 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. A. Regev, M. Berho, L. J. Jeffers, C. Milikowski, E. G. Molina, N. T. Pyrsopoulos, Z.-Z. Feng, K. R. Reddy, and E. R. Schiff, “Sampling error and intraobserver variation in liver biopsy in patients with chronic HCV infection,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(10), 2614–2618 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

G. Xu, Z. X. Meng, J. D. Lin, C. X. Deng, P. L. Carson, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “High resolution physio-chemical tissue analysis: towards non-invasive in vivo biopsy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 16937 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

G. Xu, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: analytical model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 41(5), 1473–1480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Mitcham, K. Dextraze, H. Taghavi, M. Melancon, and R. Bouchard, “Photoacoustic imaging driven by an interstitial irradiation source,” Photoacoustics 3(2), 45–54 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, H. Chen, F. Zhou, H. Li, and W. R. Chen, “Interstitial photoacoustic sensor for the measurement of tissue temperature during interstitial laser phototherapy,” Sensors (Basel) 15(3), 5583–5593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, M. C. Davis, J. Siddiqui, S. A. Tomlins, S. Huang, L. P. Kunju, J. T. Wei, and X. Wang, “Quantifying Gleason scores with photoacoustic spectral analysis: feasibility study with human tissues,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4781–4789 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

P. V. Chitnis, J. Mamou, and E. J. Feleppa, “Spectrum analysis of photoacoustic signals for characterizing lymph nodes,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135(4), 2372 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. A. Lediju Bell, N. P. Kuo, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “In vivo visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds with photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(12), 126011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, Z.-X. Meng, J. D. Lin, J. Yuan, P. L. Carson, B. Joshi, and X. Wang, “The functional pitch of an organ: quantification of tissue texture with photoacoustic spectrum analysis,” Radiology 271(1), 248–254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

D. Piras, C. Grijsen, P. Schütte, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Photoacoustic needle: minimally invasive guidance to biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

E. Hysi, R. K. Saha, and M. C. Kolios, “Photoacoustic ultrasound spectroscopy for assessing red blood cell aggregation and oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, I. A. Dar, C. Tao, X. Liu, C. X. Deng, and X. Wang, “Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: A feasibility study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

A. Ray, X. Wang, Y.-E. K. Lee, H. J. Hah, G. Kim, T. Chen, D. A. Orringer, O. Sagher, X. Liu, and R. Kopelman, “Targeted blue nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agent for brain tumor delineation,” Nano Res. 4(11), 1163–1173 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

A. V. Taira, G. S. Merrick, R. W. Galbreath, H. Andreini, W. Taubenslag, R. Curtis, W. M. Butler, E. Adamovich, and K. E. Wallner, “Performance of transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy in detecting prostate cancer in the initial and repeat biopsy setting,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 13(1), 71–77 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-K. Yao, K. Maslov, K. K. Shung, Q. Zhou, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo label-free photoacoustic microscopy of cell nuclei by excitation of DNA and RNA,” Opt. Lett. 35(24), 4139–4141 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

R. George and L. J. Walsh, “Performance assessment of novel side firing flexible optical fibers for dental applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(3), 214–221 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Regev, M. Berho, L. J. Jeffers, C. Milikowski, E. G. Molina, N. T. Pyrsopoulos, Z.-Z. Feng, K. R. Reddy, and E. R. Schiff, “Sampling error and intraobserver variation in liver biopsy in patients with chronic HCV infection,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(10), 2614–2618 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Zisman, D. Leibovici, J. Kleinmann, Y. I. Siegel, and A. Lindner, “The impact of prostate biopsy on patient well-being: a prospective study of pain, anxiety and erectile dysfunction,” J. Urol. 165(2), 445–454 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

F. Rabbani, N. Stroumbakis, B. R. Kava, M. S. Cookson, and W. R. Fair, “Incidence and clinical significance of false-negative sextant prostate biopsies,” J. Urol. 159(4), 1247–1250 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

N. E. Fleshner, M. O’Sullivan, and W. R. Fair, “Prevalence and predictors of a positive repeat transrectal ultrasound guided needle biopsy of the prostate,” J. Urol. 158(2), 505–508 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

L. Buscarini, F. Fornari, L. Bolondi, P. Colombo, T. Livraghi, F. Magnolfi, G. L. Rapaccini, and A. Salmi, “Ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy of focal liver lesions: techniques, diagnostic accuracy and complications. A retrospective study on 2091 biopsies,” J. Hepatol. 11(3), 344–348 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

L. A. Harris, “Element directivity in ultrasonic imaging systems,” IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. 22(5), 336–339 (1975).
[Crossref]

Adamovich, E.

A. V. Taira, G. S. Merrick, R. W. Galbreath, H. Andreini, W. Taubenslag, R. Curtis, W. M. Butler, E. Adamovich, and K. E. Wallner, “Performance of transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy in detecting prostate cancer in the initial and repeat biopsy setting,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 13(1), 71–77 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreini, H.

A. V. Taira, G. S. Merrick, R. W. Galbreath, H. Andreini, W. Taubenslag, R. Curtis, W. M. Butler, E. Adamovich, and K. E. Wallner, “Performance of transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy in detecting prostate cancer in the initial and repeat biopsy setting,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 13(1), 71–77 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berho, M.

A. Regev, M. Berho, L. J. Jeffers, C. Milikowski, E. G. Molina, N. T. Pyrsopoulos, Z.-Z. Feng, K. R. Reddy, and E. R. Schiff, “Sampling error and intraobserver variation in liver biopsy in patients with chronic HCV infection,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(10), 2614–2618 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boctor, E. M.

M. A. Lediju Bell, N. P. Kuo, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “In vivo visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds with photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(12), 126011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolondi, L.

L. Buscarini, F. Fornari, L. Bolondi, P. Colombo, T. Livraghi, F. Magnolfi, G. L. Rapaccini, and A. Salmi, “Ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy of focal liver lesions: techniques, diagnostic accuracy and complications. A retrospective study on 2091 biopsies,” J. Hepatol. 11(3), 344–348 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouchard, R.

T. Mitcham, K. Dextraze, H. Taghavi, M. Melancon, and R. Bouchard, “Photoacoustic imaging driven by an interstitial irradiation source,” Photoacoustics 3(2), 45–54 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buscarini, L.

L. Buscarini, F. Fornari, L. Bolondi, P. Colombo, T. Livraghi, F. Magnolfi, G. L. Rapaccini, and A. Salmi, “Ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy of focal liver lesions: techniques, diagnostic accuracy and complications. A retrospective study on 2091 biopsies,” J. Hepatol. 11(3), 344–348 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butler, W. M.

A. V. Taira, G. S. Merrick, R. W. Galbreath, H. Andreini, W. Taubenslag, R. Curtis, W. M. Butler, E. Adamovich, and K. E. Wallner, “Performance of transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy in detecting prostate cancer in the initial and repeat biopsy setting,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 13(1), 71–77 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carson, P. L.

G. Xu, Z. X. Meng, J. D. Lin, C. X. Deng, P. L. Carson, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “High resolution physio-chemical tissue analysis: towards non-invasive in vivo biopsy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 16937 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, Z.-X. Meng, J. D. Lin, J. Yuan, P. L. Carson, B. Joshi, and X. Wang, “The functional pitch of an organ: quantification of tissue texture with photoacoustic spectrum analysis,” Radiology 271(1), 248–254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

Z. Li, H. Chen, F. Zhou, H. Li, and W. R. Chen, “Interstitial photoacoustic sensor for the measurement of tissue temperature during interstitial laser phototherapy,” Sensors (Basel) 15(3), 5583–5593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

A. Ray, X. Wang, Y.-E. K. Lee, H. J. Hah, G. Kim, T. Chen, D. A. Orringer, O. Sagher, X. Liu, and R. Kopelman, “Targeted blue nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agent for brain tumor delineation,” Nano Res. 4(11), 1163–1173 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. R.

Z. Li, H. Chen, F. Zhou, H. Li, and W. R. Chen, “Interstitial photoacoustic sensor for the measurement of tissue temperature during interstitial laser phototherapy,” Sensors (Basel) 15(3), 5583–5593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chitnis, P. V.

P. V. Chitnis, J. Mamou, and E. J. Feleppa, “Spectrum analysis of photoacoustic signals for characterizing lymph nodes,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135(4), 2372 (2014).
[Crossref]

Colombo, P.

L. Buscarini, F. Fornari, L. Bolondi, P. Colombo, T. Livraghi, F. Magnolfi, G. L. Rapaccini, and A. Salmi, “Ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy of focal liver lesions: techniques, diagnostic accuracy and complications. A retrospective study on 2091 biopsies,” J. Hepatol. 11(3), 344–348 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cookson, M. S.

F. Rabbani, N. Stroumbakis, B. R. Kava, M. S. Cookson, and W. R. Fair, “Incidence and clinical significance of false-negative sextant prostate biopsies,” J. Urol. 159(4), 1247–1250 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curtis, R.

A. V. Taira, G. S. Merrick, R. W. Galbreath, H. Andreini, W. Taubenslag, R. Curtis, W. M. Butler, E. Adamovich, and K. E. Wallner, “Performance of transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy in detecting prostate cancer in the initial and repeat biopsy setting,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 13(1), 71–77 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dar, I. A.

G. Xu, I. A. Dar, C. Tao, X. Liu, C. X. Deng, and X. Wang, “Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: A feasibility study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, M. C.

Deng, C. X.

G. Xu, Z. X. Meng, J. D. Lin, C. X. Deng, P. L. Carson, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “High resolution physio-chemical tissue analysis: towards non-invasive in vivo biopsy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 16937 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, I. A. Dar, C. Tao, X. Liu, C. X. Deng, and X. Wang, “Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: A feasibility study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dextraze, K.

T. Mitcham, K. Dextraze, H. Taghavi, M. Melancon, and R. Bouchard, “Photoacoustic imaging driven by an interstitial irradiation source,” Photoacoustics 3(2), 45–54 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fair, W. R.

F. Rabbani, N. Stroumbakis, B. R. Kava, M. S. Cookson, and W. R. Fair, “Incidence and clinical significance of false-negative sextant prostate biopsies,” J. Urol. 159(4), 1247–1250 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. E. Fleshner, M. O’Sullivan, and W. R. Fair, “Prevalence and predictors of a positive repeat transrectal ultrasound guided needle biopsy of the prostate,” J. Urol. 158(2), 505–508 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feleppa, E. J.

P. V. Chitnis, J. Mamou, and E. J. Feleppa, “Spectrum analysis of photoacoustic signals for characterizing lymph nodes,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135(4), 2372 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feng, Z.-Z.

A. Regev, M. Berho, L. J. Jeffers, C. Milikowski, E. G. Molina, N. T. Pyrsopoulos, Z.-Z. Feng, K. R. Reddy, and E. R. Schiff, “Sampling error and intraobserver variation in liver biopsy in patients with chronic HCV infection,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(10), 2614–2618 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleshner, N. E.

N. E. Fleshner, M. O’Sullivan, and W. R. Fair, “Prevalence and predictors of a positive repeat transrectal ultrasound guided needle biopsy of the prostate,” J. Urol. 158(2), 505–508 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fornari, F.

L. Buscarini, F. Fornari, L. Bolondi, P. Colombo, T. Livraghi, F. Magnolfi, G. L. Rapaccini, and A. Salmi, “Ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy of focal liver lesions: techniques, diagnostic accuracy and complications. A retrospective study on 2091 biopsies,” J. Hepatol. 11(3), 344–348 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fowlkes, J. B.

G. Xu, Z. X. Meng, J. D. Lin, C. X. Deng, P. L. Carson, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “High resolution physio-chemical tissue analysis: towards non-invasive in vivo biopsy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 16937 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: analytical model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 41(5), 1473–1480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galbreath, R. W.

A. V. Taira, G. S. Merrick, R. W. Galbreath, H. Andreini, W. Taubenslag, R. Curtis, W. M. Butler, E. Adamovich, and K. E. Wallner, “Performance of transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy in detecting prostate cancer in the initial and repeat biopsy setting,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 13(1), 71–77 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

George, R.

R. George and L. J. Walsh, “Performance assessment of novel side firing flexible optical fibers for dental applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(3), 214–221 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grijsen, C.

D. Piras, C. Grijsen, P. Schütte, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Photoacoustic needle: minimally invasive guidance to biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hah, H. J.

A. Ray, X. Wang, Y.-E. K. Lee, H. J. Hah, G. Kim, T. Chen, D. A. Orringer, O. Sagher, X. Liu, and R. Kopelman, “Targeted blue nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agent for brain tumor delineation,” Nano Res. 4(11), 1163–1173 (2011).
[Crossref]

Harris, L. A.

L. A. Harris, “Element directivity in ultrasonic imaging systems,” IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. 22(5), 336–339 (1975).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.

Hysi, E.

E. Hysi, R. K. Saha, and M. C. Kolios, “Photoacoustic ultrasound spectroscopy for assessing red blood cell aggregation and oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeffers, L. J.

A. Regev, M. Berho, L. J. Jeffers, C. Milikowski, E. G. Molina, N. T. Pyrsopoulos, Z.-Z. Feng, K. R. Reddy, and E. R. Schiff, “Sampling error and intraobserver variation in liver biopsy in patients with chronic HCV infection,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(10), 2614–2618 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joshi, B.

G. Xu, Z.-X. Meng, J. D. Lin, J. Yuan, P. L. Carson, B. Joshi, and X. Wang, “The functional pitch of an organ: quantification of tissue texture with photoacoustic spectrum analysis,” Radiology 271(1), 248–254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J. U.

M. A. Lediju Bell, N. P. Kuo, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “In vivo visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds with photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(12), 126011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kava, B. R.

F. Rabbani, N. Stroumbakis, B. R. Kava, M. S. Cookson, and W. R. Fair, “Incidence and clinical significance of false-negative sextant prostate biopsies,” J. Urol. 159(4), 1247–1250 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, G.

A. Ray, X. Wang, Y.-E. K. Lee, H. J. Hah, G. Kim, T. Chen, D. A. Orringer, O. Sagher, X. Liu, and R. Kopelman, “Targeted blue nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agent for brain tumor delineation,” Nano Res. 4(11), 1163–1173 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kleinmann, J.

A. Zisman, D. Leibovici, J. Kleinmann, Y. I. Siegel, and A. Lindner, “The impact of prostate biopsy on patient well-being: a prospective study of pain, anxiety and erectile dysfunction,” J. Urol. 165(2), 445–454 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolios, M. C.

E. Hysi, R. K. Saha, and M. C. Kolios, “Photoacoustic ultrasound spectroscopy for assessing red blood cell aggregation and oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kopelman, R.

A. Ray, X. Wang, Y.-E. K. Lee, H. J. Hah, G. Kim, T. Chen, D. A. Orringer, O. Sagher, X. Liu, and R. Kopelman, “Targeted blue nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agent for brain tumor delineation,” Nano Res. 4(11), 1163–1173 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kunju, L. P.

Kuo, N. P.

M. A. Lediju Bell, N. P. Kuo, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “In vivo visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds with photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(12), 126011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lediju Bell, M. A.

M. A. Lediju Bell, N. P. Kuo, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “In vivo visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds with photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(12), 126011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-E. K.

A. Ray, X. Wang, Y.-E. K. Lee, H. J. Hah, G. Kim, T. Chen, D. A. Orringer, O. Sagher, X. Liu, and R. Kopelman, “Targeted blue nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agent for brain tumor delineation,” Nano Res. 4(11), 1163–1173 (2011).
[Crossref]

Leibovici, D.

A. Zisman, D. Leibovici, J. Kleinmann, Y. I. Siegel, and A. Lindner, “The impact of prostate biopsy on patient well-being: a prospective study of pain, anxiety and erectile dysfunction,” J. Urol. 165(2), 445–454 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

Z. Li, H. Chen, F. Zhou, H. Li, and W. R. Chen, “Interstitial photoacoustic sensor for the measurement of tissue temperature during interstitial laser phototherapy,” Sensors (Basel) 15(3), 5583–5593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, H. Chen, F. Zhou, H. Li, and W. R. Chen, “Interstitial photoacoustic sensor for the measurement of tissue temperature during interstitial laser phototherapy,” Sensors (Basel) 15(3), 5583–5593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J. D.

G. Xu, Z. X. Meng, J. D. Lin, C. X. Deng, P. L. Carson, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “High resolution physio-chemical tissue analysis: towards non-invasive in vivo biopsy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 16937 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, Z.-X. Meng, J. D. Lin, J. Yuan, P. L. Carson, B. Joshi, and X. Wang, “The functional pitch of an organ: quantification of tissue texture with photoacoustic spectrum analysis,” Radiology 271(1), 248–254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindner, A.

A. Zisman, D. Leibovici, J. Kleinmann, Y. I. Siegel, and A. Lindner, “The impact of prostate biopsy on patient well-being: a prospective study of pain, anxiety and erectile dysfunction,” J. Urol. 165(2), 445–454 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

G. Xu, Z. X. Meng, J. D. Lin, C. X. Deng, P. L. Carson, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “High resolution physio-chemical tissue analysis: towards non-invasive in vivo biopsy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 16937 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: analytical model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 41(5), 1473–1480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, I. A. Dar, C. Tao, X. Liu, C. X. Deng, and X. Wang, “Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: A feasibility study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ray, X. Wang, Y.-E. K. Lee, H. J. Hah, G. Kim, T. Chen, D. A. Orringer, O. Sagher, X. Liu, and R. Kopelman, “Targeted blue nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agent for brain tumor delineation,” Nano Res. 4(11), 1163–1173 (2011).
[Crossref]

Livraghi, T.

L. Buscarini, F. Fornari, L. Bolondi, P. Colombo, T. Livraghi, F. Magnolfi, G. L. Rapaccini, and A. Salmi, “Ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy of focal liver lesions: techniques, diagnostic accuracy and complications. A retrospective study on 2091 biopsies,” J. Hepatol. 11(3), 344–348 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magnolfi, F.

L. Buscarini, F. Fornari, L. Bolondi, P. Colombo, T. Livraghi, F. Magnolfi, G. L. Rapaccini, and A. Salmi, “Ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy of focal liver lesions: techniques, diagnostic accuracy and complications. A retrospective study on 2091 biopsies,” J. Hepatol. 11(3), 344–348 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mamou, J.

P. V. Chitnis, J. Mamou, and E. J. Feleppa, “Spectrum analysis of photoacoustic signals for characterizing lymph nodes,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135(4), 2372 (2014).
[Crossref]

Manohar, S.

D. Piras, C. Grijsen, P. Schütte, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Photoacoustic needle: minimally invasive guidance to biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

Melancon, M.

T. Mitcham, K. Dextraze, H. Taghavi, M. Melancon, and R. Bouchard, “Photoacoustic imaging driven by an interstitial irradiation source,” Photoacoustics 3(2), 45–54 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meng, Z. X.

G. Xu, Z. X. Meng, J. D. Lin, C. X. Deng, P. L. Carson, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “High resolution physio-chemical tissue analysis: towards non-invasive in vivo biopsy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 16937 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meng, Z.-X.

G. Xu, Z.-X. Meng, J. D. Lin, J. Yuan, P. L. Carson, B. Joshi, and X. Wang, “The functional pitch of an organ: quantification of tissue texture with photoacoustic spectrum analysis,” Radiology 271(1), 248–254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merrick, G. S.

A. V. Taira, G. S. Merrick, R. W. Galbreath, H. Andreini, W. Taubenslag, R. Curtis, W. M. Butler, E. Adamovich, and K. E. Wallner, “Performance of transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy in detecting prostate cancer in the initial and repeat biopsy setting,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 13(1), 71–77 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milikowski, C.

A. Regev, M. Berho, L. J. Jeffers, C. Milikowski, E. G. Molina, N. T. Pyrsopoulos, Z.-Z. Feng, K. R. Reddy, and E. R. Schiff, “Sampling error and intraobserver variation in liver biopsy in patients with chronic HCV infection,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(10), 2614–2618 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitcham, T.

T. Mitcham, K. Dextraze, H. Taghavi, M. Melancon, and R. Bouchard, “Photoacoustic imaging driven by an interstitial irradiation source,” Photoacoustics 3(2), 45–54 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molina, E. G.

A. Regev, M. Berho, L. J. Jeffers, C. Milikowski, E. G. Molina, N. T. Pyrsopoulos, Z.-Z. Feng, K. R. Reddy, and E. R. Schiff, “Sampling error and intraobserver variation in liver biopsy in patients with chronic HCV infection,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(10), 2614–2618 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Sullivan, M.

N. E. Fleshner, M. O’Sullivan, and W. R. Fair, “Prevalence and predictors of a positive repeat transrectal ultrasound guided needle biopsy of the prostate,” J. Urol. 158(2), 505–508 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orringer, D. A.

A. Ray, X. Wang, Y.-E. K. Lee, H. J. Hah, G. Kim, T. Chen, D. A. Orringer, O. Sagher, X. Liu, and R. Kopelman, “Targeted blue nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agent for brain tumor delineation,” Nano Res. 4(11), 1163–1173 (2011).
[Crossref]

Piras, D.

D. Piras, C. Grijsen, P. Schütte, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Photoacoustic needle: minimally invasive guidance to biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pyrsopoulos, N. T.

A. Regev, M. Berho, L. J. Jeffers, C. Milikowski, E. G. Molina, N. T. Pyrsopoulos, Z.-Z. Feng, K. R. Reddy, and E. R. Schiff, “Sampling error and intraobserver variation in liver biopsy in patients with chronic HCV infection,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(10), 2614–2618 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rabbani, F.

F. Rabbani, N. Stroumbakis, B. R. Kava, M. S. Cookson, and W. R. Fair, “Incidence and clinical significance of false-negative sextant prostate biopsies,” J. Urol. 159(4), 1247–1250 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rapaccini, G. L.

L. Buscarini, F. Fornari, L. Bolondi, P. Colombo, T. Livraghi, F. Magnolfi, G. L. Rapaccini, and A. Salmi, “Ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy of focal liver lesions: techniques, diagnostic accuracy and complications. A retrospective study on 2091 biopsies,” J. Hepatol. 11(3), 344–348 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ray, A.

A. Ray, X. Wang, Y.-E. K. Lee, H. J. Hah, G. Kim, T. Chen, D. A. Orringer, O. Sagher, X. Liu, and R. Kopelman, “Targeted blue nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agent for brain tumor delineation,” Nano Res. 4(11), 1163–1173 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reddy, K. R.

A. Regev, M. Berho, L. J. Jeffers, C. Milikowski, E. G. Molina, N. T. Pyrsopoulos, Z.-Z. Feng, K. R. Reddy, and E. R. Schiff, “Sampling error and intraobserver variation in liver biopsy in patients with chronic HCV infection,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(10), 2614–2618 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regev, A.

A. Regev, M. Berho, L. J. Jeffers, C. Milikowski, E. G. Molina, N. T. Pyrsopoulos, Z.-Z. Feng, K. R. Reddy, and E. R. Schiff, “Sampling error and intraobserver variation in liver biopsy in patients with chronic HCV infection,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(10), 2614–2618 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sagher, O.

A. Ray, X. Wang, Y.-E. K. Lee, H. J. Hah, G. Kim, T. Chen, D. A. Orringer, O. Sagher, X. Liu, and R. Kopelman, “Targeted blue nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agent for brain tumor delineation,” Nano Res. 4(11), 1163–1173 (2011).
[Crossref]

Saha, R. K.

E. Hysi, R. K. Saha, and M. C. Kolios, “Photoacoustic ultrasound spectroscopy for assessing red blood cell aggregation and oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salmi, A.

L. Buscarini, F. Fornari, L. Bolondi, P. Colombo, T. Livraghi, F. Magnolfi, G. L. Rapaccini, and A. Salmi, “Ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy of focal liver lesions: techniques, diagnostic accuracy and complications. A retrospective study on 2091 biopsies,” J. Hepatol. 11(3), 344–348 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schiff, E. R.

A. Regev, M. Berho, L. J. Jeffers, C. Milikowski, E. G. Molina, N. T. Pyrsopoulos, Z.-Z. Feng, K. R. Reddy, and E. R. Schiff, “Sampling error and intraobserver variation in liver biopsy in patients with chronic HCV infection,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(10), 2614–2618 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schütte, P.

D. Piras, C. Grijsen, P. Schütte, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Photoacoustic needle: minimally invasive guidance to biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shung, K. K.

Siddiqui, J.

Siegel, Y. I.

A. Zisman, D. Leibovici, J. Kleinmann, Y. I. Siegel, and A. Lindner, “The impact of prostate biopsy on patient well-being: a prospective study of pain, anxiety and erectile dysfunction,” J. Urol. 165(2), 445–454 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, D. Y.

M. A. Lediju Bell, N. P. Kuo, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “In vivo visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds with photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(12), 126011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steenbergen, W.

D. Piras, C. Grijsen, P. Schütte, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Photoacoustic needle: minimally invasive guidance to biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stroumbakis, N.

F. Rabbani, N. Stroumbakis, B. R. Kava, M. S. Cookson, and W. R. Fair, “Incidence and clinical significance of false-negative sextant prostate biopsies,” J. Urol. 159(4), 1247–1250 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taghavi, H.

T. Mitcham, K. Dextraze, H. Taghavi, M. Melancon, and R. Bouchard, “Photoacoustic imaging driven by an interstitial irradiation source,” Photoacoustics 3(2), 45–54 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taira, A. V.

A. V. Taira, G. S. Merrick, R. W. Galbreath, H. Andreini, W. Taubenslag, R. Curtis, W. M. Butler, E. Adamovich, and K. E. Wallner, “Performance of transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy in detecting prostate cancer in the initial and repeat biopsy setting,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 13(1), 71–77 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, C.

G. Xu, Z. X. Meng, J. D. Lin, C. X. Deng, P. L. Carson, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “High resolution physio-chemical tissue analysis: towards non-invasive in vivo biopsy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 16937 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: analytical model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 41(5), 1473–1480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, I. A. Dar, C. Tao, X. Liu, C. X. Deng, and X. Wang, “Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: A feasibility study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taubenslag, W.

A. V. Taira, G. S. Merrick, R. W. Galbreath, H. Andreini, W. Taubenslag, R. Curtis, W. M. Butler, E. Adamovich, and K. E. Wallner, “Performance of transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy in detecting prostate cancer in the initial and repeat biopsy setting,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 13(1), 71–77 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomlins, S. A.

Wallner, K. E.

A. V. Taira, G. S. Merrick, R. W. Galbreath, H. Andreini, W. Taubenslag, R. Curtis, W. M. Butler, E. Adamovich, and K. E. Wallner, “Performance of transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy in detecting prostate cancer in the initial and repeat biopsy setting,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 13(1), 71–77 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, L. J.

R. George and L. J. Walsh, “Performance assessment of novel side firing flexible optical fibers for dental applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(3), 214–221 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

Wang, X.

G. Xu, Z. X. Meng, J. D. Lin, C. X. Deng, P. L. Carson, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “High resolution physio-chemical tissue analysis: towards non-invasive in vivo biopsy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 16937 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: analytical model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 41(5), 1473–1480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, M. C. Davis, J. Siddiqui, S. A. Tomlins, S. Huang, L. P. Kunju, J. T. Wei, and X. Wang, “Quantifying Gleason scores with photoacoustic spectral analysis: feasibility study with human tissues,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4781–4789 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, Z.-X. Meng, J. D. Lin, J. Yuan, P. L. Carson, B. Joshi, and X. Wang, “The functional pitch of an organ: quantification of tissue texture with photoacoustic spectrum analysis,” Radiology 271(1), 248–254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, I. A. Dar, C. Tao, X. Liu, C. X. Deng, and X. Wang, “Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: A feasibility study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ray, X. Wang, Y.-E. K. Lee, H. J. Hah, G. Kim, T. Chen, D. A. Orringer, O. Sagher, X. Liu, and R. Kopelman, “Targeted blue nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agent for brain tumor delineation,” Nano Res. 4(11), 1163–1173 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wei, J. T.

Xu, G.

G. Xu, Z. X. Meng, J. D. Lin, C. X. Deng, P. L. Carson, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “High resolution physio-chemical tissue analysis: towards non-invasive in vivo biopsy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 16937 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: analytical model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 41(5), 1473–1480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, M. C. Davis, J. Siddiqui, S. A. Tomlins, S. Huang, L. P. Kunju, J. T. Wei, and X. Wang, “Quantifying Gleason scores with photoacoustic spectral analysis: feasibility study with human tissues,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4781–4789 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, Z.-X. Meng, J. D. Lin, J. Yuan, P. L. Carson, B. Joshi, and X. Wang, “The functional pitch of an organ: quantification of tissue texture with photoacoustic spectrum analysis,” Radiology 271(1), 248–254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, I. A. Dar, C. Tao, X. Liu, C. X. Deng, and X. Wang, “Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: A feasibility study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, D.-K.

Yuan, J.

G. Xu, Z.-X. Meng, J. D. Lin, J. Yuan, P. L. Carson, B. Joshi, and X. Wang, “The functional pitch of an organ: quantification of tissue texture with photoacoustic spectrum analysis,” Radiology 271(1), 248–254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, F.

Z. Li, H. Chen, F. Zhou, H. Li, and W. R. Chen, “Interstitial photoacoustic sensor for the measurement of tissue temperature during interstitial laser phototherapy,” Sensors (Basel) 15(3), 5583–5593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

Zisman, A.

A. Zisman, D. Leibovici, J. Kleinmann, Y. I. Siegel, and A. Lindner, “The impact of prostate biopsy on patient well-being: a prospective study of pain, anxiety and erectile dysfunction,” J. Urol. 165(2), 445–454 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1)

A. Regev, M. Berho, L. J. Jeffers, C. Milikowski, E. G. Molina, N. T. Pyrsopoulos, Z.-Z. Feng, K. R. Reddy, and E. R. Schiff, “Sampling error and intraobserver variation in liver biopsy in patients with chronic HCV infection,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 97(10), 2614–2618 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Xu, I. A. Dar, C. Tao, X. Liu, C. X. Deng, and X. Wang, “Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: A feasibility study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. (1)

L. A. Harris, “Element directivity in ultrasonic imaging systems,” IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. 22(5), 336–339 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

P. V. Chitnis, J. Mamou, and E. J. Feleppa, “Spectrum analysis of photoacoustic signals for characterizing lymph nodes,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135(4), 2372 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

E. Hysi, R. K. Saha, and M. C. Kolios, “Photoacoustic ultrasound spectroscopy for assessing red blood cell aggregation and oxygenation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Lediju Bell, N. P. Kuo, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “In vivo visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds with photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(12), 126011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Piras, C. Grijsen, P. Schütte, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Photoacoustic needle: minimally invasive guidance to biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hepatol. (1)

L. Buscarini, F. Fornari, L. Bolondi, P. Colombo, T. Livraghi, F. Magnolfi, G. L. Rapaccini, and A. Salmi, “Ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy of focal liver lesions: techniques, diagnostic accuracy and complications. A retrospective study on 2091 biopsies,” J. Hepatol. 11(3), 344–348 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Urol. (3)

N. E. Fleshner, M. O’Sullivan, and W. R. Fair, “Prevalence and predictors of a positive repeat transrectal ultrasound guided needle biopsy of the prostate,” J. Urol. 158(2), 505–508 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Rabbani, N. Stroumbakis, B. R. Kava, M. S. Cookson, and W. R. Fair, “Incidence and clinical significance of false-negative sextant prostate biopsies,” J. Urol. 159(4), 1247–1250 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zisman, D. Leibovici, J. Kleinmann, Y. I. Siegel, and A. Lindner, “The impact of prostate biopsy on patient well-being: a prospective study of pain, anxiety and erectile dysfunction,” J. Urol. 165(2), 445–454 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

R. George and L. J. Walsh, “Performance assessment of novel side firing flexible optical fibers for dental applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(3), 214–221 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Res. (1)

A. Ray, X. Wang, Y.-E. K. Lee, H. J. Hah, G. Kim, T. Chen, D. A. Orringer, O. Sagher, X. Liu, and R. Kopelman, “Targeted blue nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agent for brain tumor delineation,” Nano Res. 4(11), 1163–1173 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photoacoustics (1)

T. Mitcham, K. Dextraze, H. Taghavi, M. Melancon, and R. Bouchard, “Photoacoustic imaging driven by an interstitial irradiation source,” Photoacoustics 3(2), 45–54 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. (1)

A. V. Taira, G. S. Merrick, R. W. Galbreath, H. Andreini, W. Taubenslag, R. Curtis, W. M. Butler, E. Adamovich, and K. E. Wallner, “Performance of transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy in detecting prostate cancer in the initial and repeat biopsy setting,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 13(1), 71–77 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radiology (1)

G. Xu, Z.-X. Meng, J. D. Lin, J. Yuan, P. L. Carson, B. Joshi, and X. Wang, “The functional pitch of an organ: quantification of tissue texture with photoacoustic spectrum analysis,” Radiology 271(1), 248–254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

G. Xu, Z. X. Meng, J. D. Lin, C. X. Deng, P. L. Carson, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “High resolution physio-chemical tissue analysis: towards non-invasive in vivo biopsy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 16937 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

Z. Li, H. Chen, F. Zhou, H. Li, and W. R. Chen, “Interstitial photoacoustic sensor for the measurement of tissue temperature during interstitial laser phototherapy,” Sensors (Basel) 15(3), 5583–5593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

G. Xu, J. B. Fowlkes, C. Tao, X. Liu, and X. Wang, “Photoacoustic spectrum analysis for microstructure characterization in biological tissue: analytical model,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 41(5), 1473–1480 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Weingant, H. M. Reynolds, A. Haworth, C. Mitchell, S. Williams, and M. D. DiFranco, “Ensemble prostate tumor classification in H&E whole slide imaging via stain normalization and cell density estimation,” in Machine Learning in Medical Imaging: 6th International Workshop, MLMI 2015, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2015, Munich, Germany, October 5,2015, Proceedings, L. Zhou, L. Wang, Q. Wang, and Y. Shi, eds. (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015), pp. 280–287.
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A prototype needle PA probe. (a) A photograph of the probe. (b) A microscopic photograph of the etched surface of the fiber optics diffuser. (c) The light emission pattern of the fiber optics diffuser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experiment setups for understanding the detection range of the prototype probe. (a) A transparent plastic tube containing blood was positioned at varied longitudinal and radial positions with respect to the prototype probe. The background material was 1% intralipid. (b) The prototype needle PA probe was inserted at the center of a canine prostate ex vivo. The radial detection range of the needle probe was examined by injecting NP solution 1mm below the prostate surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Interstitial PA measurements of normal and fatty livers in a mouse model ex vivo. (a) and (b) are histology photographs of normal and fatty livers, respectively. The photographs were reproduced from our previous work [6]. This is because the same batch of samples was measured by the need probe. (c) The needle probe was inserted into the liver samples. Both the prototype needle probe and the liver sample were submerged in water during the measurement to avoid acoustic reflection at tissue-air interface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Examining (a)-(c) the longitudinal measurement uniformity and (d)-(f) the radial detection range of the prototype needle probe in the experiment setup in Fig. 2(a). The correlation between the tube positions and the PA signals were confirmed by continuously moving the tube. Red dashed boxes marks the signals correlated to the transparent plastic tube containing whole blood. The artifact signals generated due to the illumination of the needle hydrophone surface are shaded in blue. The magnitudes of the artifact signals become significant when the blood containing tube is far from the needle probe surface. An artifact probably due to the reflection by the water container can be observed in (c) at 8 µs. The artifact does not appear in other experiment results and is thereby not expected to affect the PASA procedures.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PA signal envelope acquired in the geometry shown in Fig. 2(b) before and after the NP injection. Inj = injection.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Assessing cancer cell density with the prototype needle probe. (a) PA signals acquired at the varied cell concentrations. The cell densities are the numbers in the legends multiplied by105 per cm3. (b) Statistics of the maximum absolute magnitudes of the signal acquired from all samples. (c) Power spectra of the PA signals in (a). (d) The total spectral magnitudes derived from 10 samples at each cell concentration.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Differentiating normal and fatty mouse livers ex vivo using the prototype needle probe. (a) and (b) are representative signals generated by normal and fatty livers, respectively. (c) shows the statistics of the maximum absolute signal magnitudes. (d) shows the power spectra of the PA signals in (a) and (b). PASA slopes are illustrated. (e) and (f) are the slopes and total spectral magnitudes quantified from the measurements of 12 normal and 12 fatty liver samples.

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