Abstract

This paper describes the application of the Gabor filtering protocol to a Master/Slave (MS) swept source optical coherence tomography (SS)-OCT system at 1300 nm. The MS-OCT system delivers information from selected depths, a property that allows operation similar to that of a time domain OCT system, where dynamic focusing is possible. The Gabor filtering processing following collection of multiple data from different focus positions is different from that utilized by a conventional swept source OCT system using a Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to produce an A-scan. Instead of selecting the bright parts of A-scans for each focus position, to be placed in a final B-scan image (or in a final volume), and discarding the rest, the MS principle can be employed to advantageously deliver signal from the depths within each focus range only. The MS procedure is illustrated on creating volumes of data of constant transversal resolution from a cucumber and from an insect by repeating data acquisition for 4 different focus positions. In addition, advantage is taken from the tolerance to dispersion of the MS principle that allows automatic compensation for dispersion created by layers above the object of interest. By combining the two techniques, Gabor filtering and Master/Slave, a powerful imaging instrument is demonstrated. The master/slave technique allows simultaneous display of three categories of images in one frame: multiple depth en-face OCT images, two cross-sectional OCT images and a confocal like image obtained by averaging the en-face ones. We also demonstrate the superiority of MS-OCT over its FFT based counterpart when used with a Gabor filtering OCT instrument in terms of the speed of assembling the fused volume. For our case, we show that when more than 4 focus positions are required to produce the final volume, MS is faster than the conventional FFT based procedure.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (4)

2015 (5)

A. Bradu, K. Kapinchev, F. Barnes, and A. Podoleanu, “Master slave en-face OCT/SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3655–3669 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu, K. Kapinchev, F. Barnes, and A. Podoleanu, “On the possibility of producing true real-time retinal cross-sectional images using a graphics processing unit enhanced master-slave optical coherence tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu, M. Maria, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Demonstration of tolerance to dispersion of master/slave interferometry,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14148–14161 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Costa, A. Bradu, J. Rogers, P. Phelan, and A. Podoleanu, “Swept source optical coherence tomography Gabor fusion splicing technique for microscopy of thick samples using a deformable mirror,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

M. Hughes and A. G. Podoleanu, “Simplified dynamic focus method for time domain OCT,” Electron. Lett. 45(12), 623–624 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. G. Podoleanu and R. B. Rosen, “Combinations of techniques in imaging the retina with high resolution,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(4), 464–499 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2002 (2)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Ding, H. Ren, Y. Zhao, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography over a large depth range with an axicon lens,” Opt. Lett. 27(4), 243–245 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahsen, O. O.

Bachmann, A. H.

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, F.

A. Bradu, K. Kapinchev, F. Barnes, and A. Podoleanu, “On the possibility of producing true real-time retinal cross-sectional images using a graphics processing unit enhanced master-slave optical coherence tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu, K. Kapinchev, F. Barnes, and A. Podoleanu, “Master slave en-face OCT/SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3655–3669 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barry, S.

Bonesi, M.

Boschert, P.

Bradu, A.

S. Rivet, M. Maria, A. Bradu, T. Feuchter, L. Leick, and A. Podoleanu, “Complex master slave interferometry,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2885–2904 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu, S. Rivet, and A. Podoleanu, “Master/slave interferometry - ideal tool for coherence revival swept source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2453–2468 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu, M. Maria, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Demonstration of tolerance to dispersion of master/slave interferometry,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14148–14161 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu, K. Kapinchev, F. Barnes, and A. Podoleanu, “Master slave en-face OCT/SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3655–3669 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Costa, A. Bradu, J. Rogers, P. Phelan, and A. Podoleanu, “Swept source optical coherence tomography Gabor fusion splicing technique for microscopy of thick samples using a deformable mirror,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu, K. Kapinchev, F. Barnes, and A. Podoleanu, “On the possibility of producing true real-time retinal cross-sectional images using a graphics processing unit enhanced master-slave optical coherence tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, “Imaging the eye fundus with real-time en-face spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1233–1249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu and A. Bradu, “Master-slave interferometry for parallel spectral domain interferometry sensing and versatile 3D optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19324–19338 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Chinn, S. R.

Christian Singe, C.

Connolly, J. L.

Costa, C.

C. Costa, A. Bradu, J. Rogers, P. Phelan, and A. Podoleanu, “Swept source optical coherence tomography Gabor fusion splicing technique for microscopy of thick samples using a deformable mirror,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crawford, M.

Curatolo, A.

A. Curatolo, P. R. Munro, D. Lorenser, P. Sreekumar, C. C. Singe, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantifying the influence of Bessel beams on image quality in optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23483 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, C. Christian Singe, A. Curatolo, and D. D. Sampson, “Energy-efficient low-Fresnel-number Bessel beams and their application in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 548–551 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, Z.

Drexler, W.

Ensher, J.

Fercher, A. F.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feuchter, T.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grulkowski, I.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoover, E.

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hughes, M.

M. Hughes and A. G. Podoleanu, “Simplified dynamic focus method for time domain OCT,” Electron. Lett. 45(12), 623–624 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jayaraman, V.

Jiang, J.

Jiang, J. Y.

Kapinchev, K.

A. Bradu, K. Kapinchev, F. Barnes, and A. Podoleanu, “On the possibility of producing true real-time retinal cross-sectional images using a graphics processing unit enhanced master-slave optical coherence tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu, K. Kapinchev, F. Barnes, and A. Podoleanu, “Master slave en-face OCT/SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3655–3669 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kennedy, B. F.

A. Curatolo, P. R. Munro, D. Lorenser, P. Sreekumar, C. C. Singe, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantifying the influence of Bessel beams on image quality in optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23483 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. F.

Lasser, T.

Lee, K. S.

Leick, L.

Leitgeb, R.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, Y.

J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lorenser, D.

A. Curatolo, P. R. Munro, D. Lorenser, P. Sreekumar, C. C. Singe, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantifying the influence of Bessel beams on image quality in optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23483 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, C. Christian Singe, A. Curatolo, and D. D. Sampson, “Energy-efficient low-Fresnel-number Bessel beams and their application in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 548–551 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maria, M.

Meemon, P.

Minneman, M. P.

Munro, P. R.

A. Curatolo, P. R. Munro, D. Lorenser, P. Sreekumar, C. C. Singe, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantifying the influence of Bessel beams on image quality in optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23483 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murali, S.

Nelson, J. S.

Pechauer, A. D.

J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phelan, P.

C. Costa, A. Bradu, J. Rogers, P. Phelan, and A. Podoleanu, “Swept source optical coherence tomography Gabor fusion splicing technique for microscopy of thick samples using a deformable mirror,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A.

A. Bradu, S. Rivet, and A. Podoleanu, “Master/slave interferometry - ideal tool for coherence revival swept source optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2453–2468 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rivet, M. Maria, A. Bradu, T. Feuchter, L. Leick, and A. Podoleanu, “Complex master slave interferometry,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2885–2904 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu, K. Kapinchev, F. Barnes, and A. Podoleanu, “Master slave en-face OCT/SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3655–3669 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Costa, A. Bradu, J. Rogers, P. Phelan, and A. Podoleanu, “Swept source optical coherence tomography Gabor fusion splicing technique for microscopy of thick samples using a deformable mirror,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradu, K. Kapinchev, F. Barnes, and A. Podoleanu, “On the possibility of producing true real-time retinal cross-sectional images using a graphics processing unit enhanced master-slave optical coherence tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A. G.

Potsaid, B. M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radhakrishnan, H.

Ren, H.

Rivet, S.

Rogers, J.

C. Costa, A. Bradu, J. Rogers, P. Phelan, and A. Podoleanu, “Swept source optical coherence tomography Gabor fusion splicing technique for microscopy of thick samples using a deformable mirror,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rolland, J. P.

Rosen, R. B.

A. G. Podoleanu and R. B. Rosen, “Combinations of techniques in imaging the retina with high resolution,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(4), 464–499 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

A. Curatolo, P. R. Munro, D. Lorenser, P. Sreekumar, C. C. Singe, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantifying the influence of Bessel beams on image quality in optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23483 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, C. Christian Singe, A. Curatolo, and D. D. Sampson, “Energy-efficient low-Fresnel-number Bessel beams and their application in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 548–551 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheikine, Y.

Singe, C. C.

A. Curatolo, P. R. Munro, D. Lorenser, P. Sreekumar, C. C. Singe, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantifying the influence of Bessel beams on image quality in optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23483 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sreekumar, P.

A. Curatolo, P. R. Munro, D. Lorenser, P. Sreekumar, C. C. Singe, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Quantifying the influence of Bessel beams on image quality in optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23483 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Steinmann, L.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J. P.

J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, M.

J. P. Su, Y. Li, M. Tang, L. Liu, A. D. Pechauer, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, Y. K.

Thompson, K. P.

Tsai, T.-H.

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (35299 KB)      En-face images corresponding to the 2 axial positions of the mTS (left and middle) as well as the en-face in the fused volume.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The experimental set-up of the GF/MS-OCT imaging instrument. SS: swept source laser, DC1-2: directional couplers, L1,2: achromatic lenses, PC: polarization controller, mTS: miniature translation stage, GXY: pair of orthogonal galvo-scanners, BPD: balance photo-detector.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Photograph of the miniature linear stage used to move lens L1. (b) Photograph of the miniature translation stage and its assembly close to the scanning head. (c): object arm ray tracing through L1 and L2 lenses when the mTS is in the collimating position (ζ3 = 0) and for two un-collimated beam situations (ζ2 and ζ4).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Normalized confocal profiles obtained for five positions of the lens L11 to ζ5) over a range of 3 mm. (b) FWHM of the confocal profiles versus position of L1. (c) Normalized optical power after L1 (normalization done with respect to the power measured when L1 is in position ζ1.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Six B-scan OCT images collected from the multi-layer phantom using lens L1 in six positions along ζ covering a range of 2.6 mm. The focus positions in the six frames are axially separated by 0.458 mm, measured in air.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Flowchart showing the process of producing a Gabor fused image in a master/slave OCT imaging instrument.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 En-face OCT images (e1 – e9) of a three-layered phantom, separated by 50 μm, a compound image (c) used for guidance as well as two orthogonal MS based B-scan images (Bh and Bv) used for depth localization of the en-face planes. The three sets of images were obtained for three positions of the mTS (ζ = −1.82, 0, + 1.82 mm).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a-c) 3D images of the three-slide phantom, built for 3 focus positions. (d) Fused high resolution Gabor-volume obtained by merging 200 en-face images from the first volume using the masks q = 1 to 200, 200 en-face images from the second volume, using the masks q = 201-400 and 200 en-face images from the 3rd volume, fusing the masks q = 401 to 600. Fused image size 0.75 × 0.75 × 2.7 mm3.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 MS display for 4 focus positions of lens L1, for an axial focus shift between frames of 0.5 mm. The MS display consists in 9 en-face OCT images (e1 – e9) collected from a piece of cucumber, separated axially by 170 μm (measured in air), compound image (c) as well as two orthogonal B-scan OCT images (Bh and Bv). The size of the en-face images is 0.56 × 0.56 mm2, while the size of the B-scans is 0.56 mm (lateral) × 2 mm (axially).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Cucumber 3D volumes obtained for 4 positions of the mTS (a-d). (d) Gabor-fused volume of 200 depths from each set. Image size 0.56 × 0.56 × 2.0 mm3.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Photograph of the scorpion embedded in a plastic rectangle. (a) Dorsal view. (b) Side view: the sample was positioned and imaged with its ventral side towards the lens L2. There is about 3 mm of plastic from the interface air/plastic to the sample.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Axial reflectivity profiles with a plastic slab inserted in the sample arm or not. Left: system equipped with the Masks in air. Right: system equipped with the Dispersion affected masks.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Sets of 6 en-face images (out of the 9 in the frame) axially separated by 60 μm. The top row shows lower resolution and brightness images than the images in the bottom row as the focus has been placed at 1 mm from OPD = 0 (top row). For the bottom row, the focus was placed at z = 1.8 mm.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Time to produce a fused 3D image using the FFT (blue curve) and using the MS method (red curve), for 7 situations, where the final volume has been obtained by concatenating R = 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 smaller sub-volumes respectively out of axial points in the FFT = Q in the MS case. Data are presented in logarithmic scale.

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