Abstract

Increased intraocular scatter degrades quality of vision, especially in the presence of glare sources. Standard tests, such as visual acuity, are not well suited to capture this condition. There are specific methods to measure intraocular scatter, but require dedicated instruments. In this work, we propose a method to estimate the amount of scatter by combining to sequential measurements of the contrast sensitivity function for two conditions, with and without a glare source. We applied the approach in a group of young subjects with no know ocular pathology fitted with photographic diffusing filters. The straylight estimates were compared with those provided by two alternative techniques, one based on the compensation comparison method and the other the optical integration. The results obtained with the three approaches were in a good agreement, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed method.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. P. Comerford, “Vision evaluation using contrast sensitivity functions,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60(5), 394–398 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. P. Ginsburg, “A new contrast sensitivity vision test chart,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61(6), 403–407 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. B. Elliott, M. A. Hurst, and J. Weatherill, “Comparing clinical tests of visual function in cataract with the patient’s perceived visual disability,” Eye (Lond.) 4(5), 712–717 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. S. Sabour-Pickett, J. Loughman, J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, K. Pesudovs, K. A. Meagher, and S. Beatty, “Visual performance in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration undergoing treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 268438 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. E. Ross, A. J. Bron, and D. D. Clarke, “Contrast sensitivity and visual disability in chronic simple glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 68(11), 821–827 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. C. Howes, T. Caelli, and P. Mitchell, “Contrast sensitivity in diabetics with retinopathy and cataract,” Aust. J. Ophthalmol. 10(3), 173–178 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G. B. Arden, “Doyne Memorial Lecture, 1978. Visual loss in patients with normal visual acuity,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 98(2), 219–231 (1978).
    [PubMed]
  8. R. Hess and G. Woo, “Vision through cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(5), 428–435 (1978).
    [PubMed]
  9. A. P. Ginsburg, “Contrast sensitivity: determining the visual quality and function of cataract, intraocular lenses and refractive surgery,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 17(1), 19–26 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. L. A. Lesmes, Z. L. Lu, J. Baek, and T. D. Albright, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of the contrast sensitivity function: the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 10(3), 17 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. F. Hou, C. B. Huang, L. Lesmes, L. X. Feng, L. Tao, Y. F. Zhou, and Z. L. Lu, “qCSF in clinical application: efficient characterization and classification of contrast sensitivity functions in amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5365–5377 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. Santamaría, P. Artal, and J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(6), 1109–1114 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. P. Artal, A. Benito, G. M. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. M. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS One 6(2), e16823 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. Ginis, J. M. Bueno, P. Artal, and G. M. Perez, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method Harilaos Ginis,” J. Vis. 12(3), 20 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. D. Koch, “Glare and contrast sensitivity testing in cataract patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 15(2), 158–164 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. Franssen, B. Kruijt, and J. E. Coppens, “Psychophysics, reliability, and norm values for temporal contrast sensitivity implemented on the two alternative forced choice C-Quant device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 085004 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. H. Ginis, O. Sahin, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Compact optical integration instrument to measure intraocular straylight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 3036–3041 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(5), 3702–3708 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(2), 294–300 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Reliability of the compensation comparison method for measuring retinal stray light studied using Monte-Carlo simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054010 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. L.-E. Paulsson and J. Sjöstrand, “Contrast sensitivity in the presence of a glare light. Theoretical concepts and preliminary clinical studies,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19(4), 401–406 (1980).
    [PubMed]
  22. T. J. van den Berg, “Analysis of intraocular straylight, especially in relation to age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(2), 52–59 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(2), 768–776 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. O. Sahin, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, L. Hervella, E. A. Villegas, B. Cañizares, J. M. Marin, I. Pallikaris, and P. Artal, “Optical Measurement of Straylight in Eyes With Cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 32(12), 846–850 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. S. Vaz, T. Falkmer, A. E. Passmore, R. Parsons, and P. Andreou, “The case for using the repeatability coefficient when calculating test-retest reliability,” PLoS One 8(9), e73990 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. C. Paz Filgueira, R. F. Sánchez, L. A. Issolio, and E. M. Colombo, “Straylight and Visual Quality on Early Nuclear and Posterior Subcapsular Cataracts,” Curr. Eye Res. 41(9), 1209–1215 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

O. Sahin, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, L. Hervella, E. A. Villegas, B. Cañizares, J. M. Marin, I. Pallikaris, and P. Artal, “Optical Measurement of Straylight in Eyes With Cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 32(12), 846–850 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Paz Filgueira, R. F. Sánchez, L. A. Issolio, and E. M. Colombo, “Straylight and Visual Quality on Early Nuclear and Posterior Subcapsular Cataracts,” Curr. Eye Res. 41(9), 1209–1215 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (3)

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(5), 3702–3708 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sabour-Pickett, J. Loughman, J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, K. Pesudovs, K. A. Meagher, and S. Beatty, “Visual performance in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration undergoing treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 268438 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Vaz, T. Falkmer, A. E. Passmore, R. Parsons, and P. Andreou, “The case for using the repeatability coefficient when calculating test-retest reliability,” PLoS One 8(9), e73990 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

H. Ginis, J. M. Bueno, P. Artal, and G. M. Perez, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method Harilaos Ginis,” J. Vis. 12(3), 20 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. M. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. M. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS One 6(2), e16823 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. Franssen, B. Kruijt, and J. E. Coppens, “Psychophysics, reliability, and norm values for temporal contrast sensitivity implemented on the two alternative forced choice C-Quant device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 085004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

L. A. Lesmes, Z. L. Lu, J. Baek, and T. D. Albright, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of the contrast sensitivity function: the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 10(3), 17 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hou, C. B. Huang, L. Lesmes, L. X. Feng, L. Tao, Y. F. Zhou, and Z. L. Lu, “qCSF in clinical application: efficient characterization and classification of contrast sensitivity functions in amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5365–5377 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(2), 294–300 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Reliability of the compensation comparison method for measuring retinal stray light studied using Monte-Carlo simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Ginsburg, “Contrast sensitivity: determining the visual quality and function of cataract, intraocular lenses and refractive surgery,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 17(1), 19–26 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(2), 768–776 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

T. J. van den Berg, “Analysis of intraocular straylight, especially in relation to age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(2), 52–59 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

D. B. Elliott, M. A. Hurst, and J. Weatherill, “Comparing clinical tests of visual function in cataract with the patient’s perceived visual disability,” Eye (Lond.) 4(5), 712–717 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

D. D. Koch, “Glare and contrast sensitivity testing in cataract patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 15(2), 158–164 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1984 (2)

A. P. Ginsburg, “A new contrast sensitivity vision test chart,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61(6), 403–407 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Ross, A. J. Bron, and D. D. Clarke, “Contrast sensitivity and visual disability in chronic simple glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 68(11), 821–827 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

J. P. Comerford, “Vision evaluation using contrast sensitivity functions,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60(5), 394–398 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

S. C. Howes, T. Caelli, and P. Mitchell, “Contrast sensitivity in diabetics with retinopathy and cataract,” Aust. J. Ophthalmol. 10(3), 173–178 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

L.-E. Paulsson and J. Sjöstrand, “Contrast sensitivity in the presence of a glare light. Theoretical concepts and preliminary clinical studies,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19(4), 401–406 (1980).
[PubMed]

1978 (2)

G. B. Arden, “Doyne Memorial Lecture, 1978. Visual loss in patients with normal visual acuity,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 98(2), 219–231 (1978).
[PubMed]

R. Hess and G. Woo, “Vision through cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(5), 428–435 (1978).
[PubMed]

Albright, T. D.

L. A. Lesmes, Z. L. Lu, J. Baek, and T. D. Albright, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of the contrast sensitivity function: the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 10(3), 17 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alcón, E.

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. M. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. M. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS One 6(2), e16823 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreou, P.

S. Vaz, T. Falkmer, A. E. Passmore, R. Parsons, and P. Andreou, “The case for using the repeatability coefficient when calculating test-retest reliability,” PLoS One 8(9), e73990 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arden, G. B.

G. B. Arden, “Doyne Memorial Lecture, 1978. Visual loss in patients with normal visual acuity,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 98(2), 219–231 (1978).
[PubMed]

Artal, P.

O. Sahin, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, L. Hervella, E. A. Villegas, B. Cañizares, J. M. Marin, I. Pallikaris, and P. Artal, “Optical Measurement of Straylight in Eyes With Cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 32(12), 846–850 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ginis, O. Sahin, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Compact optical integration instrument to measure intraocular straylight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 3036–3041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(5), 3702–3708 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ginis, J. M. Bueno, P. Artal, and G. M. Perez, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method Harilaos Ginis,” J. Vis. 12(3), 20 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. M. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. M. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS One 6(2), e16823 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Santamaría, P. Artal, and J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(6), 1109–1114 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, J.

L. A. Lesmes, Z. L. Lu, J. Baek, and T. D. Albright, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of the contrast sensitivity function: the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 10(3), 17 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beatty, S.

S. Sabour-Pickett, J. Loughman, J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, K. Pesudovs, K. A. Meagher, and S. Beatty, “Visual performance in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration undergoing treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 268438 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benito, A.

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. M. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. M. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS One 6(2), e16823 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bescós, J.

Bron, A. J.

J. E. Ross, A. J. Bron, and D. D. Clarke, “Contrast sensitivity and visual disability in chronic simple glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 68(11), 821–827 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bueno, J. M.

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(5), 3702–3708 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ginis, J. M. Bueno, P. Artal, and G. M. Perez, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method Harilaos Ginis,” J. Vis. 12(3), 20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Caelli, T.

S. C. Howes, T. Caelli, and P. Mitchell, “Contrast sensitivity in diabetics with retinopathy and cataract,” Aust. J. Ophthalmol. 10(3), 173–178 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cañizares, B.

O. Sahin, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, L. Hervella, E. A. Villegas, B. Cañizares, J. M. Marin, I. Pallikaris, and P. Artal, “Optical Measurement of Straylight in Eyes With Cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 32(12), 846–850 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clarke, D. D.

J. E. Ross, A. J. Bron, and D. D. Clarke, “Contrast sensitivity and visual disability in chronic simple glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 68(11), 821–827 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colombo, E. M.

C. Paz Filgueira, R. F. Sánchez, L. A. Issolio, and E. M. Colombo, “Straylight and Visual Quality on Early Nuclear and Posterior Subcapsular Cataracts,” Curr. Eye Res. 41(9), 1209–1215 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comerford, J. P.

J. P. Comerford, “Vision evaluation using contrast sensitivity functions,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60(5), 394–398 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coppens, J. E.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. Franssen, B. Kruijt, and J. E. Coppens, “Psychophysics, reliability, and norm values for temporal contrast sensitivity implemented on the two alternative forced choice C-Quant device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 085004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(2), 768–776 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(2), 294–300 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Reliability of the compensation comparison method for measuring retinal stray light studied using Monte-Carlo simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Casas, A.

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. M. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. M. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS One 6(2), e16823 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Wit, G. C.

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(2), 294–300 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elliott, D. B.

D. B. Elliott, M. A. Hurst, and J. Weatherill, “Comparing clinical tests of visual function in cataract with the patient’s perceived visual disability,” Eye (Lond.) 4(5), 712–717 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falkmer, T.

S. Vaz, T. Falkmer, A. E. Passmore, R. Parsons, and P. Andreou, “The case for using the repeatability coefficient when calculating test-retest reliability,” PLoS One 8(9), e73990 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, L. X.

F. Hou, C. B. Huang, L. Lesmes, L. X. Feng, L. Tao, Y. F. Zhou, and Z. L. Lu, “qCSF in clinical application: efficient characterization and classification of contrast sensitivity functions in amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5365–5377 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franssen, L.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. Franssen, B. Kruijt, and J. E. Coppens, “Psychophysics, reliability, and norm values for temporal contrast sensitivity implemented on the two alternative forced choice C-Quant device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 085004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(2), 294–300 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Reliability of the compensation comparison method for measuring retinal stray light studied using Monte-Carlo simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(2), 768–776 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ginis, H.

O. Sahin, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, L. Hervella, E. A. Villegas, B. Cañizares, J. M. Marin, I. Pallikaris, and P. Artal, “Optical Measurement of Straylight in Eyes With Cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 32(12), 846–850 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ginis, O. Sahin, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Compact optical integration instrument to measure intraocular straylight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 3036–3041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ginis, J. M. Bueno, P. Artal, and G. M. Perez, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method Harilaos Ginis,” J. Vis. 12(3), 20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ginis, H. S.

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(5), 3702–3708 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ginsburg, A. P.

A. P. Ginsburg, “Contrast sensitivity: determining the visual quality and function of cataract, intraocular lenses and refractive surgery,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 17(1), 19–26 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Ginsburg, “A new contrast sensitivity vision test chart,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61(6), 403–407 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hervella, L.

O. Sahin, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, L. Hervella, E. A. Villegas, B. Cañizares, J. M. Marin, I. Pallikaris, and P. Artal, “Optical Measurement of Straylight in Eyes With Cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 32(12), 846–850 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hess, R.

R. Hess and G. Woo, “Vision through cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(5), 428–435 (1978).
[PubMed]

Hou, F.

F. Hou, C. B. Huang, L. Lesmes, L. X. Feng, L. Tao, Y. F. Zhou, and Z. L. Lu, “qCSF in clinical application: efficient characterization and classification of contrast sensitivity functions in amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5365–5377 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howes, S. C.

S. C. Howes, T. Caelli, and P. Mitchell, “Contrast sensitivity in diabetics with retinopathy and cataract,” Aust. J. Ophthalmol. 10(3), 173–178 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C. B.

F. Hou, C. B. Huang, L. Lesmes, L. X. Feng, L. Tao, Y. F. Zhou, and Z. L. Lu, “qCSF in clinical application: efficient characterization and classification of contrast sensitivity functions in amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5365–5377 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hurst, M. A.

D. B. Elliott, M. A. Hurst, and J. Weatherill, “Comparing clinical tests of visual function in cataract with the patient’s perceived visual disability,” Eye (Lond.) 4(5), 712–717 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Issolio, L. A.

C. Paz Filgueira, R. F. Sánchez, L. A. Issolio, and E. M. Colombo, “Straylight and Visual Quality on Early Nuclear and Posterior Subcapsular Cataracts,” Curr. Eye Res. 41(9), 1209–1215 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, D. D.

D. D. Koch, “Glare and contrast sensitivity testing in cataract patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 15(2), 158–164 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kruijt, B.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. Franssen, B. Kruijt, and J. E. Coppens, “Psychophysics, reliability, and norm values for temporal contrast sensitivity implemented on the two alternative forced choice C-Quant device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 085004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lesmes, L.

F. Hou, C. B. Huang, L. Lesmes, L. X. Feng, L. Tao, Y. F. Zhou, and Z. L. Lu, “qCSF in clinical application: efficient characterization and classification of contrast sensitivity functions in amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5365–5377 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lesmes, L. A.

L. A. Lesmes, Z. L. Lu, J. Baek, and T. D. Albright, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of the contrast sensitivity function: the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 10(3), 17 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loughman, J.

S. Sabour-Pickett, J. Loughman, J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, K. Pesudovs, K. A. Meagher, and S. Beatty, “Visual performance in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration undergoing treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 268438 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Z. L.

L. A. Lesmes, Z. L. Lu, J. Baek, and T. D. Albright, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of the contrast sensitivity function: the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 10(3), 17 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hou, C. B. Huang, L. Lesmes, L. X. Feng, L. Tao, Y. F. Zhou, and Z. L. Lu, “qCSF in clinical application: efficient characterization and classification of contrast sensitivity functions in amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5365–5377 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marin, J. M.

O. Sahin, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, L. Hervella, E. A. Villegas, B. Cañizares, J. M. Marin, I. Pallikaris, and P. Artal, “Optical Measurement of Straylight in Eyes With Cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 32(12), 846–850 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marín, J. M.

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. M. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. M. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS One 6(2), e16823 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meagher, K. A.

S. Sabour-Pickett, J. Loughman, J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, K. Pesudovs, K. A. Meagher, and S. Beatty, “Visual performance in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration undergoing treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 268438 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitchell, P.

S. C. Howes, T. Caelli, and P. Mitchell, “Contrast sensitivity in diabetics with retinopathy and cataract,” Aust. J. Ophthalmol. 10(3), 173–178 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nolan, J. M.

S. Sabour-Pickett, J. Loughman, J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, K. Pesudovs, K. A. Meagher, and S. Beatty, “Visual performance in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration undergoing treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 268438 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pallikaris, I.

O. Sahin, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, L. Hervella, E. A. Villegas, B. Cañizares, J. M. Marin, I. Pallikaris, and P. Artal, “Optical Measurement of Straylight in Eyes With Cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 32(12), 846–850 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parsons, R.

S. Vaz, T. Falkmer, A. E. Passmore, R. Parsons, and P. Andreou, “The case for using the repeatability coefficient when calculating test-retest reliability,” PLoS One 8(9), e73990 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Passmore, A. E.

S. Vaz, T. Falkmer, A. E. Passmore, R. Parsons, and P. Andreou, “The case for using the repeatability coefficient when calculating test-retest reliability,” PLoS One 8(9), e73990 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulsson, L.-E.

L.-E. Paulsson and J. Sjöstrand, “Contrast sensitivity in the presence of a glare light. Theoretical concepts and preliminary clinical studies,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19(4), 401–406 (1980).
[PubMed]

Paz Filgueira, C.

C. Paz Filgueira, R. F. Sánchez, L. A. Issolio, and E. M. Colombo, “Straylight and Visual Quality on Early Nuclear and Posterior Subcapsular Cataracts,” Curr. Eye Res. 41(9), 1209–1215 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pennos, A.

O. Sahin, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, L. Hervella, E. A. Villegas, B. Cañizares, J. M. Marin, I. Pallikaris, and P. Artal, “Optical Measurement of Straylight in Eyes With Cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 32(12), 846–850 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ginis, O. Sahin, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Compact optical integration instrument to measure intraocular straylight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 3036–3041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(5), 3702–3708 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perez, G. M.

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(5), 3702–3708 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ginis, J. M. Bueno, P. Artal, and G. M. Perez, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method Harilaos Ginis,” J. Vis. 12(3), 20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pérez, G. M.

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. M. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. M. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS One 6(2), e16823 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pesudovs, K.

S. Sabour-Pickett, J. Loughman, J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, K. Pesudovs, K. A. Meagher, and S. Beatty, “Visual performance in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration undergoing treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 268438 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pujol, J.

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. M. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. M. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS One 6(2), e16823 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ross, J. E.

J. E. Ross, A. J. Bron, and D. D. Clarke, “Contrast sensitivity and visual disability in chronic simple glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 68(11), 821–827 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabour-Pickett, S.

S. Sabour-Pickett, J. Loughman, J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, K. Pesudovs, K. A. Meagher, and S. Beatty, “Visual performance in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration undergoing treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 268438 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahin, O.

O. Sahin, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, L. Hervella, E. A. Villegas, B. Cañizares, J. M. Marin, I. Pallikaris, and P. Artal, “Optical Measurement of Straylight in Eyes With Cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 32(12), 846–850 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ginis, O. Sahin, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Compact optical integration instrument to measure intraocular straylight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 3036–3041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sánchez, R. F.

C. Paz Filgueira, R. F. Sánchez, L. A. Issolio, and E. M. Colombo, “Straylight and Visual Quality on Early Nuclear and Posterior Subcapsular Cataracts,” Curr. Eye Res. 41(9), 1209–1215 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santamaría, J.

Sjöstrand, J.

L.-E. Paulsson and J. Sjöstrand, “Contrast sensitivity in the presence of a glare light. Theoretical concepts and preliminary clinical studies,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19(4), 401–406 (1980).
[PubMed]

Stack, J.

S. Sabour-Pickett, J. Loughman, J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, K. Pesudovs, K. A. Meagher, and S. Beatty, “Visual performance in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration undergoing treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 268438 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, L.

F. Hou, C. B. Huang, L. Lesmes, L. X. Feng, L. Tao, Y. F. Zhou, and Z. L. Lu, “qCSF in clinical application: efficient characterization and classification of contrast sensitivity functions in amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5365–5377 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van den Berg, T. J.

T. J. van den Berg, “Analysis of intraocular straylight, especially in relation to age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(2), 52–59 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van den Berg, T. J. T. P.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. Franssen, B. Kruijt, and J. E. Coppens, “Psychophysics, reliability, and norm values for temporal contrast sensitivity implemented on the two alternative forced choice C-Quant device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 085004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Reliability of the compensation comparison method for measuring retinal stray light studied using Monte-Carlo simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(2), 294–300 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(2), 768–776 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vaz, S.

S. Vaz, T. Falkmer, A. E. Passmore, R. Parsons, and P. Andreou, “The case for using the repeatability coefficient when calculating test-retest reliability,” PLoS One 8(9), e73990 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villegas, E. A.

O. Sahin, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, L. Hervella, E. A. Villegas, B. Cañizares, J. M. Marin, I. Pallikaris, and P. Artal, “Optical Measurement of Straylight in Eyes With Cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 32(12), 846–850 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weatherill, J.

D. B. Elliott, M. A. Hurst, and J. Weatherill, “Comparing clinical tests of visual function in cataract with the patient’s perceived visual disability,” Eye (Lond.) 4(5), 712–717 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woo, G.

R. Hess and G. Woo, “Vision through cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(5), 428–435 (1978).
[PubMed]

Zhou, Y. F.

F. Hou, C. B. Huang, L. Lesmes, L. X. Feng, L. Tao, Y. F. Zhou, and Z. L. Lu, “qCSF in clinical application: efficient characterization and classification of contrast sensitivity functions in amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5365–5377 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (2)

J. P. Comerford, “Vision evaluation using contrast sensitivity functions,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60(5), 394–398 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Ginsburg, “A new contrast sensitivity vision test chart,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61(6), 403–407 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aust. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. C. Howes, T. Caelli, and P. Mitchell, “Contrast sensitivity in diabetics with retinopathy and cataract,” Aust. J. Ophthalmol. 10(3), 173–178 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. E. Ross, A. J. Bron, and D. D. Clarke, “Contrast sensitivity and visual disability in chronic simple glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 68(11), 821–827 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

C. Paz Filgueira, R. F. Sánchez, L. A. Issolio, and E. M. Colombo, “Straylight and Visual Quality on Early Nuclear and Posterior Subcapsular Cataracts,” Curr. Eye Res. 41(9), 1209–1215 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. P. Ginsburg, “Contrast sensitivity: determining the visual quality and function of cataract, intraocular lenses and refractive surgery,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 17(1), 19–26 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eye (Lond.) (1)

D. B. Elliott, M. A. Hurst, and J. Weatherill, “Comparing clinical tests of visual function in cataract with the patient’s perceived visual disability,” Eye (Lond.) 4(5), 712–717 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (5)

R. Hess and G. Woo, “Vision through cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(5), 428–435 (1978).
[PubMed]

F. Hou, C. B. Huang, L. Lesmes, L. X. Feng, L. Tao, Y. F. Zhou, and Z. L. Lu, “qCSF in clinical application: efficient characterization and classification of contrast sensitivity functions in amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(10), 5365–5377 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(5), 3702–3708 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(2), 768–776 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-E. Paulsson and J. Sjöstrand, “Contrast sensitivity in the presence of a glare light. Theoretical concepts and preliminary clinical studies,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19(4), 401–406 (1980).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, L. Franssen, B. Kruijt, and J. E. Coppens, “Psychophysics, reliability, and norm values for temporal contrast sensitivity implemented on the two alternative forced choice C-Quant device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 085004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Reliability of the compensation comparison method for measuring retinal stray light studied using Monte-Carlo simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054010 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (2)

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(2), 294–300 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Koch, “Glare and contrast sensitivity testing in cataract patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 15(2), 158–164 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Sabour-Pickett, J. Loughman, J. M. Nolan, J. Stack, K. Pesudovs, K. A. Meagher, and S. Beatty, “Visual performance in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration undergoing treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab,” J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 268438 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

O. Sahin, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, L. Hervella, E. A. Villegas, B. Cañizares, J. M. Marin, I. Pallikaris, and P. Artal, “Optical Measurement of Straylight in Eyes With Cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 32(12), 846–850 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vis. (2)

L. A. Lesmes, Z. L. Lu, J. Baek, and T. D. Albright, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of the contrast sensitivity function: the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 10(3), 17 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ginis, J. M. Bueno, P. Artal, and G. M. Perez, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method Harilaos Ginis,” J. Vis. 12(3), 20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

T. J. van den Berg, “Analysis of intraocular straylight, especially in relation to age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72(2), 52–59 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS One (2)

S. Vaz, T. Falkmer, A. E. Passmore, R. Parsons, and P. Andreou, “The case for using the repeatability coefficient when calculating test-retest reliability,” PLoS One 8(9), e73990 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. M. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. M. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS One 6(2), e16823 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. (1)

G. B. Arden, “Doyne Memorial Lecture, 1978. Visual loss in patients with normal visual acuity,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 98(2), 219–231 (1978).
[PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of the test screen.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Difference of the area Under the Logarithmic values of CSF (Diff. AULCSF) from the measurement with the glare source on and off.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The test-retest comparison for the evaluation of the relative reliability of the method.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The median (central line inside each box), minimum and maximum values (whiskers) and the Q1 and Q4 quartiles (lower and higher borders of each box, respectively) of the Diff. AULCSF (upper left box) and the intraocular scatter, as measured by the three different methods.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Scatter plots depicting the inter-agreement between all the different metrics acquired from the measurements. Each data point denotes a different subject in all of the three different scatter conditions.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Pearson Correlation Coefficients among different methods

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C S o n C S o f f =   L L + I g .
I g = E   α m i n α m a x 2 π   α   P S F ( α ) d a .
I g = 2 π   E   S   l n [ α m a x α m i n ] .
S =   1 2 π L E   ( l n [ α m a x α m i n ] ) 1 ( C S o f f C S o n 1 ) .

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