Abstract

We report a novel Raman spectroscopy method for in situ cellular level analysis of the thyroid. Thyroids are harvested from control and lithium treated mice. Lithium is used to treat bipolar disorder, but affects thyroid function. Raman spectra are acquired with a confocal setup (514 nm laser, 20 µm spot) focused on a follicular lumen. Raman peaks are observed at 1440, 1656, and 1746 cm−1, corresponding to tyrosine, an important amino acid for protein synthesis. Peaks are also observed at 563, 1087, 1265 and 1301 cm−1. With lithium, the tyrosine peaks increase, indicating tyrosine buildup. Raman spectroscopy can study the impact of many exogenous treatments on thyroid biochemistry.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Wang, W. Li, J. E. Phay, R. Shen, N. S. Pellegata, M. Saji, M. D. Ringel, A. de la Chapelle, and H. He, “Primary Cell Culture Systems for Human Thyroid Studies,” Thyroid 26(8), 1131–1140 (2016).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  16. T. A. Wehr, D. A. Sack, N. E. Rosenthal, and R. W. Cowdry, “Rapid cycling affective disorder: contributing factors and treatment responses in 51 patients,” Am. J. Psychiatry 145(2), 179–184 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. R. Aronson, H. J. Offman, R. T. Joffe, and C. D. Naylor, “Triiodothyronine augmentation in the treatment of refractory depression. A meta-analysis,” Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 53(9), 842–848 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. S. Gershon, K. N. Chengappa, and G. S. Malhi, “Lithium specificity in bipolar illness: a classic agent for the classic disorder,” Bipolar Disord. 11(Suppl 2), 34–44 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. R. T. Timmer and J. M. Sands, “Lithium intoxication,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 10(3), 666–674 (1999).
    [PubMed]
  20. C. Paton, T. R. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, R. H. McAllister-Williams, J. Kirkbride, P. B. Jones, S. McIntyre, and POMH-UK project team, “Lithium in bipolar and other affective disorders: prescribing practice in the UK,” J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 24(12), 1739–1746 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. M. D. Okusa and L. J. Crystal, “Clinical manifestations and management of acute lithium intoxication,” Am. J. Med. 97(4), 383–389 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. J. Ellenhorn, S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, and J. Wasserberger, “Diagnosis and treatment of human poisoning,” Med. Toxicol. 1997, 609 (1997).
  23. J. H. Lazarus, “The effects of lithium therapy on thyroid and thyrotropin-releasing hormone,” Thyroid 8(10), 909–913 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

H. J. Butler, L. Ashton, B. Bird, G. Cinque, K. Curtis, J. Dorney, K. Esmonde-White, N. J. Fullwood, B. Gardner, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, M. J. Walsh, M. R. McAinsh, N. Stone, and F. L. Martin, “Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 11(4), 664–687 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Li, J. E. Phay, R. Shen, N. S. Pellegata, M. Saji, M. D. Ringel, A. de la Chapelle, and H. He, “Primary Cell Culture Systems for Human Thyroid Studies,” Thyroid 26(8), 1131–1140 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

V. P. Zakharov, I. A. Bratchenko, D. N. Artemyev, O. O. Myakinin, D. V. Kornilin, S. V. Kozlov, and A. A. Moryatov, “Comparative analysis of combined spectral and optical tomography methods for detection of skin and lung cancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 025003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

J. A. Bispo, E. E. de Sousa Vieira, L. Silveira, and A. B. Fernandes, “Correlating the amount of urea, creatinine, and glucose in urine from patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension with the risk of developing renal lesions by means of Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 087004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

J. Shao, M. Lin, Y. Li, X. Li, J. Liu, J. Liang, and H. Yao, “In vivo blood glucose quantification using Raman spectroscopy,” PLoS One 7(10), e48127 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

C. Paton, T. R. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, R. H. McAllister-Williams, J. Kirkbride, P. B. Jones, S. McIntyre, and POMH-UK project team, “Lithium in bipolar and other affective disorders: prescribing practice in the UK,” J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 24(12), 1739–1746 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

S. Gershon, K. N. Chengappa, and G. S. Malhi, “Lithium specificity in bipolar illness: a classic agent for the classic disorder,” Bipolar Disord. 11(Suppl 2), 34–44 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Grandjean and J. M. Aubry, “Lithium: updated human knowledge using an evidence-based approach. Part II: Clinical pharmacology and therapeutic monitoring,” CNS Drugs 23(4), 331–349 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(12), 3206–3214 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Teixeira, R. A. Bitar, H. S. Martinho, A. B. Santos, M. A. Kulcsar, C. U. Friguglietti, R. B. da Costa, E. A. Arisawa, and A. A. Martin, “Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(11), 2361–2370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

R. Li, G. M. Zhou, H. J. Peng, and Y. L. Deng, “[FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation on hypothyroid cancer],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 26(10), 1868–1870 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (1)

G. Liu, J. H. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Yu, and S. Z. Sun, “[Raman spectroscopic study of human tissues],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 25(5), 723–725 (2005).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. T. Timmer and J. M. Sands, “Lithium intoxication,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 10(3), 666–674 (1999).
[PubMed]

1998 (2)

H. L. Evans and R. Vassilopoulou-Sellin, “Follicular and Hurthle cell carcinomas of the thyroid: a comparative study,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 22(12), 1512–1520 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Lazarus, “The effects of lithium therapy on thyroid and thyrotropin-releasing hormone,” Thyroid 8(10), 909–913 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

M. J. Ellenhorn, S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, and J. Wasserberger, “Diagnosis and treatment of human poisoning,” Med. Toxicol. 1997, 609 (1997).

1996 (1)

R. Aronson, H. J. Offman, R. T. Joffe, and C. D. Naylor, “Triiodothyronine augmentation in the treatment of refractory depression. A meta-analysis,” Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 53(9), 842–848 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. D. Okusa and L. J. Crystal, “Clinical manifestations and management of acute lithium intoxication,” Am. J. Med. 97(4), 383–389 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

T. A. Wehr, D. A. Sack, N. E. Rosenthal, and R. W. Cowdry, “Rapid cycling affective disorder: contributing factors and treatment responses in 51 patients,” Am. J. Psychiatry 145(2), 179–184 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1928 (1)

C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan, “A new type of secondary radiation,” Nature 121(3048), 501–502 (1928).
[Crossref]

Abdali, S.

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(12), 3206–3214 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arisawa, E. A.

C. S. Teixeira, R. A. Bitar, H. S. Martinho, A. B. Santos, M. A. Kulcsar, C. U. Friguglietti, R. B. da Costa, E. A. Arisawa, and A. A. Martin, “Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(11), 2361–2370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aronson, R.

R. Aronson, H. J. Offman, R. T. Joffe, and C. D. Naylor, “Triiodothyronine augmentation in the treatment of refractory depression. A meta-analysis,” Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 53(9), 842–848 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artemyev, D. N.

V. P. Zakharov, I. A. Bratchenko, D. N. Artemyev, O. O. Myakinin, D. V. Kornilin, S. V. Kozlov, and A. A. Moryatov, “Comparative analysis of combined spectral and optical tomography methods for detection of skin and lung cancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 025003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashton, L.

H. J. Butler, L. Ashton, B. Bird, G. Cinque, K. Curtis, J. Dorney, K. Esmonde-White, N. J. Fullwood, B. Gardner, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, M. J. Walsh, M. R. McAinsh, N. Stone, and F. L. Martin, “Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 11(4), 664–687 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aubry, J. M.

E. M. Grandjean and J. M. Aubry, “Lithium: updated human knowledge using an evidence-based approach. Part II: Clinical pharmacology and therapeutic monitoring,” CNS Drugs 23(4), 331–349 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, T. R.

C. Paton, T. R. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, R. H. McAllister-Williams, J. Kirkbride, P. B. Jones, S. McIntyre, and POMH-UK project team, “Lithium in bipolar and other affective disorders: prescribing practice in the UK,” J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 24(12), 1739–1746 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bird, B.

H. J. Butler, L. Ashton, B. Bird, G. Cinque, K. Curtis, J. Dorney, K. Esmonde-White, N. J. Fullwood, B. Gardner, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, M. J. Walsh, M. R. McAinsh, N. Stone, and F. L. Martin, “Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 11(4), 664–687 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bispo, J. A.

J. A. Bispo, E. E. de Sousa Vieira, L. Silveira, and A. B. Fernandes, “Correlating the amount of urea, creatinine, and glucose in urine from patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension with the risk of developing renal lesions by means of Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 087004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bitar, R. A.

C. S. Teixeira, R. A. Bitar, H. S. Martinho, A. B. Santos, M. A. Kulcsar, C. U. Friguglietti, R. B. da Costa, E. A. Arisawa, and A. A. Martin, “Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(11), 2361–2370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bratchenko, I. A.

V. P. Zakharov, I. A. Bratchenko, D. N. Artemyev, O. O. Myakinin, D. V. Kornilin, S. V. Kozlov, and A. A. Moryatov, “Comparative analysis of combined spectral and optical tomography methods for detection of skin and lung cancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 025003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brazhe, A. R.

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(12), 3206–3214 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brazhe, N. A.

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(12), 3206–3214 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bryzgalova, N. Y.

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(12), 3206–3214 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butler, H. J.

H. J. Butler, L. Ashton, B. Bird, G. Cinque, K. Curtis, J. Dorney, K. Esmonde-White, N. J. Fullwood, B. Gardner, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, M. J. Walsh, M. R. McAinsh, N. Stone, and F. L. Martin, “Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 11(4), 664–687 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. X.

Chengappa, K. N.

S. Gershon, K. N. Chengappa, and G. S. Malhi, “Lithium specificity in bipolar illness: a classic agent for the classic disorder,” Bipolar Disord. 11(Suppl 2), 34–44 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cinque, G.

H. J. Butler, L. Ashton, B. Bird, G. Cinque, K. Curtis, J. Dorney, K. Esmonde-White, N. J. Fullwood, B. Gardner, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, M. J. Walsh, M. R. McAinsh, N. Stone, and F. L. Martin, “Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 11(4), 664–687 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cowdry, R. W.

T. A. Wehr, D. A. Sack, N. E. Rosenthal, and R. W. Cowdry, “Rapid cycling affective disorder: contributing factors and treatment responses in 51 patients,” Am. J. Psychiatry 145(2), 179–184 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crystal, L. J.

M. D. Okusa and L. J. Crystal, “Clinical manifestations and management of acute lithium intoxication,” Am. J. Med. 97(4), 383–389 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curtis, K.

H. J. Butler, L. Ashton, B. Bird, G. Cinque, K. Curtis, J. Dorney, K. Esmonde-White, N. J. Fullwood, B. Gardner, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, M. J. Walsh, M. R. McAinsh, N. Stone, and F. L. Martin, “Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 11(4), 664–687 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

da Costa, R. B.

C. S. Teixeira, R. A. Bitar, H. S. Martinho, A. B. Santos, M. A. Kulcsar, C. U. Friguglietti, R. B. da Costa, E. A. Arisawa, and A. A. Martin, “Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(11), 2361–2370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de la Chapelle, A.

Y. Wang, W. Li, J. E. Phay, R. Shen, N. S. Pellegata, M. Saji, M. D. Ringel, A. de la Chapelle, and H. He, “Primary Cell Culture Systems for Human Thyroid Studies,” Thyroid 26(8), 1131–1140 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Sousa Vieira, E. E.

J. A. Bispo, E. E. de Sousa Vieira, L. Silveira, and A. B. Fernandes, “Correlating the amount of urea, creatinine, and glucose in urine from patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension with the risk of developing renal lesions by means of Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 087004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, Y. L.

R. Li, G. M. Zhou, H. J. Peng, and Y. L. Deng, “[FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation on hypothyroid cancer],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 26(10), 1868–1870 (2006).
[PubMed]

Dorney, J.

H. J. Butler, L. Ashton, B. Bird, G. Cinque, K. Curtis, J. Dorney, K. Esmonde-White, N. J. Fullwood, B. Gardner, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, M. J. Walsh, M. R. McAinsh, N. Stone, and F. L. Martin, “Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 11(4), 664–687 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ellenhorn, M. J.

M. J. Ellenhorn, S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, and J. Wasserberger, “Diagnosis and treatment of human poisoning,” Med. Toxicol. 1997, 609 (1997).

Esmonde-White, K.

H. J. Butler, L. Ashton, B. Bird, G. Cinque, K. Curtis, J. Dorney, K. Esmonde-White, N. J. Fullwood, B. Gardner, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, M. J. Walsh, M. R. McAinsh, N. Stone, and F. L. Martin, “Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 11(4), 664–687 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, H. L.

H. L. Evans and R. Vassilopoulou-Sellin, “Follicular and Hurthle cell carcinomas of the thyroid: a comparative study,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 22(12), 1512–1520 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernandes, A. B.

J. A. Bispo, E. E. de Sousa Vieira, L. Silveira, and A. B. Fernandes, “Correlating the amount of urea, creatinine, and glucose in urine from patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension with the risk of developing renal lesions by means of Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 087004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, S. E.

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friguglietti, C. U.

C. S. Teixeira, R. A. Bitar, H. S. Martinho, A. B. Santos, M. A. Kulcsar, C. U. Friguglietti, R. B. da Costa, E. A. Arisawa, and A. A. Martin, “Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(11), 2361–2370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, Y.

Fullwood, N. J.

H. J. Butler, L. Ashton, B. Bird, G. Cinque, K. Curtis, J. Dorney, K. Esmonde-White, N. J. Fullwood, B. Gardner, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, M. J. Walsh, M. R. McAinsh, N. Stone, and F. L. Martin, “Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 11(4), 664–687 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardner, B.

H. J. Butler, L. Ashton, B. Bird, G. Cinque, K. Curtis, J. Dorney, K. Esmonde-White, N. J. Fullwood, B. Gardner, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, M. J. Walsh, M. R. McAinsh, N. Stone, and F. L. Martin, “Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 11(4), 664–687 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garg, M.

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gershon, S.

S. Gershon, K. N. Chengappa, and G. S. Malhi, “Lithium specificity in bipolar illness: a classic agent for the classic disorder,” Bipolar Disord. 11(Suppl 2), 34–44 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grandjean, E. M.

E. M. Grandjean and J. M. Aubry, “Lithium: updated human knowledge using an evidence-based approach. Part II: Clinical pharmacology and therapeutic monitoring,” CNS Drugs 23(4), 331–349 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, A. T.

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, H.

Y. Wang, W. Li, J. E. Phay, R. Shen, N. S. Pellegata, M. Saji, M. D. Ringel, A. de la Chapelle, and H. He, “Primary Cell Culture Systems for Human Thyroid Studies,” Thyroid 26(8), 1131–1140 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

High, A. S.

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huff, T. B.

Joffe, R. T.

R. Aronson, H. J. Offman, R. T. Joffe, and C. D. Naylor, “Triiodothyronine augmentation in the treatment of refractory depression. A meta-analysis,” Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 53(9), 842–848 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, P. B.

C. Paton, T. R. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, R. H. McAllister-Williams, J. Kirkbride, P. B. Jones, S. McIntyre, and POMH-UK project team, “Lithium in bipolar and other affective disorders: prescribing practice in the UK,” J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 24(12), 1739–1746 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirkbride, J.

C. Paton, T. R. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, R. H. McAllister-Williams, J. Kirkbride, P. B. Jones, S. McIntyre, and POMH-UK project team, “Lithium in bipolar and other affective disorders: prescribing practice in the UK,” J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 24(12), 1739–1746 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirkham, J.

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kornilin, D. V.

V. P. Zakharov, I. A. Bratchenko, D. N. Artemyev, O. O. Myakinin, D. V. Kornilin, S. V. Kozlov, and A. A. Moryatov, “Comparative analysis of combined spectral and optical tomography methods for detection of skin and lung cancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 025003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozlov, S. V.

V. P. Zakharov, I. A. Bratchenko, D. N. Artemyev, O. O. Myakinin, D. V. Kornilin, S. V. Kozlov, and A. A. Moryatov, “Comparative analysis of combined spectral and optical tomography methods for detection of skin and lung cancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 025003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krishnan, K. S.

C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan, “A new type of secondary radiation,” Nature 121(3048), 501–502 (1928).
[Crossref]

Kulcsar, M. A.

C. S. Teixeira, R. A. Bitar, H. S. Martinho, A. B. Santos, M. A. Kulcsar, C. U. Friguglietti, R. B. da Costa, E. A. Arisawa, and A. A. Martin, “Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(11), 2361–2370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lazarus, J. H.

J. H. Lazarus, “The effects of lithium therapy on thyroid and thyrotropin-releasing hormone,” Thyroid 8(10), 909–913 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, R.

R. Li, G. M. Zhou, H. J. Peng, and Y. L. Deng, “[FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation on hypothyroid cancer],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 26(10), 1868–1870 (2006).
[PubMed]

Li, W.

Y. Wang, W. Li, J. E. Phay, R. Shen, N. S. Pellegata, M. Saji, M. D. Ringel, A. de la Chapelle, and H. He, “Primary Cell Culture Systems for Human Thyroid Studies,” Thyroid 26(8), 1131–1140 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

J. Shao, M. Lin, Y. Li, X. Li, J. Liu, J. Liang, and H. Yao, “In vivo blood glucose quantification using Raman spectroscopy,” PLoS One 7(10), e48127 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

J. Shao, M. Lin, Y. Li, X. Li, J. Liu, J. Liang, and H. Yao, “In vivo blood glucose quantification using Raman spectroscopy,” PLoS One 7(10), e48127 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

J. Shao, M. Lin, Y. Li, X. Li, J. Liu, J. Liang, and H. Yao, “In vivo blood glucose quantification using Raman spectroscopy,” PLoS One 7(10), e48127 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, M.

J. Shao, M. Lin, Y. Li, X. Li, J. Liu, J. Liang, and H. Yao, “In vivo blood glucose quantification using Raman spectroscopy,” PLoS One 7(10), e48127 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, J. H. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Yu, and S. Z. Sun, “[Raman spectroscopic study of human tissues],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 25(5), 723–725 (2005).
[PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Shao, M. Lin, Y. Li, X. Li, J. Liu, J. Liang, and H. Yao, “In vivo blood glucose quantification using Raman spectroscopy,” PLoS One 7(10), e48127 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J. H.

G. Liu, J. H. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Yu, and S. Z. Sun, “[Raman spectroscopic study of human tissues],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 25(5), 723–725 (2005).
[PubMed]

Luneva, O. G.

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(12), 3206–3214 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maksimov, G. V.

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(12), 3206–3214 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malhi, G. S.

S. Gershon, K. N. Chengappa, and G. S. Malhi, “Lithium specificity in bipolar illness: a classic agent for the classic disorder,” Bipolar Disord. 11(Suppl 2), 34–44 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, A. A.

C. S. Teixeira, R. A. Bitar, H. S. Martinho, A. B. Santos, M. A. Kulcsar, C. U. Friguglietti, R. B. da Costa, E. A. Arisawa, and A. A. Martin, “Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(11), 2361–2370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, F. L.

H. J. Butler, L. Ashton, B. Bird, G. Cinque, K. Curtis, J. Dorney, K. Esmonde-White, N. J. Fullwood, B. Gardner, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, M. J. Walsh, M. R. McAinsh, N. Stone, and F. L. Martin, “Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 11(4), 664–687 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin-Hirsch, D. P.

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin-Hirsch, P. L.

H. J. Butler, L. Ashton, B. Bird, G. Cinque, K. Curtis, J. Dorney, K. Esmonde-White, N. J. Fullwood, B. Gardner, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, M. J. Walsh, M. R. McAinsh, N. Stone, and F. L. Martin, “Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 11(4), 664–687 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martinho, H. S.

C. S. Teixeira, R. A. Bitar, H. S. Martinho, A. B. Santos, M. A. Kulcsar, C. U. Friguglietti, R. B. da Costa, E. A. Arisawa, and A. A. Martin, “Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(11), 2361–2370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McAinsh, M. R.

H. J. Butler, L. Ashton, B. Bird, G. Cinque, K. Curtis, J. Dorney, K. Esmonde-White, N. J. Fullwood, B. Gardner, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, M. J. Walsh, M. R. McAinsh, N. Stone, and F. L. Martin, “Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 11(4), 664–687 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McAllister-Williams, R. H.

C. Paton, T. R. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, R. H. McAllister-Williams, J. Kirkbride, P. B. Jones, S. McIntyre, and POMH-UK project team, “Lithium in bipolar and other affective disorders: prescribing practice in the UK,” J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 24(12), 1739–1746 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McIntyre, S.

C. Paton, T. R. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, R. H. McAllister-Williams, J. Kirkbride, P. B. Jones, S. McIntyre, and POMH-UK project team, “Lithium in bipolar and other affective disorders: prescribing practice in the UK,” J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 24(12), 1739–1746 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moryatov, A. A.

V. P. Zakharov, I. A. Bratchenko, D. N. Artemyev, O. O. Myakinin, D. V. Kornilin, S. V. Kozlov, and A. A. Moryatov, “Comparative analysis of combined spectral and optical tomography methods for detection of skin and lung cancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 025003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myakinin, O. O.

V. P. Zakharov, I. A. Bratchenko, D. N. Artemyev, O. O. Myakinin, D. V. Kornilin, S. V. Kozlov, and A. A. Moryatov, “Comparative analysis of combined spectral and optical tomography methods for detection of skin and lung cancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 025003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naylor, C. D.

R. Aronson, H. J. Offman, R. T. Joffe, and C. D. Naylor, “Triiodothyronine augmentation in the treatment of refractory depression. A meta-analysis,” Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 53(9), 842–848 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Offman, H. J.

R. Aronson, H. J. Offman, R. T. Joffe, and C. D. Naylor, “Triiodothyronine augmentation in the treatment of refractory depression. A meta-analysis,” Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 53(9), 842–848 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okusa, M. D.

M. D. Okusa and L. J. Crystal, “Clinical manifestations and management of acute lithium intoxication,” Am. J. Med. 97(4), 383–389 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ordog, G.

M. J. Ellenhorn, S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, and J. Wasserberger, “Diagnosis and treatment of human poisoning,” Med. Toxicol. 1997, 609 (1997).

Parshina, E. Y.

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(12), 3206–3214 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paton, C.

C. Paton, T. R. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, R. H. McAllister-Williams, J. Kirkbride, P. B. Jones, S. McIntyre, and POMH-UK project team, “Lithium in bipolar and other affective disorders: prescribing practice in the UK,” J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 24(12), 1739–1746 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pellegata, N. S.

Y. Wang, W. Li, J. E. Phay, R. Shen, N. S. Pellegata, M. Saji, M. D. Ringel, A. de la Chapelle, and H. He, “Primary Cell Culture Systems for Human Thyroid Studies,” Thyroid 26(8), 1131–1140 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, H. J.

R. Li, G. M. Zhou, H. J. Peng, and Y. L. Deng, “[FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation on hypothyroid cancer],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 26(10), 1868–1870 (2006).
[PubMed]

Phay, J. E.

Y. Wang, W. Li, J. E. Phay, R. Shen, N. S. Pellegata, M. Saji, M. D. Ringel, A. de la Chapelle, and H. He, “Primary Cell Culture Systems for Human Thyroid Studies,” Thyroid 26(8), 1131–1140 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raman, C. V.

C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan, “A new type of secondary radiation,” Nature 121(3048), 501–502 (1928).
[Crossref]

Ringel, M. D.

Y. Wang, W. Li, J. E. Phay, R. Shen, N. S. Pellegata, M. Saji, M. D. Ringel, A. de la Chapelle, and H. He, “Primary Cell Culture Systems for Human Thyroid Studies,” Thyroid 26(8), 1131–1140 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenthal, N. E.

T. A. Wehr, D. A. Sack, N. E. Rosenthal, and R. W. Cowdry, “Rapid cycling affective disorder: contributing factors and treatment responses in 51 patients,” Am. J. Psychiatry 145(2), 179–184 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sack, D. A.

T. A. Wehr, D. A. Sack, N. E. Rosenthal, and R. W. Cowdry, “Rapid cycling affective disorder: contributing factors and treatment responses in 51 patients,” Am. J. Psychiatry 145(2), 179–184 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saji, M.

Y. Wang, W. Li, J. E. Phay, R. Shen, N. S. Pellegata, M. Saji, M. D. Ringel, A. de la Chapelle, and H. He, “Primary Cell Culture Systems for Human Thyroid Studies,” Thyroid 26(8), 1131–1140 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sands, J. M.

R. T. Timmer and J. M. Sands, “Lithium intoxication,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 10(3), 666–674 (1999).
[PubMed]

Santos, A. B.

C. S. Teixeira, R. A. Bitar, H. S. Martinho, A. B. Santos, M. A. Kulcsar, C. U. Friguglietti, R. B. da Costa, E. A. Arisawa, and A. A. Martin, “Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(11), 2361–2370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schonwald, S.

M. J. Ellenhorn, S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, and J. Wasserberger, “Diagnosis and treatment of human poisoning,” Med. Toxicol. 1997, 609 (1997).

Shao, J.

J. Shao, M. Lin, Y. Li, X. Li, J. Liu, J. Liang, and H. Yao, “In vivo blood glucose quantification using Raman spectroscopy,” PLoS One 7(10), e48127 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, R.

Y. Wang, W. Li, J. E. Phay, R. Shen, N. S. Pellegata, M. Saji, M. D. Ringel, A. de la Chapelle, and H. He, “Primary Cell Culture Systems for Human Thyroid Studies,” Thyroid 26(8), 1131–1140 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shingleton-Smith, A.

C. Paton, T. R. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, R. H. McAllister-Williams, J. Kirkbride, P. B. Jones, S. McIntyre, and POMH-UK project team, “Lithium in bipolar and other affective disorders: prescribing practice in the UK,” J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 24(12), 1739–1746 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silveira, L.

J. A. Bispo, E. E. de Sousa Vieira, L. Silveira, and A. B. Fernandes, “Correlating the amount of urea, creatinine, and glucose in urine from patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension with the risk of developing renal lesions by means of Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 087004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. A.

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sosnovtseva, O. V.

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(12), 3206–3214 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, N.

H. J. Butler, L. Ashton, B. Bird, G. Cinque, K. Curtis, J. Dorney, K. Esmonde-White, N. J. Fullwood, B. Gardner, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, M. J. Walsh, M. R. McAinsh, N. Stone, and F. L. Martin, “Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 11(4), 664–687 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, S. Z.

G. Liu, J. H. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Yu, and S. Z. Sun, “[Raman spectroscopic study of human tissues],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 25(5), 723–725 (2005).
[PubMed]

Teixeira, C. S.

C. S. Teixeira, R. A. Bitar, H. S. Martinho, A. B. Santos, M. A. Kulcsar, C. U. Friguglietti, R. B. da Costa, E. A. Arisawa, and A. A. Martin, “Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(11), 2361–2370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Timmer, R. T.

R. T. Timmer and J. M. Sands, “Lithium intoxication,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 10(3), 666–674 (1999).
[PubMed]

Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R.

H. L. Evans and R. Vassilopoulou-Sellin, “Follicular and Hurthle cell carcinomas of the thyroid: a comparative study,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 22(12), 1512–1520 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, M. J.

H. J. Butler, L. Ashton, B. Bird, G. Cinque, K. Curtis, J. Dorney, K. Esmonde-White, N. J. Fullwood, B. Gardner, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, M. J. Walsh, M. R. McAinsh, N. Stone, and F. L. Martin, “Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 11(4), 664–687 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Wang, H. W.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, W. Li, J. E. Phay, R. Shen, N. S. Pellegata, M. Saji, M. D. Ringel, A. de la Chapelle, and H. He, “Primary Cell Culture Systems for Human Thyroid Studies,” Thyroid 26(8), 1131–1140 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wasserberger, J.

M. J. Ellenhorn, S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, and J. Wasserberger, “Diagnosis and treatment of human poisoning,” Med. Toxicol. 1997, 609 (1997).

Wehr, T. A.

T. A. Wehr, D. A. Sack, N. E. Rosenthal, and R. W. Cowdry, “Rapid cycling affective disorder: contributing factors and treatment responses in 51 patients,” Am. J. Psychiatry 145(2), 179–184 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X. B.

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, H.

J. Shao, M. Lin, Y. Li, X. Li, J. Liu, J. Liang, and H. Yao, “In vivo blood glucose quantification using Raman spectroscopy,” PLoS One 7(10), e48127 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, F.

G. Liu, J. H. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Yu, and S. Z. Sun, “[Raman spectroscopic study of human tissues],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 25(5), 723–725 (2005).
[PubMed]

Zakharov, V. P.

V. P. Zakharov, I. A. Bratchenko, D. N. Artemyev, O. O. Myakinin, D. V. Kornilin, S. V. Kozlov, and A. A. Moryatov, “Comparative analysis of combined spectral and optical tomography methods for detection of skin and lung cancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 025003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

G. Liu, J. H. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Yu, and S. Z. Sun, “[Raman spectroscopic study of human tissues],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 25(5), 723–725 (2005).
[PubMed]

Zhou, G. M.

R. Li, G. M. Zhou, H. J. Peng, and Y. L. Deng, “[FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation on hypothyroid cancer],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 26(10), 1868–1870 (2006).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Med. (1)

M. D. Okusa and L. J. Crystal, “Clinical manifestations and management of acute lithium intoxication,” Am. J. Med. 97(4), 383–389 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Psychiatry (1)

T. A. Wehr, D. A. Sack, N. E. Rosenthal, and R. W. Cowdry, “Rapid cycling affective disorder: contributing factors and treatment responses in 51 patients,” Am. J. Psychiatry 145(2), 179–184 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1)

H. L. Evans and R. Vassilopoulou-Sellin, “Follicular and Hurthle cell carcinomas of the thyroid: a comparative study,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 22(12), 1512–1520 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

C. S. Teixeira, R. A. Bitar, H. S. Martinho, A. B. Santos, M. A. Kulcsar, C. U. Friguglietti, R. B. da Costa, E. A. Arisawa, and A. A. Martin, “Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(11), 2361–2370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1)

R. Aronson, H. J. Offman, R. T. Joffe, and C. D. Naylor, “Triiodothyronine augmentation in the treatment of refractory depression. A meta-analysis,” Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 53(9), 842–848 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

N. A. Brazhe, S. Abdali, A. R. Brazhe, O. G. Luneva, N. Y. Bryzgalova, E. Y. Parshina, O. V. Sosnovtseva, and G. V. Maksimov, “New insight into erythrocyte through in vivo surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 97(12), 3206–3214 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bipolar Disord. (1)

S. Gershon, K. N. Chengappa, and G. S. Malhi, “Lithium specificity in bipolar illness: a classic agent for the classic disorder,” Bipolar Disord. 11(Suppl 2), 34–44 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

CNS Drugs (1)

E. M. Grandjean and J. M. Aubry, “Lithium: updated human knowledge using an evidence-based approach. Part II: Clinical pharmacology and therapeutic monitoring,” CNS Drugs 23(4), 331–349 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi (2)

G. Liu, J. H. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Yu, and S. Z. Sun, “[Raman spectroscopic study of human tissues],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 25(5), 723–725 (2005).
[PubMed]

R. Li, G. M. Zhou, H. J. Peng, and Y. L. Deng, “[FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation on hypothyroid cancer],” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 26(10), 1868–1870 (2006).
[PubMed]

Head Neck Oncol. (1)

A. T. Harris, M. Garg, X. B. Yang, S. E. Fisher, J. Kirkham, D. A. Smith, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, and A. S. High, “Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines,” Head Neck Oncol. 1(1), 38 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1)

R. T. Timmer and J. M. Sands, “Lithium intoxication,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 10(3), 666–674 (1999).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

J. A. Bispo, E. E. de Sousa Vieira, L. Silveira, and A. B. Fernandes, “Correlating the amount of urea, creatinine, and glucose in urine from patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension with the risk of developing renal lesions by means of Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 087004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Zakharov, I. A. Bratchenko, D. N. Artemyev, O. O. Myakinin, D. V. Kornilin, S. V. Kozlov, and A. A. Moryatov, “Comparative analysis of combined spectral and optical tomography methods for detection of skin and lung cancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 025003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) (1)

C. Paton, T. R. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, R. H. McAllister-Williams, J. Kirkbride, P. B. Jones, S. McIntyre, and POMH-UK project team, “Lithium in bipolar and other affective disorders: prescribing practice in the UK,” J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 24(12), 1739–1746 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med. Toxicol. (1)

M. J. Ellenhorn, S. Schonwald, G. Ordog, and J. Wasserberger, “Diagnosis and treatment of human poisoning,” Med. Toxicol. 1997, 609 (1997).

Nat. Protoc. (1)

H. J. Butler, L. Ashton, B. Bird, G. Cinque, K. Curtis, J. Dorney, K. Esmonde-White, N. J. Fullwood, B. Gardner, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, M. J. Walsh, M. R. McAinsh, N. Stone, and F. L. Martin, “Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 11(4), 664–687 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan, “A new type of secondary radiation,” Nature 121(3048), 501–502 (1928).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

PLoS One (1)

J. Shao, M. Lin, Y. Li, X. Li, J. Liu, J. Liang, and H. Yao, “In vivo blood glucose quantification using Raman spectroscopy,” PLoS One 7(10), e48127 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thyroid (2)

Y. Wang, W. Li, J. E. Phay, R. Shen, N. S. Pellegata, M. Saji, M. D. Ringel, A. de la Chapelle, and H. He, “Primary Cell Culture Systems for Human Thyroid Studies,” Thyroid 26(8), 1131–1140 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Lazarus, “The effects of lithium therapy on thyroid and thyrotropin-releasing hormone,” Thyroid 8(10), 909–913 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. B. Lambert, Introduction to Organic Spectroscopy (Macmillan, 1987).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Iodide ion movement from blood vessels to thyroid follicular cells relies on the concentration gradient of sodium ions in the cells. In the colloid, two iodide ions are synthesized into iodine by thyroid peroxidase and the iodine iodinates the tyrosine to form monoiodotyrosine (MIT) and diiodotyrosine (DIT). The thyroglobulin (Tg) protein is synthesized in the thyroid epithelial cell and released to the colloid. The iodinated tyrosine molecules “MIT” and “DIT” are attached to the Tg protein. Via a conjugation process in the Tg protein, two moieties of DIT are conjugated together to produce thyroxine (T4). Also, one molecule of MIT and one molecule of DIT are conjugated together to produce triiodothyronine (T3).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A) The location of the thyroid is posterior to the trachea. B) The morphology of the mouse thyroid. C) The same location about the trachea after the thyroid has been extracted.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The colloid and the follicular cell as seen under 500X magnification. This photograph was acquired with a commercial light microscope (Olympus, Japan).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raman spectroscopy setup. The thyroid sample was mounted on the specimen table. The microscope with a 50X objective lens was used to target a single thyroid follicular lumen. Raman spectroscopy was performed on the target using a standard confocal setup and 514 nm laser excitation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Group averaged (N = 5) Raman spectrum acquired from control subjects. The spectra have undergone baseline subtraction and normalization. Seven clear Raman peaks are observed.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Group averaged (N = 5) Raman spectra acquired from control (green) and lithium treated (blue) subjects. The control spectrum is the same as that in Fig. 5. Peaks corresponding to the phenol and carboxylic acid functional groups of tyrosine are significantly higher in lithium treated subjects.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Excess lithium ion in the follicular cell may interrupt the function of the sodium ion pump, which indirectly limits the iodide influx from the blood vessel to the cell. Lack of the iodine in the colloid would disable the iodination and conjugation process, resulting in failure of the T3 and T4 hormone production, and a buildup of tyrosine.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Raman peaks

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