Abstract

Multimodality molecular imaging emerges as a powerful strategy for correlating multimodal information. We developed a pentamodal imaging system which can perform positron emission tomography, bioluminescence tomography, fluorescence molecular tomography, Cerenkov luminescence tomography and X-ray computed tomography successively. Performance of sub-systems corresponding to different modalities were characterized. In vivo multimodal imaging of an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft mouse model was performed, and acquired multimodal images were fused. The feasibility of pentamodal tomographic imaging system was successfully validated with the imaging application on the mouse model. The ability of integrating anatomical, metabolic, and pharmacokinetic information promises applications of multimodality molecular imaging in precise medicine.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

Y. Xi, J. Zhao, J. R. Bennett, M. R. Stacy, A. J. Sinusas, and G. Wang, “Simultaneous CT-MRI reconstruction for constrained imaging geometries using structural coupling and compressive sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 63(6), 1301–1309 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

G. Wang, M. Kalra, V. Murugan, Y. Xi, L. Gjesteby, M. Getzin, Q. Yang, W. Cong, and M. Vannier, “Vision 20/20: Simultaneous CT-MRI--Next chapter of multimodality imaging,” Med. Phys. 42(10), 5879–5889 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hu, Y. Qu, K. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Zha, T. Song, C. Bao, H. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Liu, H. Liu, and J. Tian, “In vivo nanoparticle-mediated radiopharmaceutical-excited fluorescence molecular imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7560 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Leng and J. Tian, “Mathematical method in optical molecular imaging,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 58(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Yi, X. Li, Z. Xue, X. Liang, W. Lu, H. Peng, H. Liu, S. Zeng, and J. Hao, “Remarkable NIR enhancement of multifunctional nanoprobes for in vivo trimodal bioimaging and upconversion optical/T-2-weighted MRI-guided small tumor diagnosis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(46), 7119–7129 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, X. Yang, T. Song, C. Bao, L. Shi, Z. Hu, K. Wang, and J. Tian, “Multispectral hybrid Cerenkov luminescence tomography based on the finite element SPn method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(8), 086007 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (9)

J. Liu, W. Fan, M. Liu, X. Lin, Y. Wang, F. Wang, X. Chen, F. Cao, and J. Liang, “Spatial vascular volume fraction imaging for quantitative assessment of angiogenesis,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 16(3), 362–371 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, K. Yang, K. Zhou, B. Pang, G. Wang, Y. Ding, Q. Zhang, H. Han, J. Tian, C. Li, and Q. Ren, “An integrated quad-modality molecular imaging system for small animals,” J. Nucl. Med. 55(8), 1375–1379 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Lee and J. H. Kim, “Recent advances in hybrid molecular imaging systems,” Semin. Musculoskelet. Radiol. 18(2), 103–122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Gammon, N. Foje, E. M. Brewer, E. Owers, C. A. Downs, M. D. Budde, W. M. Leevy, and M. N. Helms, “Preclinical anatomical, molecular, and functional imaging of the lung with multiple modalities,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 306(10), L897–L914 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hu, W. Yang, H. Liu, K. Wang, C. Bao, T. Song, J. Wang, and J. Tian, “From PET/CT to PET/MRI: advances in instrumentation and clinical applications,” Mol. Pharm. 11(11), 3798–3809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Huellner and K. Strobel, “Clinical applications of SPECT/CT in imaging the extremities,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 41(S1), S50–S58 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mortensen and H. Gutte, “SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 41(S1), S81–S90 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Fine, L. Herbst, L. A. Jelicks, W. Koba, and D. Theele, “Small-animal research imaging devices,” Semin. Nucl. Med. 44(1), 57–65 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. James, V. M. Murukeshan, and L. S. Woh, “Integrated photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence platform for diagnostic medical imaging-proof of concept study with a tissue mimicking phantom,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2135–2144 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

P. Veit-Haibach, F. P. Kuhn, F. Wiesinger, G. Delso, and G. von Schulthess, “PET-MR imaging using a tri-modality PET/CT-MR system with a dedicated shuttle in clinical routine,” MAGMA 26(1), 25–35 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xie, Y. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Liu, X. Wang, W. Liu, X. Chen, M. Niu, Z. Wu, D. Xi, L. Wang, P. Xiao, C.-T. Chen, and C.-M. Kao, “Implementation of LYSO/PSPMT block detector with all digital DAQ system,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 1487–1494 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

T. S. C. Ng, J. R. Bading, R. Park, H. Sohi, D. Procissi, D. Colcher, P. S. Conti, S. R. Cherry, A. A. Raubitschek, and R. E. Jacobs, “Quantitative, simultaneous PET/MRI for intratumoral imaging with an MRI-compatible PET scanner,” J. Nucl. Med. 53(7), 1102–1109 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wang, J. Zhang, H. Gao, V. Weir, H. Yu, W. Cong, X. Xu, H. Shen, J. Bennett, M. Furth, Y. Wang, and M. Vannier, “Towards omni-tomography--grand fusion of multiple modalities for simultaneous interior tomography,” PLoS One 7(6), e39700 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. James and S. S. Gambhir, “A molecular imaging primer: modalities, imaging agents, and applications,” Physiol. Rev. 92(2), 897–965 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

W. Koba, K. Kim, M. L. Lipton, L. Jelicks, B. Das, L. Herbst, and E. Fine, “Imaging devices for use in small animals,” Semin. Nucl. Med. 41(3), 151–165 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

S. Kyriazi, S. B. Kaye, and N. M. deSouza, “Imaging ovarian cancer and peritoneal metastases--current and emerging techniques,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 7(7), 381–393 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yan, J. Tian, S. Zhu, C. Qin, Y. Dai, F. Yang, D. Dong, and P. Wu, “Fast Katsevich algorithm based on GPU for helical cone-beam computed tomography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 14(4), 1053–1061 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, Y. Wang, X. Qu, X. Li, X. Ma, R. Han, Z. Hu, X. Chen, D. Sun, R. Zhang, D. Chen, D. Chen, X. Chen, J. Liang, F. Cao, and J. Tian, “In vivo quantitative bioluminescence tomography using heterogeneous and homogeneous mouse models,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13102–13113 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hu, J. Liang, W. Yang, W. Fan, C. Li, X. Ma, X. Chen, X. Ma, X. Li, X. Qu, J. Wang, F. Cao, and J. Tian, “Experimental Cerenkov luminescence tomography of the mouse model with SPECT imaging validation,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24441–24450 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. He, J. Liang, X. Wang, J. Yu, X. Qu, X. Wang, Y. Hou, D. Chen, F. Liu, and J. Tian, “Sparse reconstruction for quantitative bioluminescence tomography based on the incomplete variables truncated conjugate gradient method,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24825–24841 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Martí-Bonmatí, R. Sopena, P. Bartumeus, and P. Sopena, “Multimodality imaging techniques,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 5(4), 180–189 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hricak, B. I. Choi, A. M. Scott, K. Sugimura, A. Muellner, G. K. von Schulthess, M. F. Reiser, M. M. Graham, N. R. Dunnick, and S. M. Larson, “Global trends in hybrid imaging,” Radiology 257(2), 498–506 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. A. Patton, D. W. Townsend, and B. F. Hutton, “Hybrid imaging technology: from dreams and vision to clinical devices,” Semin. Nucl. Med. 39(4), 247–263 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ogawa, N. Kosaka, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo molecular imaging of cancer with a quenching near-infrared fluorescent probe using conjugates of monoclonal antibodies and indocyanine green,” Cancer Res. 69(4), 1268–1272 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. Tian, J. Xue, Y. Dai, J. Chen, and J. Zheng, “A novel software platform for medical image processing and analyzing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 12(6), 800–812 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Judenhofer, H. F. Wehrl, D. F. Newport, C. Catana, S. B. Siegel, M. Becker, A. Thielscher, M. Kneilling, M. P. Lichy, M. Eichner, K. Klingel, G. Reischl, S. Widmaier, M. Röcken, R. E. Nutt, H. J. Machulla, K. Uludag, S. R. Cherry, C. D. Claussen, and B. J. Pichler, “Simultaneous PET-MRI: a new approach for functional and morphological imaging,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 459–465 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2003 (1)

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(12), 1701–1720 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. Weissleder, “Molecular imaging: exploring the next frontier,” Radiology 212(3), 609–614 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

H. M. Hudson and R. S. Larkin, “Accelerated image reconstruction using ordered subsets of projection data,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 13(4), 601–609 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

B. M. Gallagher, A. Ansari, H. Atkins, V. Casella, D. R. Christman, J. S. Fowler, T. Ido, R. R. MacGregor, P. Som, C. N. Wan, A. P. Wolf, D. E. Kuhl, and M. Reivich, “Radiopharmaceuticals XXVII. 18F-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose as a radiopharmaceutical for measuring regional myocardial glucose metabolism in vivo: tissue distribution and imaging studies in animals,” J. Nucl. Med. 18(10), 990–996 (1977).
[PubMed]

Ansari, A.

B. M. Gallagher, A. Ansari, H. Atkins, V. Casella, D. R. Christman, J. S. Fowler, T. Ido, R. R. MacGregor, P. Som, C. N. Wan, A. P. Wolf, D. E. Kuhl, and M. Reivich, “Radiopharmaceuticals XXVII. 18F-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose as a radiopharmaceutical for measuring regional myocardial glucose metabolism in vivo: tissue distribution and imaging studies in animals,” J. Nucl. Med. 18(10), 990–996 (1977).
[PubMed]

Atkins, H.

B. M. Gallagher, A. Ansari, H. Atkins, V. Casella, D. R. Christman, J. S. Fowler, T. Ido, R. R. MacGregor, P. Som, C. N. Wan, A. P. Wolf, D. E. Kuhl, and M. Reivich, “Radiopharmaceuticals XXVII. 18F-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose as a radiopharmaceutical for measuring regional myocardial glucose metabolism in vivo: tissue distribution and imaging studies in animals,” J. Nucl. Med. 18(10), 990–996 (1977).
[PubMed]

Bading, J. R.

T. S. C. Ng, J. R. Bading, R. Park, H. Sohi, D. Procissi, D. Colcher, P. S. Conti, S. R. Cherry, A. A. Raubitschek, and R. E. Jacobs, “Quantitative, simultaneous PET/MRI for intratumoral imaging with an MRI-compatible PET scanner,” J. Nucl. Med. 53(7), 1102–1109 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, C.

Z. Hu, Y. Qu, K. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Zha, T. Song, C. Bao, H. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Liu, H. Liu, and J. Tian, “In vivo nanoparticle-mediated radiopharmaceutical-excited fluorescence molecular imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7560 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, X. Yang, T. Song, C. Bao, L. Shi, Z. Hu, K. Wang, and J. Tian, “Multispectral hybrid Cerenkov luminescence tomography based on the finite element SPn method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(8), 086007 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hu, W. Yang, H. Liu, K. Wang, C. Bao, T. Song, J. Wang, and J. Tian, “From PET/CT to PET/MRI: advances in instrumentation and clinical applications,” Mol. Pharm. 11(11), 3798–3809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartumeus, P.

L. Martí-Bonmatí, R. Sopena, P. Bartumeus, and P. Sopena, “Multimodality imaging techniques,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 5(4), 180–189 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, M.

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S. T. Gammon, N. Foje, E. M. Brewer, E. Owers, C. A. Downs, M. D. Budde, W. M. Leevy, and M. N. Helms, “Preclinical anatomical, molecular, and functional imaging of the lung with multiple modalities,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 306(10), L897–L914 (2014).
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Casella, V.

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Chen, J.

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S. R. Cherry, “Multimodality in vivo imaging systems: twice the power or double the trouble?” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8(1), 35–62 (2006).
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M. S. Judenhofer, H. F. Wehrl, D. F. Newport, C. Catana, S. B. Siegel, M. Becker, A. Thielscher, M. Kneilling, M. P. Lichy, M. Eichner, K. Klingel, G. Reischl, S. Widmaier, M. Röcken, R. E. Nutt, H. J. Machulla, K. Uludag, S. R. Cherry, C. D. Claussen, and B. J. Pichler, “Simultaneous PET-MRI: a new approach for functional and morphological imaging,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 459–465 (2008).
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T. S. C. Ng, J. R. Bading, R. Park, H. Sohi, D. Procissi, D. Colcher, P. S. Conti, S. R. Cherry, A. A. Raubitschek, and R. E. Jacobs, “Quantitative, simultaneous PET/MRI for intratumoral imaging with an MRI-compatible PET scanner,” J. Nucl. Med. 53(7), 1102–1109 (2012).
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W. Koba, K. Kim, M. L. Lipton, L. Jelicks, B. Das, L. Herbst, and E. Fine, “Imaging devices for use in small animals,” Semin. Nucl. Med. 41(3), 151–165 (2011).
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S. Kyriazi, S. B. Kaye, and N. M. deSouza, “Imaging ovarian cancer and peritoneal metastases--current and emerging techniques,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 7(7), 381–393 (2010).
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G. Yan, J. Tian, S. Zhu, C. Qin, Y. Dai, F. Yang, D. Dong, and P. Wu, “Fast Katsevich algorithm based on GPU for helical cone-beam computed tomography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 14(4), 1053–1061 (2010).
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S. T. Gammon, N. Foje, E. M. Brewer, E. Owers, C. A. Downs, M. D. Budde, W. M. Leevy, and M. N. Helms, “Preclinical anatomical, molecular, and functional imaging of the lung with multiple modalities,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 306(10), L897–L914 (2014).
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H. Hricak, B. I. Choi, A. M. Scott, K. Sugimura, A. Muellner, G. K. von Schulthess, M. F. Reiser, M. M. Graham, N. R. Dunnick, and S. M. Larson, “Global trends in hybrid imaging,” Radiology 257(2), 498–506 (2010).
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M. S. Judenhofer, H. F. Wehrl, D. F. Newport, C. Catana, S. B. Siegel, M. Becker, A. Thielscher, M. Kneilling, M. P. Lichy, M. Eichner, K. Klingel, G. Reischl, S. Widmaier, M. Röcken, R. E. Nutt, H. J. Machulla, K. Uludag, S. R. Cherry, C. D. Claussen, and B. J. Pichler, “Simultaneous PET-MRI: a new approach for functional and morphological imaging,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 459–465 (2008).
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W. Koba, K. Kim, M. L. Lipton, L. Jelicks, B. Das, L. Herbst, and E. Fine, “Imaging devices for use in small animals,” Semin. Nucl. Med. 41(3), 151–165 (2011).
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E. J. Fine, L. Herbst, L. A. Jelicks, W. Koba, and D. Theele, “Small-animal research imaging devices,” Semin. Nucl. Med. 44(1), 57–65 (2014).
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G. Wang, J. Zhang, H. Gao, V. Weir, H. Yu, W. Cong, X. Xu, H. Shen, J. Bennett, M. Furth, Y. Wang, and M. Vannier, “Towards omni-tomography--grand fusion of multiple modalities for simultaneous interior tomography,” PLoS One 7(6), e39700 (2012).
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S. T. Gammon, N. Foje, E. M. Brewer, E. Owers, C. A. Downs, M. D. Budde, W. M. Leevy, and M. N. Helms, “Preclinical anatomical, molecular, and functional imaging of the lung with multiple modalities,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 306(10), L897–L914 (2014).
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G. Wang, M. Kalra, V. Murugan, Y. Xi, L. Gjesteby, M. Getzin, Q. Yang, W. Cong, and M. Vannier, “Vision 20/20: Simultaneous CT-MRI--Next chapter of multimodality imaging,” Med. Phys. 42(10), 5879–5889 (2015).
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A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(12), 1701–1720 (2003).
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E. J. Fine, L. Herbst, L. A. Jelicks, W. Koba, and D. Theele, “Small-animal research imaging devices,” Semin. Nucl. Med. 44(1), 57–65 (2014).
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H. Hricak, B. I. Choi, A. M. Scott, K. Sugimura, A. Muellner, G. K. von Schulthess, M. F. Reiser, M. M. Graham, N. R. Dunnick, and S. M. Larson, “Global trends in hybrid imaging,” Radiology 257(2), 498–506 (2010).
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T. S. C. Ng, J. R. Bading, R. Park, H. Sohi, D. Procissi, D. Colcher, P. S. Conti, S. R. Cherry, A. A. Raubitschek, and R. E. Jacobs, “Quantitative, simultaneous PET/MRI for intratumoral imaging with an MRI-compatible PET scanner,” J. Nucl. Med. 53(7), 1102–1109 (2012).
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James, J.

James, M. L.

M. L. James and S. S. Gambhir, “A molecular imaging primer: modalities, imaging agents, and applications,” Physiol. Rev. 92(2), 897–965 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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W. Koba, K. Kim, M. L. Lipton, L. Jelicks, B. Das, L. Herbst, and E. Fine, “Imaging devices for use in small animals,” Semin. Nucl. Med. 41(3), 151–165 (2011).
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E. J. Fine, L. Herbst, L. A. Jelicks, W. Koba, and D. Theele, “Small-animal research imaging devices,” Semin. Nucl. Med. 44(1), 57–65 (2014).
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M. S. Judenhofer, H. F. Wehrl, D. F. Newport, C. Catana, S. B. Siegel, M. Becker, A. Thielscher, M. Kneilling, M. P. Lichy, M. Eichner, K. Klingel, G. Reischl, S. Widmaier, M. Röcken, R. E. Nutt, H. J. Machulla, K. Uludag, S. R. Cherry, C. D. Claussen, and B. J. Pichler, “Simultaneous PET-MRI: a new approach for functional and morphological imaging,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 459–465 (2008).
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G. Wang, M. Kalra, V. Murugan, Y. Xi, L. Gjesteby, M. Getzin, Q. Yang, W. Cong, and M. Vannier, “Vision 20/20: Simultaneous CT-MRI--Next chapter of multimodality imaging,” Med. Phys. 42(10), 5879–5889 (2015).
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S. Kyriazi, S. B. Kaye, and N. M. deSouza, “Imaging ovarian cancer and peritoneal metastases--current and emerging techniques,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 7(7), 381–393 (2010).
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G. Yan, J. Tian, S. Zhu, C. Qin, Y. Dai, F. Yang, D. Dong, and P. Wu, “Fast Katsevich algorithm based on GPU for helical cone-beam computed tomography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 14(4), 1053–1061 (2010).
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G. Wang, M. Kalra, V. Murugan, Y. Xi, L. Gjesteby, M. Getzin, Q. Yang, W. Cong, and M. Vannier, “Vision 20/20: Simultaneous CT-MRI--Next chapter of multimodality imaging,” Med. Phys. 42(10), 5879–5889 (2015).
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Yang, X.

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Z. Yi, X. Li, Z. Xue, X. Liang, W. Lu, H. Peng, H. Liu, S. Zeng, and J. Hao, “Remarkable NIR enhancement of multifunctional nanoprobes for in vivo trimodal bioimaging and upconversion optical/T-2-weighted MRI-guided small tumor diagnosis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(46), 7119–7129 (2015).
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Zeng, S.

Z. Yi, X. Li, Z. Xue, X. Liang, W. Lu, H. Peng, H. Liu, S. Zeng, and J. Hao, “Remarkable NIR enhancement of multifunctional nanoprobes for in vivo trimodal bioimaging and upconversion optical/T-2-weighted MRI-guided small tumor diagnosis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(46), 7119–7129 (2015).
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Z. Hu, Y. Qu, K. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Zha, T. Song, C. Bao, H. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Liu, H. Liu, and J. Tian, “In vivo nanoparticle-mediated radiopharmaceutical-excited fluorescence molecular imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7560 (2015).
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G. Wang, J. Zhang, H. Gao, V. Weir, H. Yu, W. Cong, X. Xu, H. Shen, J. Bennett, M. Furth, Y. Wang, and M. Vannier, “Towards omni-tomography--grand fusion of multiple modalities for simultaneous interior tomography,” PLoS One 7(6), e39700 (2012).
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Y. Lu, K. Yang, K. Zhou, B. Pang, G. Wang, Y. Ding, Q. Zhang, H. Han, J. Tian, C. Li, and Q. Ren, “An integrated quad-modality molecular imaging system for small animals,” J. Nucl. Med. 55(8), 1375–1379 (2014).
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Zhang, X.

Z. Hu, Y. Qu, K. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Zha, T. Song, C. Bao, H. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Liu, H. Liu, and J. Tian, “In vivo nanoparticle-mediated radiopharmaceutical-excited fluorescence molecular imaging,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7560 (2015).
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Y. Xi, J. Zhao, J. R. Bennett, M. R. Stacy, A. J. Sinusas, and G. Wang, “Simultaneous CT-MRI reconstruction for constrained imaging geometries using structural coupling and compressive sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 63(6), 1301–1309 (2016).
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J. Tian, J. Xue, Y. Dai, J. Chen, and J. Zheng, “A novel software platform for medical image processing and analyzing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 12(6), 800–812 (2008).
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Y. Lu, K. Yang, K. Zhou, B. Pang, G. Wang, Y. Ding, Q. Zhang, H. Han, J. Tian, C. Li, and Q. Ren, “An integrated quad-modality molecular imaging system for small animals,” J. Nucl. Med. 55(8), 1375–1379 (2014).
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Q. Xie, Y. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Liu, X. Wang, W. Liu, X. Chen, M. Niu, Z. Wu, D. Xi, L. Wang, P. Xiao, C.-T. Chen, and C.-M. Kao, “Implementation of LYSO/PSPMT block detector with all digital DAQ system,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 1487–1494 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.

G. Yan, J. Tian, S. Zhu, C. Qin, Y. Dai, F. Yang, D. Dong, and P. Wu, “Fast Katsevich algorithm based on GPU for helical cone-beam computed tomography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 14(4), 1053–1061 (2010).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Z. Yi, X. Li, Z. Xue, X. Liang, W. Lu, H. Peng, H. Liu, S. Zeng, and J. Hao, “Remarkable NIR enhancement of multifunctional nanoprobes for in vivo trimodal bioimaging and upconversion optical/T-2-weighted MRI-guided small tumor diagnosis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(46), 7119–7129 (2015).
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Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. (1)

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M. Ogawa, N. Kosaka, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “In vivo molecular imaging of cancer with a quenching near-infrared fluorescent probe using conjugates of monoclonal antibodies and indocyanine green,” Cancer Res. 69(4), 1268–1272 (2009).
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M. W. Huellner and K. Strobel, “Clinical applications of SPECT/CT in imaging the extremities,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 41(S1), S50–S58 (2014).
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IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

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B. M. Gallagher, A. Ansari, H. Atkins, V. Casella, D. R. Christman, J. S. Fowler, T. Ido, R. R. MacGregor, P. Som, C. N. Wan, A. P. Wolf, D. E. Kuhl, and M. Reivich, “Radiopharmaceuticals XXVII. 18F-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose as a radiopharmaceutical for measuring regional myocardial glucose metabolism in vivo: tissue distribution and imaging studies in animals,” J. Nucl. Med. 18(10), 990–996 (1977).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 System overview of our pentamodal imaging system. (a) CT, optical and PET imaging instruments were arranged on a rotating gantry. (b)The polar coordinate system indicates the arrangement of instruments in the schematic diagram of our imaging system. Different colors are assigned for different sub-systems: yellow for PET sub-system, green for optical tomographies, and blue for CT sub-system. (c) Photograph of the overview of the system is taken before the assembling of the light shield chamber. An MRI system for verification is placed on the opposite of the rotating gantry.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Spatial resolution characterization of PET and optical sub-systems. (a) The droplet of 18F-FDG was positioned at the origin of the coordinate system. (b) The photograph shows the experimental setup of PET block detectors. (c) The schematic diagram shows the dimensions of the Derenzo phantom used in the verification of spatial resolution of PET sub-system. (d) The photograph shows the Derenzo phantom. (e) The schematic diagram shows the dimensions of the cubic optical phantom. (f) The schematic diagram shows top view of optical signal acquisition setup. (g) The photograph shows the cubic phantom used in phantom experiment of optical tomographies.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Workflow of data acquisition and optical reconstruction. (a) Workflow of in vivo multimodal imaging is shown with imaging events. Time points begins from starting of PET scan. Injection of contrast agents and corresponding imaging process are indicated with the same color. (b) Reconstruction workflow of optical tomographies (BLT, FMT, and CLT) is shown.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Results of performance tests of PET. (a)-(c). PET source intensity profiles along x, y, and z axis respectively. (d) Reconstruction of Derenzo phantom. (e) Absolute sensitivity profile along axial direction between the two block detectors. (f) Linear regression of source radioactivity correlated with reconstructed PET values.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Results of performance tests of optical tomographies. (a, e, i) CCD counts of acquired BLI, FMI, and CLI image in arbitrary units (AU) were mapped on the cubic phantom, respectively. (b, f, j) BLT/FMT/CLT reconstruction of the two sources in the phantom, respectively. Reconstructed signals above 10% of the maximum reconstructed power is delineated with bounding green polyhedrons. Magenta cylinders center at the positions of the actual sources. (c, g, k) The slice taken from x = 11 mm, i.e. the blue plane in (b, f, j) respectively, shows reconstructed power intensity distribution in AU and displacement from actual sources. Positions of the actual sources are indicated by black circles. (d, h, l) The result of linearity tests of BLI, FMI, and CLI, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Reconstruction of in vivo optical tomographies and fusion with reconstructed CT volume. (a)-(c) 3D distribution of reconstructed BLT, FMT, and CLT are shown, respectively. Skeletons are also shown to help localize of reconstructed signals. (d)-(h) Fusion of BLT, FMT, and CLT with CT are viewed from different angles. BLT, FMT, and CLT signals are mapped as green, red, and blue tetrahedra, respectively. (i) Zoom-in view of abdominal area provides a closer look at the distribution of optical signals.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Fusion of reconstructed PET and CT. (a)-(e) Fusion of PET with CT are viewed from different angles. GE PET color map is used for PET data, as shown on the right of the figure. (f) Zoom-in view of abdominal area provides a closer look at the distribution of PET signals. Some signals located in the kidneys are indicated with the yellow circle. (g)-(i) Fusion of PET and CLT with CT are viewed from different angles. GE PET color map is still used for PET data. CLT signals were rendered as green tetrahedra.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) A sagittal slice of T2 weighted MRI image is shown. Gallbladder (red circle) and hepatic portal vein (yellow circle) are two brightest regions in the liver (delineated with white dashes). Compared with CT, MRI image reveals much more detailed anatomical information, e. g. the heart (H) and lumen of colon (C). (b) After enhanced in rainbow color map, a suspected tumor could be figured out near mucosa perineum on the dorsal side of the liver.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 General performance parameters of sub-systems

Tables Icon

Table 2 System specifications of the pentamodal imaging system

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