Abstract

Early detection of structural or molecular changes in dysplastic epithelial tissues is crucial for cancer screening and surveillance. Multi-targeting molecular endoscopic fluorescence imaging may improve noninvasive detection of precancerous lesions in the colon. Here, we report the first clinically compatible, wide-field-of-view, multi-color fluorescence endoscopy with a leached fiber bundle scope using a porcine model. A porcine colon model that resembles the human colon is used for the detection of surrogate tumors composed of multiple biocompatible fluorophores (FITC, ICG, and heavy metal-free quantum dots (hfQDs)). With an ex vivo porcine colon tumor model, molecular imaging with hfQDs conjugated with MMP14 antibody was achieved by spraying molecular probes on a mucosa layer that contains xenograft tumors. With an in vivo porcine colon embedded with surrogate tumors, target-to-background ratios of 3.36 ± 0.43, 2.70 ± 0.72, and 2.10 ± 0.13 were achieved for FITC, ICG, and hfQD probes, respectively. This promising endoscopic technology with molecular contrast shows the capacity to reveal hidden tumors and guide treatment strategy decisions.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

B. P. Joshi, X. Duan, R. S. Kwon, C. Piraka, B. J. Elmunzer, S. Lu, E. F. Rabinsky, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, S. R. Owens, R. Kuick, N. Doguchi, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Multimodal endoscope can quantify wide-field fluorescence detection of Barrett’s neoplasia,” Endoscopy 48(2), A1–A13 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (6)

E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, N. O. Loewke, S. Rogalla, M. J. Mandella, S. A. Felt, S. Friedland, J. T. Liu, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “A real-time clinical endoscopic system for intraluminal, multiplexed imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” PLoS One 10(4), e0123185 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Kang, L. Huang, Y. Yang, and D. Pan, “Scaling up the aqueous synthesis of visible light emitting multinary AgInS2/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(14), 7933–7940 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Shamirian, O. Appelbe, Q. Zhang, B. Ganesh, S. J. Kron, and P. T. Snee, “A toolkit for bioimaging using near-infrared AgInS 2/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 3(41), 8188–8196 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Nossol, A. Barta-Böszörményi, S. Kahlert, W. Zuschratter, H. Faber-Zuschratter, N. Reinhardt, S. Ponsuksili, K. Wimmers, A.-K. Diesing, and H.-J. Rothkötter, “Comparing Two Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Lines (IPECs): Morphological Differentiation, Function and Metabolism,” PLoS One 10(7), e0132323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, C.-C. Huang, S.-T. Lee, H.-R. Guo, and S.-B. Su, “Impact of high glucose on metastasis of colon cancer cells,” World J. Gastroenterol. 21(7), 2047–2057 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. T. Elliott, A. V. Dsouza, S. C. Davis, J. D. Olson, K. D. Paulsen, D. W. Roberts, and B. W. Pogue, “Review of fluorescence guided surgery visualization and overlay techniques,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3765–3782 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

G. Oh, S. W. Yoo, Y. Jung, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Park, S.-Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, S.-J. Myung, and E. Chung, “Intravital imaging of mouse colonic adenoma using MMP-based molecular probes with multi-channel fluorescence endoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1677–1689 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, C. Vinegoni, M. Sebas, and R. Weissleder, “Automated motion artifact removal for intravital microscopy, without a priori information,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4507 (2014).
[PubMed]

C. Lim, E. Vibert, D. Azoulay, C. Salloum, T. Ishizawa, R. Yoshioka, Y. Mise, Y. Sakamoto, T. Aoki, Y. Sugawara, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in the surgical management of liver cancers: current facts and future implications,” J. Visc. Surg. 151(2), 117–124 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, S. M. Bae, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, E. J. Do, S. Y. Kim, E. Chung, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, and S. J. Myung, “Spraying quantum dot conjugates in the colon of live animals enabled rapid and multiplex cancer diagnosis using endoscopy,” ACS Nano 8(9), 8896–8910 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hughes, P. Giataganas, and G.-Z. Yang, “Color reflectance fiber bundle endomicroscopy without back-reflections,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3), 030501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Chauhan, B. K. Abu Dayyeh, Y. M. Bhat, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, F. M. Murad, U. D. Siddiqui, S. Banerjee, M. B. Wallace, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 928–938 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.B. Sturm, B.P. Joshi, S. Lu, C. Piraka, S. Khondee, B.J. Elmunzer, R.S. Kwon, D.G. Beer, H.D. Appelman, and D.K. Turgeon, “Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: first-in-human results,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5, 184 (2013).

Q. Zhang, G. Widmer, and S. Tzipori, “A pig model of the human gastrointestinal tract,” Gut Microbes 4(3), 193–200 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Oh, E. Chung, and S. H. Yun, “Optical fibers for high-resolution in vivo microendoscopic fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19(6), 760–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

R. J. Cooper, J. Selb, L. Gagnon, D. Phillip, H. W. Schytz, H. K. Iversen, M. Ashina, and D. A. Boas, “A systematic comparison of motion artifact correction techniques for functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Front. Neurosci. 6, 147 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. F. Pasha, J. A. Leighton, A. Das, M. E. Harrison, S. R. Gurudu, F. C. Ramirez, D. E. Fleischer, and V. K. Sharma, “Comparison of the yield and miss rate of narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy: a meta-analysis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(3), 363–371 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Translation of near-infrared fluorescence imaging technologies: emerging clinical applications,” Annu. Rev. Med. 63(1), 217–231 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Scheuer, G.M. van Dam, M. Dobosz, M. Schwaiger, and V. Ntziachristos, “Drug-based optical agents: infiltrating clinics at lower risk,” Sci. Transl. Med. 4, 134 (2012).

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Subramaniam, S. J. Lee, S. Shah, S. Patel, V. Starovoytov, and K. B. Lee, “Generation of a library of non-toxic quantum dots for cellular imaging and siRNA delivery,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 4014–4019 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

J. R. van der Vorst, M. Hutteman, K. N. Gaarenstroom, A. A. Peters, J. S. D. Mieog, B. E. Schaafsma, P. J. Kuppen, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “Optimization of near-infrared fluorescent sentinel lymph node mapping in cervical cancer patients,” Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer 21(8), 1472–1478 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med. 17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Kang, H. Wang, Z. Wang, M. W. Jenkins, G. A. Isenberg, A. Chak, and A. M. Rollins, “Motion artifacts associated with in vivo endoscopic OCT images of the esophagus,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20722–20735 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Park, J. Nam, N. Won, H. Jin, S. Jung, S. Jung, S. H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Compact and Stable Quantum Dots with Positive, Negative, or Zwitterionic Surface: Specific Cell Interactions and Non‐Specific Adsorptions by the Surface Charges,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1558–1566 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Decock, S. Thirkettle, L. Wagstaff, and D. R. Edwards, “Matrix metalloproteinases: protective roles in cancer,” J. Cell. Mol. Med. 15(6), 1254–1265 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

T. Torimoto, S. Ogawa, T. Adachi, T. Kameyama, K. Okazaki, T. Shibayama, A. Kudo, and S. Kuwabata, “Remarkable photoluminescence enhancement of ZnS-AgInS2 solid solution nanoparticles by post-synthesis treatment,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(12), 2082–2084 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

L. Barault, N. Veyrie, V. Jooste, D. Lecorre, C. Chapusot, J. M. Ferraz, A. Lièvre, M. Cortet, A. M. Bouvier, P. Rat, P. Roignot, J. Faivre, P. Laurent-Puig, and F. Piard, “Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI (3) K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers,” Int. J. Cancer 122(10), 2255–2259 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Patterson, X. G. Lei, and D. D. Miller, “The pig as an experimental model for elucidating the mechanisms governing dietary influence on mineral absorption,” Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) 233(6), 651–664 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

N. Sengupta and T. T. MacDonald, “The role of matrix metalloproteinases in stromal/epithelial interactions in the gut,” Physiology (Bethesda) 22(6), 401–409 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kimura, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, S. Okamura, Y. Imoto, H. Miyamoto, M. Kaji, and E. Kudo, “Infrared fluorescence endoscopy for the diagnosis of superficial gastric tumors,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(1), 37–43 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. A. Funovics, H. Alencar, X. Montet, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, “Simultaneous fluorescence imaging of protease expression and vascularity during murine colonoscopy for colonic lesion characterization,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(4), 589–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder, “Molecular imaging in cancer,” Science 312(5777), 1168–1171 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. Mendelsohn and J. Baselga, “Status of epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists in the biology and treatment of cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(14), 2787–2799 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abu Dayyeh, B. K.

S. S. Chauhan, B. K. Abu Dayyeh, Y. M. Bhat, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, F. M. Murad, U. D. Siddiqui, S. Banerjee, M. B. Wallace, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 928–938 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adachi, T.

T. Torimoto, S. Ogawa, T. Adachi, T. Kameyama, K. Okazaki, T. Shibayama, A. Kudo, and S. Kuwabata, “Remarkable photoluminescence enhancement of ZnS-AgInS2 solid solution nanoparticles by post-synthesis treatment,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(12), 2082–2084 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alencar, H.

M. A. Funovics, H. Alencar, X. Montet, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, “Simultaneous fluorescence imaging of protease expression and vascularity during murine colonoscopy for colonic lesion characterization,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(4), 589–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aoki, T.

C. Lim, E. Vibert, D. Azoulay, C. Salloum, T. Ishizawa, R. Yoshioka, Y. Mise, Y. Sakamoto, T. Aoki, Y. Sugawara, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in the surgical management of liver cancers: current facts and future implications,” J. Visc. Surg. 151(2), 117–124 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appelbe, O.

A. Shamirian, O. Appelbe, Q. Zhang, B. Ganesh, S. J. Kron, and P. T. Snee, “A toolkit for bioimaging using near-infrared AgInS 2/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 3(41), 8188–8196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appelman, H. D.

B. P. Joshi, X. Duan, R. S. Kwon, C. Piraka, B. J. Elmunzer, S. Lu, E. F. Rabinsky, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, S. R. Owens, R. Kuick, N. Doguchi, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Multimodal endoscope can quantify wide-field fluorescence detection of Barrett’s neoplasia,” Endoscopy 48(2), A1–A13 (2016).
[PubMed]

Appelman, H.D.

M.B. Sturm, B.P. Joshi, S. Lu, C. Piraka, S. Khondee, B.J. Elmunzer, R.S. Kwon, D.G. Beer, H.D. Appelman, and D.K. Turgeon, “Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: first-in-human results,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5, 184 (2013).

Arts, H. J.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med. 17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashina, M.

R. J. Cooper, J. Selb, L. Gagnon, D. Phillip, H. W. Schytz, H. K. Iversen, M. Ashina, and D. A. Boas, “A systematic comparison of motion artifact correction techniques for functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Front. Neurosci. 6, 147 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. Lim, E. Vibert, D. Azoulay, C. Salloum, T. Ishizawa, R. Yoshioka, Y. Mise, Y. Sakamoto, T. Aoki, Y. Sugawara, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in the surgical management of liver cancers: current facts and future implications,” J. Visc. Surg. 151(2), 117–124 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, S. M. Bae, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, E. J. Do, S. Y. Kim, E. Chung, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, and S. J. Myung, “Spraying quantum dot conjugates in the colon of live animals enabled rapid and multiplex cancer diagnosis using endoscopy,” ACS Nano 8(9), 8896–8910 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, S. M. Bae, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, E. J. Do, S. Y. Kim, E. Chung, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, and S. J. Myung, “Spraying quantum dot conjugates in the colon of live animals enabled rapid and multiplex cancer diagnosis using endoscopy,” ACS Nano 8(9), 8896–8910 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banerjee, S.

S. S. Chauhan, B. K. Abu Dayyeh, Y. M. Bhat, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, F. M. Murad, U. D. Siddiqui, S. Banerjee, M. B. Wallace, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 928–938 (2014).
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Barault, L.

L. Barault, N. Veyrie, V. Jooste, D. Lecorre, C. Chapusot, J. M. Ferraz, A. Lièvre, M. Cortet, A. M. Bouvier, P. Rat, P. Roignot, J. Faivre, P. Laurent-Puig, and F. Piard, “Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI (3) K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers,” Int. J. Cancer 122(10), 2255–2259 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bart, J.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med. 17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barta-Böszörményi, A.

C. Nossol, A. Barta-Böszörményi, S. Kahlert, W. Zuschratter, H. Faber-Zuschratter, N. Reinhardt, S. Ponsuksili, K. Wimmers, A.-K. Diesing, and H.-J. Rothkötter, “Comparing Two Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Lines (IPECs): Morphological Differentiation, Function and Metabolism,” PLoS One 10(7), e0132323 (2015).
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J. Mendelsohn and J. Baselga, “Status of epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists in the biology and treatment of cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(14), 2787–2799 (2003).
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B. P. Joshi, X. Duan, R. S. Kwon, C. Piraka, B. J. Elmunzer, S. Lu, E. F. Rabinsky, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, S. R. Owens, R. Kuick, N. Doguchi, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Multimodal endoscope can quantify wide-field fluorescence detection of Barrett’s neoplasia,” Endoscopy 48(2), A1–A13 (2016).
[PubMed]

Beer, D.G.

M.B. Sturm, B.P. Joshi, S. Lu, C. Piraka, S. Khondee, B.J. Elmunzer, R.S. Kwon, D.G. Beer, H.D. Appelman, and D.K. Turgeon, “Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: first-in-human results,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5, 184 (2013).

Bhat, Y. M.

S. S. Chauhan, B. K. Abu Dayyeh, Y. M. Bhat, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, F. M. Murad, U. D. Siddiqui, S. Banerjee, M. B. Wallace, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 928–938 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

R. J. Cooper, J. Selb, L. Gagnon, D. Phillip, H. W. Schytz, H. K. Iversen, M. Ashina, and D. A. Boas, “A systematic comparison of motion artifact correction techniques for functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Front. Neurosci. 6, 147 (2012).
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Bouvier, A. M.

L. Barault, N. Veyrie, V. Jooste, D. Lecorre, C. Chapusot, J. M. Ferraz, A. Lièvre, M. Cortet, A. M. Bouvier, P. Rat, P. Roignot, J. Faivre, P. Laurent-Puig, and F. Piard, “Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI (3) K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers,” Int. J. Cancer 122(10), 2255–2259 (2008).
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L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
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Chapusot, C.

L. Barault, N. Veyrie, V. Jooste, D. Lecorre, C. Chapusot, J. M. Ferraz, A. Lièvre, M. Cortet, A. M. Bouvier, P. Rat, P. Roignot, J. Faivre, P. Laurent-Puig, and F. Piard, “Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI (3) K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers,” Int. J. Cancer 122(10), 2255–2259 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chauhan, S. S.

S. S. Chauhan, B. K. Abu Dayyeh, Y. M. Bhat, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, F. M. Murad, U. D. Siddiqui, S. Banerjee, M. B. Wallace, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 928–938 (2014).
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J. Park, J. Nam, N. Won, H. Jin, S. Jung, S. Jung, S. H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Compact and Stable Quantum Dots with Positive, Negative, or Zwitterionic Surface: Specific Cell Interactions and Non‐Specific Adsorptions by the Surface Charges,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1558–1566 (2011).
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G. Oh, S. W. Yoo, Y. Jung, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Park, S.-Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, S.-J. Myung, and E. Chung, “Intravital imaging of mouse colonic adenoma using MMP-based molecular probes with multi-channel fluorescence endoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1677–1689 (2014).
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Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, S. M. Bae, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, E. J. Do, S. Y. Kim, E. Chung, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, and S. J. Myung, “Spraying quantum dot conjugates in the colon of live animals enabled rapid and multiplex cancer diagnosis using endoscopy,” ACS Nano 8(9), 8896–8910 (2014).
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G. Oh, E. Chung, and S. H. Yun, “Optical fibers for high-resolution in vivo microendoscopic fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19(6), 760–771 (2013).
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E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, N. O. Loewke, S. Rogalla, M. J. Mandella, S. A. Felt, S. Friedland, J. T. Liu, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “A real-time clinical endoscopic system for intraluminal, multiplexed imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” PLoS One 10(4), e0123185 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooper, R. J.

R. J. Cooper, J. Selb, L. Gagnon, D. Phillip, H. W. Schytz, H. K. Iversen, M. Ashina, and D. A. Boas, “A systematic comparison of motion artifact correction techniques for functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Front. Neurosci. 6, 147 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cortet, M.

L. Barault, N. Veyrie, V. Jooste, D. Lecorre, C. Chapusot, J. M. Ferraz, A. Lièvre, M. Cortet, A. M. Bouvier, P. Rat, P. Roignot, J. Faivre, P. Laurent-Puig, and F. Piard, “Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI (3) K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers,” Int. J. Cancer 122(10), 2255–2259 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crane, L. M.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med. 17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Das, A.

S. F. Pasha, J. A. Leighton, A. Das, M. E. Harrison, S. R. Gurudu, F. C. Ramirez, D. E. Fleischer, and V. K. Sharma, “Comparison of the yield and miss rate of narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy: a meta-analysis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(3), 363–371 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, S. C.

de Jong, J. S.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med. 17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
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Decock, J.

J. Decock, S. Thirkettle, L. Wagstaff, and D. R. Edwards, “Matrix metalloproteinases: protective roles in cancer,” J. Cell. Mol. Med. 15(6), 1254–1265 (2011).
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Diesing, A.-K.

C. Nossol, A. Barta-Böszörményi, S. Kahlert, W. Zuschratter, H. Faber-Zuschratter, N. Reinhardt, S. Ponsuksili, K. Wimmers, A.-K. Diesing, and H.-J. Rothkötter, “Comparing Two Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Lines (IPECs): Morphological Differentiation, Function and Metabolism,” PLoS One 10(7), e0132323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Do, E. J.

Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, S. M. Bae, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, E. J. Do, S. Y. Kim, E. Chung, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, and S. J. Myung, “Spraying quantum dot conjugates in the colon of live animals enabled rapid and multiplex cancer diagnosis using endoscopy,” ACS Nano 8(9), 8896–8910 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobosz, M.

W. Scheuer, G.M. van Dam, M. Dobosz, M. Schwaiger, and V. Ntziachristos, “Drug-based optical agents: infiltrating clinics at lower risk,” Sci. Transl. Med. 4, 134 (2012).

Doguchi, N.

B. P. Joshi, X. Duan, R. S. Kwon, C. Piraka, B. J. Elmunzer, S. Lu, E. F. Rabinsky, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, S. R. Owens, R. Kuick, N. Doguchi, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Multimodal endoscope can quantify wide-field fluorescence detection of Barrett’s neoplasia,” Endoscopy 48(2), A1–A13 (2016).
[PubMed]

Dsouza, A. V.

Duan, X.

B. P. Joshi, X. Duan, R. S. Kwon, C. Piraka, B. J. Elmunzer, S. Lu, E. F. Rabinsky, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, S. R. Owens, R. Kuick, N. Doguchi, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Multimodal endoscope can quantify wide-field fluorescence detection of Barrett’s neoplasia,” Endoscopy 48(2), A1–A13 (2016).
[PubMed]

Edwards, D. R.

J. Decock, S. Thirkettle, L. Wagstaff, and D. R. Edwards, “Matrix metalloproteinases: protective roles in cancer,” J. Cell. Mol. Med. 15(6), 1254–1265 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elliott, J. T.

Elmunzer, B. J.

B. P. Joshi, X. Duan, R. S. Kwon, C. Piraka, B. J. Elmunzer, S. Lu, E. F. Rabinsky, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, S. R. Owens, R. Kuick, N. Doguchi, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Multimodal endoscope can quantify wide-field fluorescence detection of Barrett’s neoplasia,” Endoscopy 48(2), A1–A13 (2016).
[PubMed]

Elmunzer, B.J.

M.B. Sturm, B.P. Joshi, S. Lu, C. Piraka, S. Khondee, B.J. Elmunzer, R.S. Kwon, D.G. Beer, H.D. Appelman, and D.K. Turgeon, “Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: first-in-human results,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5, 184 (2013).

Faber-Zuschratter, H.

C. Nossol, A. Barta-Böszörményi, S. Kahlert, W. Zuschratter, H. Faber-Zuschratter, N. Reinhardt, S. Ponsuksili, K. Wimmers, A.-K. Diesing, and H.-J. Rothkötter, “Comparing Two Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Lines (IPECs): Morphological Differentiation, Function and Metabolism,” PLoS One 10(7), e0132323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faivre, J.

L. Barault, N. Veyrie, V. Jooste, D. Lecorre, C. Chapusot, J. M. Ferraz, A. Lièvre, M. Cortet, A. M. Bouvier, P. Rat, P. Roignot, J. Faivre, P. Laurent-Puig, and F. Piard, “Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI (3) K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers,” Int. J. Cancer 122(10), 2255–2259 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Felt, S. A.

E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, N. O. Loewke, S. Rogalla, M. J. Mandella, S. A. Felt, S. Friedland, J. T. Liu, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “A real-time clinical endoscopic system for intraluminal, multiplexed imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” PLoS One 10(4), e0123185 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferraz, J. M.

L. Barault, N. Veyrie, V. Jooste, D. Lecorre, C. Chapusot, J. M. Ferraz, A. Lièvre, M. Cortet, A. M. Bouvier, P. Rat, P. Roignot, J. Faivre, P. Laurent-Puig, and F. Piard, “Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI (3) K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers,” Int. J. Cancer 122(10), 2255–2259 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischer, D. E.

S. F. Pasha, J. A. Leighton, A. Das, M. E. Harrison, S. R. Gurudu, F. C. Ramirez, D. E. Fleischer, and V. K. Sharma, “Comparison of the yield and miss rate of narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy: a meta-analysis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(3), 363–371 (2012).
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Frangioni, J. V.

J. R. van der Vorst, M. Hutteman, K. N. Gaarenstroom, A. A. Peters, J. S. D. Mieog, B. E. Schaafsma, P. J. Kuppen, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “Optimization of near-infrared fluorescent sentinel lymph node mapping in cervical cancer patients,” Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer 21(8), 1472–1478 (2011).
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Friedland, S.

E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, N. O. Loewke, S. Rogalla, M. J. Mandella, S. A. Felt, S. Friedland, J. T. Liu, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “A real-time clinical endoscopic system for intraluminal, multiplexed imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” PLoS One 10(4), e0123185 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Funovics, M. A.

M. A. Funovics, H. Alencar, X. Montet, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, “Simultaneous fluorescence imaging of protease expression and vascularity during murine colonoscopy for colonic lesion characterization,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(4), 589–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaarenstroom, K. N.

J. R. van der Vorst, M. Hutteman, K. N. Gaarenstroom, A. A. Peters, J. S. D. Mieog, B. E. Schaafsma, P. J. Kuppen, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “Optimization of near-infrared fluorescent sentinel lymph node mapping in cervical cancer patients,” Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer 21(8), 1472–1478 (2011).
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Gagnon, L.

R. J. Cooper, J. Selb, L. Gagnon, D. Phillip, H. W. Schytz, H. K. Iversen, M. Ashina, and D. A. Boas, “A systematic comparison of motion artifact correction techniques for functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Front. Neurosci. 6, 147 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gambhir, S. S.

E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, N. O. Loewke, S. Rogalla, M. J. Mandella, S. A. Felt, S. Friedland, J. T. Liu, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “A real-time clinical endoscopic system for intraluminal, multiplexed imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” PLoS One 10(4), e0123185 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ganesh, B.

A. Shamirian, O. Appelbe, Q. Zhang, B. Ganesh, S. J. Kron, and P. T. Snee, “A toolkit for bioimaging using near-infrared AgInS 2/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 3(41), 8188–8196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Garai, E.

E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, N. O. Loewke, S. Rogalla, M. J. Mandella, S. A. Felt, S. Friedland, J. T. Liu, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “A real-time clinical endoscopic system for intraluminal, multiplexed imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” PLoS One 10(4), e0123185 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giataganas, P.

M. Hughes, P. Giataganas, and G.-Z. Yang, “Color reflectance fiber bundle endomicroscopy without back-reflections,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3), 030501 (2014).
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Gottlieb, K. T.

S. S. Chauhan, B. K. Abu Dayyeh, Y. M. Bhat, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, F. M. Murad, U. D. Siddiqui, S. Banerjee, M. B. Wallace, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 928–938 (2014).
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Guo, H.-R.

C.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, C.-C. Huang, S.-T. Lee, H.-R. Guo, and S.-B. Su, “Impact of high glucose on metastasis of colon cancer cells,” World J. Gastroenterol. 21(7), 2047–2057 (2015).
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Gurudu, S. R.

S. F. Pasha, J. A. Leighton, A. Das, M. E. Harrison, S. R. Gurudu, F. C. Ramirez, D. E. Fleischer, and V. K. Sharma, “Comparison of the yield and miss rate of narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy: a meta-analysis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(3), 363–371 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harlaar, N. J.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med. 17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
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Harrison, M. E.

S. F. Pasha, J. A. Leighton, A. Das, M. E. Harrison, S. R. Gurudu, F. C. Ramirez, D. E. Fleischer, and V. K. Sharma, “Comparison of the yield and miss rate of narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy: a meta-analysis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(3), 363–371 (2012).
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C. Lim, E. Vibert, D. Azoulay, C. Salloum, T. Ishizawa, R. Yoshioka, Y. Mise, Y. Sakamoto, T. Aoki, Y. Sugawara, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in the surgical management of liver cancers: current facts and future implications,” J. Visc. Surg. 151(2), 117–124 (2014).
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L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
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L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
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Huang, C.-C.

C.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, C.-C. Huang, S.-T. Lee, H.-R. Guo, and S.-B. Su, “Impact of high glucose on metastasis of colon cancer cells,” World J. Gastroenterol. 21(7), 2047–2057 (2015).
[PubMed]

Huang, L.

X. Kang, L. Huang, Y. Yang, and D. Pan, “Scaling up the aqueous synthesis of visible light emitting multinary AgInS2/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(14), 7933–7940 (2015).
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S. S. Chauhan, B. K. Abu Dayyeh, Y. M. Bhat, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, F. M. Murad, U. D. Siddiqui, S. Banerjee, M. B. Wallace, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 928–938 (2014).
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Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, S. M. Bae, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, E. J. Do, S. Y. Kim, E. Chung, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, and S. J. Myung, “Spraying quantum dot conjugates in the colon of live animals enabled rapid and multiplex cancer diagnosis using endoscopy,” ACS Nano 8(9), 8896–8910 (2014).
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T. Kimura, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, S. Okamura, Y. Imoto, H. Miyamoto, M. Kaji, and E. Kudo, “Infrared fluorescence endoscopy for the diagnosis of superficial gastric tumors,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(1), 37–43 (2007).
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T. Kimura, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, S. Okamura, Y. Imoto, H. Miyamoto, M. Kaji, and E. Kudo, “Infrared fluorescence endoscopy for the diagnosis of superficial gastric tumors,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(1), 37–43 (2007).
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Jin, H.

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L. Barault, N. Veyrie, V. Jooste, D. Lecorre, C. Chapusot, J. M. Ferraz, A. Lièvre, M. Cortet, A. M. Bouvier, P. Rat, P. Roignot, J. Faivre, P. Laurent-Puig, and F. Piard, “Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI (3) K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers,” Int. J. Cancer 122(10), 2255–2259 (2008).
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B. P. Joshi, X. Duan, R. S. Kwon, C. Piraka, B. J. Elmunzer, S. Lu, E. F. Rabinsky, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, S. R. Owens, R. Kuick, N. Doguchi, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Multimodal endoscope can quantify wide-field fluorescence detection of Barrett’s neoplasia,” Endoscopy 48(2), A1–A13 (2016).
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M.B. Sturm, B.P. Joshi, S. Lu, C. Piraka, S. Khondee, B.J. Elmunzer, R.S. Kwon, D.G. Beer, H.D. Appelman, and D.K. Turgeon, “Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: first-in-human results,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5, 184 (2013).

Jung, S.

J. Park, J. Nam, N. Won, H. Jin, S. Jung, S. Jung, S. H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Compact and Stable Quantum Dots with Positive, Negative, or Zwitterionic Surface: Specific Cell Interactions and Non‐Specific Adsorptions by the Surface Charges,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1558–1566 (2011).
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J. Park, J. Nam, N. Won, H. Jin, S. Jung, S. Jung, S. H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Compact and Stable Quantum Dots with Positive, Negative, or Zwitterionic Surface: Specific Cell Interactions and Non‐Specific Adsorptions by the Surface Charges,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1558–1566 (2011).
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G. Oh, S. W. Yoo, Y. Jung, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Park, S.-Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, S.-J. Myung, and E. Chung, “Intravital imaging of mouse colonic adenoma using MMP-based molecular probes with multi-channel fluorescence endoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1677–1689 (2014).
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T. Torimoto, S. Ogawa, T. Adachi, T. Kameyama, K. Okazaki, T. Shibayama, A. Kudo, and S. Kuwabata, “Remarkable photoluminescence enhancement of ZnS-AgInS2 solid solution nanoparticles by post-synthesis treatment,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(12), 2082–2084 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, W.

Kang, X.

X. Kang, L. Huang, Y. Yang, and D. Pan, “Scaling up the aqueous synthesis of visible light emitting multinary AgInS2/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(14), 7933–7940 (2015).
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Kim, J.

Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, S. M. Bae, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, E. J. Do, S. Y. Kim, E. Chung, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, and S. J. Myung, “Spraying quantum dot conjugates in the colon of live animals enabled rapid and multiplex cancer diagnosis using endoscopy,” ACS Nano 8(9), 8896–8910 (2014).
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Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, S. M. Bae, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, E. J. Do, S. Y. Kim, E. Chung, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, and S. J. Myung, “Spraying quantum dot conjugates in the colon of live animals enabled rapid and multiplex cancer diagnosis using endoscopy,” ACS Nano 8(9), 8896–8910 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Oh, S. W. Yoo, Y. Jung, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Park, S.-Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, S.-J. Myung, and E. Chung, “Intravital imaging of mouse colonic adenoma using MMP-based molecular probes with multi-channel fluorescence endoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1677–1689 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

G. Oh, S. W. Yoo, Y. Jung, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Park, S.-Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, S.-J. Myung, and E. Chung, “Intravital imaging of mouse colonic adenoma using MMP-based molecular probes with multi-channel fluorescence endoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1677–1689 (2014).
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Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, S. M. Bae, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, E. J. Do, S. Y. Kim, E. Chung, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, and S. J. Myung, “Spraying quantum dot conjugates in the colon of live animals enabled rapid and multiplex cancer diagnosis using endoscopy,” ACS Nano 8(9), 8896–8910 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Park, J. Nam, N. Won, H. Jin, S. Jung, S. Jung, S. H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Compact and Stable Quantum Dots with Positive, Negative, or Zwitterionic Surface: Specific Cell Interactions and Non‐Specific Adsorptions by the Surface Charges,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1558–1566 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, S. M. Bae, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, E. J. Do, S. Y. Kim, E. Chung, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, and S. J. Myung, “Spraying quantum dot conjugates in the colon of live animals enabled rapid and multiplex cancer diagnosis using endoscopy,” ACS Nano 8(9), 8896–8910 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-Y.

Kimura, T.

T. Kimura, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, S. Okamura, Y. Imoto, H. Miyamoto, M. Kaji, and E. Kudo, “Infrared fluorescence endoscopy for the diagnosis of superficial gastric tumors,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(1), 37–43 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kokudo, N.

C. Lim, E. Vibert, D. Azoulay, C. Salloum, T. Ishizawa, R. Yoshioka, Y. Mise, Y. Sakamoto, T. Aoki, Y. Sugawara, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in the surgical management of liver cancers: current facts and future implications,” J. Visc. Surg. 151(2), 117–124 (2014).
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T. Torimoto, S. Ogawa, T. Adachi, T. Kameyama, K. Okazaki, T. Shibayama, A. Kudo, and S. Kuwabata, “Remarkable photoluminescence enhancement of ZnS-AgInS2 solid solution nanoparticles by post-synthesis treatment,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(12), 2082–2084 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kudo, E.

T. Kimura, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, S. Okamura, Y. Imoto, H. Miyamoto, M. Kaji, and E. Kudo, “Infrared fluorescence endoscopy for the diagnosis of superficial gastric tumors,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(1), 37–43 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. P. Joshi, X. Duan, R. S. Kwon, C. Piraka, B. J. Elmunzer, S. Lu, E. F. Rabinsky, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, S. R. Owens, R. Kuick, N. Doguchi, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Multimodal endoscope can quantify wide-field fluorescence detection of Barrett’s neoplasia,” Endoscopy 48(2), A1–A13 (2016).
[PubMed]

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J. R. van der Vorst, M. Hutteman, K. N. Gaarenstroom, A. A. Peters, J. S. D. Mieog, B. E. Schaafsma, P. J. Kuppen, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “Optimization of near-infrared fluorescent sentinel lymph node mapping in cervical cancer patients,” Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer 21(8), 1472–1478 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. Torimoto, S. Ogawa, T. Adachi, T. Kameyama, K. Okazaki, T. Shibayama, A. Kudo, and S. Kuwabata, “Remarkable photoluminescence enhancement of ZnS-AgInS2 solid solution nanoparticles by post-synthesis treatment,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(12), 2082–2084 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. P. Joshi, X. Duan, R. S. Kwon, C. Piraka, B. J. Elmunzer, S. Lu, E. F. Rabinsky, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, S. R. Owens, R. Kuick, N. Doguchi, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Multimodal endoscope can quantify wide-field fluorescence detection of Barrett’s neoplasia,” Endoscopy 48(2), A1–A13 (2016).
[PubMed]

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M.B. Sturm, B.P. Joshi, S. Lu, C. Piraka, S. Khondee, B.J. Elmunzer, R.S. Kwon, D.G. Beer, H.D. Appelman, and D.K. Turgeon, “Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: first-in-human results,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5, 184 (2013).

Laurent-Puig, P.

L. Barault, N. Veyrie, V. Jooste, D. Lecorre, C. Chapusot, J. M. Ferraz, A. Lièvre, M. Cortet, A. M. Bouvier, P. Rat, P. Roignot, J. Faivre, P. Laurent-Puig, and F. Piard, “Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI (3) K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers,” Int. J. Cancer 122(10), 2255–2259 (2008).
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C.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, C.-C. Huang, S.-T. Lee, H.-R. Guo, and S.-B. Su, “Impact of high glucose on metastasis of colon cancer cells,” World J. Gastroenterol. 21(7), 2047–2057 (2015).
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Lee, K. B.

P. Subramaniam, S. J. Lee, S. Shah, S. Patel, V. Starovoytov, and K. B. Lee, “Generation of a library of non-toxic quantum dots for cellular imaging and siRNA delivery,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 4014–4019 (2012).
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S. Lee, C. Vinegoni, M. Sebas, and R. Weissleder, “Automated motion artifact removal for intravital microscopy, without a priori information,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4507 (2014).
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P. Subramaniam, S. J. Lee, S. Shah, S. Patel, V. Starovoytov, and K. B. Lee, “Generation of a library of non-toxic quantum dots for cellular imaging and siRNA delivery,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 4014–4019 (2012).
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Lee, S.-T.

C.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, C.-C. Huang, S.-T. Lee, H.-R. Guo, and S.-B. Su, “Impact of high glucose on metastasis of colon cancer cells,” World J. Gastroenterol. 21(7), 2047–2057 (2015).
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J. K. Patterson, X. G. Lei, and D. D. Miller, “The pig as an experimental model for elucidating the mechanisms governing dietary influence on mineral absorption,” Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) 233(6), 651–664 (2008).
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S. F. Pasha, J. A. Leighton, A. Das, M. E. Harrison, S. R. Gurudu, F. C. Ramirez, D. E. Fleischer, and V. K. Sharma, “Comparison of the yield and miss rate of narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy: a meta-analysis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(3), 363–371 (2012).
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Lièvre, A.

L. Barault, N. Veyrie, V. Jooste, D. Lecorre, C. Chapusot, J. M. Ferraz, A. Lièvre, M. Cortet, A. M. Bouvier, P. Rat, P. Roignot, J. Faivre, P. Laurent-Puig, and F. Piard, “Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI (3) K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers,” Int. J. Cancer 122(10), 2255–2259 (2008).
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C. Lim, E. Vibert, D. Azoulay, C. Salloum, T. Ishizawa, R. Yoshioka, Y. Mise, Y. Sakamoto, T. Aoki, Y. Sugawara, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in the surgical management of liver cancers: current facts and future implications,” J. Visc. Surg. 151(2), 117–124 (2014).
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Lin, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, C.-C. Huang, S.-T. Lee, H.-R. Guo, and S.-B. Su, “Impact of high glucose on metastasis of colon cancer cells,” World J. Gastroenterol. 21(7), 2047–2057 (2015).
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L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
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L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
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Liu, Y.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
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Lo, S. K.

S. S. Chauhan, B. K. Abu Dayyeh, Y. M. Bhat, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, F. M. Murad, U. D. Siddiqui, S. Banerjee, M. B. Wallace, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 928–938 (2014).
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Loewke, N. O.

E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, N. O. Loewke, S. Rogalla, M. J. Mandella, S. A. Felt, S. Friedland, J. T. Liu, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “A real-time clinical endoscopic system for intraluminal, multiplexed imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” PLoS One 10(4), e0123185 (2015).
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G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med. 17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
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B. P. Joshi, X. Duan, R. S. Kwon, C. Piraka, B. J. Elmunzer, S. Lu, E. F. Rabinsky, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, S. R. Owens, R. Kuick, N. Doguchi, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Multimodal endoscope can quantify wide-field fluorescence detection of Barrett’s neoplasia,” Endoscopy 48(2), A1–A13 (2016).
[PubMed]

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N. Sengupta and T. T. MacDonald, “The role of matrix metalloproteinases in stromal/epithelial interactions in the gut,” Physiology (Bethesda) 22(6), 401–409 (2007).
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M. A. Funovics, H. Alencar, X. Montet, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, “Simultaneous fluorescence imaging of protease expression and vascularity during murine colonoscopy for colonic lesion characterization,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(4), 589–597 (2006).
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E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, N. O. Loewke, S. Rogalla, M. J. Mandella, S. A. Felt, S. Friedland, J. T. Liu, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “A real-time clinical endoscopic system for intraluminal, multiplexed imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” PLoS One 10(4), e0123185 (2015).
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C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
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S. S. Chauhan, B. K. Abu Dayyeh, Y. M. Bhat, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, F. M. Murad, U. D. Siddiqui, S. Banerjee, M. B. Wallace, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 928–938 (2014).
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S. S. Chauhan, B. K. Abu Dayyeh, Y. M. Bhat, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, F. M. Murad, U. D. Siddiqui, S. Banerjee, M. B. Wallace, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 928–938 (2014).
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J. Mendelsohn and J. Baselga, “Status of epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists in the biology and treatment of cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(14), 2787–2799 (2003).
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J. R. van der Vorst, M. Hutteman, K. N. Gaarenstroom, A. A. Peters, J. S. D. Mieog, B. E. Schaafsma, P. J. Kuppen, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “Optimization of near-infrared fluorescent sentinel lymph node mapping in cervical cancer patients,” Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer 21(8), 1472–1478 (2011).
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Miller, D. D.

J. K. Patterson, X. G. Lei, and D. D. Miller, “The pig as an experimental model for elucidating the mechanisms governing dietary influence on mineral absorption,” Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) 233(6), 651–664 (2008).
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Mise, Y.

C. Lim, E. Vibert, D. Azoulay, C. Salloum, T. Ishizawa, R. Yoshioka, Y. Mise, Y. Sakamoto, T. Aoki, Y. Sugawara, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in the surgical management of liver cancers: current facts and future implications,” J. Visc. Surg. 151(2), 117–124 (2014).
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T. Kimura, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, S. Okamura, Y. Imoto, H. Miyamoto, M. Kaji, and E. Kudo, “Infrared fluorescence endoscopy for the diagnosis of superficial gastric tumors,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(1), 37–43 (2007).
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Montet, X.

M. A. Funovics, H. Alencar, X. Montet, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, “Simultaneous fluorescence imaging of protease expression and vascularity during murine colonoscopy for colonic lesion characterization,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(4), 589–597 (2006).
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Muguruma, N.

T. Kimura, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, S. Okamura, Y. Imoto, H. Miyamoto, M. Kaji, and E. Kudo, “Infrared fluorescence endoscopy for the diagnosis of superficial gastric tumors,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(1), 37–43 (2007).
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Murad, F. M.

S. S. Chauhan, B. K. Abu Dayyeh, Y. M. Bhat, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, F. M. Murad, U. D. Siddiqui, S. Banerjee, M. B. Wallace, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 928–938 (2014).
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Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, S. M. Bae, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, E. J. Do, S. Y. Kim, E. Chung, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, and S. J. Myung, “Spraying quantum dot conjugates in the colon of live animals enabled rapid and multiplex cancer diagnosis using endoscopy,” ACS Nano 8(9), 8896–8910 (2014).
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Myung, S.-J.

Nam, J.

J. Park, J. Nam, N. Won, H. Jin, S. Jung, S. Jung, S. H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Compact and Stable Quantum Dots with Positive, Negative, or Zwitterionic Surface: Specific Cell Interactions and Non‐Specific Adsorptions by the Surface Charges,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1558–1566 (2011).
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Ntziachristos, V.

W. Scheuer, G.M. van Dam, M. Dobosz, M. Schwaiger, and V. Ntziachristos, “Drug-based optical agents: infiltrating clinics at lower risk,” Sci. Transl. Med. 4, 134 (2012).

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med. 17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
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Okamura, S.

T. Kimura, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, S. Okamura, Y. Imoto, H. Miyamoto, M. Kaji, and E. Kudo, “Infrared fluorescence endoscopy for the diagnosis of superficial gastric tumors,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(1), 37–43 (2007).
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Olson, J. D.

Owens, S. R.

B. P. Joshi, X. Duan, R. S. Kwon, C. Piraka, B. J. Elmunzer, S. Lu, E. F. Rabinsky, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, S. R. Owens, R. Kuick, N. Doguchi, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Multimodal endoscope can quantify wide-field fluorescence detection of Barrett’s neoplasia,” Endoscopy 48(2), A1–A13 (2016).
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X. Kang, L. Huang, Y. Yang, and D. Pan, “Scaling up the aqueous synthesis of visible light emitting multinary AgInS2/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(14), 7933–7940 (2015).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Park, J. Nam, N. Won, H. Jin, S. Jung, S. Jung, S. H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Compact and Stable Quantum Dots with Positive, Negative, or Zwitterionic Surface: Specific Cell Interactions and Non‐Specific Adsorptions by the Surface Charges,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1558–1566 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

G. Oh, S. W. Yoo, Y. Jung, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Park, S.-Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, S.-J. Myung, and E. Chung, “Intravital imaging of mouse colonic adenoma using MMP-based molecular probes with multi-channel fluorescence endoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1677–1689 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, S. M. Bae, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, E. J. Do, S. Y. Kim, E. Chung, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, and S. J. Myung, “Spraying quantum dot conjugates in the colon of live animals enabled rapid and multiplex cancer diagnosis using endoscopy,” ACS Nano 8(9), 8896–8910 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. F. Pasha, J. A. Leighton, A. Das, M. E. Harrison, S. R. Gurudu, F. C. Ramirez, D. E. Fleischer, and V. K. Sharma, “Comparison of the yield and miss rate of narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy: a meta-analysis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(3), 363–371 (2012).
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Patel, S.

P. Subramaniam, S. J. Lee, S. Shah, S. Patel, V. Starovoytov, and K. B. Lee, “Generation of a library of non-toxic quantum dots for cellular imaging and siRNA delivery,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 4014–4019 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patterson, J. K.

J. K. Patterson, X. G. Lei, and D. D. Miller, “The pig as an experimental model for elucidating the mechanisms governing dietary influence on mineral absorption,” Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) 233(6), 651–664 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

Peters, A. A.

J. R. van der Vorst, M. Hutteman, K. N. Gaarenstroom, A. A. Peters, J. S. D. Mieog, B. E. Schaafsma, P. J. Kuppen, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “Optimization of near-infrared fluorescent sentinel lymph node mapping in cervical cancer patients,” Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer 21(8), 1472–1478 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillip, D.

R. J. Cooper, J. Selb, L. Gagnon, D. Phillip, H. W. Schytz, H. K. Iversen, M. Ashina, and D. A. Boas, “A systematic comparison of motion artifact correction techniques for functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Front. Neurosci. 6, 147 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piard, F.

L. Barault, N. Veyrie, V. Jooste, D. Lecorre, C. Chapusot, J. M. Ferraz, A. Lièvre, M. Cortet, A. M. Bouvier, P. Rat, P. Roignot, J. Faivre, P. Laurent-Puig, and F. Piard, “Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI (3) K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers,” Int. J. Cancer 122(10), 2255–2259 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piraka, C.

B. P. Joshi, X. Duan, R. S. Kwon, C. Piraka, B. J. Elmunzer, S. Lu, E. F. Rabinsky, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, S. R. Owens, R. Kuick, N. Doguchi, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Multimodal endoscope can quantify wide-field fluorescence detection of Barrett’s neoplasia,” Endoscopy 48(2), A1–A13 (2016).
[PubMed]

M.B. Sturm, B.P. Joshi, S. Lu, C. Piraka, S. Khondee, B.J. Elmunzer, R.S. Kwon, D.G. Beer, H.D. Appelman, and D.K. Turgeon, “Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: first-in-human results,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5, 184 (2013).

Pleijhuis, R. G.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med. 17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

Ponsuksili, S.

C. Nossol, A. Barta-Böszörményi, S. Kahlert, W. Zuschratter, H. Faber-Zuschratter, N. Reinhardt, S. Ponsuksili, K. Wimmers, A.-K. Diesing, and H.-J. Rothkötter, “Comparing Two Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Lines (IPECs): Morphological Differentiation, Function and Metabolism,” PLoS One 10(7), e0132323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasad, P. N.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rabinsky, E. F.

B. P. Joshi, X. Duan, R. S. Kwon, C. Piraka, B. J. Elmunzer, S. Lu, E. F. Rabinsky, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, S. R. Owens, R. Kuick, N. Doguchi, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Multimodal endoscope can quantify wide-field fluorescence detection of Barrett’s neoplasia,” Endoscopy 48(2), A1–A13 (2016).
[PubMed]

Ramirez, F. C.

S. F. Pasha, J. A. Leighton, A. Das, M. E. Harrison, S. R. Gurudu, F. C. Ramirez, D. E. Fleischer, and V. K. Sharma, “Comparison of the yield and miss rate of narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy: a meta-analysis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(3), 363–371 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rat, P.

L. Barault, N. Veyrie, V. Jooste, D. Lecorre, C. Chapusot, J. M. Ferraz, A. Lièvre, M. Cortet, A. M. Bouvier, P. Rat, P. Roignot, J. Faivre, P. Laurent-Puig, and F. Piard, “Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI (3) K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers,” Int. J. Cancer 122(10), 2255–2259 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reinhardt, N.

C. Nossol, A. Barta-Böszörményi, S. Kahlert, W. Zuschratter, H. Faber-Zuschratter, N. Reinhardt, S. Ponsuksili, K. Wimmers, A.-K. Diesing, and H.-J. Rothkötter, “Comparing Two Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Lines (IPECs): Morphological Differentiation, Function and Metabolism,” PLoS One 10(7), e0132323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, D. W.

Rogalla, S.

E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, N. O. Loewke, S. Rogalla, M. J. Mandella, S. A. Felt, S. Friedland, J. T. Liu, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “A real-time clinical endoscopic system for intraluminal, multiplexed imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” PLoS One 10(4), e0123185 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roignot, P.

L. Barault, N. Veyrie, V. Jooste, D. Lecorre, C. Chapusot, J. M. Ferraz, A. Lièvre, M. Cortet, A. M. Bouvier, P. Rat, P. Roignot, J. Faivre, P. Laurent-Puig, and F. Piard, “Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI (3) K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers,” Int. J. Cancer 122(10), 2255–2259 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Rothkötter, H.-J.

C. Nossol, A. Barta-Böszörményi, S. Kahlert, W. Zuschratter, H. Faber-Zuschratter, N. Reinhardt, S. Ponsuksili, K. Wimmers, A.-K. Diesing, and H.-J. Rothkötter, “Comparing Two Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Lines (IPECs): Morphological Differentiation, Function and Metabolism,” PLoS One 10(7), e0132323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roy, I.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryu, Y.-M.

Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, S. M. Bae, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, E. J. Do, S. Y. Kim, E. Chung, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, and S. J. Myung, “Spraying quantum dot conjugates in the colon of live animals enabled rapid and multiplex cancer diagnosis using endoscopy,” ACS Nano 8(9), 8896–8910 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Oh, S. W. Yoo, Y. Jung, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Park, S.-Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, S.-J. Myung, and E. Chung, “Intravital imaging of mouse colonic adenoma using MMP-based molecular probes with multi-channel fluorescence endoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1677–1689 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakamoto, Y.

C. Lim, E. Vibert, D. Azoulay, C. Salloum, T. Ishizawa, R. Yoshioka, Y. Mise, Y. Sakamoto, T. Aoki, Y. Sugawara, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in the surgical management of liver cancers: current facts and future implications,” J. Visc. Surg. 151(2), 117–124 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salloum, C.

C. Lim, E. Vibert, D. Azoulay, C. Salloum, T. Ishizawa, R. Yoshioka, Y. Mise, Y. Sakamoto, T. Aoki, Y. Sugawara, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in the surgical management of liver cancers: current facts and future implications,” J. Visc. Surg. 151(2), 117–124 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarantopoulos, A.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med. 17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaafsma, B. E.

J. R. van der Vorst, M. Hutteman, K. N. Gaarenstroom, A. A. Peters, J. S. D. Mieog, B. E. Schaafsma, P. J. Kuppen, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “Optimization of near-infrared fluorescent sentinel lymph node mapping in cervical cancer patients,” Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer 21(8), 1472–1478 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scheuer, W.

W. Scheuer, G.M. van Dam, M. Dobosz, M. Schwaiger, and V. Ntziachristos, “Drug-based optical agents: infiltrating clinics at lower risk,” Sci. Transl. Med. 4, 134 (2012).

Schwaiger, M.

W. Scheuer, G.M. van Dam, M. Dobosz, M. Schwaiger, and V. Ntziachristos, “Drug-based optical agents: infiltrating clinics at lower risk,” Sci. Transl. Med. 4, 134 (2012).

Schytz, H. W.

R. J. Cooper, J. Selb, L. Gagnon, D. Phillip, H. W. Schytz, H. K. Iversen, M. Ashina, and D. A. Boas, “A systematic comparison of motion artifact correction techniques for functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Front. Neurosci. 6, 147 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sebas, M.

S. Lee, C. Vinegoni, M. Sebas, and R. Weissleder, “Automated motion artifact removal for intravital microscopy, without a priori information,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4507 (2014).
[PubMed]

Selb, J.

R. J. Cooper, J. Selb, L. Gagnon, D. Phillip, H. W. Schytz, H. K. Iversen, M. Ashina, and D. A. Boas, “A systematic comparison of motion artifact correction techniques for functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Front. Neurosci. 6, 147 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sengupta, N.

N. Sengupta and T. T. MacDonald, “The role of matrix metalloproteinases in stromal/epithelial interactions in the gut,” Physiology (Bethesda) 22(6), 401–409 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensarn, S.

E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, N. O. Loewke, S. Rogalla, M. J. Mandella, S. A. Felt, S. Friedland, J. T. Liu, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “A real-time clinical endoscopic system for intraluminal, multiplexed imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” PLoS One 10(4), e0123185 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Translation of near-infrared fluorescence imaging technologies: emerging clinical applications,” Annu. Rev. Med. 63(1), 217–231 (2012).
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Shah, S.

P. Subramaniam, S. J. Lee, S. Shah, S. Patel, V. Starovoytov, and K. B. Lee, “Generation of a library of non-toxic quantum dots for cellular imaging and siRNA delivery,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 4014–4019 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shamirian, A.

A. Shamirian, O. Appelbe, Q. Zhang, B. Ganesh, S. J. Kron, and P. T. Snee, “A toolkit for bioimaging using near-infrared AgInS 2/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 3(41), 8188–8196 (2015).
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Sharma, V. K.

S. F. Pasha, J. A. Leighton, A. Das, M. E. Harrison, S. R. Gurudu, F. C. Ramirez, D. E. Fleischer, and V. K. Sharma, “Comparison of the yield and miss rate of narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy: a meta-analysis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(3), 363–371 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shibayama, T.

T. Torimoto, S. Ogawa, T. Adachi, T. Kameyama, K. Okazaki, T. Shibayama, A. Kudo, and S. Kuwabata, “Remarkable photoluminescence enhancement of ZnS-AgInS2 solid solution nanoparticles by post-synthesis treatment,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(12), 2082–2084 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siddiqui, U. D.

S. S. Chauhan, B. K. Abu Dayyeh, Y. M. Bhat, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, F. M. Murad, U. D. Siddiqui, S. Banerjee, M. B. Wallace, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 928–938 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Shamirian, O. Appelbe, Q. Zhang, B. Ganesh, S. J. Kron, and P. T. Snee, “A toolkit for bioimaging using near-infrared AgInS 2/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 3(41), 8188–8196 (2015).
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P. Subramaniam, S. J. Lee, S. Shah, S. Patel, V. Starovoytov, and K. B. Lee, “Generation of a library of non-toxic quantum dots for cellular imaging and siRNA delivery,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 4014–4019 (2012).
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M.B. Sturm, B.P. Joshi, S. Lu, C. Piraka, S. Khondee, B.J. Elmunzer, R.S. Kwon, D.G. Beer, H.D. Appelman, and D.K. Turgeon, “Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: first-in-human results,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5, 184 (2013).

Su, S.-B.

C.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, C.-C. Huang, S.-T. Lee, H.-R. Guo, and S.-B. Su, “Impact of high glucose on metastasis of colon cancer cells,” World J. Gastroenterol. 21(7), 2047–2057 (2015).
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P. Subramaniam, S. J. Lee, S. Shah, S. Patel, V. Starovoytov, and K. B. Lee, “Generation of a library of non-toxic quantum dots for cellular imaging and siRNA delivery,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 4014–4019 (2012).
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C. Lim, E. Vibert, D. Azoulay, C. Salloum, T. Ishizawa, R. Yoshioka, Y. Mise, Y. Sakamoto, T. Aoki, Y. Sugawara, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in the surgical management of liver cancers: current facts and future implications,” J. Visc. Surg. 151(2), 117–124 (2014).
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L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
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J. Decock, S. Thirkettle, L. Wagstaff, and D. R. Edwards, “Matrix metalloproteinases: protective roles in cancer,” J. Cell. Mol. Med. 15(6), 1254–1265 (2011).
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T. Torimoto, S. Ogawa, T. Adachi, T. Kameyama, K. Okazaki, T. Shibayama, A. Kudo, and S. Kuwabata, “Remarkable photoluminescence enhancement of ZnS-AgInS2 solid solution nanoparticles by post-synthesis treatment,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(12), 2082–2084 (2010).
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B. P. Joshi, X. Duan, R. S. Kwon, C. Piraka, B. J. Elmunzer, S. Lu, E. F. Rabinsky, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, S. R. Owens, R. Kuick, N. Doguchi, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Multimodal endoscope can quantify wide-field fluorescence detection of Barrett’s neoplasia,” Endoscopy 48(2), A1–A13 (2016).
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M.B. Sturm, B.P. Joshi, S. Lu, C. Piraka, S. Khondee, B.J. Elmunzer, R.S. Kwon, D.G. Beer, H.D. Appelman, and D.K. Turgeon, “Targeted imaging of esophageal neoplasia with a fluorescently labeled peptide: first-in-human results,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5, 184 (2013).

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Q. Zhang, G. Widmer, and S. Tzipori, “A pig model of the human gastrointestinal tract,” Gut Microbes 4(3), 193–200 (2013).
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J. R. van der Vorst, M. Hutteman, K. N. Gaarenstroom, A. A. Peters, J. S. D. Mieog, B. E. Schaafsma, P. J. Kuppen, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “Optimization of near-infrared fluorescent sentinel lymph node mapping in cervical cancer patients,” Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer 21(8), 1472–1478 (2011).
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C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
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J. R. van der Vorst, M. Hutteman, K. N. Gaarenstroom, A. A. Peters, J. S. D. Mieog, B. E. Schaafsma, P. J. Kuppen, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “Optimization of near-infrared fluorescent sentinel lymph node mapping in cervical cancer patients,” Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer 21(8), 1472–1478 (2011).
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C. Lim, E. Vibert, D. Azoulay, C. Salloum, T. Ishizawa, R. Yoshioka, Y. Mise, Y. Sakamoto, T. Aoki, Y. Sugawara, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in the surgical management of liver cancers: current facts and future implications,” J. Visc. Surg. 151(2), 117–124 (2014).
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S. Lee, C. Vinegoni, M. Sebas, and R. Weissleder, “Automated motion artifact removal for intravital microscopy, without a priori information,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4507 (2014).
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J. Decock, S. Thirkettle, L. Wagstaff, and D. R. Edwards, “Matrix metalloproteinases: protective roles in cancer,” J. Cell. Mol. Med. 15(6), 1254–1265 (2011).
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S. S. Chauhan, B. K. Abu Dayyeh, Y. M. Bhat, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, F. M. Murad, U. D. Siddiqui, S. Banerjee, M. B. Wallace, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 928–938 (2014).
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L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
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Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, S. M. Bae, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, E. J. Do, S. Y. Kim, E. Chung, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, and S. J. Myung, “Spraying quantum dot conjugates in the colon of live animals enabled rapid and multiplex cancer diagnosis using endoscopy,” ACS Nano 8(9), 8896–8910 (2014).
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B. P. Joshi, X. Duan, R. S. Kwon, C. Piraka, B. J. Elmunzer, S. Lu, E. F. Rabinsky, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, S. R. Owens, R. Kuick, N. Doguchi, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Multimodal endoscope can quantify wide-field fluorescence detection of Barrett’s neoplasia,” Endoscopy 48(2), A1–A13 (2016).
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Wang, Z.

Weissleder, R.

S. Lee, C. Vinegoni, M. Sebas, and R. Weissleder, “Automated motion artifact removal for intravital microscopy, without a priori information,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4507 (2014).
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M. A. Funovics, H. Alencar, X. Montet, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, “Simultaneous fluorescence imaging of protease expression and vascularity during murine colonoscopy for colonic lesion characterization,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(4), 589–597 (2006).
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R. Weissleder, “Molecular imaging in cancer,” Science 312(5777), 1168–1171 (2006).
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Q. Zhang, G. Widmer, and S. Tzipori, “A pig model of the human gastrointestinal tract,” Gut Microbes 4(3), 193–200 (2013).
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C. Nossol, A. Barta-Böszörményi, S. Kahlert, W. Zuschratter, H. Faber-Zuschratter, N. Reinhardt, S. Ponsuksili, K. Wimmers, A.-K. Diesing, and H.-J. Rothkötter, “Comparing Two Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Lines (IPECs): Morphological Differentiation, Function and Metabolism,” PLoS One 10(7), e0132323 (2015).
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Won, N.

J. Park, J. Nam, N. Won, H. Jin, S. Jung, S. Jung, S. H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Compact and Stable Quantum Dots with Positive, Negative, or Zwitterionic Surface: Specific Cell Interactions and Non‐Specific Adsorptions by the Surface Charges,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1558–1566 (2011).
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M. Hughes, P. Giataganas, and G.-Z. Yang, “Color reflectance fiber bundle endomicroscopy without back-reflections,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3), 030501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

X. Kang, L. Huang, Y. Yang, and D. Pan, “Scaling up the aqueous synthesis of visible light emitting multinary AgInS2/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(14), 7933–7940 (2015).
[Crossref]

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L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
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L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
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Yoo, S. W.

Yoon, Y.

Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, S. M. Bae, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, E. J. Do, S. Y. Kim, E. Chung, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, and S. J. Myung, “Spraying quantum dot conjugates in the colon of live animals enabled rapid and multiplex cancer diagnosis using endoscopy,” ACS Nano 8(9), 8896–8910 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshioka, R.

C. Lim, E. Vibert, D. Azoulay, C. Salloum, T. Ishizawa, R. Yoshioka, Y. Mise, Y. Sakamoto, T. Aoki, Y. Sugawara, K. Hasegawa, and N. Kokudo, “Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in the surgical management of liver cancers: current facts and future implications,” J. Visc. Surg. 151(2), 117–124 (2014).
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G. Oh, E. Chung, and S. H. Yun, “Optical fibers for high-resolution in vivo microendoscopic fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19(6), 760–771 (2013).
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E. Garai, S. Sensarn, C. L. Zavaleta, N. O. Loewke, S. Rogalla, M. J. Mandella, S. A. Felt, S. Friedland, J. T. Liu, S. S. Gambhir, and C. H. Contag, “A real-time clinical endoscopic system for intraluminal, multiplexed imaging of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” PLoS One 10(4), e0123185 (2015).
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C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, and S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

A. Shamirian, O. Appelbe, Q. Zhang, B. Ganesh, S. J. Kron, and P. T. Snee, “A toolkit for bioimaging using near-infrared AgInS 2/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 3(41), 8188–8196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, G. Widmer, and S. Tzipori, “A pig model of the human gastrointestinal tract,” Gut Microbes 4(3), 193–200 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

L. Ye, K.-T. Yong, L. Liu, I. Roy, R. Hu, J. Zhu, H. Cai, W.-C. Law, J. Liu, K. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, X. Zhang, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 453–458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuschratter, W.

C. Nossol, A. Barta-Böszörményi, S. Kahlert, W. Zuschratter, H. Faber-Zuschratter, N. Reinhardt, S. Ponsuksili, K. Wimmers, A.-K. Diesing, and H.-J. Rothkötter, “Comparing Two Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Lines (IPECs): Morphological Differentiation, Function and Metabolism,” PLoS One 10(7), e0132323 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

Y. Park, Y.-M. Ryu, Y. Jung, T. Wang, Y. Baek, Y. Yoon, S. M. Bae, J. Park, S. Hwang, J. Kim, E. J. Do, S. Y. Kim, E. Chung, K. H. Kim, S. Kim, and S. J. Myung, “Spraying quantum dot conjugates in the colon of live animals enabled rapid and multiplex cancer diagnosis using endoscopy,” ACS Nano 8(9), 8896–8910 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

J. Park, J. Nam, N. Won, H. Jin, S. Jung, S. Jung, S. H. Cho, and S. Kim, “Compact and Stable Quantum Dots with Positive, Negative, or Zwitterionic Surface: Specific Cell Interactions and Non‐Specific Adsorptions by the Surface Charges,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(9), 1558–1566 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

P. Subramaniam, S. J. Lee, S. Shah, S. Patel, V. Starovoytov, and K. B. Lee, “Generation of a library of non-toxic quantum dots for cellular imaging and siRNA delivery,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 4014–4019 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1)

S. F. Pasha, J. A. Leighton, A. Das, M. E. Harrison, S. R. Gurudu, F. C. Ramirez, D. E. Fleischer, and V. K. Sharma, “Comparison of the yield and miss rate of narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy: a meta-analysis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(3), 363–371 (2012).
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Annu. Rev. Med. (1)

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Translation of near-infrared fluorescence imaging technologies: emerging clinical applications,” Annu. Rev. Med. 63(1), 217–231 (2012).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

T. Torimoto, S. Ogawa, T. Adachi, T. Kameyama, K. Okazaki, T. Shibayama, A. Kudo, and S. Kuwabata, “Remarkable photoluminescence enhancement of ZnS-AgInS2 solid solution nanoparticles by post-synthesis treatment,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(12), 2082–2084 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endoscopy (1)

B. P. Joshi, X. Duan, R. S. Kwon, C. Piraka, B. J. Elmunzer, S. Lu, E. F. Rabinsky, D. G. Beer, H. D. Appelman, S. R. Owens, R. Kuick, N. Doguchi, D. K. Turgeon, and T. D. Wang, “Multimodal endoscope can quantify wide-field fluorescence detection of Barrett’s neoplasia,” Endoscopy 48(2), A1–A13 (2016).
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Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) (1)

J. K. Patterson, X. G. Lei, and D. D. Miller, “The pig as an experimental model for elucidating the mechanisms governing dietary influence on mineral absorption,” Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) 233(6), 651–664 (2008).
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Front. Neurosci. (1)

R. J. Cooper, J. Selb, L. Gagnon, D. Phillip, H. W. Schytz, H. K. Iversen, M. Ashina, and D. A. Boas, “A systematic comparison of motion artifact correction techniques for functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” Front. Neurosci. 6, 147 (2012).
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Gastrointest. Endosc. (3)

M. A. Funovics, H. Alencar, X. Montet, R. Weissleder, and U. Mahmood, “Simultaneous fluorescence imaging of protease expression and vascularity during murine colonoscopy for colonic lesion characterization,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(4), 589–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kimura, N. Muguruma, S. Ito, S. Okamura, Y. Imoto, H. Miyamoto, M. Kaji, and E. Kudo, “Infrared fluorescence endoscopy for the diagnosis of superficial gastric tumors,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 66(1), 37–43 (2007).
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S. S. Chauhan, B. K. Abu Dayyeh, Y. M. Bhat, K. T. Gottlieb, J. H. Hwang, S. Komanduri, V. Konda, S. K. Lo, M. A. Manfredi, J. T. Maple, F. M. Murad, U. D. Siddiqui, S. Banerjee, M. B. Wallace, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 80(6), 928–938 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gut Microbes (1)

Q. Zhang, G. Widmer, and S. Tzipori, “A pig model of the human gastrointestinal tract,” Gut Microbes 4(3), 193–200 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Cancer (1)

L. Barault, N. Veyrie, V. Jooste, D. Lecorre, C. Chapusot, J. M. Ferraz, A. Lièvre, M. Cortet, A. M. Bouvier, P. Rat, P. Roignot, J. Faivre, P. Laurent-Puig, and F. Piard, “Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI (3) K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers,” Int. J. Cancer 122(10), 2255–2259 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer (1)

J. R. van der Vorst, M. Hutteman, K. N. Gaarenstroom, A. A. Peters, J. S. D. Mieog, B. E. Schaafsma, P. J. Kuppen, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “Optimization of near-infrared fluorescent sentinel lymph node mapping in cervical cancer patients,” Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer 21(8), 1472–1478 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Hughes, P. Giataganas, and G.-Z. Yang, “Color reflectance fiber bundle endomicroscopy without back-reflections,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3), 030501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cell. Mol. Med. (1)

J. Decock, S. Thirkettle, L. Wagstaff, and D. R. Edwards, “Matrix metalloproteinases: protective roles in cancer,” J. Cell. Mol. Med. 15(6), 1254–1265 (2011).
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J. Clin. Oncol. (1)

J. Mendelsohn and J. Baselga, “Status of epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists in the biology and treatment of cancer,” J. Clin. Oncol. 21(14), 2787–2799 (2003).
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J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. (1)

A. Shamirian, O. Appelbe, Q. Zhang, B. Ganesh, S. J. Kron, and P. T. Snee, “A toolkit for bioimaging using near-infrared AgInS 2/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mater. Chem. B Mater. Biol. Med. 3(41), 8188–8196 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

X. Kang, L. Huang, Y. Yang, and D. Pan, “Scaling up the aqueous synthesis of visible light emitting multinary AgInS2/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(14), 7933–7940 (2015).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the clinically-compatible flexible wide-field multi-color fluorescence endoscope system. (a) Schematic of multi-color fluorescence endoscope designed to be inserted through the biopsy channel (diameter: 3.2 mm) of a clinical sigmoidoscope. The system is comprised of two detection channels: reflectance and fluorescence. Multiple-channel fluorescence imaging is obtained by the rotating filter wheel in front of the fluorescence camera detector. (b–c) Photographs of the imaging device and system. (c) An enlarged view of the detection part in the endoscopic system. (d) Photograph of highly flexible leached fiber bundle used for home-made probes. Note that the leached fiber bundle in (a) is not visible in (c). (e) Photograph of combined imaging scope and sigmoidoscope. (f–g) Close-up photograph of the distal end of the imaging scope. The scope was enclosed and sealed within an aluminum sheath. The magnified imaging scope shows a leached fiber bundle and multimode fibers for delivering excitation light and white light (from LEDs). (h) Frontal view of the distal end of the imaging scope. Acronyms are defined as follows: (LED: Light-emitting diode, DM: Dichroic mirror, MMF: Multi-mode fiber, BPF: Band-pass filter, RGB: Red green blue).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Absorption and fluorescence profiles of the hfQDs. (b) Transmission electron microscopic image of the hfQDs. (c) Cytotoxicity measurements of HCT116 cells with hfQDs. For QDs toxicity, cells were treated with 50, 250, and 500 nM of quantum dots for 1–12 h at 37 °C. After the incubation, cell viability was measured by CCK-8 assay. (d) Fluorescence imaging with MMP14-QDs in HCT116 and MCF7 cells. Scale bar = 50 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo fluorescence endoscopic imaging protocol in porcine colon. Prior to the imaging, a 30 kg Yorkshire pig was anesthetized with isoflurane (1.5%–2.0%) through endotracheal intubation and the multi-color fluorescence endoscope was set. Next, the observation of the porcine colon using the clinical sigmoidoscope was performed to remove any existing stool with PBS solution. Prior to fluorescence imaging, a mixture of fluorophores was injected into the colonic wall to form surrogate tumors using the clinical injector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ex vivo tumor-targeted fluorescence image with MMP14Ab-hfQD probe in the porcine colon. (a) Experimental configuration. (b) Tumor-targeted fluorescence imaging using MMP14Ab-hfQD and PBS solution as control with grafted mouse tumors in the porcine colon. (c) Quantified TBR using PBS solution and MMP14ab-hfQD ex vivo with 1.08 ± 0.05 and 1.74 ± 0.06, respectively. p < 0.05 by unpaired t-test.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In vivo fluorescence endoscopic imaging of surrogate tumors in the porcine colon with different fluorophores. (a) Experimental configuration. (b) Fluorescence imaging of surrogate tumors with FITC, ICG, and hfQDs in the porcine colon.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

In vivo multi-color fluorescence endoscopic imaging in the porcine colon. (a) (upper) Generation of a surrogate tumor with mixtures of multiple fluorophores. Fluorescence images of each dye were obtained with corresponding emission filters. (b) Threshold images of multiple fluorophores with the endoscope showing the distributions of each fluorophore and a merged image. (c) TBR of fluorophores in the surrogate tumor at the same concentration of 1 mg/ml.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intra-vital in vivo fluorescence endoscopic imaging of SL4-DsRed cancer cell pellet in porcine colon. (a) Surrogate tumor imaging of PBS injection (control experiment). (b) Surrogate tumor fluorescence imaging of SL4-DsRed cancer cells. (c) Mean TBR value at the injection site of the colon cancer cells and control.

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