Abstract

The current International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard (ISO 8600-3: 1997 including Amendment 1: 2003) for determining endoscope field of view (FOV) does not accurately characterize some novel endoscopic technologies such as endoscopes with a close focus distance and capsule endoscopes. We evaluated the endoscope FOV measurement method (the FOVWS method) in the current ISO 8600-3 standard and proposed a new method (the FOVEP method). We compared the two methods by measuring the FOV of 18 models of endoscopes (one device for each model) from seven key international manufacturers. We also estimated the device to device variation of two models of colonoscopes by measuring several hundreds of devices. Our results showed that the FOVEP method was more accurate than the FOVWS method, and could be used for all endoscopes. We also found that the labelled FOV values of many commercial endoscopes are significantly overstated. Our study can help endoscope users understand endoscope FOV and identify a proper method for FOV measurement. This paper can be used as a reference to revise the current endoscope FOV measurement standard.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  1. J. J. Van Gompel, M. H. Tabor, A. S. Youssef, T. Lau, A. P. Carlson, H. R. van Loveren, and S. Agazzi, “Field of view comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional endoscopy,” Laryngoscope 124(2), 387–390 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. E. Kobayashi, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, “A wide-angle view endoscope system using wedge prisms,” in Third Int. Conf. on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention(Springer, 2000), pp. 661–668.
    [Crossref]
  3. ISO, “ISO 8600-3: Optics and optical instruments - Medical endoscopes and endoscopic accessories - Part 3: Determination of field of view and direction of view of endoscopes with optics,” (the International Organization for Standardization, 1997, 2003).
  4. ISO, “ISO 8600-1: Endoscopes — Medical endoscopes and endotherapy devices — Part 1: General requirements ” (the International Organization for Standardization, 2013).
  5. R. C. C. Wang, M. J. Deen, D. Armstrong, and Q. Fang, “Development of a catadioptric endoscope objective with forward and side views,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066015 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. C. Han, J. Huangfu, L. L. Lai, and C. Yang, “A wide field-of-view scanning endoscope for whole anal canal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(2), 607–614 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Y. M. Bhat, D. B. Abu, S. S. Chauhan, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, and ASGE Technology Committee, “High-definition and high-magnification endoscopes,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 919–927 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. P. Gomes, Medical Robotics: Minimally Invasive Surgery (Elsevier, 2012).
  9. M. K. Goenka, S. Majumder, and U. Goenka, “Capsule endoscopy: Present status and future expectation,” World J. Gastroenterol. 20(29), 10024–10037 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. D. R. Cave, D. E. Fleischer, J. A. Leighton, D. O. Faigel, R. I. Heigh, V. K. Sharma, C. J. Gostout, E. Rajan, K. Mergener, A. Foley, M. Lee, and K. Bhattacharya, “A multicenter randomized comparison of the Endocapsule and the Pillcam SB,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(3), 487–494 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. JCGM, Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (International Organization for Standardization, 2008).
  12. Q. Wang, W.-C. Cheng, N. Suresh, and H. Hua, “Development of the local magnification method for quantitative evaluation of endoscope geometric distortion,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(5), 056003 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

Q. Wang, W.-C. Cheng, N. Suresh, and H. Hua, “Development of the local magnification method for quantitative evaluation of endoscope geometric distortion,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(5), 056003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

Y. M. Bhat, D. B. Abu, S. S. Chauhan, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, and ASGE Technology Committee, “High-definition and high-magnification endoscopes,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 919–927 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Goenka, S. Majumder, and U. Goenka, “Capsule endoscopy: Present status and future expectation,” World J. Gastroenterol. 20(29), 10024–10037 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Van Gompel, M. H. Tabor, A. S. Youssef, T. Lau, A. P. Carlson, H. R. van Loveren, and S. Agazzi, “Field of view comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional endoscopy,” Laryngoscope 124(2), 387–390 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

R. C. C. Wang, M. J. Deen, D. Armstrong, and Q. Fang, “Development of a catadioptric endoscope objective with forward and side views,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066015 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. R. Cave, D. E. Fleischer, J. A. Leighton, D. O. Faigel, R. I. Heigh, V. K. Sharma, C. J. Gostout, E. Rajan, K. Mergener, A. Foley, M. Lee, and K. Bhattacharya, “A multicenter randomized comparison of the Endocapsule and the Pillcam SB,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(3), 487–494 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abu, D. B.

Y. M. Bhat, D. B. Abu, S. S. Chauhan, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, and ASGE Technology Committee, “High-definition and high-magnification endoscopes,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 919–927 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agazzi, S.

J. J. Van Gompel, M. H. Tabor, A. S. Youssef, T. Lau, A. P. Carlson, H. R. van Loveren, and S. Agazzi, “Field of view comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional endoscopy,” Laryngoscope 124(2), 387–390 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armstrong, D.

R. C. C. Wang, M. J. Deen, D. Armstrong, and Q. Fang, “Development of a catadioptric endoscope objective with forward and side views,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066015 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhat, Y. M.

Y. M. Bhat, D. B. Abu, S. S. Chauhan, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, and ASGE Technology Committee, “High-definition and high-magnification endoscopes,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 919–927 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, K.

D. R. Cave, D. E. Fleischer, J. A. Leighton, D. O. Faigel, R. I. Heigh, V. K. Sharma, C. J. Gostout, E. Rajan, K. Mergener, A. Foley, M. Lee, and K. Bhattacharya, “A multicenter randomized comparison of the Endocapsule and the Pillcam SB,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(3), 487–494 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carlson, A. P.

J. J. Van Gompel, M. H. Tabor, A. S. Youssef, T. Lau, A. P. Carlson, H. R. van Loveren, and S. Agazzi, “Field of view comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional endoscopy,” Laryngoscope 124(2), 387–390 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cave, D. R.

D. R. Cave, D. E. Fleischer, J. A. Leighton, D. O. Faigel, R. I. Heigh, V. K. Sharma, C. J. Gostout, E. Rajan, K. Mergener, A. Foley, M. Lee, and K. Bhattacharya, “A multicenter randomized comparison of the Endocapsule and the Pillcam SB,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(3), 487–494 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chauhan, S. S.

Y. M. Bhat, D. B. Abu, S. S. Chauhan, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, and ASGE Technology Committee, “High-definition and high-magnification endoscopes,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 919–927 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, W.-C.

Q. Wang, W.-C. Cheng, N. Suresh, and H. Hua, “Development of the local magnification method for quantitative evaluation of endoscope geometric distortion,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(5), 056003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deen, M. J.

R. C. C. Wang, M. J. Deen, D. Armstrong, and Q. Fang, “Development of a catadioptric endoscope objective with forward and side views,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066015 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dohi, T.

E. Kobayashi, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, “A wide-angle view endoscope system using wedge prisms,” in Third Int. Conf. on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention(Springer, 2000), pp. 661–668.
[Crossref]

Faigel, D. O.

D. R. Cave, D. E. Fleischer, J. A. Leighton, D. O. Faigel, R. I. Heigh, V. K. Sharma, C. J. Gostout, E. Rajan, K. Mergener, A. Foley, M. Lee, and K. Bhattacharya, “A multicenter randomized comparison of the Endocapsule and the Pillcam SB,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(3), 487–494 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Q.

R. C. C. Wang, M. J. Deen, D. Armstrong, and Q. Fang, “Development of a catadioptric endoscope objective with forward and side views,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066015 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischer, D. E.

D. R. Cave, D. E. Fleischer, J. A. Leighton, D. O. Faigel, R. I. Heigh, V. K. Sharma, C. J. Gostout, E. Rajan, K. Mergener, A. Foley, M. Lee, and K. Bhattacharya, “A multicenter randomized comparison of the Endocapsule and the Pillcam SB,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(3), 487–494 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foley, A.

D. R. Cave, D. E. Fleischer, J. A. Leighton, D. O. Faigel, R. I. Heigh, V. K. Sharma, C. J. Gostout, E. Rajan, K. Mergener, A. Foley, M. Lee, and K. Bhattacharya, “A multicenter randomized comparison of the Endocapsule and the Pillcam SB,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(3), 487–494 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goenka, M. K.

M. K. Goenka, S. Majumder, and U. Goenka, “Capsule endoscopy: Present status and future expectation,” World J. Gastroenterol. 20(29), 10024–10037 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goenka, U.

M. K. Goenka, S. Majumder, and U. Goenka, “Capsule endoscopy: Present status and future expectation,” World J. Gastroenterol. 20(29), 10024–10037 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gostout, C. J.

D. R. Cave, D. E. Fleischer, J. A. Leighton, D. O. Faigel, R. I. Heigh, V. K. Sharma, C. J. Gostout, E. Rajan, K. Mergener, A. Foley, M. Lee, and K. Bhattacharya, “A multicenter randomized comparison of the Endocapsule and the Pillcam SB,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(3), 487–494 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gottlieb, K. T.

Y. M. Bhat, D. B. Abu, S. S. Chauhan, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, and ASGE Technology Committee, “High-definition and high-magnification endoscopes,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 919–927 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, C.

Heigh, R. I.

D. R. Cave, D. E. Fleischer, J. A. Leighton, D. O. Faigel, R. I. Heigh, V. K. Sharma, C. J. Gostout, E. Rajan, K. Mergener, A. Foley, M. Lee, and K. Bhattacharya, “A multicenter randomized comparison of the Endocapsule and the Pillcam SB,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(3), 487–494 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hua, H.

Q. Wang, W.-C. Cheng, N. Suresh, and H. Hua, “Development of the local magnification method for quantitative evaluation of endoscope geometric distortion,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(5), 056003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huangfu, J.

Hwang, J. H.

Y. M. Bhat, D. B. Abu, S. S. Chauhan, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, and ASGE Technology Committee, “High-definition and high-magnification endoscopes,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 919–927 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, E.

E. Kobayashi, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, “A wide-angle view endoscope system using wedge prisms,” in Third Int. Conf. on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention(Springer, 2000), pp. 661–668.
[Crossref]

Komanduri, S.

Y. M. Bhat, D. B. Abu, S. S. Chauhan, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, and ASGE Technology Committee, “High-definition and high-magnification endoscopes,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 919–927 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Konda, V.

Y. M. Bhat, D. B. Abu, S. S. Chauhan, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, and ASGE Technology Committee, “High-definition and high-magnification endoscopes,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 919–927 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, L. L.

Lau, T.

J. J. Van Gompel, M. H. Tabor, A. S. Youssef, T. Lau, A. P. Carlson, H. R. van Loveren, and S. Agazzi, “Field of view comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional endoscopy,” Laryngoscope 124(2), 387–390 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

D. R. Cave, D. E. Fleischer, J. A. Leighton, D. O. Faigel, R. I. Heigh, V. K. Sharma, C. J. Gostout, E. Rajan, K. Mergener, A. Foley, M. Lee, and K. Bhattacharya, “A multicenter randomized comparison of the Endocapsule and the Pillcam SB,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(3), 487–494 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leighton, J. A.

D. R. Cave, D. E. Fleischer, J. A. Leighton, D. O. Faigel, R. I. Heigh, V. K. Sharma, C. J. Gostout, E. Rajan, K. Mergener, A. Foley, M. Lee, and K. Bhattacharya, “A multicenter randomized comparison of the Endocapsule and the Pillcam SB,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(3), 487–494 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, S. K.

Y. M. Bhat, D. B. Abu, S. S. Chauhan, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, and ASGE Technology Committee, “High-definition and high-magnification endoscopes,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 919–927 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Majumder, S.

M. K. Goenka, S. Majumder, and U. Goenka, “Capsule endoscopy: Present status and future expectation,” World J. Gastroenterol. 20(29), 10024–10037 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manfredi, M. A.

Y. M. Bhat, D. B. Abu, S. S. Chauhan, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, and ASGE Technology Committee, “High-definition and high-magnification endoscopes,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 919–927 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maple, J. T.

Y. M. Bhat, D. B. Abu, S. S. Chauhan, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, and ASGE Technology Committee, “High-definition and high-magnification endoscopes,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 919–927 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masamune, K.

E. Kobayashi, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, “A wide-angle view endoscope system using wedge prisms,” in Third Int. Conf. on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention(Springer, 2000), pp. 661–668.
[Crossref]

Mergener, K.

D. R. Cave, D. E. Fleischer, J. A. Leighton, D. O. Faigel, R. I. Heigh, V. K. Sharma, C. J. Gostout, E. Rajan, K. Mergener, A. Foley, M. Lee, and K. Bhattacharya, “A multicenter randomized comparison of the Endocapsule and the Pillcam SB,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(3), 487–494 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajan, E.

D. R. Cave, D. E. Fleischer, J. A. Leighton, D. O. Faigel, R. I. Heigh, V. K. Sharma, C. J. Gostout, E. Rajan, K. Mergener, A. Foley, M. Lee, and K. Bhattacharya, “A multicenter randomized comparison of the Endocapsule and the Pillcam SB,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(3), 487–494 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakuma, I.

E. Kobayashi, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, “A wide-angle view endoscope system using wedge prisms,” in Third Int. Conf. on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention(Springer, 2000), pp. 661–668.
[Crossref]

Sharma, V. K.

D. R. Cave, D. E. Fleischer, J. A. Leighton, D. O. Faigel, R. I. Heigh, V. K. Sharma, C. J. Gostout, E. Rajan, K. Mergener, A. Foley, M. Lee, and K. Bhattacharya, “A multicenter randomized comparison of the Endocapsule and the Pillcam SB,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(3), 487–494 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suresh, N.

Q. Wang, W.-C. Cheng, N. Suresh, and H. Hua, “Development of the local magnification method for quantitative evaluation of endoscope geometric distortion,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(5), 056003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tabor, M. H.

J. J. Van Gompel, M. H. Tabor, A. S. Youssef, T. Lau, A. P. Carlson, H. R. van Loveren, and S. Agazzi, “Field of view comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional endoscopy,” Laryngoscope 124(2), 387–390 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Gompel, J. J.

J. J. Van Gompel, M. H. Tabor, A. S. Youssef, T. Lau, A. P. Carlson, H. R. van Loveren, and S. Agazzi, “Field of view comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional endoscopy,” Laryngoscope 124(2), 387–390 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Loveren, H. R.

J. J. Van Gompel, M. H. Tabor, A. S. Youssef, T. Lau, A. P. Carlson, H. R. van Loveren, and S. Agazzi, “Field of view comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional endoscopy,” Laryngoscope 124(2), 387–390 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, W.-C. Cheng, N. Suresh, and H. Hua, “Development of the local magnification method for quantitative evaluation of endoscope geometric distortion,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(5), 056003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. C. C.

R. C. C. Wang, M. J. Deen, D. Armstrong, and Q. Fang, “Development of a catadioptric endoscope objective with forward and side views,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066015 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Youssef, A. S.

J. J. Van Gompel, M. H. Tabor, A. S. Youssef, T. Lau, A. P. Carlson, H. R. van Loveren, and S. Agazzi, “Field of view comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional endoscopy,” Laryngoscope 124(2), 387–390 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Gastrointest. Endosc. (2)

Y. M. Bhat, D. B. Abu, S. S. Chauhan, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, and ASGE Technology Committee, “High-definition and high-magnification endoscopes,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 919–927 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Cave, D. E. Fleischer, J. A. Leighton, D. O. Faigel, R. I. Heigh, V. K. Sharma, C. J. Gostout, E. Rajan, K. Mergener, A. Foley, M. Lee, and K. Bhattacharya, “A multicenter randomized comparison of the Endocapsule and the Pillcam SB,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(3), 487–494 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

Q. Wang, W.-C. Cheng, N. Suresh, and H. Hua, “Development of the local magnification method for quantitative evaluation of endoscope geometric distortion,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(5), 056003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. C. Wang, M. J. Deen, D. Armstrong, and Q. Fang, “Development of a catadioptric endoscope objective with forward and side views,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066015 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laryngoscope (1)

J. J. Van Gompel, M. H. Tabor, A. S. Youssef, T. Lau, A. P. Carlson, H. R. van Loveren, and S. Agazzi, “Field of view comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional endoscopy,” Laryngoscope 124(2), 387–390 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

World J. Gastroenterol. (1)

M. K. Goenka, S. Majumder, and U. Goenka, “Capsule endoscopy: Present status and future expectation,” World J. Gastroenterol. 20(29), 10024–10037 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

P. Gomes, Medical Robotics: Minimally Invasive Surgery (Elsevier, 2012).

E. Kobayashi, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, “A wide-angle view endoscope system using wedge prisms,” in Third Int. Conf. on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention(Springer, 2000), pp. 661–668.
[Crossref]

ISO, “ISO 8600-3: Optics and optical instruments - Medical endoscopes and endoscopic accessories - Part 3: Determination of field of view and direction of view of endoscopes with optics,” (the International Organization for Standardization, 1997, 2003).

ISO, “ISO 8600-1: Endoscopes — Medical endoscopes and endotherapy devices — Part 1: General requirements ” (the International Organization for Standardization, 2013).

JCGM, Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (International Organization for Standardization, 2008).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Endoscope FOVWS definition and measurement in ISO 8600-1 and −3 [3,4].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 FOVWS and FOVEP measurement of an endoscope with a near focus mode.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 FOVWS measurement error for several different d EP designs at 50 mm target distance: (a) 0-180° FOVEP and (b) 70-170° FOVEP.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Minimum d to control FOVWS measurement error within: (a) 1%, (b) 3%, (c) 5%
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Principle of FOVEP measurement.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 FOV measurement images: a circle tangent to the (a) vertical, (b) horizontal, and (c) diagonal edges.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 FOVWS and FOVEP measurement of a capsule endoscope: (a) illustration of FOVWS and FOVEP, (b) a low resolution image (4 cm × 4 cm) on a capsule recorder screen.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Three typical endoscope frame shapes: (a) circular FOV, (b) irregular FOV, and (c) rectangular FOV.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 FOV measurement target.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 FOVWS method errors at different measuring distances for FOVEP of 81.9°, 114.6° and 122.1°.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measurements of FOVWS and FOVEP for six flexible endoscopes (Ga: Gastroscope; Co: Colonoscope)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measurements of FOVWS and FOVEP for 11 rigid endoscopes (L: Laparoscope; A: Arthroscope; S: Sinuscope; R: Resectoscope; C: Cystoscope; H: Hysteroscope)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Statistical FOV measurement results (in unit of °) in three different directions

Tables Icon

Table 4 Measured diagonal FOVEP and labelled FOV by the manufacturers (Ga: Gastroscope; Co: Colonoscope)

Equations (8)

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FO V WS =2atan r 50
Err=   FO V WS FO V EP FO V EP = 2atan( r d )2atan( r d+ d EP ) 2atan( r d+ d EP )
Err= atan( r d ) atan( r d+ d EP ) 1
Err= 2 FO V EP atan[ ( d+ d EP )tan( FO V EP 2 ) d ]1  
d= d EP tan( FO V EP 2 ) tan[ FO V EP 2 ( Err+1 ) ]tan( FO V EP 2 )
FO V EP =2atan( r 1 r 2 d 1 d 2 )=2atan( r 1 r 2 Δd )
d EP = d 2 d 3 = r 2 tan( FO V EP 2 ) d 3
Er r total = Er r measure 2 +Er r method 2 +Er r device 2    

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