Abstract

The hematocrit dependence of flow signal (split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography-SSADA decorrelation value) was investigated in this paper. Based on the normalized field temporal correlation function and concentration dependent particle scattering properties, the relationship between hematocrit and flow signal was analytically derived. Experimental verification of the relationship was performed with custom-designed microfluidic chips and human blood with 45%, 40% and 32% hematocrit. It was found that, in large flow channels and blood vessels, the normal hematocrit is near the decorrelation saturation point and therefore a change in hematocrit has little effect on the SSADA decorrelation value (flow signal). However, in narrow channels in the capillary size range, the effective hematocrit (adjusted for the overlap between OCT beam and channel) is in the range of 6.7-9.5% and therefore variation in hematocrit does significantly affect the flow signal.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (4)

W. J. Choi, W. Qin, C. L. Chen, J. Wang, Q. Zhang, X. Yang, B. Z. Gao, and R. K. Wang, “Characterizing relationship between optical microangiography signals and capillary flow using microfluidic channels,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2709–2728 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Nadort, K. Kalkman, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Quantitative blood flow velocity imaging using laser speckle flowmetry,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25258 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Choi, Y. Li, W. Qin, and R. K. Wang, “Cerebral capillary velocimetry based on temporal OCT speckle contrast,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 4859–4873 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Ruminski, B. L. Sikorski, D. Bukowska, M. Szkulmowski, K. Krawiec, G. Malukiewicz, L. Bieganowski, and M. Wojtkowski, “OCT angiography by absolute intensity difference applied to normal and diseased human retinas,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2738–2754 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

X. Liu, M. Kirby, and F. Zhao, “Motion analysis and removal in intensity variation based OCT angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 3833–3847 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. G. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

2010 (2)

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011109 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

1991 (1)

1981 (1)

1970 (1)

Aalders, M. C. G.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. G. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. T.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Baker, W. B.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barton, J.

Baumann, B.

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berisha, F.

Bieganowski, L.

Boas, D. A.

Bonner, R.

Bosschaart, N.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. G. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bukowska, D.

Cable, A.

Chandwani, R.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. L.

Chen, Z.

Choe, R.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W. J.

Cooney, M. J.

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, E.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

de Carlo, T. E.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhalla, A. H.

Duker, J. S.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011109 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edelman, G. J.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. G. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edmunds, B.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faber, D. J.

A. Nadort, K. Kalkman, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Quantitative blood flow velocity imaging using laser speckle flowmetry,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25258 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. G. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

Fingler, J.

Flaxel, C. J.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foschum, F.

Fraser, S. E.

Friebel, M.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, B. Z.

Gao, S. S.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gruber, A.

Hanson, S. R.

Helfmann, J.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hong, Y.

Hornegger, J.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tokayer, Y. Jia, A. H. Dhalla, and D. Huang, “Blood flow velocity quantification using split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1909–1924 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hurst, S.

Hwang, T. S.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishibazawa, A.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

Jia, Y.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tokayer, Y. Jia, A. H. Dhalla, and D. Huang, “Blood flow velocity quantification using split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1909–1924 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Jiang, J. Y.

Kalkman, K.

A. Nadort, K. Kalkman, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Quantitative blood flow velocity imaging using laser speckle flowmetry,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25258 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khurana, M.

Kienle, A.

Kirby, M.

Klancnik, J. M.

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. F.

Krawiec, K.

Lauer, A. K.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leung, M. K. K.

Li, Y.

Lin, A. J.

Liu, G.

Liu, J. J.

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Lombardi, L.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

Makita, S.

Malukiewicz, G.

Mariampillai, A.

McClintic, S. M.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meinke, M.

Michels, R.

Moes, C. J. M.

Moriyama, E. H.

Morrison, J. C.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, G.

Munce, N. R.

Nadort, A.

A. Nadort, K. Kalkman, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Quantitative blood flow velocity imaging using laser speckle flowmetry,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25258 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagaoka, T.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

Nossal, R.

Omae, T.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pechauer, A. D.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pennesi, M. E.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

Qin, W.

Romano, A.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruminski, D.

Saxer, C.

Schmetterer, L.

Schwartz, D.

Sikorski, B. L.

Silber-Li, Z.

X. Zheng and Z. Silber-Li, “Measurement of velocity profiles in a rectangular microchannel with aspect ratio α = 0.35,” Exp. Fluids 44(6), 951–959 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sogawa, K.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spaide, R. F.

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spain, R.

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Standish, B. A.

Stromski, S.

Su, J. P.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subhash, H.

Szkulmowski, M.

Takahashi, A.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takusagawa, H. L.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

Tani, T.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tokayer, J.

Tromberg, B. J.

Twersky, V.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

A. Nadort, K. Kalkman, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Quantitative blood flow velocity imaging using laser speckle flowmetry,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25258 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. G. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Marie, J.

van Staveren, H. J.

Vitkin, I. A.

Waheed, N. K.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Choi, W. Qin, C. L. Chen, J. Wang, Q. Zhang, X. Yang, B. Z. Gao, and R. K. Wang, “Characterizing relationship between optical microangiography signals and capillary flow using microfluidic channels,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2709–2728 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Werner, J. S.

Wilson, B. C.

Wilson, D. J.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wu, Q.

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, W.

Xiang, S.

Yamanari, M.

Yang, V. X. D.

Yang, X.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yodh, A. G.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokota, H.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshida, A.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, M.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, F.

Zhao, Y.

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng and Z. Silber-Li, “Measurement of velocity profiles in a rectangular microchannel with aspect ratio α = 0.35,” Exp. Fluids 44(6), 951–959 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, B.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biomed. Opt. Express (6)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

X. Wang, Y. Jia, R. Spain, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, B. Baumann, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, Q. Wu, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(10), 1368–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Exp. Fluids (1)

X. Zheng and Z. Silber-Li, “Measurement of velocity profiles in a rectangular microchannel with aspect ratio α = 0.35,” Exp. Fluids 44(6), 951–959 (2008).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Retina Vitreous (1)

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 086015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011109 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

JAMA Ophthalmol. (2)

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. G. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

A. Nadort, K. Kalkman, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “Quantitative blood flow velocity imaging using laser speckle flowmetry,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25258 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

B. J. Berne and R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering: With Applications to Chemistry, Biology, and Physics (New York: Courier Dover Publications, 2000).

H. A. Stone, “Introduction to fluid dynamics for microfluidic flows,” in CMOS Biotechnology, H. Lee, R. M. Westervelt, D. Ham, eds. (Springer 2007).

V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics, Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnostics, 2nd ed. (SPIE Press, 2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical parameters of the human blood at 840 nm as functions of the HCT. (A) Scattering coefficient μ s . The black solid line is based on Twersky's formula [30] and the red dash line is based on the empirical model function in [32]. (B) Absorption coefficient μ a . (C) Effective scattering coefficient μ s . (B) and (C) are both based on the empirical model functions in [32].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The theoretical HCT dependence of the decorrelation value for different flow speeds, time intervals and scattering coefficients based on the normalized field temporal correlation function and concentration dependent particle scattering properties. The relationship between decorrelation value and HCT are shown at different flow speeds of (A) v =0.5 mm/s, (B) v =1 mm/s, (C), v =2.5 mm/s with a fixed time interval of 5 ms. The relationships are also shown with different time intervals of (D) Δt=1 ms, (E) Δt=2 ms, (F), Δt=3.5 ms at a fixed flow speed of 3 mm/s. The black solid lines are based on Twersky’s formula and the red dashed lines are based on the empirical model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) Photograph of the experimental setup. (B) Cross-sectional OCT image of the microchannels. (C) En face intensity image of the microfluidic channels. (D) En face SSADA image of the microfluidic channels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The relationship between the decorrelation value and the channel width for different HCTs. Solid lines are the fitting results of the experimental data with the model described in Eq. (12).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Decorrelation value as a function of the HCT for all the channel widths ranging from 8 μm to 96 μm. Solid lines are theoretical model fitting results for different channel width. (B) Linear fitting slope value of the experimental data as a function of the channel width. Red solid line is the theoretical model (Eq. (16)) fitting result.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparisons of the decorrelation value (D) as functions of root mean square particle displacement ( Δ r 2 ) for 10% intralipid and 32%, 40%, 45% HCT.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fitting results of the decorrelation value as a function of channel width at different HCTs

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g= E (t)E(t+Δt) | E(t) | 2 = e i2πfΔt e | q | 2 Δ r 2 (Δt) /6 ,
g A = 2A(t)A(t+Δt) |A(t) | 2 +|A(t+Δt) | 2 = e | q | 2 Δ r 2 ( Δt )/6 .
| q |=| k s k c |=2 k 0 sin θ 2
1cosθ= μ a (λ, HCT)+ μ s ' (λ, HCT) μ s (λ, HCT) ,
g A (HCT)= e 2 k 0 2 μ a (λ, HCT)+ μ s ' (λ, HCT) μ s (λ, HCT) v 0 2 Δ t 2 /6 .
g A (HCT)= e 2 k 0 2 μ a (λ, HCT)+ μ s ' (λ, HCT) μ s (λ, HCT) v 0 2 Δ t 2 /6
D(HCT)=1 M S M F g A ( HCT ).
μ s (λ, HCT)= HCT( 1HCT ) MCV σ s (λ),
μ a ( λ, HCT )=0.1206 μ aSt ( λ )HCT,
μ s ( λ, HCT )=( 0.0015HC T 2 +0.1268HCT ) μ sSt ( λ ),
μ s ( λ,HCT )=0.1167HCT μ sSt (λ),
D=( D sat D Brownian )Δ{ erf( w 2 2 σ ) BΔ[ 1erf( w 2 2 σ ) ]+erf( w 2 2 σ ) }+ D Brownian ,
F=erf( w 2 2 σ ),
HC T =FHCT
D(HCT)=1 M S M F g A ( HC T ).
dD dw =( D sat D Brownian ) B 2 π e w 2 16 2 σ 3 { B[ 1erf( w 2 2 σ ) ]+erf( w 2 2 σ ) } 2 .
v( y,z )= 4 h 2 Δp π 3 ζL n=1,3,5.. 1 n 3 [ 1 cosh( nπ y y ) cosh( nπ w 2h ) ]sin( nπ z h ),

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