Abstract

Transparent tissue scaffolds enable illumination of growing tissue to accelerate cell proliferation and improve other cell functions through photobiomodulation. The biphasic dose response of cells exposed to photobiomodulating light dictates that the illumination be evenly distributed across the scaffold such that the cells are neither under nor over exposed to light. However, equalized illumination has not been sufficiently addressed. Here we analyze and experimentally demonstrate spatially equalizing illumination by three methods, namely: engineered surface scattering, reflection by a gold mirror, and traveling-waves in a ring mesh. Our results show that nearly equalized illumination is achievable by controlling the light scattering-to-loss ratio. This demonstration furthers opportunities for dose-optimized photobiomodulation in tissue regeneration.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

Z. Ma, M. H. Tahersima, S. Khan, and V. J. Sorger, “Two-Dimensional Material-Based Mode Confinement Engineering in Electro-Optic Modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

L. F. de Freitas and M. R. Hamblin, “Proposed Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation or Low-Level Light Therapy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 348–364 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, K. Liu, B. Qi, and V. J. Sorger, “Re-Analysis of Single-Mode Conditions for Silicon Rib Waveguides at 1550 nm Wavelength,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(16), 3811–3817 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, N. Li, D. K. Sadana, and V. J. Sorger, “Integrated Nanocavity Plasmon Light Sources for On-Chip Optical Interconnects,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 233–242 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, C. Zhang, S. Mu, S. Wang, and V. J. Sorger, “Two-dimensional design and analysis of trench-coupler based Silicon Mach-Zehnder thermo-optic switch,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15845–15853 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (11)

C. Ye, K. Liu, R. A. Soref, and V. J. Sorger, “A compact plasmonic MOS-based 2×2 electro-optic switch,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 261–268 (2015).

S. Sun, A. H. A. Badawy, V. Narayana, T. El-Ghazawi, and V. J. Sorger, “The Case for Hybrid Photonic Plasmonic Interconnects (HyPPIs): Low-Latency Energy-and-Area-Efficient On-Chip Interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–14 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Liu and V. Sorger, “Electrically-driven carbon nanotube-based plasmonic laser on silicon,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(9), 1910–1919 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Li, K. Liu, V. J. Sorger, and D. K. Sadana, “Monolithic III-V on Silicon Plasmonic Nanolaser Structure for Optical Interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14067 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Liu and V. Sorger, “Enhanced interaction strength for a square plasmon resonator embedded in a photonic crystal nanobeam cavity,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093790 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Ma, Z. Li, K. Liu, C. Ye, and V. J. Sorger, “Indium-Tin-Oxide for High-performance Electro-optic Modulation,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 198–213 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, C. R. Ye, S. Khan, and V. J. Sorger, “Review and perspective on ultrafast wavelength-size electro-optic modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 172–194 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Fratalocchi, C. Dodson, R. Zia, P. Genevet, E. Verhagen, H. Altug, and V. Sorger, “Nano-optics gets practical,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 11–15 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Sommer, M. Kh. Haddad, and H. J. Fecht, “Light Effect on Water Viscosity: Implication for ATP Biosynthesis,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12029 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ginani, D. M. Soares, M. P. V. Barreto, and C. A. G. Barboza, “Effect of low-level laser therapy on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation: a systematic review,” Lasers Med. Sci. 30(8), 2189–2194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Góralczyk, J. Szymańska, M. Łukowicz, E. Drela, R. Kotzbach, M. Dubiel, M. Michalska, B. Góralczyk, A. Zając, and D. Rość, “Effect of LLLT on endothelial cells culture,” Lasers Med. Sci. 30(1), 273–278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

C. Ye, S. Khan, Z. R. Li, E. Simsek, and V. J. Sorger, “λ-Size ITO and Graphene-Based Electro-Optic Modulators on SOI,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 40–49 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

C. Huang, R. J. Lamond, S. K. Pickus, Z. R. Li, and V. J. Sorger, “A Sub- λ -Size Modulator Beyond the Efficiency-Loss Limit,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 2202411 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Choi, J. W. Choi, S. Kim, S. Nizamoglu, S. K. Hahn, and S. H. Yun, “Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 987–994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

K. M. AlGhamdi, A. Kumar, and N. A. Moussa, “Low-level laser therapy: a useful technique for enhancing the proliferation of various cultured cells,” Lasers Med. Sci. 27(1), 237–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. S. Ndazi and S. Karlsson, “Polymerteknologi, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), KTH and Fiber- och polymerteknik, “Characterization of hydrolytic degradation of polylactic acid/rice hulls composites in water at different temperatures,” Express Polym. Lett. 5(2), 119–131 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Fabry-Pérot nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3489–3493 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Huang, A. C. Chen, J. D. Carroll, and M. R. Hamblin, “Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy,” Dose Response 7(4), 358–383 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

R. F. Oulton, X. Zhang, D. A. Genov, V. J. Sorger, and D. F. P. Pile, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

R. T. Schermer and J. H. Cole, “Improved Bend Loss Formula Verified for Optical Fiber by Simulation and Experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 899–909 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

U. J. Kim, J. Park, H. J. Kim, M. Wada, and D. L. Kaplan, “Three-dimensional aqueous-derived biomaterial scaffolds from silk fibroin,” Biomaterials 26(15), 2775–2785 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. X. F. Lam, X. M. Mo, S. H. Teoh, and D. W. Hutmacher, “Scaffold development using 3D printing with a starch-based polymer,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 20(1–2), 49–56 (2002).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

R. Langer and J. P. Vacanti, “Tissue engineering,” Science 260(5110), 920–926 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

1968 (1)

E. Mester, B. Szende, and P. Gärtner, “[The effect of laser beams on the growth of hair in mice],” Radiobiol. Radiother. (Berl.) 9(5), 621–626 (1968).
[PubMed]

AlGhamdi, K. M.

K. M. AlGhamdi, A. Kumar, and N. A. Moussa, “Low-level laser therapy: a useful technique for enhancing the proliferation of various cultured cells,” Lasers Med. Sci. 27(1), 237–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Altman, G. H.

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

A. Fratalocchi, C. Dodson, R. Zia, P. Genevet, E. Verhagen, H. Altug, and V. Sorger, “Nano-optics gets practical,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 11–15 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badawy, A. H. A.

S. Sun, A. H. A. Badawy, V. Narayana, T. El-Ghazawi, and V. J. Sorger, “The Case for Hybrid Photonic Plasmonic Interconnects (HyPPIs): Low-Latency Energy-and-Area-Efficient On-Chip Interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–14 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barboza, C. A. G.

F. Ginani, D. M. Soares, M. P. V. Barreto, and C. A. G. Barboza, “Effect of low-level laser therapy on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation: a systematic review,” Lasers Med. Sci. 30(8), 2189–2194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barreto, M. P. V.

F. Ginani, D. M. Soares, M. P. V. Barreto, and C. A. G. Barboza, “Effect of low-level laser therapy on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation: a systematic review,” Lasers Med. Sci. 30(8), 2189–2194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Fabry-Pérot nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3489–3493 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beard, M. C.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bermel, P.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boriskina, S. V.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bronstein, N. D.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Calabro, T.

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carroll, J. D.

Y. Y. Huang, A. C. Chen, J. D. Carroll, and M. R. Hamblin, “Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy,” Dose Response 7(4), 358–383 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Catchpole, K.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Celanovic, I.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, A. C.

Y. Y. Huang, A. C. Chen, J. D. Carroll, and M. R. Hamblin, “Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy,” Dose Response 7(4), 358–383 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J. W.

M. Choi, J. W. Choi, S. Kim, S. Nizamoglu, S. K. Hahn, and S. H. Yun, “Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 987–994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

M. Choi, J. W. Choi, S. Kim, S. Nizamoglu, S. K. Hahn, and S. H. Yun, “Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 987–994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, J. H.

R. T. Schermer and J. H. Cole, “Improved Bend Loss Formula Verified for Optical Fiber by Simulation and Experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 899–909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dagenais, M.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

de Freitas, L. F.

L. F. de Freitas and M. R. Hamblin, “Proposed Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation or Low-Level Light Therapy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 348–364 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diaz, F.

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dionne, J.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dodson, C.

A. Fratalocchi, C. Dodson, R. Zia, P. Genevet, E. Verhagen, H. Altug, and V. Sorger, “Nano-optics gets practical,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 11–15 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drela, E.

K. Góralczyk, J. Szymańska, M. Łukowicz, E. Drela, R. Kotzbach, M. Dubiel, M. Michalska, B. Góralczyk, A. Zając, and D. Rość, “Effect of LLLT on endothelial cells culture,” Lasers Med. Sci. 30(1), 273–278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubiel, M.

K. Góralczyk, J. Szymańska, M. Łukowicz, E. Drela, R. Kotzbach, M. Dubiel, M. Michalska, B. Góralczyk, A. Zając, and D. Rość, “Effect of LLLT on endothelial cells culture,” Lasers Med. Sci. 30(1), 273–278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Ghazawi, T.

S. Sun, A. H. A. Badawy, V. Narayana, T. El-Ghazawi, and V. J. Sorger, “The Case for Hybrid Photonic Plasmonic Interconnects (HyPPIs): Low-Latency Energy-and-Area-Efficient On-Chip Interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–14 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fecht, H. J.

A. P. Sommer, M. Kh. Haddad, and H. J. Fecht, “Light Effect on Water Viscosity: Implication for ATP Biosynthesis,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12029 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fratalocchi, A.

A. Fratalocchi, C. Dodson, R. Zia, P. Genevet, E. Verhagen, H. Altug, and V. Sorger, “Nano-optics gets practical,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 11–15 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gärtner, P.

E. Mester, B. Szende, and P. Gärtner, “[The effect of laser beams on the growth of hair in mice],” Radiobiol. Radiother. (Berl.) 9(5), 621–626 (1968).
[PubMed]

Genevet, P.

A. Fratalocchi, C. Dodson, R. Zia, P. Genevet, E. Verhagen, H. Altug, and V. Sorger, “Nano-optics gets practical,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 11–15 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, X. Zhang, D. A. Genov, V. J. Sorger, and D. F. P. Pile, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gershon, T.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ginani, F.

F. Ginani, D. M. Soares, M. P. V. Barreto, and C. A. G. Barboza, “Effect of low-level laser therapy on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation: a systematic review,” Lasers Med. Sci. 30(8), 2189–2194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Góralczyk, B.

K. Góralczyk, J. Szymańska, M. Łukowicz, E. Drela, R. Kotzbach, M. Dubiel, M. Michalska, B. Góralczyk, A. Zając, and D. Rość, “Effect of LLLT on endothelial cells culture,” Lasers Med. Sci. 30(1), 273–278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Góralczyk, K.

K. Góralczyk, J. Szymańska, M. Łukowicz, E. Drela, R. Kotzbach, M. Dubiel, M. Michalska, B. Góralczyk, A. Zając, and D. Rość, “Effect of LLLT on endothelial cells culture,” Lasers Med. Sci. 30(1), 273–278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, J. M.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Green, M. A.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Greffet, J.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Haddad, M. Kh.

A. P. Sommer, M. Kh. Haddad, and H. J. Fecht, “Light Effect on Water Viscosity: Implication for ATP Biosynthesis,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12029 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hahn, S. K.

M. Choi, J. W. Choi, S. Kim, S. Nizamoglu, S. K. Hahn, and S. H. Yun, “Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 987–994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamblin, M. R.

L. F. de Freitas and M. R. Hamblin, “Proposed Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation or Low-Level Light Therapy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 348–364 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Huang, A. C. Chen, J. D. Carroll, and M. R. Hamblin, “Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy,” Dose Response 7(4), 358–383 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horan, R. L.

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C.

C. Huang, R. J. Lamond, S. K. Pickus, Z. R. Li, and V. J. Sorger, “A Sub- λ -Size Modulator Beyond the Efficiency-Loss Limit,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 2202411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Huang, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Huang, A. C. Chen, J. D. Carroll, and M. R. Hamblin, “Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy,” Dose Response 7(4), 358–383 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hutmacher, D. W.

C. X. F. Lam, X. M. Mo, S. H. Teoh, and D. W. Hutmacher, “Scaffold development using 3D printing with a starch-based polymer,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 20(1–2), 49–56 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jakuba, C.

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaplan, D. L.

U. J. Kim, J. Park, H. J. Kim, M. Wada, and D. L. Kaplan, “Three-dimensional aqueous-derived biomaterial scaffolds from silk fibroin,” Biomaterials 26(15), 2775–2785 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karlsson, S.

B. S. Ndazi and S. Karlsson, “Polymerteknologi, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), KTH and Fiber- och polymerteknik, “Characterization of hydrolytic degradation of polylactic acid/rice hulls composites in water at different temperatures,” Express Polym. Lett. 5(2), 119–131 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kempa, K.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Khan, S.

Z. Ma, M. H. Tahersima, S. Khan, and V. J. Sorger, “Two-Dimensional Material-Based Mode Confinement Engineering in Electro-Optic Modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, C. R. Ye, S. Khan, and V. J. Sorger, “Review and perspective on ultrafast wavelength-size electro-optic modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 172–194 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Ye, S. Khan, Z. R. Li, E. Simsek, and V. J. Sorger, “λ-Size ITO and Graphene-Based Electro-Optic Modulators on SOI,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 40–49 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. J.

U. J. Kim, J. Park, H. J. Kim, M. Wada, and D. L. Kaplan, “Three-dimensional aqueous-derived biomaterial scaffolds from silk fibroin,” Biomaterials 26(15), 2775–2785 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

M. Choi, J. W. Choi, S. Kim, S. Nizamoglu, S. K. Hahn, and S. H. Yun, “Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 987–994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, U. J.

U. J. Kim, J. Park, H. J. Kim, M. Wada, and D. L. Kaplan, “Three-dimensional aqueous-derived biomaterial scaffolds from silk fibroin,” Biomaterials 26(15), 2775–2785 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kotzbach, R.

K. Góralczyk, J. Szymańska, M. Łukowicz, E. Drela, R. Kotzbach, M. Dubiel, M. Michalska, B. Góralczyk, A. Zając, and D. Rość, “Effect of LLLT on endothelial cells culture,” Lasers Med. Sci. 30(1), 273–278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, A.

K. M. AlGhamdi, A. Kumar, and N. A. Moussa, “Low-level laser therapy: a useful technique for enhancing the proliferation of various cultured cells,” Lasers Med. Sci. 27(1), 237–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, C. X. F.

C. X. F. Lam, X. M. Mo, S. H. Teoh, and D. W. Hutmacher, “Scaffold development using 3D printing with a starch-based polymer,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 20(1–2), 49–56 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lamond, R. J.

C. Huang, R. J. Lamond, S. K. Pickus, Z. R. Li, and V. J. Sorger, “A Sub- λ -Size Modulator Beyond the Efficiency-Loss Limit,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 2202411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Langer, R.

R. Langer and J. P. Vacanti, “Tissue engineering,” Science 260(5110), 920–926 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lany, S.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, N.

K. Liu, N. Li, D. K. Sadana, and V. J. Sorger, “Integrated Nanocavity Plasmon Light Sources for On-Chip Optical Interconnects,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 233–242 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Li, K. Liu, V. J. Sorger, and D. K. Sadana, “Monolithic III-V on Silicon Plasmonic Nanolaser Structure for Optical Interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14067 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Z. Ma, Z. Li, K. Liu, C. Ye, and V. J. Sorger, “Indium-Tin-Oxide for High-performance Electro-optic Modulation,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 198–213 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. R.

C. Ye, S. Khan, Z. R. Li, E. Simsek, and V. J. Sorger, “λ-Size ITO and Graphene-Based Electro-Optic Modulators on SOI,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 40–49 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, R. J. Lamond, S. K. Pickus, Z. R. Li, and V. J. Sorger, “A Sub- λ -Size Modulator Beyond the Efficiency-Loss Limit,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 2202411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

H. Huang, K. Liu, B. Qi, and V. J. Sorger, “Re-Analysis of Single-Mode Conditions for Silicon Rib Waveguides at 1550 nm Wavelength,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(16), 3811–3817 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, C. Zhang, S. Mu, S. Wang, and V. J. Sorger, “Two-dimensional design and analysis of trench-coupler based Silicon Mach-Zehnder thermo-optic switch,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15845–15853 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Liu, N. Li, D. K. Sadana, and V. J. Sorger, “Integrated Nanocavity Plasmon Light Sources for On-Chip Optical Interconnects,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 233–242 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Ye, K. Liu, R. A. Soref, and V. J. Sorger, “A compact plasmonic MOS-based 2×2 electro-optic switch,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 261–268 (2015).

N. Li, K. Liu, V. J. Sorger, and D. K. Sadana, “Monolithic III-V on Silicon Plasmonic Nanolaser Structure for Optical Interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14067 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Liu and V. Sorger, “Enhanced interaction strength for a square plasmon resonator embedded in a photonic crystal nanobeam cavity,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093790 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Ma, Z. Li, K. Liu, C. Ye, and V. J. Sorger, “Indium-Tin-Oxide for High-performance Electro-optic Modulation,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 198–213 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, C. R. Ye, S. Khan, and V. J. Sorger, “Review and perspective on ultrafast wavelength-size electro-optic modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 172–194 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Liu and V. Sorger, “Electrically-driven carbon nanotube-based plasmonic laser on silicon,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(9), 1910–1919 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, H.

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lukowicz, M.

K. Góralczyk, J. Szymańska, M. Łukowicz, E. Drela, R. Kotzbach, M. Dubiel, M. Michalska, B. Góralczyk, A. Zając, and D. Rość, “Effect of LLLT on endothelial cells culture,” Lasers Med. Sci. 30(1), 273–278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

Z. Ma, M. H. Tahersima, S. Khan, and V. J. Sorger, “Two-Dimensional Material-Based Mode Confinement Engineering in Electro-Optic Modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Ma, Z. Li, K. Liu, C. Ye, and V. J. Sorger, “Indium-Tin-Oxide for High-performance Electro-optic Modulation,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 198–213 (2015).
[Crossref]

Manor, A.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mester, E.

E. Mester, B. Szende, and P. Gärtner, “[The effect of laser beams on the growth of hair in mice],” Radiobiol. Radiother. (Berl.) 9(5), 621–626 (1968).
[PubMed]

Michalska, M.

K. Góralczyk, J. Szymańska, M. Łukowicz, E. Drela, R. Kotzbach, M. Dubiel, M. Michalska, B. Góralczyk, A. Zając, and D. Rość, “Effect of LLLT on endothelial cells culture,” Lasers Med. Sci. 30(1), 273–278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mo, X. M.

C. X. F. Lam, X. M. Mo, S. H. Teoh, and D. W. Hutmacher, “Scaffold development using 3D printing with a starch-based polymer,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 20(1–2), 49–56 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moussa, N. A.

K. M. AlGhamdi, A. Kumar, and N. A. Moussa, “Low-level laser therapy: a useful technique for enhancing the proliferation of various cultured cells,” Lasers Med. Sci. 27(1), 237–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mu, S.

Narayana, V.

S. Sun, A. H. A. Badawy, V. Narayana, T. El-Ghazawi, and V. J. Sorger, “The Case for Hybrid Photonic Plasmonic Interconnects (HyPPIs): Low-Latency Energy-and-Area-Efficient On-Chip Interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–14 (2015).
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S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
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S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
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V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011).
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V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Fabry-Pérot nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3489–3493 (2009).
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R. F. Oulton, X. Zhang, D. A. Genov, V. J. Sorger, and D. F. P. Pile, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
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U. J. Kim, J. Park, H. J. Kim, M. Wada, and D. L. Kaplan, “Three-dimensional aqueous-derived biomaterial scaffolds from silk fibroin,” Biomaterials 26(15), 2775–2785 (2005).
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C. Huang, R. J. Lamond, S. K. Pickus, Z. R. Li, and V. J. Sorger, “A Sub- λ -Size Modulator Beyond the Efficiency-Loss Limit,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 2202411 (2013).
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R. F. Oulton, X. Zhang, D. A. Genov, V. J. Sorger, and D. F. P. Pile, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
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K. Liu, N. Li, D. K. Sadana, and V. J. Sorger, “Integrated Nanocavity Plasmon Light Sources for On-Chip Optical Interconnects,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 233–242 (2016).
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N. Li, K. Liu, V. J. Sorger, and D. K. Sadana, “Monolithic III-V on Silicon Plasmonic Nanolaser Structure for Optical Interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14067 (2015).
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S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
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S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
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C. Ye, S. Khan, Z. R. Li, E. Simsek, and V. J. Sorger, “λ-Size ITO and Graphene-Based Electro-Optic Modulators on SOI,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 40–49 (2014).
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Soref, R. A.

C. Ye, K. Liu, R. A. Soref, and V. J. Sorger, “A compact plasmonic MOS-based 2×2 electro-optic switch,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 261–268 (2015).

Sorger, V.

K. Liu and V. Sorger, “Enhanced interaction strength for a square plasmon resonator embedded in a photonic crystal nanobeam cavity,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093790 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Fratalocchi, C. Dodson, R. Zia, P. Genevet, E. Verhagen, H. Altug, and V. Sorger, “Nano-optics gets practical,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 11–15 (2015).
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K. Liu and V. Sorger, “Electrically-driven carbon nanotube-based plasmonic laser on silicon,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(9), 1910–1919 (2015).
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Z. Ma, M. H. Tahersima, S. Khan, and V. J. Sorger, “Two-Dimensional Material-Based Mode Confinement Engineering in Electro-Optic Modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, N. Li, D. K. Sadana, and V. J. Sorger, “Integrated Nanocavity Plasmon Light Sources for On-Chip Optical Interconnects,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 233–242 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, K. Liu, B. Qi, and V. J. Sorger, “Re-Analysis of Single-Mode Conditions for Silicon Rib Waveguides at 1550 nm Wavelength,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(16), 3811–3817 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, C. Zhang, S. Mu, S. Wang, and V. J. Sorger, “Two-dimensional design and analysis of trench-coupler based Silicon Mach-Zehnder thermo-optic switch,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15845–15853 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Liu, C. R. Ye, S. Khan, and V. J. Sorger, “Review and perspective on ultrafast wavelength-size electro-optic modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 172–194 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Li, K. Liu, V. J. Sorger, and D. K. Sadana, “Monolithic III-V on Silicon Plasmonic Nanolaser Structure for Optical Interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14067 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ye, K. Liu, R. A. Soref, and V. J. Sorger, “A compact plasmonic MOS-based 2×2 electro-optic switch,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 261–268 (2015).

Z. Ma, Z. Li, K. Liu, C. Ye, and V. J. Sorger, “Indium-Tin-Oxide for High-performance Electro-optic Modulation,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 198–213 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, A. H. A. Badawy, V. Narayana, T. El-Ghazawi, and V. J. Sorger, “The Case for Hybrid Photonic Plasmonic Interconnects (HyPPIs): Low-Latency Energy-and-Area-Efficient On-Chip Interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–14 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Ye, S. Khan, Z. R. Li, E. Simsek, and V. J. Sorger, “λ-Size ITO and Graphene-Based Electro-Optic Modulators on SOI,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 40–49 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, R. J. Lamond, S. K. Pickus, Z. R. Li, and V. J. Sorger, “A Sub- λ -Size Modulator Beyond the Efficiency-Loss Limit,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 2202411 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Fabry-Pérot nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3489–3493 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, X. Zhang, D. A. Genov, V. J. Sorger, and D. F. P. Pile, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

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S. Sun, A. H. A. Badawy, V. Narayana, T. El-Ghazawi, and V. J. Sorger, “The Case for Hybrid Photonic Plasmonic Interconnects (HyPPIs): Low-Latency Energy-and-Area-Efficient On-Chip Interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–14 (2015).
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Z. Ma, M. H. Tahersima, S. Khan, and V. J. Sorger, “Two-Dimensional Material-Based Mode Confinement Engineering in Electro-Optic Modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 1–8 (2017).
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S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
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A. Fratalocchi, C. Dodson, R. Zia, P. Genevet, E. Verhagen, H. Altug, and V. Sorger, “Nano-optics gets practical,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 11–15 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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U. J. Kim, J. Park, H. J. Kim, M. Wada, and D. L. Kaplan, “Three-dimensional aqueous-derived biomaterial scaffolds from silk fibroin,” Biomaterials 26(15), 2775–2785 (2005).
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Wang, Y.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011).
[Crossref]

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S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
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S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
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S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

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V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Fabry-Pérot nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3489–3493 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ye, C.

C. Ye, K. Liu, R. A. Soref, and V. J. Sorger, “A compact plasmonic MOS-based 2×2 electro-optic switch,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 261–268 (2015).

Z. Ma, Z. Li, K. Liu, C. Ye, and V. J. Sorger, “Indium-Tin-Oxide for High-performance Electro-optic Modulation,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 198–213 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Ye, S. Khan, Z. R. Li, E. Simsek, and V. J. Sorger, “λ-Size ITO and Graphene-Based Electro-Optic Modulators on SOI,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 40–49 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ye, C. R.

K. Liu, C. R. Ye, S. Khan, and V. J. Sorger, “Review and perspective on ultrafast wavelength-size electro-optic modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 172–194 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, Z.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yun, S. H.

M. Choi, J. W. Choi, S. Kim, S. Nizamoglu, S. K. Hahn, and S. H. Yun, “Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 987–994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zajac, A.

K. Góralczyk, J. Szymańska, M. Łukowicz, E. Drela, R. Kotzbach, M. Dubiel, M. Michalska, B. Góralczyk, A. Zając, and D. Rość, “Effect of LLLT on endothelial cells culture,” Lasers Med. Sci. 30(1), 273–278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zakutayev, A.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, X.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Fabry-Pérot nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3489–3493 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, X. Zhang, D. A. Genov, V. J. Sorger, and D. F. P. Pile, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zia, R.

A. Fratalocchi, C. Dodson, R. Zia, P. Genevet, E. Verhagen, H. Altug, and V. Sorger, “Nano-optics gets practical,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 11–15 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

K. Liu, N. Li, D. K. Sadana, and V. J. Sorger, “Integrated Nanocavity Plasmon Light Sources for On-Chip Optical Interconnects,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 233–242 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomaterials (2)

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. J. Kim, J. Park, H. J. Kim, M. Wada, and D. L. Kaplan, “Three-dimensional aqueous-derived biomaterial scaffolds from silk fibroin,” Biomaterials 26(15), 2775–2785 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dose Response (1)

Y. Y. Huang, A. C. Chen, J. D. Carroll, and M. R. Hamblin, “Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy,” Dose Response 7(4), 358–383 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Express Polym. Lett. (1)

B. S. Ndazi and S. Karlsson, “Polymerteknologi, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), KTH and Fiber- och polymerteknik, “Characterization of hydrolytic degradation of polylactic acid/rice hulls composites in water at different temperatures,” Express Polym. Lett. 5(2), 119–131 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. T. Schermer and J. H. Cole, “Improved Bend Loss Formula Verified for Optical Fiber by Simulation and Experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 899–909 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

C. Ye, S. Khan, Z. R. Li, E. Simsek, and V. J. Sorger, “λ-Size ITO and Graphene-Based Electro-Optic Modulators on SOI,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 40–49 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. F. de Freitas and M. R. Hamblin, “Proposed Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation or Low-Level Light Therapy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 348–364 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Ma, M. H. Tahersima, S. Khan, and V. J. Sorger, “Two-Dimensional Material-Based Mode Confinement Engineering in Electro-Optic Modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

C. Huang, R. J. Lamond, S. K. Pickus, Z. R. Li, and V. J. Sorger, “A Sub- λ -Size Modulator Beyond the Efficiency-Loss Limit,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 2202411 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, A. H. A. Badawy, V. Narayana, T. El-Ghazawi, and V. J. Sorger, “The Case for Hybrid Photonic Plasmonic Interconnects (HyPPIs): Low-Latency Energy-and-Area-Efficient On-Chip Interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–14 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Nanophotonics (1)

K. Liu and V. Sorger, “Enhanced interaction strength for a square plasmon resonator embedded in a photonic crystal nanobeam cavity,” J. Nanophotonics 9(1), 093790 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

S. V. Boriskina, M. A. Green, K. Catchpole, E. Yablonovitch, M. C. Beard, Y. Okada, S. Lany, T. Gershon, A. Zakutayev, M. H. Tahersima, V. J. Sorger, M. J. Naughton, K. Kempa, M. Dagenais, Y. Yao, L. Xu, X. Sheng, N. D. Bronstein, J. A. Rogers, A. P. Alivisatos, R. G. Nuzzo, J. M. Gordon, D. M. Wu, M. D. Wisser, A. Salleo, J. Dionne, P. Bermel, J. Greffet, I. Celanovic, M. Soljacic, A. Manor, C. Rotschild, A. Raman, L. Zhu, S. Fan, and G. Chen, “Roadmap on optical energy conversion,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

K. Liu, C. R. Ye, S. Khan, and V. J. Sorger, “Review and perspective on ultrafast wavelength-size electro-optic modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 172–194 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lasers Med. Sci. (3)

K. M. AlGhamdi, A. Kumar, and N. A. Moussa, “Low-level laser therapy: a useful technique for enhancing the proliferation of various cultured cells,” Lasers Med. Sci. 27(1), 237–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ginani, D. M. Soares, M. P. V. Barreto, and C. A. G. Barboza, “Effect of low-level laser therapy on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation: a systematic review,” Lasers Med. Sci. 30(8), 2189–2194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Góralczyk, J. Szymańska, M. Łukowicz, E. Drela, R. Kotzbach, M. Dubiel, M. Michalska, B. Góralczyk, A. Zając, and D. Rość, “Effect of LLLT on endothelial cells culture,” Lasers Med. Sci. 30(1), 273–278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mater. Sci. Eng. C (1)

C. X. F. Lam, X. M. Mo, S. H. Teoh, and D. W. Hutmacher, “Scaffold development using 3D printing with a starch-based polymer,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 20(1–2), 49–56 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Fabry-Pérot nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3489–3493 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanophotonics (2)

C. Ye, K. Liu, R. A. Soref, and V. J. Sorger, “A compact plasmonic MOS-based 2×2 electro-optic switch,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 261–268 (2015).

Z. Ma, Z. Li, K. Liu, C. Ye, and V. J. Sorger, “Indium-Tin-Oxide for High-performance Electro-optic Modulation,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 198–213 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

A. Fratalocchi, C. Dodson, R. Zia, P. Genevet, E. Verhagen, H. Altug, and V. Sorger, “Nano-optics gets practical,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 11–15 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Choi, J. W. Choi, S. Kim, S. Nizamoglu, S. K. Hahn, and S. H. Yun, “Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 987–994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, X. Zhang, D. A. Genov, V. J. Sorger, and D. F. P. Pile, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Radiobiol. Radiother. (Berl.) (1)

E. Mester, B. Szende, and P. Gärtner, “[The effect of laser beams on the growth of hair in mice],” Radiobiol. Radiother. (Berl.) 9(5), 621–626 (1968).
[PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (2)

A. P. Sommer, M. Kh. Haddad, and H. J. Fecht, “Light Effect on Water Viscosity: Implication for ATP Biosynthesis,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12029 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Li, K. Liu, V. J. Sorger, and D. K. Sadana, “Monolithic III-V on Silicon Plasmonic Nanolaser Structure for Optical Interconnects,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14067 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

R. Langer and J. P. Vacanti, “Tissue engineering,” Science 260(5110), 920–926 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. G. Rabus, Integrated Ring Resonators: The Compendium (Springer, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Modeled irradiance (a) along a 10cm length of PLA without the mirror cap, circles, the contribution of the mirror cap, diamonds, and the total irradiance, crosses, with α = 10 [ m 1 ] , R = 0.9, shows a leveling of the power distributed over the length of the waveguide in order to reach the optimal biphasic dose response (b), along the length of the fiber, schematic (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PLA waveguide absorption (α) and scattering (ασ) loss test. (a) PLA waveguides were attached to a 650 nm mini-laser and output power was recorded along with an image from above while the fiber was illuminated. (b) Raman shift of the waveguide prior to treatment (dotted line) and after treatment (solid line) at the 875 cm−1 peak indicate hydrolysis. PLA waveguides were treated to incur water hydrolyzation of the polymer to increasing optical diffusion through microwave water vaporization. Two measurements of total losses (c) scattering (d) and absorption (e) calculated from curve fitting images and measuring the output power of 11 treated PLA waveguides shows increasing scattering with microwaving time. This light extinction control of these waveguides allows targeting the optimal dosage on the biphasic response curve of cells in biophotomodulation treatments. An 8 μm x 8 μm section AFM data of the surface of untreated PLA (f) is smooth with RMS 23 nm when compared to that of PLA treated for 40 s (g) with RMS 32 nm showing that surface roughness is increased by treatment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Light distribution effect from a leaky Fabry-Perot cavity. (a) The cavity is formed on surface-treated PLA fibers where one end is capped with a mirror (ii) (100 nm of gold). The mirror folds light back into the fiber, thus distributing the energy more evenly along the fiber. (b) Image of PLA waveguide without (i) and with (ii) gold cap, illuminated with 650 nm mini-laser CW 5 mW optical power with light propagating from left to right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A four-ring mesh fabricated from transparent 180 μm thick PLA film illuminated by a 650 nm CW 5 mW optical power laser source shows leveling of the distribution of power over the surface of the structure (a). Intensity CCD-camera image (b) Intensity vs. vs. ring-position expressed as angle shows an decent smoothing effect displaying an average 4.9 dB variance in irradiance around each ring, limited by the rough edges of the laser cut PLA.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d P D dx =( ασ ) P D
P D ( x )=Aexp( ( ασ )x )[ W m 2 ]
I( x )=σAexp( ( ασ )x )[ W m 1 ]
dI dx =σ( ασ )Aexp( ( ασ )x )[ W m 2 ]=0
P mirror ( x )=RAexp( ( ασ )L )exp( ( ασ )( Lx ) )[ W m 2 ]
I( x )=σA( exp( ( ασ )x )+Rexp( ( ασ )L )exp( ( ασ )( Lx ) ) )[ W m 1 ]
E 1 = α r exp( jθ ) E i
E T = E i [ 1+ ( α r exp( jθ ) ) 1 + ( α r exp( jθ ) ) 2 +...+ ( α r exp( jθ ) ) n ]
| E T | 2 = | E i | 2 ( 1 1 α r ) 2
a r =exp( ( -a-s )2πr )
I=σ P i ( 1 1exp( ( ασ )2πr ) ) 2
E T ( ϕ )=exp( ( ασ )ϕr ) E i [ 1+ ( α r exp( jθ ) ) 1 +...+ ( α r exp( jθ ) ) n ] = E i exp( ( ασ )ϕr ) 1 α r exp( jθ ) = E i exp( ( ασ )ϕr ) 1exp( ( ασ )2πr )exp( jθ )
I( ϕ )=σ P i ( exp( ( ασ )ϕr ) 1exp( ( ασ )2πr )exp( jθ ) ) 2
dI( ϕ ) dϕ =2σ P i ( exp( α T ϕr ) 1exp( α T 2πr )exp( jθ ) ) 2 ( α T )r lim α T 0 dI( ϕ ) dϕ =0

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