Abstract

Dermoscopy is a skin surface microscopic technique allowing specular reflection free observation of the skin, and has been used to examine pigmented skin lesions. However, dermoscopy has limitations in providing depth information due to lack of 3D resolution. In order to overcome the limitations, we developed dermoscopy guided multi-functional optical coherence tomography (MF-OCT) providing both high-contrast superficial information and depth-resolved structural, birefringent, and vascular information of the skin simultaneously. Dermoscopy and MF-OCT were combined by using a dichroic mirror, and dark-field configuration was adapted for MF-OCT to reduce specular reflection. After characterization, dermoscopy guided MF-OCT was applied to several human skin lesions such as the scar, port-wine stain (PWS) as well as the normal skin for demonstration. Various features of the scar and PWS were elucidated by both dermoscopy and MF-OCT. Dermoscopy guided MF-OCT may be useful for evaluation and treatment monitoring of skin lesions in clinical applications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

W. C. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D Imaging of Collagen Remodeling in Murine Hypertrophic Scars In Vivo Using Polarization-Sensitive Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Latrive, L. R. Teixeira, A. S. Gomes, and D. M. Zezell, “Characterization of skin Port-Wine Stain and Hemangioma vascular lesions using Doppler OCT,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(2), 223–229 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

Y. Yoon, Q. Li, V. H. Le, W. H. Jang, T. Wang, B. Kim, S. Son, W. K. Chung, C. Joo, and K. H. Kim, “Dark-field polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12874–12886 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

A. J. Coleman, G. P. Penney, T. J. Richardson, A. Guyot, M. J. Choi, N. Sheth, E. Craythorne, A. Robson, and R. Mallipeddi, “Automated registration of optical coherence tomography and dermoscopy in the assessment of sub-clinical spread in basal cell carcinoma,” Comput. Aided Surg. 19(1-3), 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Dsouza, H. Subhash, K. Neuhaus, J. Hogan, C. Wilson, and M. Leahy, “Dermascope guided multiple reference optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2870–2882 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yu, X. Liu, J. Gu, D. Cui, J. Wu, and L. Liu, “Depth extension and sidelobe suppression in optical coherence tomography using pupil filters,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26956–26966 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Lallas, J. Giacomel, G. Argenziano, B. García-García, D. González-Fernández, I. Zalaudek, and F. Vázquez-López, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology: practical tips for the clinician,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(3), 514–526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Nam, I. Chico-Calero, and B. J. Vakoc, “Complex differential variance algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 3822–3832 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, C. C. Singe, A. Curatolo, and D. D. Sampson, “Energy-efficient low-Fresnel-number Bessel beams and their application in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 548–551 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Blatter, and L. Schmetterer, “Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 41, 26–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

G. Liu, W. Jia, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(10), 628–632 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

M. Villiger, C. Pache, and T. Lasser, “Dark-field optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3489–3491 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Zalaudek, J. Kreusch, J. Giacomel, G. Ferrara, C. Catricalà, and G. Argenziano, “How to diagnose nonpigmented skin tumors: a review of vascular structures seen with dermoscopy: part I. Melanocytic skin tumors,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 63(3), 361–374 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. Mogensen, L. Thrane, T. M. Jørgensen, P. E. Andersen, and G. B. Jemec, “OCT imaging of skin cancer and other dermatological diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 442–451 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Vestergaard, P. Macaskill, P. E. Holt, and S. W. Menzies, “Dermoscopy compared with naked eye examination for the diagnosis of primary melanoma: a meta-analysis of studies performed in a clinical setting,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 669–676 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

R. A. Leitgeb, M. Villiger, A. H. Bachmann, L. Steinmann, and T. Lasser, “Extended focus depth for Fourier domain optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(16), 2450–2452 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Micantonio, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Usefulness of dermoscopy to monitor clinical efficacy of imiquimod treatment for lentigo maligna,” Arch. Dermatol. 142(4), 523–531 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

R. P. Braun, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. W. Kopf, and J.-H. Saurat, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52(1), 109–121 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Zalaudek, “Dermoscopy subpatterns of nonpigmented skin tumors,” Arch. Dermatol. 141(4), 532 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (7)

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. Chen, M. Pierce, S.-H. Yun, B. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, B. Leinweber, L. Citarella, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. A. Pizzichetta, L. Thomas, H. P. Soyer, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy of Bowen’s disease,” Br. J. Dermatol. 150(6), 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time measurement of in vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 171–173 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

J. Welzel, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology: a review,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(1), 1–9 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-L. Bafounta, A. Beauchet, P. Aegerter, and P. Saiag, “Is dermoscopy (epiluminescence microscopy) useful for the diagnosis of melanoma? Results of a meta-analysis using techniques adapted to the evaluation of diagnostic tests,” Arch. Dermatol. 137(10), 1343–1350 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Argenziano and H. P. Soyer, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions–a valuable tool for early,” Lancet Oncol. 2(7), 443–449 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

1997 (1)

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37(6), 958–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aegerter, P.

M.-L. Bafounta, A. Beauchet, P. Aegerter, and P. Saiag, “Is dermoscopy (epiluminescence microscopy) useful for the diagnosis of melanoma? Results of a meta-analysis using techniques adapted to the evaluation of diagnostic tests,” Arch. Dermatol. 137(10), 1343–1350 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahlers, C.

Alex, A.

Altmeyer, P.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersen, P. E.

M. Mogensen, L. Thrane, T. M. Jørgensen, P. E. Andersen, and G. B. Jemec, “OCT imaging of skin cancer and other dermatological diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 442–451 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Argenziano, G.

A. Lallas, J. Giacomel, G. Argenziano, B. García-García, D. González-Fernández, I. Zalaudek, and F. Vázquez-López, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology: practical tips for the clinician,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(3), 514–526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Zalaudek, J. Kreusch, J. Giacomel, G. Ferrara, C. Catricalà, and G. Argenziano, “How to diagnose nonpigmented skin tumors: a review of vascular structures seen with dermoscopy: part I. Melanocytic skin tumors,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 63(3), 361–374 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, B. Leinweber, L. Citarella, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. A. Pizzichetta, L. Thomas, H. P. Soyer, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy of Bowen’s disease,” Br. J. Dermatol. 150(6), 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Argenziano and H. P. Soyer, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions–a valuable tool for early,” Lancet Oncol. 2(7), 443–449 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Austen, W. G.

W. C. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D Imaging of Collagen Remodeling in Murine Hypertrophic Scars In Vivo Using Polarization-Sensitive Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bachmann, A. H.

Bafounta, M.-L.

M.-L. Bafounta, A. Beauchet, P. Aegerter, and P. Saiag, “Is dermoscopy (epiluminescence microscopy) useful for the diagnosis of melanoma? Results of a meta-analysis using techniques adapted to the evaluation of diagnostic tests,” Arch. Dermatol. 137(10), 1343–1350 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Baumann, B.

Beauchet, A.

M.-L. Bafounta, A. Beauchet, P. Aegerter, and P. Saiag, “Is dermoscopy (epiluminescence microscopy) useful for the diagnosis of melanoma? Results of a meta-analysis using techniques adapted to the evaluation of diagnostic tests,” Arch. Dermatol. 137(10), 1343–1350 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berisha, F.

Berking, C.

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biedermann, B. R.

Birngruber, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37(6), 958–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blatter, C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

W. C. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D Imaging of Collagen Remodeling in Murine Hypertrophic Scars In Vivo Using Polarization-Sensitive Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, R. P.

R. P. Braun, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. W. Kopf, and J.-H. Saurat, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52(1), 109–121 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broelsch, G. F.

W. C. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D Imaging of Collagen Remodeling in Murine Hypertrophic Scars In Vivo Using Polarization-Sensitive Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Catricalà, C.

I. Zalaudek, J. Kreusch, J. Giacomel, G. Ferrara, C. Catricalà, and G. Argenziano, “How to diagnose nonpigmented skin tumors: a review of vascular structures seen with dermoscopy: part I. Melanocytic skin tumors,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 63(3), 361–374 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Chen, Z.

G. Liu, W. Jia, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(10), 628–632 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1355–1357 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 114–116 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chico-Calero, I.

Choi, M. J.

A. J. Coleman, G. P. Penney, T. J. Richardson, A. Guyot, M. J. Choi, N. Sheth, E. Craythorne, A. Robson, and R. Mallipeddi, “Automated registration of optical coherence tomography and dermoscopy in the assessment of sub-clinical spread in basal cell carcinoma,” Comput. Aided Surg. 19(1-3), 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

Chou, C.

Chou, N.-K.

Chung, W. K.

Citarella, L.

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, B. Leinweber, L. Citarella, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. A. Pizzichetta, L. Thomas, H. P. Soyer, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy of Bowen’s disease,” Br. J. Dermatol. 150(6), 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coleman, A. J.

A. J. Coleman, G. P. Penney, T. J. Richardson, A. Guyot, M. J. Choi, N. Sheth, E. Craythorne, A. Robson, and R. Mallipeddi, “Automated registration of optical coherence tomography and dermoscopy in the assessment of sub-clinical spread in basal cell carcinoma,” Comput. Aided Surg. 19(1-3), 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Craythorne, E.

A. J. Coleman, G. P. Penney, T. J. Richardson, A. Guyot, M. J. Choi, N. Sheth, E. Craythorne, A. Robson, and R. Mallipeddi, “Automated registration of optical coherence tomography and dermoscopy in the assessment of sub-clinical spread in basal cell carcinoma,” Comput. Aided Surg. 19(1-3), 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, D.

Curatolo, A.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

K. H. Kim, M. C. Pierce, G. Maguluri, B. H. Park, S. J. Yoon, M. Lydon, R. Sheridan, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo imaging of human burn injuries with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066012 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, B. H. Park, Y. Tu, T. Hasan, B. Lee, J. Li, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging based on unpolarized light,” Opt. Express 19(2), 552–561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1355–1357 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 114–116 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dirschka, T.

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Dsouza, R.

Duan, L.

Duker, J.

Duker, J. S.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Engelhardt, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37(6), 958–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fargnoli, M. C.

T. Micantonio, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Usefulness of dermoscopy to monitor clinical efficacy of imiquimod treatment for lentigo maligna,” Arch. Dermatol. 142(4), 523–531 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

Ferrara, G.

I. Zalaudek, J. Kreusch, J. Giacomel, G. Ferrara, C. Catricalà, and G. Argenziano, “How to diagnose nonpigmented skin tumors: a review of vascular structures seen with dermoscopy: part I. Melanocytic skin tumors,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 63(3), 361–374 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gambichler, T.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García-García, B.

A. Lallas, J. Giacomel, G. Argenziano, B. García-García, D. González-Fernández, I. Zalaudek, and F. Vázquez-López, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology: practical tips for the clinician,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(3), 514–526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geitzenauer, W.

Giacomel, J.

A. Lallas, J. Giacomel, G. Argenziano, B. García-García, D. González-Fernández, I. Zalaudek, and F. Vázquez-López, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology: practical tips for the clinician,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(3), 514–526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Zalaudek, J. Kreusch, J. Giacomel, G. Ferrara, C. Catricalà, and G. Argenziano, “How to diagnose nonpigmented skin tumors: a review of vascular structures seen with dermoscopy: part I. Melanocytic skin tumors,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 63(3), 361–374 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golberg, A.

W. C. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D Imaging of Collagen Remodeling in Murine Hypertrophic Scars In Vivo Using Polarization-Sensitive Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gomes, A. S.

A. Latrive, L. R. Teixeira, A. S. Gomes, and D. M. Zezell, “Characterization of skin Port-Wine Stain and Hemangioma vascular lesions using Doppler OCT,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(2), 223–229 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

González-Fernández, D.

A. Lallas, J. Giacomel, G. Argenziano, B. García-García, D. González-Fernández, I. Zalaudek, and F. Vázquez-López, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology: practical tips for the clinician,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(3), 514–526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Grajciar, B.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, J.

Guyot, A.

A. J. Coleman, G. P. Penney, T. J. Richardson, A. Guyot, M. J. Choi, N. Sheth, E. Craythorne, A. Robson, and R. Mallipeddi, “Automated registration of optical coherence tomography and dermoscopy in the assessment of sub-clinical spread in basal cell carcinoma,” Comput. Aided Surg. 19(1-3), 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harada, T.

M. Shirakawa, T. Ozawa, S. Wakami, M. Ishii, and T. Harada, “Utility of dermoscopy before and after laser irradiation in port wine stains,” Ann. Dermatol. 24(1), 7–10 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hoffmann, K.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofmann-Wellenhof, R.

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, B. Leinweber, L. Citarella, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. A. Pizzichetta, L. Thomas, H. P. Soyer, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy of Bowen’s disease,” Br. J. Dermatol. 150(6), 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hogan, J.

Holt, P. E.

M. E. Vestergaard, P. Macaskill, P. E. Holt, and S. W. Menzies, “Dermoscopy compared with naked eye examination for the diagnosis of primary melanoma: a meta-analysis of studies performed in a clinical setting,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 669–676 (2008).
[PubMed]

Hong, Y.-J.

Huang, D.

B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source/Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10229–10241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H. E.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H.-J.

Huber, R.

Ishii, M.

M. Shirakawa, T. Ozawa, S. Wakami, M. Ishii, and T. Harada, “Utility of dermoscopy before and after laser irradiation in port wine stains,” Ann. Dermatol. 24(1), 7–10 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

Jang, W. H.

Jemec, G. B.

M. Mogensen, L. Thrane, T. M. Jørgensen, P. E. Andersen, and G. B. Jemec, “OCT imaging of skin cancer and other dermatological diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 442–451 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, W.

G. Liu, W. Jia, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(10), 628–632 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joo, C.

Jørgensen, T. M.

M. Mogensen, L. Thrane, T. M. Jørgensen, P. E. Andersen, and G. B. Jemec, “OCT imaging of skin cancer and other dermatological diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 442–451 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, W. Q.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keikhanzadeh, K.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kellner, C.

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kerl, H.

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, B. Leinweber, L. Citarella, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. A. Pizzichetta, L. Thomas, H. P. Soyer, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy of Bowen’s disease,” Br. J. Dermatol. 150(6), 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, S.

W. C. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D Imaging of Collagen Remodeling in Murine Hypertrophic Scars In Vivo Using Polarization-Sensitive Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B.

Kim, K. H.

Ko, T.

Kopf, A. W.

R. P. Braun, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. W. Kopf, and J.-H. Saurat, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52(1), 109–121 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

Kreusch, J.

I. Zalaudek, J. Kreusch, J. Giacomel, G. Ferrara, C. Catricalà, and G. Argenziano, “How to diagnose nonpigmented skin tumors: a review of vascular structures seen with dermoscopy: part I. Melanocytic skin tumors,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 63(3), 361–374 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, W.-C.

Kurzen, H.

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, C.-M.

Lallas, A.

A. Lallas, J. Giacomel, G. Argenziano, B. García-García, D. González-Fernández, I. Zalaudek, and F. Vázquez-López, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology: practical tips for the clinician,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(3), 514–526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lankenau, E.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37(6), 958–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasser, T.

Latrive, A.

A. Latrive, L. R. Teixeira, A. S. Gomes, and D. M. Zezell, “Characterization of skin Port-Wine Stain and Hemangioma vascular lesions using Doppler OCT,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(2), 223–229 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le, V. H.

Leahy, M.

Lee, B.

Leinweber, B.

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, B. Leinweber, L. Citarella, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. A. Pizzichetta, L. Thomas, H. P. Soyer, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy of Bowen’s disease,” Br. J. Dermatol. 150(6), 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, J.

Li, Q.

Lian, C. G.

W. C. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D Imaging of Collagen Remodeling in Murine Hypertrophic Scars In Vivo Using Polarization-Sensitive Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, Y.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, W. Jia, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(10), 628–632 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

Liu, X.

Lo, W. C.

W. C. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D Imaging of Collagen Remodeling in Murine Hypertrophic Scars In Vivo Using Polarization-Sensitive Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lorenser, D.

Lydon, M.

K. H. Kim, M. C. Pierce, G. Maguluri, B. H. Park, S. J. Yoon, M. Lydon, R. Sheridan, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo imaging of human burn injuries with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066012 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macaskill, P.

M. E. Vestergaard, P. Macaskill, P. E. Holt, and S. W. Menzies, “Dermoscopy compared with naked eye examination for the diagnosis of primary melanoma: a meta-analysis of studies performed in a clinical setting,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 669–676 (2008).
[PubMed]

Maguluri, G.

K. H. Kim, M. C. Pierce, G. Maguluri, B. H. Park, S. J. Yoon, M. Lydon, R. Sheridan, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo imaging of human burn injuries with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066012 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Mallipeddi, R.

A. J. Coleman, G. P. Penney, T. J. Richardson, A. Guyot, M. J. Choi, N. Sheth, E. Craythorne, A. Robson, and R. Mallipeddi, “Automated registration of optical coherence tomography and dermoscopy in the assessment of sub-clinical spread in basal cell carcinoma,” Comput. Aided Surg. 19(1-3), 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malvehy, J.

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, B. Leinweber, L. Citarella, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. A. Pizzichetta, L. Thomas, H. P. Soyer, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy of Bowen’s disease,” Br. J. Dermatol. 150(6), 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menzies, S. W.

M. E. Vestergaard, P. Macaskill, P. E. Holt, and S. W. Menzies, “Dermoscopy compared with naked eye examination for the diagnosis of primary melanoma: a meta-analysis of studies performed in a clinical setting,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 669–676 (2008).
[PubMed]

Micantonio, T.

T. Micantonio, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Usefulness of dermoscopy to monitor clinical efficacy of imiquimod treatment for lentigo maligna,” Arch. Dermatol. 142(4), 523–531 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michels, S.

Mogensen, M.

M. Mogensen, L. Thrane, T. M. Jørgensen, P. E. Andersen, and G. B. Jemec, “OCT imaging of skin cancer and other dermatological diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 442–451 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moussa, G.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nam, A. S.

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

G. Liu, W. Jia, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(10), 628–632 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1355–1357 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 114–116 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuhaus, K.

Oliviero, M.

R. P. Braun, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. W. Kopf, and J.-H. Saurat, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52(1), 109–121 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozawa, T.

M. Shirakawa, T. Ozawa, S. Wakami, M. Ishii, and T. Harada, “Utility of dermoscopy before and after laser irradiation in port wine stains,” Ann. Dermatol. 24(1), 7–10 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pache, C.

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

Park, H.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Penney, G. P.

A. J. Coleman, G. P. Penney, T. J. Richardson, A. Guyot, M. J. Choi, N. Sheth, E. Craythorne, A. Robson, and R. Mallipeddi, “Automated registration of optical coherence tomography and dermoscopy in the assessment of sub-clinical spread in basal cell carcinoma,” Comput. Aided Surg. 19(1-3), 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peris, K.

T. Micantonio, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Usefulness of dermoscopy to monitor clinical efficacy of imiquimod treatment for lentigo maligna,” Arch. Dermatol. 142(4), 523–531 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierce, M.

Pierce, M. C.

K. H. Kim, M. C. Pierce, G. Maguluri, B. H. Park, S. J. Yoon, M. Lydon, R. Sheridan, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo imaging of human burn injuries with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066012 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

Pizzichetta, M. A.

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, B. Leinweber, L. Citarella, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. A. Pizzichetta, L. Thomas, H. P. Soyer, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy of Bowen’s disease,” Br. J. Dermatol. 150(6), 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Puig, S.

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, B. Leinweber, L. Citarella, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. A. Pizzichetta, L. Thomas, H. P. Soyer, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy of Bowen’s disease,” Br. J. Dermatol. 150(6), 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rabinovitz, H. S.

R. P. Braun, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. W. Kopf, and J.-H. Saurat, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52(1), 109–121 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reinhold, U.

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, T. J.

A. J. Coleman, G. P. Penney, T. J. Richardson, A. Guyot, M. J. Choi, N. Sheth, E. Craythorne, A. Robson, and R. Mallipeddi, “Automated registration of optical coherence tomography and dermoscopy in the assessment of sub-clinical spread in basal cell carcinoma,” Comput. Aided Surg. 19(1-3), 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robson, A.

A. J. Coleman, G. P. Penney, T. J. Richardson, A. Guyot, M. J. Choi, N. Sheth, E. Craythorne, A. Robson, and R. Mallipeddi, “Automated registration of optical coherence tomography and dermoscopy in the assessment of sub-clinical spread in basal cell carcinoma,” Comput. Aided Surg. 19(1-3), 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saiag, P.

M.-L. Bafounta, A. Beauchet, P. Aegerter, and P. Saiag, “Is dermoscopy (epiluminescence microscopy) useful for the diagnosis of melanoma? Results of a meta-analysis using techniques adapted to the evaluation of diagnostic tests,” Arch. Dermatol. 137(10), 1343–1350 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

Sand, D.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sand, M.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sattler, E.

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saurat, J.-H.

R. P. Braun, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. W. Kopf, and J.-H. Saurat, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52(1), 109–121 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saxer, C.

Saxer, C. E.

Schmetterer, L.

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheridan, R.

K. H. Kim, M. C. Pierce, G. Maguluri, B. H. Park, S. J. Yoon, M. Lydon, R. Sheridan, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo imaging of human burn injuries with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066012 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheridan, R. L.

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheth, N.

A. J. Coleman, G. P. Penney, T. J. Richardson, A. Guyot, M. J. Choi, N. Sheth, E. Craythorne, A. Robson, and R. Mallipeddi, “Automated registration of optical coherence tomography and dermoscopy in the assessment of sub-clinical spread in basal cell carcinoma,” Comput. Aided Surg. 19(1-3), 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shirakawa, M.

M. Shirakawa, T. Ozawa, S. Wakami, M. Ishii, and T. Harada, “Utility of dermoscopy before and after laser irradiation in port wine stains,” Ann. Dermatol. 24(1), 7–10 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shyu, J.-J.

Singe, C. C.

Son, S.

Soyer, H. P.

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, B. Leinweber, L. Citarella, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. A. Pizzichetta, L. Thomas, H. P. Soyer, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy of Bowen’s disease,” Br. J. Dermatol. 150(6), 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Argenziano and H. P. Soyer, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions–a valuable tool for early,” Lancet Oncol. 2(7), 443–449 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

Steinmann, L.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subhash, H.

Sutoh, Y.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Teixeira, L. R.

A. Latrive, L. R. Teixeira, A. S. Gomes, and D. M. Zezell, “Characterization of skin Port-Wine Stain and Hemangioma vascular lesions using Doppler OCT,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(2), 223–229 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, L.

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, B. Leinweber, L. Citarella, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. A. Pizzichetta, L. Thomas, H. P. Soyer, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy of Bowen’s disease,” Br. J. Dermatol. 150(6), 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thrane, L.

M. Mogensen, L. Thrane, T. M. Jørgensen, P. E. Andersen, and G. B. Jemec, “OCT imaging of skin cancer and other dermatological diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 442–451 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, Y.

Ulrich, M.

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

Vázquez-López, F.

A. Lallas, J. Giacomel, G. Argenziano, B. García-García, D. González-Fernández, I. Zalaudek, and F. Vázquez-López, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology: practical tips for the clinician,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(3), 514–526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vestergaard, M. E.

M. E. Vestergaard, P. Macaskill, P. E. Holt, and S. W. Menzies, “Dermoscopy compared with naked eye examination for the diagnosis of primary melanoma: a meta-analysis of studies performed in a clinical setting,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 669–676 (2008).
[PubMed]

Villiger, M.

W. C. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D Imaging of Collagen Remodeling in Murine Hypertrophic Scars In Vivo Using Polarization-Sensitive Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, C. Pache, and T. Lasser, “Dark-field optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3489–3491 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, M. Villiger, A. H. Bachmann, L. Steinmann, and T. Lasser, “Extended focus depth for Fourier domain optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(16), 2450–2452 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Braunmuehl, T.

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wakami, S.

M. Shirakawa, T. Ozawa, S. Wakami, M. Ishii, and T. Harada, “Utility of dermoscopy before and after laser irradiation in port wine stains,” Ann. Dermatol. 24(1), 7–10 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.-S.

Wang, T.

Weingast, J.

Welzel, J.

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Welzel, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology: a review,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(1), 1–9 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37(6), 958–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werkmeister, R. M.

R. A. Leitgeb, R. M. Werkmeister, C. Blatter, and L. Schmetterer, “Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 41, 26–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wieser, W.

Wilson, C.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wu, J.

Xiang, S.

Yamanari, M.

Yarmush, M.

W. C. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D Imaging of Collagen Remodeling in Murine Hypertrophic Scars In Vivo Using Polarization-Sensitive Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yoon, S. J.

K. H. Kim, M. C. Pierce, G. Maguluri, B. H. Park, S. J. Yoon, M. Lydon, R. Sheridan, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo imaging of human burn injuries with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066012 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, Y.

Yu, X.

Yun, S.-H.

Zalaudek, I.

A. Lallas, J. Giacomel, G. Argenziano, B. García-García, D. González-Fernández, I. Zalaudek, and F. Vázquez-López, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology: practical tips for the clinician,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(3), 514–526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Zalaudek, J. Kreusch, J. Giacomel, G. Ferrara, C. Catricalà, and G. Argenziano, “How to diagnose nonpigmented skin tumors: a review of vascular structures seen with dermoscopy: part I. Melanocytic skin tumors,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 63(3), 361–374 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Zalaudek, “Dermoscopy subpatterns of nonpigmented skin tumors,” Arch. Dermatol. 141(4), 532 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, B. Leinweber, L. Citarella, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. A. Pizzichetta, L. Thomas, H. P. Soyer, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy of Bowen’s disease,” Br. J. Dermatol. 150(6), 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zezell, D. M.

A. Latrive, L. R. Teixeira, A. S. Gomes, and D. M. Zezell, “Characterization of skin Port-Wine Stain and Hemangioma vascular lesions using Doppler OCT,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(2), 223–229 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Ann. Dermatol. (1)

M. Shirakawa, T. Ozawa, S. Wakami, M. Ishii, and T. Harada, “Utility of dermoscopy before and after laser irradiation in port wine stains,” Ann. Dermatol. 24(1), 7–10 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Dermatol. (3)

T. Micantonio, M. C. Fargnoli, and K. Peris, “Usefulness of dermoscopy to monitor clinical efficacy of imiquimod treatment for lentigo maligna,” Arch. Dermatol. 142(4), 523–531 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-L. Bafounta, A. Beauchet, P. Aegerter, and P. Saiag, “Is dermoscopy (epiluminescence microscopy) useful for the diagnosis of melanoma? Results of a meta-analysis using techniques adapted to the evaluation of diagnostic tests,” Arch. Dermatol. 137(10), 1343–1350 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Zalaudek, “Dermoscopy subpatterns of nonpigmented skin tumors,” Arch. Dermatol. 141(4), 532 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Br. J. Dermatol. (4)

M. Ulrich, T. von Braunmuehl, H. Kurzen, T. Dirschka, C. Kellner, E. Sattler, C. Berking, J. Welzel, and U. Reinhold, “The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of nonpigmented basal cell carcinoma: an observational study,” Br. J. Dermatol. 173(2), 428–435 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Lallas, J. Giacomel, G. Argenziano, B. García-García, D. González-Fernández, I. Zalaudek, and F. Vázquez-López, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology: practical tips for the clinician,” Br. J. Dermatol. 170(3), 514–526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, B. Leinweber, L. Citarella, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, J. Malvehy, S. Puig, M. A. Pizzichetta, L. Thomas, H. P. Soyer, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy of Bowen’s disease,” Br. J. Dermatol. 150(6), 1112–1116 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Vestergaard, P. Macaskill, P. E. Holt, and S. W. Menzies, “Dermoscopy compared with naked eye examination for the diagnosis of primary melanoma: a meta-analysis of studies performed in a clinical setting,” Br. J. Dermatol. 159(3), 669–676 (2008).
[PubMed]

Burns (1)

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comput. Aided Surg. (1)

A. J. Coleman, G. P. Penney, T. J. Richardson, A. Guyot, M. J. Choi, N. Sheth, E. Craythorne, A. Robson, and R. Mallipeddi, “Automated registration of optical coherence tomography and dermoscopy in the assessment of sub-clinical spread in basal cell carcinoma,” Comput. Aided Surg. 19(1-3), 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (3)

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37(6), 958–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Zalaudek, J. Kreusch, J. Giacomel, G. Ferrara, C. Catricalà, and G. Argenziano, “How to diagnose nonpigmented skin tumors: a review of vascular structures seen with dermoscopy: part I. Melanocytic skin tumors,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 63(3), 361–374 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Braun, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. W. Kopf, and J.-H. Saurat, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52(1), 109–121 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, M. C. Pierce, G. Maguluri, B. H. Park, S. J. Yoon, M. Lydon, R. Sheridan, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo imaging of human burn injuries with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066012 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

M. Mogensen, L. Thrane, T. M. Jørgensen, P. E. Andersen, and G. B. Jemec, “OCT imaging of skin cancer and other dermatological diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 442–451 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dermatol. Sci. (1)

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

W. C. Lo, M. Villiger, A. Golberg, G. F. Broelsch, S. Khan, C. G. Lian, W. G. Austen, M. Yarmush, and B. E. Bouma, “Longitudinal, 3D Imaging of Collagen Remodeling in Murine Hypertrophic Scars In Vivo Using Polarization-Sensitive Optical Frequency Domain Imaging,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 136(1), 84–92 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lancet Oncol. (1)

G. Argenziano and H. P. Soyer, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions–a valuable tool for early,” Lancet Oncol. 2(7), 443–449 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

G. Liu, W. Jia, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 45(10), 628–632 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

Y. Yoon, Q. Li, V. H. Le, W. H. Jang, T. Wang, B. Kim, S. Son, W. K. Chung, C. Joo, and K. H. Kim, “Dark-field polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12874–12886 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, B. Grajciar, C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Extended focus high-speed swept source OCT with self-reconstructive illumination,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12141–12155 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source/Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10229–10241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MOV (2454 KB)      visualization 1
» Visualization 2: MOV (2470 KB)      visualization 2
» Visualization 3: MOV (2466 KB)      visualization 3
» Visualization 4: MOV (2501 KB)      visualization 4

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System configuration of dermoscopy guided MF-OCT. Bessel beam illumination and Gaussian beam detection paths for dark-field effect are depicted in gray and red colors, respectively. PDU: passive delay unit, PC: polarization controller, FBG: fiber Bragg grating, CM: collimator, CIR: fiber circulator, FC: fiber coupler, PD: photodetector, PDD: polarization diverse detection, M: mirror, SM: scanning mirror, RAM: right angle mirror, DM: dichroic mirror, L1-L4: achromatic lens (f = 60 mm), L5-L7: achromatic lens (f = 75 mm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) En-face intensity OCT images of microspheres (3 μm in diameter) at 300 μm deep from the surface. (b-d) Enlarged PSF images at 200 μm, 350 μm, and 500 μm deep from the surface. Scale bars are (a) 100 μm and (b-d) 20 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between dermoscopy guided MF-OCT and conventional OCT in a tissue phantom and sensitivity analysis of dermoscopy guided MF-OCT in the human skin. (a, b) Cross-sectional intensity OCT images of a TiO2 tissue phantom by dermoscopy guided MF-OCT and conventional OCT respectively. (c) Mean intensity profiles with depth of the two intensity OCT images in (a) and (b). (d) Cross-sectional intensity OCT image of the dorsum of human hand by dermoscopy guided MF-OCT. (e) Mean intensity profile with depth of the intensity OCT image in (d). All scale bars are 500 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normal skin images by dermoscopy guided MF-OCT. (a) Dermoscopy image. (b) Intensity OCT and (c) PS-OCT images in the x-z plane (see Visualization 1). (d) MIP angiographic OCT image with depth resolved color mapping in the x-y plane. A blue dashed lined box indicates FOV of MF-OCT. Yellow-dashed lines indicate the depth range of angiographic OCT image. Scale bars are (a) 1 mm and (b-d) 500 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scar images by dermoscopy guided MF-OCT. (a) Dermoscopy image. (b, e) Intensity OCT and (c, f) PS-OCT images in the x-y and x-z plane respectively (see Visualization 2). (d) MIP angiographic OCT image with depth resolved color mapping in the x-y plane. A blue dashed lined box indicates FOV of MF-OCT. White dashed lines indicate locations of the cross-sections and depth-sections. White arrows indicate the highly scattering and birefringent regions in (b, c). Yellow dashed lines indicate the depth range of angiographic OCT image. Scale bars are (a) 1 mm and (b-f) 500 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images of (a-d) PWS and (e-h) contralateral control by dermoscopy guided MF-OCT. (a, e) Dermoscopy images. (b, f) Intensity OCT and (c, g) PS-OCT images in the x-z plane (see Visualization 3 and Visualization 4). (d) MIP angiographic OCT image with depth resolved color mapping in the x-y plane. A blue dashed lined box indicates FOV of MF-OCT. Yellow-dashed lines indicate the depth ranges of angiographic OCT images. Scale bars are (a, e) 1 mm and (b-d, f-h) 500 μm.

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