Abstract

Thousands of people die every year from burn injuries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of high intensity femtosecond lasers as an auxiliary treatment of skin burns. We used an in vivo animal model and monitored the healing process using 4 different imaging modalities: histology, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), Second Harmonic Generation (SHG), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. 3 dorsal areas of 20 anesthetized Wistar rats were burned by water vapor exposure and subsequently treated either by classical surgical debridement, by laser ablation, or left without treatment. Skin burn tissues were non-invasively characterized by OCT images and biopsied for further histopathology analysis, SHG imaging and FTIR spectroscopy at 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after burn. The laser protocol was found as efficient as the classical treatment for promoting the healing process. The study concludes to the validation of femtosecond ultra-short pulses laser treatment for skinburns, with the advantage of minimizing operatory trauma.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (5)

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: Speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 71412 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. a. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sule-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform ir spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1771–1791 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, E. Z. Zhang, W. Fox, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Combined reflectance confocal microscopy/optical coherence tomography imaging for skin burn assessment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 6537–6548 (2014).

P. H. Puhakka, J. H. Ylärinne, M. J. Lammi, S. Saarakkala, V. Tiitu, H. Kröger, T. Virén, J. S. Jurvelin, and J. Töyräs, “Dependence of light attenuation and backscattering on collagen concentration and chondrocyte density in agarose scaffolds,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 6537–6548 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bancelin, A. Nazac, B. H. Ibrahim, P. Dokládal, E. Decenciere, B. Teig, H. Haddad, H. Fernandez, M. C. Schanne-Klein, and A. De Martino, “Determination of collagen fiber orientation in histological slides using Mueller microscopy and validation by second harmonic generation imaging,” Opt. Express 22, 22561–22574 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

R. Tanaka, S.-i. Fukushima, K. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, H. Murota, T. Matsumoto, K. Matsumoto, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 61231 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (3)

Y. Yang, T. Wang, N. C. Biswal, X. Wang, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Optical scattering coefficient estimated by optical coherence tomography correlates with collagen content in ovarian tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. B. S. Campelo, M. W. S. Campelo, G. A. d. C. Britto, A. P. Ayala, S. B. Guimarães, and P. R. L. d. Vasconcelos, “An optimized animal model for partial and total skin thickness burns studies,” Acta Cir. Bras. 26, 38–42 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Busuioc, F. C. Popescu, G.D. Mogosanu, I. Lascar, I. Pirici, O.T. Pop, and L. Mogoantă, “Angiogenesis assessment in experimental third degree skin burns: a histological and immunohistochemical study,” Rom. J. Morphol. Embryo. 52, 887–895 (2011).

2010 (1)

D. T. Furuya, A. C. Poletto, R. R. Favaro, J. O. Martins, T. M. Zorn, and U. F. Machado, “Anti-inflammatory effect of atorvastatin ameliorates insulin resistance in monosodium glutamate–treated obese mice,” Metabolism 59, 395–399 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

D. K. Meyerholz, T. L. Piester, J. C. Sokolich, G. K. Zamba, and T. D. Light, “Morphological parameters for assessment of burn severity in an acute burn injury rat model,” J. Exp. Pathol. 90, 26–33 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

D. O. Traktuev, S. Merfeld-Clauss, J. Li, M. Kolonin, W. Arap, R. Pasqualini, B. H. Johnstone, and K. L. March, “A population of multipotent cd34-positive adipose stromal cells share pericyte and mesenchymal surface markers, reside in a periendothelial location, and stabilize endothelial networks,” Circ. Res. 102, 77–85 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Bianchini and A. Diaspro, “Three-dimensional (3D) backward and forward second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy of biological tissues,” J. Biophotonics 1, 443–450 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Barth, “Infrared spectroscopy of proteins,” BBA-Bioenergetics 1767, 1073–1101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

Y. Sun, W. L. Chen, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, Y. F. Chen, L. C. Lin, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Investigating mechanisms of collagen thermal denaturation by high resolution second-harmonic generation imaging,” Biophys. J. 91, 2620–2625 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Guilak, K. E. Lott, H. A. Awad, Q. Cao, K. C. Hicok, B. Fermor, and J. M. Gimble, “Clonal analysis of the differentiation potential of human adipose-derived adult stem cells,” J. Cell. Physiol. 206, 229–237 (2006).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Lin, T.-L. Yang, C.-T. Chiang, H.-C. Kao, J.-N. Lee, W. Lo, S.-H. Jee, Y.-F. Chen, C.-Y. Dong, and S.-J. Lin, “Evaluation of dermal thermal damage by multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064006 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

R. Cancello, C. Henegar, N. Viguerie, S. Taleb, C. Poitou, C. Rouault, M. Coupaye, V. Pelloux, D. Hugol, J. L. Bouillot, and et al., “Reduction of macrophage infiltration and chemoattractant gene expression changes in white adipose tissue of morbidly obese subjects after surgery-induced weight loss,” Diabetes 54, 2277–2286 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Case, T. L. Horvath, J. C. Howell, M. C. Yoder, K. L. March, and E. F. Srour, “Clonal multilineage differentiation of murine common pluripotent stem cells isolated from skeletal muscle and adipose stromal cells,” Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 1044, 183–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Atiyeh, S. W. Gunn, and S. N. Hayek, “State of the art in burn treatment,” Phys. Med. Biol 29, 131–148 (2005).

2004 (3)

A. T. Yeh, B. Kao, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging wound healing using optical coherence tomography and multiphoton microscopy in an in vitro skin-equivalent tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 248–253 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. van Harmelen, K. Röhrig, and H. Hauner, “Comparison of proliferation and differentiation capacity of human adipocyte precursor cells from the omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue depot of obese subjects,” Metabolism 53, 632–637 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber, F. J. van der Meer, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of weakly scattering media using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12, 4353–4365 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103, 577–644 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, S. Member, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Accurate measurement of total attenuation coefficient of thin tissue with optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elec. 9, 210–221 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

R. Pankov and K. M. Yamada, “Fibronectin at a glance,” J. Cell. Sci. 115, 3861–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Zuk, M. Zhu, P. Ashjian, D. A. De Ugarte, J. I. Huang, H. Mizuno, Z. C. Alfonso, J. K. Fraser, P. Benhaim, and M. H. Hedrick, “Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13, 4279–4295 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. Gronthos, D. M. Franklin, H. A. Leddy, P. G. Robey, R. W. Storms, and J. M. Gimble, “Surface protein characterization of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells,” J. Cell. Physiol. 189, 54–63 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

K. E. Kadler, D. F. Holmes, J. A. Trotter, and J. A. Chapman, “Collagen fibril formation,” Biochem. J. 316, 1–11 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

G. S. Hotamisligil, P. Arner, J. F. Caro, R. L. Atkinson, and B. M. Spiegelman, “Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance,” J. Clin. Invest. 95, 2409 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

H. A. Green, Y. Domankevitz, and N. S. Nishioka, “Pulsed carbon dioxide laser ablation of burned skin: In vitro and in vivo analysis,” Laser Surg. Med. 10, 476–484 (1990).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

Aalders, M. C. G.

Abbas, A. K.

V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, J. C. Aster, and S. L. Robbins, Robbins basic pathology, 9th ed (Elsevier/Saunders, 2013).

Alfonso, Z. C.

P. A. Zuk, M. Zhu, P. Ashjian, D. A. De Ugarte, J. I. Huang, H. Mizuno, Z. C. Alfonso, J. K. Fraser, P. Benhaim, and M. H. Hedrick, “Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13, 4279–4295 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ambekar, R.

Araki, T.

R. Tanaka, S.-i. Fukushima, K. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, H. Murota, T. Matsumoto, K. Matsumoto, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 61231 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arap, W.

D. O. Traktuev, S. Merfeld-Clauss, J. Li, M. Kolonin, W. Arap, R. Pasqualini, B. H. Johnstone, and K. L. March, “A population of multipotent cd34-positive adipose stromal cells share pericyte and mesenchymal surface markers, reside in a periendothelial location, and stabilize endothelial networks,” Circ. Res. 102, 77–85 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arner, P.

G. S. Hotamisligil, P. Arner, J. F. Caro, R. L. Atkinson, and B. M. Spiegelman, “Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance,” J. Clin. Invest. 95, 2409 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashjian, P.

P. A. Zuk, M. Zhu, P. Ashjian, D. A. De Ugarte, J. I. Huang, H. Mizuno, Z. C. Alfonso, J. K. Fraser, P. Benhaim, and M. H. Hedrick, “Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13, 4279–4295 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aster, J. C.

V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, J. C. Aster, and S. L. Robbins, Robbins basic pathology, 9th ed (Elsevier/Saunders, 2013).

Atiyeh, B. S.

B. S. Atiyeh, S. W. Gunn, and S. N. Hayek, “State of the art in burn treatment,” Phys. Med. Biol 29, 131–148 (2005).

Atkinson, R. L.

G. S. Hotamisligil, P. Arner, J. F. Caro, R. L. Atkinson, and B. M. Spiegelman, “Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance,” J. Clin. Invest. 95, 2409 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Awad, H. A.

F. Guilak, K. E. Lott, H. A. Awad, Q. Cao, K. C. Hicok, B. Fermor, and J. M. Gimble, “Clonal analysis of the differentiation potential of human adipose-derived adult stem cells,” J. Cell. Physiol. 206, 229–237 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ayala, A. P.

A. P. B. S. Campelo, M. W. S. Campelo, G. A. d. C. Britto, A. P. Ayala, S. B. Guimarães, and P. R. L. d. Vasconcelos, “An optimized animal model for partial and total skin thickness burns studies,” Acta Cir. Bras. 26, 38–42 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, M. J.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. a. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sule-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform ir spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1771–1791 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bancelin, S.

Barth, A.

A. Barth, “Infrared spectroscopy of proteins,” BBA-Bioenergetics 1767, 1073–1101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bassan, P.

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M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. a. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sule-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform ir spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1771–1791 (2014).
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De Boer, J.

De Martino, A.

De Ugarte, D. A.

P. A. Zuk, M. Zhu, P. Ashjian, D. A. De Ugarte, J. I. Huang, H. Mizuno, Z. C. Alfonso, J. K. Fraser, P. Benhaim, and M. H. Hedrick, “Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13, 4279–4295 (2002).
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Diaspro, A.

P. Bianchini and A. Diaspro, “Three-dimensional (3D) backward and forward second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy of biological tissues,” J. Biophotonics 1, 443–450 (2008).
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Domankevitz, Y.

H. A. Green, Y. Domankevitz, and N. S. Nishioka, “Pulsed carbon dioxide laser ablation of burned skin: In vitro and in vivo analysis,” Laser Surg. Med. 10, 476–484 (1990).
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Y. Sun, W. L. Chen, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, Y. F. Chen, L. C. Lin, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Investigating mechanisms of collagen thermal denaturation by high resolution second-harmonic generation imaging,” Biophys. J. 91, 2620–2625 (2006).
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D. Elder, R. Elenitsas, C. Jaworsky, and J. Bernett Johson, Lever’s histopathology of the skin, eighth edition, Human pathology (Elsevier, 1998). Vol. 29.

Elster, E. a.

N. J. Crane and E. a. Elster, “Vibrational spectroscopy: A tool being developed for the noninvasive monitoring of wound healing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 010902 (2012).
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Fermor, B.

F. Guilak, K. E. Lott, H. A. Awad, Q. Cao, K. C. Hicok, B. Fermor, and J. M. Gimble, “Clonal analysis of the differentiation potential of human adipose-derived adult stem cells,” J. Cell. Physiol. 206, 229–237 (2006).
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M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. a. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sule-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform ir spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1771–1791 (2014).
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Fogarty, S. W.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. a. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sule-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform ir spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1771–1791 (2014).
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S. Gronthos, D. M. Franklin, H. A. Leddy, P. G. Robey, R. W. Storms, and J. M. Gimble, “Surface protein characterization of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells,” J. Cell. Physiol. 189, 54–63 (2001).
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P. A. Zuk, M. Zhu, P. Ashjian, D. A. De Ugarte, J. I. Huang, H. Mizuno, Z. C. Alfonso, J. K. Fraser, P. Benhaim, and M. H. Hedrick, “Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13, 4279–4295 (2002).
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D. T. Furuya, A. C. Poletto, R. R. Favaro, J. O. Martins, T. M. Zorn, and U. F. Machado, “Anti-inflammatory effect of atorvastatin ameliorates insulin resistance in monosodium glutamate–treated obese mice,” Metabolism 59, 395–399 (2010).
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Gardner, P.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. a. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sule-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform ir spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1771–1791 (2014).
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F. Guilak, K. E. Lott, H. A. Awad, Q. Cao, K. C. Hicok, B. Fermor, and J. M. Gimble, “Clonal analysis of the differentiation potential of human adipose-derived adult stem cells,” J. Cell. Physiol. 206, 229–237 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Gronthos, D. M. Franklin, H. A. Leddy, P. G. Robey, R. W. Storms, and J. M. Gimble, “Surface protein characterization of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells,” J. Cell. Physiol. 189, 54–63 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, H. A.

H. A. Green, Y. Domankevitz, and N. S. Nishioka, “Pulsed carbon dioxide laser ablation of burned skin: In vitro and in vivo analysis,” Laser Surg. Med. 10, 476–484 (1990).
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Gronthos, S.

S. Gronthos, D. M. Franklin, H. A. Leddy, P. G. Robey, R. W. Storms, and J. M. Gimble, “Surface protein characterization of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells,” J. Cell. Physiol. 189, 54–63 (2001).
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Guilak, F.

F. Guilak, K. E. Lott, H. A. Awad, Q. Cao, K. C. Hicok, B. Fermor, and J. M. Gimble, “Clonal analysis of the differentiation potential of human adipose-derived adult stem cells,” J. Cell. Physiol. 206, 229–237 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guimarães, S. B.

A. P. B. S. Campelo, M. W. S. Campelo, G. A. d. C. Britto, A. P. Ayala, S. B. Guimarães, and P. R. L. d. Vasconcelos, “An optimized animal model for partial and total skin thickness burns studies,” Acta Cir. Bras. 26, 38–42 (2011).
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Hansen, W. P.

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P. A. Zuk, M. Zhu, P. Ashjian, D. A. De Ugarte, J. I. Huang, H. Mizuno, Z. C. Alfonso, J. K. Fraser, P. Benhaim, and M. H. Hedrick, “Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13, 4279–4295 (2002).
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R. Cancello, C. Henegar, N. Viguerie, S. Taleb, C. Poitou, C. Rouault, M. Coupaye, V. Pelloux, D. Hugol, J. L. Bouillot, and et al., “Reduction of macrophage infiltration and chemoattractant gene expression changes in white adipose tissue of morbidly obese subjects after surgery-induced weight loss,” Diabetes 54, 2277–2286 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heys, K. a.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. a. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sule-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform ir spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1771–1791 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hicok, K. C.

F. Guilak, K. E. Lott, H. A. Awad, Q. Cao, K. C. Hicok, B. Fermor, and J. M. Gimble, “Clonal analysis of the differentiation potential of human adipose-derived adult stem cells,” J. Cell. Physiol. 206, 229–237 (2006).
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K. E. Kadler, D. F. Holmes, J. A. Trotter, and J. A. Chapman, “Collagen fibril formation,” Biochem. J. 316, 1–11 (1996).
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Horvath, T. L.

J. Case, T. L. Horvath, J. C. Howell, M. C. Yoder, K. L. March, and E. F. Srour, “Clonal multilineage differentiation of murine common pluripotent stem cells isolated from skeletal muscle and adipose stromal cells,” Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 1044, 183–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hotamisligil, G. S.

G. S. Hotamisligil, P. Arner, J. F. Caro, R. L. Atkinson, and B. M. Spiegelman, “Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance,” J. Clin. Invest. 95, 2409 (1995).
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Howell, J. C.

J. Case, T. L. Horvath, J. C. Howell, M. C. Yoder, K. L. March, and E. F. Srour, “Clonal multilineage differentiation of murine common pluripotent stem cells isolated from skeletal muscle and adipose stromal cells,” Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 1044, 183–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, J. I.

P. A. Zuk, M. Zhu, P. Ashjian, D. A. De Ugarte, J. I. Huang, H. Mizuno, Z. C. Alfonso, J. K. Fraser, P. Benhaim, and M. H. Hedrick, “Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13, 4279–4295 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hughes, C.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. a. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sule-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform ir spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1771–1791 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hugol, D.

R. Cancello, C. Henegar, N. Viguerie, S. Taleb, C. Poitou, C. Rouault, M. Coupaye, V. Pelloux, D. Hugol, J. L. Bouillot, and et al., “Reduction of macrophage infiltration and chemoattractant gene expression changes in white adipose tissue of morbidly obese subjects after surgery-induced weight loss,” Diabetes 54, 2277–2286 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, B. H.

Iftimia, N.

N. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, E. Z. Zhang, W. Fox, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Combined reflectance confocal microscopy/optical coherence tomography imaging for skin burn assessment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 6537–6548 (2014).

Ishida, S.

Jaworsky, C.

D. Elder, R. Elenitsas, C. Jaworsky, and J. Bernett Johson, Lever’s histopathology of the skin, eighth edition, Human pathology (Elsevier, 1998). Vol. 29.

Jee, S. H.

Y. Sun, W. L. Chen, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, Y. F. Chen, L. C. Lin, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Investigating mechanisms of collagen thermal denaturation by high resolution second-harmonic generation imaging,” Biophys. J. 91, 2620–2625 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jee, S.-H.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Storms, R. W.

S. Gronthos, D. M. Franklin, H. A. Leddy, P. G. Robey, R. W. Storms, and J. M. Gimble, “Surface protein characterization of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells,” J. Cell. Physiol. 189, 54–63 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strong, R. J.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. a. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sule-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform ir spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1771–1791 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sule-Suso, J.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. a. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sule-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform ir spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1771–1791 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, W. L. Chen, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, Y. F. Chen, L. C. Lin, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Investigating mechanisms of collagen thermal denaturation by high resolution second-harmonic generation imaging,” Biophys. J. 91, 2620–2625 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taleb, S.

R. Cancello, C. Henegar, N. Viguerie, S. Taleb, C. Poitou, C. Rouault, M. Coupaye, V. Pelloux, D. Hugol, J. L. Bouillot, and et al., “Reduction of macrophage infiltration and chemoattractant gene expression changes in white adipose tissue of morbidly obese subjects after surgery-induced weight loss,” Diabetes 54, 2277–2286 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, R.

R. Tanaka, S.-i. Fukushima, K. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, H. Murota, T. Matsumoto, K. Matsumoto, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 61231 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, Y.

R. Tanaka, S.-i. Fukushima, K. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, H. Murota, T. Matsumoto, K. Matsumoto, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 61231 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teig, B.

Tiitu, V.

P. H. Puhakka, J. H. Ylärinne, M. J. Lammi, S. Saarakkala, V. Tiitu, H. Kröger, T. Virén, J. S. Jurvelin, and J. Töyräs, “Dependence of light attenuation and backscattering on collagen concentration and chondrocyte density in agarose scaffolds,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 6537–6548 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toussaint, K. C.

Töyräs, J.

P. H. Puhakka, J. H. Ylärinne, M. J. Lammi, S. Saarakkala, V. Tiitu, H. Kröger, T. Virén, J. S. Jurvelin, and J. Töyräs, “Dependence of light attenuation and backscattering on collagen concentration and chondrocyte density in agarose scaffolds,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 6537–6548 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Traktuev, D. O.

D. O. Traktuev, S. Merfeld-Clauss, J. Li, M. Kolonin, W. Arap, R. Pasqualini, B. H. Johnstone, and K. L. March, “A population of multipotent cd34-positive adipose stromal cells share pericyte and mesenchymal surface markers, reside in a periendothelial location, and stabilize endothelial networks,” Circ. Res. 102, 77–85 (2008).
[Crossref]

Trevisan, J.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. a. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sule-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform ir spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1771–1791 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

A. T. Yeh, B. Kao, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging wound healing using optical coherence tomography and multiphoton microscopy in an in vitro skin-equivalent tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 248–253 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trotter, J. A.

K. E. Kadler, D. F. Holmes, J. A. Trotter, and J. A. Chapman, “Collagen fibril formation,” Biochem. J. 316, 1–11 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: Speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 71412 (2014).
[Crossref]

van der Meer, F. J.

van Harmelen, V.

V. van Harmelen, K. Röhrig, and H. Hauner, “Comparison of proliferation and differentiation capacity of human adipocyte precursor cells from the omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue depot of obese subjects,” Metabolism 53, 632–637 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vasconcelos, P. R. L. d.

A. P. B. S. Campelo, M. W. S. Campelo, G. A. d. C. Britto, A. P. Ayala, S. B. Guimarães, and P. R. L. d. Vasconcelos, “An optimized animal model for partial and total skin thickness burns studies,” Acta Cir. Bras. 26, 38–42 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venugopalan, V.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103, 577–644 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viguerie, N.

R. Cancello, C. Henegar, N. Viguerie, S. Taleb, C. Poitou, C. Rouault, M. Coupaye, V. Pelloux, D. Hugol, J. L. Bouillot, and et al., “Reduction of macrophage infiltration and chemoattractant gene expression changes in white adipose tissue of morbidly obese subjects after surgery-induced weight loss,” Diabetes 54, 2277–2286 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Virén, T.

P. H. Puhakka, J. H. Ylärinne, M. J. Lammi, S. Saarakkala, V. Tiitu, H. Kröger, T. Virén, J. S. Jurvelin, and J. Töyräs, “Dependence of light attenuation and backscattering on collagen concentration and chondrocyte density in agarose scaffolds,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 6537–6548 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103, 577–644 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, M.

Walsh, M. J.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. a. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sule-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform ir spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1771–1791 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

Y. Yang, T. Wang, N. C. Biswal, X. Wang, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Optical scattering coefficient estimated by optical coherence tomography correlates with collagen content in ovarian tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Y. Yang, T. Wang, N. C. Biswal, X. Wang, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Optical scattering coefficient estimated by optical coherence tomography correlates with collagen content in ovarian tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, B. R.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. a. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sule-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform ir spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1771–1791 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, K. M.

R. Pankov and K. M. Yamada, “Fibronectin at a glance,” J. Cell. Sci. 115, 3861–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, T.-L.

M.-G. Lin, T.-L. Yang, C.-T. Chiang, H.-C. Kao, J.-N. Lee, W. Lo, S.-H. Jee, Y.-F. Chen, C.-Y. Dong, and S.-J. Lin, “Evaluation of dermal thermal damage by multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064006 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, T. Wang, N. C. Biswal, X. Wang, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Optical scattering coefficient estimated by optical coherence tomography correlates with collagen content in ovarian tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasui, T.

R. Tanaka, S.-i. Fukushima, K. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, H. Murota, T. Matsumoto, K. Matsumoto, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 61231 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, A. T.

A. T. Yeh, B. Kao, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging wound healing using optical coherence tomography and multiphoton microscopy in an in vitro skin-equivalent tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 248–253 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ylärinne, J. H.

P. H. Puhakka, J. H. Ylärinne, M. J. Lammi, S. Saarakkala, V. Tiitu, H. Kröger, T. Virén, J. S. Jurvelin, and J. Töyräs, “Dependence of light attenuation and backscattering on collagen concentration and chondrocyte density in agarose scaffolds,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 6537–6548 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoder, M. C.

J. Case, T. L. Horvath, J. C. Howell, M. C. Yoder, K. L. March, and E. F. Srour, “Clonal multilineage differentiation of murine common pluripotent stem cells isolated from skeletal muscle and adipose stromal cells,” Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 1044, 183–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zamba, G. K.

D. K. Meyerholz, T. L. Piester, J. C. Sokolich, G. K. Zamba, and T. D. Light, “Morphological parameters for assessment of burn severity in an acute burn injury rat model,” J. Exp. Pathol. 90, 26–33 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zezell, D.

M. Oliveira dos Santos, V. Bianchini Pelegati, C. Lenz Cesar, T. M. Tenório Zorn, and D. Zezell, “Imaging of third-degree burned skin by two-photon emission fluorescence microscope and second harmonic generation microscopy,” Latin America Optics and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper TuE2.
[Crossref]

Zhang, E. Z.

N. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, E. Z. Zhang, W. Fox, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Combined reflectance confocal microscopy/optical coherence tomography imaging for skin burn assessment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 6537–6548 (2014).

Zhu, M.

P. A. Zuk, M. Zhu, P. Ashjian, D. A. De Ugarte, J. I. Huang, H. Mizuno, Z. C. Alfonso, J. K. Fraser, P. Benhaim, and M. H. Hedrick, “Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13, 4279–4295 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Q.

Y. Yang, T. Wang, N. C. Biswal, X. Wang, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Optical scattering coefficient estimated by optical coherence tomography correlates with collagen content in ovarian tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zorn, T. M.

D. T. Furuya, A. C. Poletto, R. R. Favaro, J. O. Martins, T. M. Zorn, and U. F. Machado, “Anti-inflammatory effect of atorvastatin ameliorates insulin resistance in monosodium glutamate–treated obese mice,” Metabolism 59, 395–399 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zorn, T. M. Tenório

M. Oliveira dos Santos, V. Bianchini Pelegati, C. Lenz Cesar, T. M. Tenório Zorn, and D. Zezell, “Imaging of third-degree burned skin by two-photon emission fluorescence microscope and second harmonic generation microscopy,” Latin America Optics and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper TuE2.
[Crossref]

Zuk, P. A.

P. A. Zuk, M. Zhu, P. Ashjian, D. A. De Ugarte, J. I. Huang, H. Mizuno, Z. C. Alfonso, J. K. Fraser, P. Benhaim, and M. H. Hedrick, “Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13, 4279–4295 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Cir. Bras. (1)

A. P. B. S. Campelo, M. W. S. Campelo, G. A. d. C. Britto, A. P. Ayala, S. B. Guimarães, and P. R. L. d. Vasconcelos, “An optimized animal model for partial and total skin thickness burns studies,” Acta Cir. Bras. 26, 38–42 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. (1)

J. Case, T. L. Horvath, J. C. Howell, M. C. Yoder, K. L. March, and E. F. Srour, “Clonal multilineage differentiation of murine common pluripotent stem cells isolated from skeletal muscle and adipose stromal cells,” Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 1044, 183–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

BBA-Bioenergetics (1)

A. Barth, “Infrared spectroscopy of proteins,” BBA-Bioenergetics 1767, 1073–1101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biochem. J. (1)

K. E. Kadler, D. F. Holmes, J. A. Trotter, and J. A. Chapman, “Collagen fibril formation,” Biochem. J. 316, 1–11 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Biophys. J. (1)

Y. Sun, W. L. Chen, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, Y. F. Chen, L. C. Lin, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Investigating mechanisms of collagen thermal denaturation by high resolution second-harmonic generation imaging,” Biophys. J. 91, 2620–2625 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev. (1)

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103, 577–644 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Circ. Res. (1)

D. O. Traktuev, S. Merfeld-Clauss, J. Li, M. Kolonin, W. Arap, R. Pasqualini, B. H. Johnstone, and K. L. March, “A population of multipotent cd34-positive adipose stromal cells share pericyte and mesenchymal surface markers, reside in a periendothelial location, and stabilize endothelial networks,” Circ. Res. 102, 77–85 (2008).
[Crossref]

Diabetes (1)

R. Cancello, C. Henegar, N. Viguerie, S. Taleb, C. Poitou, C. Rouault, M. Coupaye, V. Pelloux, D. Hugol, J. L. Bouillot, and et al., “Reduction of macrophage infiltration and chemoattractant gene expression changes in white adipose tissue of morbidly obese subjects after surgery-induced weight loss,” Diabetes 54, 2277–2286 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elec. (1)

A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, S. Member, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Accurate measurement of total attenuation coefficient of thin tissue with optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elec. 9, 210–221 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (6)

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: Speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 71412 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. J. Crane and E. a. Elster, “Vibrational spectroscopy: A tool being developed for the noninvasive monitoring of wound healing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 010902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, T. Wang, N. C. Biswal, X. Wang, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Optical scattering coefficient estimated by optical coherence tomography correlates with collagen content in ovarian tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Tanaka, S.-i. Fukushima, K. Sasaki, Y. Tanaka, H. Murota, T. Matsumoto, K. Matsumoto, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “In vivo visualization of dermal collagen fiber in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 61231 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-G. Lin, T.-L. Yang, C.-T. Chiang, H.-C. Kao, J.-N. Lee, W. Lo, S.-H. Jee, Y.-F. Chen, C.-Y. Dong, and S.-J. Lin, “Evaluation of dermal thermal damage by multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064006 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. T. Yeh, B. Kao, W. G. Jung, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging wound healing using optical coherence tomography and multiphoton microscopy in an in vitro skin-equivalent tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 248–253 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

P. Bianchini and A. Diaspro, “Three-dimensional (3D) backward and forward second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy of biological tissues,” J. Biophotonics 1, 443–450 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Cell. Physiol. (2)

F. Guilak, K. E. Lott, H. A. Awad, Q. Cao, K. C. Hicok, B. Fermor, and J. M. Gimble, “Clonal analysis of the differentiation potential of human adipose-derived adult stem cells,” J. Cell. Physiol. 206, 229–237 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Gronthos, D. M. Franklin, H. A. Leddy, P. G. Robey, R. W. Storms, and J. M. Gimble, “Surface protein characterization of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells,” J. Cell. Physiol. 189, 54–63 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cell. Sci. (1)

R. Pankov and K. M. Yamada, “Fibronectin at a glance,” J. Cell. Sci. 115, 3861–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Invest. (1)

G. S. Hotamisligil, P. Arner, J. F. Caro, R. L. Atkinson, and B. M. Spiegelman, “Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance,” J. Clin. Invest. 95, 2409 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Pathol. (1)

D. K. Meyerholz, T. L. Piester, J. C. Sokolich, G. K. Zamba, and T. D. Light, “Morphological parameters for assessment of burn severity in an acute burn injury rat model,” J. Exp. Pathol. 90, 26–33 (2009).
[Crossref]

Laser Surg. Med. (1)

H. A. Green, Y. Domankevitz, and N. S. Nishioka, “Pulsed carbon dioxide laser ablation of burned skin: In vitro and in vivo analysis,” Laser Surg. Med. 10, 476–484 (1990).
[Crossref]

Metabolism (2)

V. van Harmelen, K. Röhrig, and H. Hauner, “Comparison of proliferation and differentiation capacity of human adipocyte precursor cells from the omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue depot of obese subjects,” Metabolism 53, 632–637 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. Furuya, A. C. Poletto, R. R. Favaro, J. O. Martins, T. M. Zorn, and U. F. Machado, “Anti-inflammatory effect of atorvastatin ameliorates insulin resistance in monosodium glutamate–treated obese mice,” Metabolism 59, 395–399 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mol. Biol. Cell (1)

P. A. Zuk, M. Zhu, P. Ashjian, D. A. De Ugarte, J. I. Huang, H. Mizuno, Z. C. Alfonso, J. K. Fraser, P. Benhaim, and M. H. Hedrick, “Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13, 4279–4295 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. a. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sule-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform ir spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1771–1791 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Med. Biol (1)

B. S. Atiyeh, S. W. Gunn, and S. N. Hayek, “State of the art in burn treatment,” Phys. Med. Biol 29, 131–148 (2005).

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

P. H. Puhakka, J. H. Ylärinne, M. J. Lammi, S. Saarakkala, V. Tiitu, H. Kröger, T. Virén, J. S. Jurvelin, and J. Töyräs, “Dependence of light attenuation and backscattering on collagen concentration and chondrocyte density in agarose scaffolds,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 6537–6548 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rom. J. Morphol. Embryo. (1)

C. J. Busuioc, F. C. Popescu, G.D. Mogosanu, I. Lascar, I. Pirici, O.T. Pop, and L. Mogoantă, “Angiogenesis assessment in experimental third degree skin burns: a histological and immunohistochemical study,” Rom. J. Morphol. Embryo. 52, 887–895 (2011).

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P. Lasch and D. Naumann, “Infrared spectroscopy in microbiology,” in Encyclopedia of analytical chemistry. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006).

American Burn Association, “Burn incidence and treatment in the United States: 2016 fact sheet. 2016,” http://www.ameriburn.org/resources_factsheet.php (2016).

A. L. Kierszenbaum, Histology and cell biology: an introduction to pathology, 2nd ed (Mosby Elsevier, 2007).

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2015).
[Crossref]

D. Elder, R. Elenitsas, C. Jaworsky, and J. Bernett Johson, Lever’s histopathology of the skin, eighth edition, Human pathology (Elsevier, 1998). Vol. 29.

V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, J. C. Aster, and S. L. Robbins, Robbins basic pathology, 9th ed (Elsevier/Saunders, 2013).

M. Oliveira dos Santos, V. Bianchini Pelegati, C. Lenz Cesar, T. M. Tenório Zorn, and D. Zezell, “Imaging of third-degree burned skin by two-photon emission fluorescence microscope and second harmonic generation microscopy,” Latin America Optics and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper TuE2.
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Aspect of burned skin on rat dorsal area.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical OCT image of normal skin and intensity curve of the OCT signal with depth on a region of interest of width 1500 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histological section of normal skin of the back of a Wistar rat stained with H&E. Structure of normal skin with layers of epidermis and dermis; magnification 20×. In the detail, epidermis and keratinocytes are observed in stages of differentiation; dermis shows the usual distribution of collagen fiber bundles. Magnification 60×.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Left to right: H&E histological sections of burned, debrided and ablated skin at days 3 and 14 after vapour source exposure. At day 3, there is no boundary between the epidermis and dermis layers; a considerable amount of hair follicles having different cross-sections are present. Magnification 20×. At day 14, there is no differences between the samples. Magnification 60×.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OCT images of in vivo rat skin tissues from the 3 experimental groups at days 3 and 14 after vapour exposure. Arrows show the regenerated epithelium.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SHG images, perpendicular sections of 20 µm thickness of skin burn tissue dermis samples at days 3 and 14, showing the localization of the collagen fibers in red.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Evolution of the COI, Collagen Organization Index, for each experimental group at days 3, 5, 7 and 14 after vapour exposure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

FTIR mean spectra of debrided skin compared with the healthy skin.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

FTIR mean spectra of ablated skin compared with the healthy skin.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Laser Parameters

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

10 log ( P ( z ) P 0 ) 20 μ a log ( e z ) + 10 exp ( K μ s A ( z ) )
COI = 1 W H

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