Abstract

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), affects over 1 million Americans and 2 million Europeans, and the incidence is increasing worldwide. While these diseases require unique medical care, the differentiation between UC and CD lacks a gold standard, and therefore relies on long term follow up, success or failure of existing treatment, and recurrence of the disease. Here, we present colonoscopy-coupled fiber optic probe-based Raman spectroscopy as a minimally-invasive diagnostic tool for IBD of the colon (UC and Crohn’s colitis). This pilot in vivo study of subjects with existing IBD diagnoses of UC (n = 8), CD (n = 15), and normal control (n = 8) aimed to characterize spectral signatures of UC and CD. Samples were correlated with tissue pathology markers and endoscopic evaluation. The collected spectra were processed and analyzed using multivariate statistical techniques to identify spectral markers and discriminate IBD and disease classes. Confounding factors including the presence of active inflammation and the particular colon segment measured were investigated and integrated into the devised prediction algorithm, reaching 90% sensitivity and 75% specificity to CD from this in vivo data set. These results represent significant progress towards improved real-time classification for accurate and automated in vivo detection and discrimination of IBD during colonoscopy procedures.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
In vivo analysis of mucosal lipids reveals histological disease activity in ulcerative colitis using endoscope-coupled Raman spectroscopy

Hao Ding, Andrew W. Dupont, Shashideep Singhal, Larry D. Scott, Sushovan Guha, Mamoun Younes, and Xiaohong Bi
Biomed. Opt. Express 8(7) 3426-3439 (2017)

Raman spectroscopy of endoscopic colonic biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis to identify mucosal inflammation and healing

James Addis, Noor Mohammed, Olorunda Rotimi, Derek Magee, Animesh Jha, and Venkataraman Subramanian
Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5) 2022-2035 (2016)

Detection of colonic inflammation with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a flexible silver halide fiber

Vinay K. Katukuri, John Hargrove, Sharon J. Miller, Kinan Rahal, John Y. Kao, Rolf Wolters, Ellen M. Zimmermann, and Thomas D. Wang
Biomed. Opt. Express 1(3) 1014-1025 (2010)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. N. Ananthakrishnan, “Epidemiology and risk factors for IBD,” Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 12(4), 205–217 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. R. N. Baldassano and D. A. Piccoli, “Inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric and adolescent patients,” Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 28(2), 445–458 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. S. Sandler, J. E. Everhart, M. Donowitz, E. Adams, K. Cronin, C. Goodman, E. Gemmen, S. Shah, A. Avdic, and R. Rubin, “The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States,” Gastroenterology 122(5), 1500–1511 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. Gunnarsson, J. Chen, J. A. Rizzo, J. A. Ladapo, and J. H. Lofland, “Direct Health Care Insurer And Out-of-Pocket Expenditures of inflammatory Bowel Disease: Evidence from a US National Survey,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 57(12), 3080–3091 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. D. Stone, “The economic burden of inflammatory bowel disease: clear problem, unclear solution,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 57(12), 3042–3044 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Kornbluth, D. B. Sachar, and Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology, “Ulcerative Colitis Practice Guidelines in Adults: American College Of Gastroenterology, Practice Parameters Committee,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 105(3), 501–524 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. G. R. Lichtenstein, S. B. Hanauer, W. J. Sandborn, and Practice Parameters Committee of American College of Gastroenterology, “Management of Crohn’s disease in adults,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 104(2), 465–484 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. C. Baumgart, “The diagnosis and treatment of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis,” Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 106(8), 123–133 (2009).
    [PubMed]
  10. M. L. Corman, Colon and Rectal Surgery (Lippincott, 1989).
  11. G. T. Martland and N. A. Shepherd, “Indeterminate colitis: definition, diagnosis, implications and a plea for nosological sanity,” Histopathology 50(1), 83–96 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. D. H. Bruining and E. V. Loftus., “Technology Insight: new techniques for imaging the gut in patients with IBD,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(3), 154–161 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. B. A. MacKalski and C. N. Bernstein, “New diagnostic imaging tools for inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 55(5), 733–741 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. E. Rodriguez-Diaz, C. Atkinson, L. I. Jepeal, A. Berg, C. S. Huang, S. R. Cerda, M. J. O’Brien, I. J. Bigio, F. A. Farraye, and S. K. Singh, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as an optical marker of inflammatory bowel disease activity and subtypes,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 20(6), 1029–1036 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  15. B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. R. Sinha, “Recent advances in intestinal imaging,” Indian J. Radiol. Imaging 21(3), 170–175 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. Addis, N. Mohammed, O. Rotimi, D. Magee, A. Jha, and V. Subramanian, “Raman spectroscopy of endoscopic colonic biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis to identify mucosal inflammation and healing,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5), 2022–2035 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. I. Pence and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Clinical instrumentation and applications of Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(7), 1958–1979 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. Agenant, M. Grimbergen, R. Draga, E. Marple, R. Bosch, and C. van Swol, “Clinical superficial Raman probe aimed for epithelial tumor detection: Phantom model results,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1203–1216 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. R. L. McCreery, Raman Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (New York: John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000).
  22. C. A. Lieber and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Automated method for subtraction of fluorescence from biological Raman spectra,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57(11), 1363–1367 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. B. Krishnapuram, L. Carin, M. A. T. Figueiredo, and A. J. Hartemink, “Sparse multinomial logistic regression: fast algorithms and generalization bounds,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 27(6), 957–968 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. I. J. Pence, C. A. Patil, C. A. Lieber, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Discrimination of liver malignancies with 1064 nm dispersive Raman spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2724–2737 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. X. Bi, A. Walsh, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. Herline, “Development of spectral markers for the discrimination of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease using Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Colon Rectum 54(1), 48–53 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. C. Bielecki, T. W. Bocklitz, M. Schmitt, C. Krafft, C. Marquardt, A. Gharbi, T. Knösel, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “Classification of inflammatory bowel diseases by means of Raman spectroscopic imaging of epithelium cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 0760301 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. B. W. Barry, H. G. M. Edwards, and A. C. Williams, “Fourier-Transform Raman and Infrared Vibrational Study of Human Skin - Assignment of Spectral Bands,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23(11), 641–645 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  28. D. C. B. Redd, Z. C. Feng, K. T. Yue, and T. S. Gansler, “Raman-Spectroscopic Characterization of Human Breast Tissues - Implications for Breast-Cancer Diagnosis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47(6), 787–791 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  29. R. Manoharan, Y. Wang, and M. S. Feld, “Histochemical analysis of biological tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrochimica Acta Part a-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 52(2), 215–249 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  30. I. J. Pence, E. Vargis, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Assessing variability of in vivo tissue Raman spectra,” Appl. Spectrosc. 67(7), 789–800 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 037003 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, J. Wang, H. Xu, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability of in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal colorectal tissue towards cancer diagnosis at colonoscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 960–966 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. D. N. Granger, J. A. Barrowman, and P. R. Kvietys, Clinical Gastrointestinal Physiology (Saunders, 1985).
  34. M. H. Ross and W. Pawlina, Histology (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006).
  35. B. Young, Wheater's Functional Histology: A Text and Colour Atlas (Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier, Edinburgh, 2006).

2016 (2)

2015 (4)

I. J. Pence, C. A. Patil, C. A. Lieber, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Discrimination of liver malignancies with 1064 nm dispersive Raman spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2724–2737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, J. Wang, H. Xu, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability of in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal colorectal tissue towards cancer diagnosis at colonoscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 960–966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Ananthakrishnan, “Epidemiology and risk factors for IBD,” Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 12(4), 205–217 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

E. Rodriguez-Diaz, C. Atkinson, L. I. Jepeal, A. Berg, C. S. Huang, S. R. Cerda, M. J. O’Brien, I. J. Bigio, F. A. Farraye, and S. K. Singh, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as an optical marker of inflammatory bowel disease activity and subtypes,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 20(6), 1029–1036 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Agenant, M. Grimbergen, R. Draga, E. Marple, R. Bosch, and C. van Swol, “Clinical superficial Raman probe aimed for epithelial tumor detection: Phantom model results,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1203–1216 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

C. Bielecki, T. W. Bocklitz, M. Schmitt, C. Krafft, C. Marquardt, A. Gharbi, T. Knösel, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “Classification of inflammatory bowel diseases by means of Raman spectroscopic imaging of epithelium cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 0760301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gunnarsson, J. Chen, J. A. Rizzo, J. A. Ladapo, and J. H. Lofland, “Direct Health Care Insurer And Out-of-Pocket Expenditures of inflammatory Bowel Disease: Evidence from a US National Survey,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 57(12), 3080–3091 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Stone, “The economic burden of inflammatory bowel disease: clear problem, unclear solution,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 57(12), 3042–3044 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

R. Sinha, “Recent advances in intestinal imaging,” Indian J. Radiol. Imaging 21(3), 170–175 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Bi, A. Walsh, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. Herline, “Development of spectral markers for the discrimination of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease using Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Colon Rectum 54(1), 48–53 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 037003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. Kornbluth, D. B. Sachar, and Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology, “Ulcerative Colitis Practice Guidelines in Adults: American College Of Gastroenterology, Practice Parameters Committee,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 105(3), 501–524 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

G. R. Lichtenstein, S. B. Hanauer, W. J. Sandborn, and Practice Parameters Committee of American College of Gastroenterology, “Management of Crohn’s disease in adults,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 104(2), 465–484 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Baumgart, “The diagnosis and treatment of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis,” Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 106(8), 123–133 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. H. Bruining and E. V. Loftus., “Technology Insight: new techniques for imaging the gut in patients with IBD,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(3), 154–161 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

G. T. Martland and N. A. Shepherd, “Indeterminate colitis: definition, diagnosis, implications and a plea for nosological sanity,” Histopathology 50(1), 83–96 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

B. A. MacKalski and C. N. Bernstein, “New diagnostic imaging tools for inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 55(5), 733–741 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B. Krishnapuram, L. Carin, M. A. T. Figueiredo, and A. J. Hartemink, “Sparse multinomial logistic regression: fast algorithms and generalization bounds,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 27(6), 957–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

R. S. Sandler, J. E. Everhart, M. Donowitz, E. Adams, K. Cronin, C. Goodman, E. Gemmen, S. Shah, A. Avdic, and R. Rubin, “The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States,” Gastroenterology 122(5), 1500–1511 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. N. Baldassano and D. A. Piccoli, “Inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric and adolescent patients,” Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 28(2), 445–458 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

R. Manoharan, Y. Wang, and M. S. Feld, “Histochemical analysis of biological tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrochimica Acta Part a-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 52(2), 215–249 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

B. W. Barry, H. G. M. Edwards, and A. C. Williams, “Fourier-Transform Raman and Infrared Vibrational Study of Human Skin - Assignment of Spectral Bands,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23(11), 641–645 (1992).
[Crossref]

Acosta, R. D.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adams, E.

R. S. Sandler, J. E. Everhart, M. Donowitz, E. Adams, K. Cronin, C. Goodman, E. Gemmen, S. Shah, A. Avdic, and R. Rubin, “The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States,” Gastroenterology 122(5), 1500–1511 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Addis, J.

Agenant, M.

Ananthakrishnan, A. N.

A. N. Ananthakrishnan, “Epidemiology and risk factors for IBD,” Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 12(4), 205–217 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atkinson, C.

E. Rodriguez-Diaz, C. Atkinson, L. I. Jepeal, A. Berg, C. S. Huang, S. R. Cerda, M. J. O’Brien, I. J. Bigio, F. A. Farraye, and S. K. Singh, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as an optical marker of inflammatory bowel disease activity and subtypes,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 20(6), 1029–1036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Avdic, A.

R. S. Sandler, J. E. Everhart, M. Donowitz, E. Adams, K. Cronin, C. Goodman, E. Gemmen, S. Shah, A. Avdic, and R. Rubin, “The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States,” Gastroenterology 122(5), 1500–1511 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldassano, R. N.

R. N. Baldassano and D. A. Piccoli, “Inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric and adolescent patients,” Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 28(2), 445–458 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bambrick, M. L.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barry, B. W.

B. W. Barry, H. G. M. Edwards, and A. C. Williams, “Fourier-Transform Raman and Infrared Vibrational Study of Human Skin - Assignment of Spectral Bands,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23(11), 641–645 (1992).
[Crossref]

Baumgart, D. C.

D. C. Baumgart, “The diagnosis and treatment of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis,” Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 106(8), 123–133 (2009).
[PubMed]

Berg, A.

E. Rodriguez-Diaz, C. Atkinson, L. I. Jepeal, A. Berg, C. S. Huang, S. R. Cerda, M. J. O’Brien, I. J. Bigio, F. A. Farraye, and S. K. Singh, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as an optical marker of inflammatory bowel disease activity and subtypes,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 20(6), 1029–1036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Bergholt, M. S.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, J. Wang, H. Xu, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability of in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal colorectal tissue towards cancer diagnosis at colonoscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 960–966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 037003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernstein, C. N.

B. A. MacKalski and C. N. Bernstein, “New diagnostic imaging tools for inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 55(5), 733–741 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bevins, C. L.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bi, X.

X. Bi, A. Walsh, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. Herline, “Development of spectral markers for the discrimination of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease using Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Colon Rectum 54(1), 48–53 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bielecki, C.

C. Bielecki, T. W. Bocklitz, M. Schmitt, C. Krafft, C. Marquardt, A. Gharbi, T. Knösel, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “Classification of inflammatory bowel diseases by means of Raman spectroscopic imaging of epithelium cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 0760301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

E. Rodriguez-Diaz, C. Atkinson, L. I. Jepeal, A. Berg, C. S. Huang, S. R. Cerda, M. J. O’Brien, I. J. Bigio, F. A. Farraye, and S. K. Singh, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as an optical marker of inflammatory bowel disease activity and subtypes,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 20(6), 1029–1036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Bocklitz, T. W.

C. Bielecki, T. W. Bocklitz, M. Schmitt, C. Krafft, C. Marquardt, A. Gharbi, T. Knösel, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “Classification of inflammatory bowel diseases by means of Raman spectroscopic imaging of epithelium cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 0760301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bosch, R.

Bruining, D. H.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Bruining and E. V. Loftus., “Technology Insight: new techniques for imaging the gut in patients with IBD,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(3), 154–161 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carin, L.

B. Krishnapuram, L. Carin, M. A. T. Figueiredo, and A. J. Hartemink, “Sparse multinomial logistic regression: fast algorithms and generalization bounds,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 27(6), 957–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cash, B. D.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerda, S. R.

E. Rodriguez-Diaz, C. Atkinson, L. I. Jepeal, A. Berg, C. S. Huang, S. R. Cerda, M. J. O’Brien, I. J. Bigio, F. A. Farraye, and S. K. Singh, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as an optical marker of inflammatory bowel disease activity and subtypes,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 20(6), 1029–1036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chandrasekhara, V.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chathadi, K. V.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

C. Gunnarsson, J. Chen, J. A. Rizzo, J. A. Ladapo, and J. H. Lofland, “Direct Health Care Insurer And Out-of-Pocket Expenditures of inflammatory Bowel Disease: Evidence from a US National Survey,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 57(12), 3080–3091 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Connor, J. T.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cronin, K.

R. S. Sandler, J. E. Everhart, M. Donowitz, E. Adams, K. Cronin, C. Goodman, E. Gemmen, S. Shah, A. Avdic, and R. Rubin, “The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States,” Gastroenterology 122(5), 1500–1511 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Decker, G. A.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delaney, C. P.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeWitt, J. M.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donowitz, M.

R. S. Sandler, J. E. Everhart, M. Donowitz, E. Adams, K. Cronin, C. Goodman, E. Gemmen, S. Shah, A. Avdic, and R. Rubin, “The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States,” Gastroenterology 122(5), 1500–1511 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Draga, R.

Early, D. S.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edwards, H. G. M.

B. W. Barry, H. G. M. Edwards, and A. C. Williams, “Fourier-Transform Raman and Infrared Vibrational Study of Human Skin - Assignment of Spectral Bands,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23(11), 641–645 (1992).
[Crossref]

Evans, J. A.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Everhart, J. E.

R. S. Sandler, J. E. Everhart, M. Donowitz, E. Adams, K. Cronin, C. Goodman, E. Gemmen, S. Shah, A. Avdic, and R. Rubin, “The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States,” Gastroenterology 122(5), 1500–1511 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fanelli, R. D.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farraye, F. A.

E. Rodriguez-Diaz, C. Atkinson, L. I. Jepeal, A. Berg, C. S. Huang, S. R. Cerda, M. J. O’Brien, I. J. Bigio, F. A. Farraye, and S. K. Singh, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as an optical marker of inflammatory bowel disease activity and subtypes,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 20(6), 1029–1036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Fazio, V. W.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

R. Manoharan, Y. Wang, and M. S. Feld, “Histochemical analysis of biological tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrochimica Acta Part a-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 52(2), 215–249 (1996).
[Crossref]

Feldchtein, F.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Z. C.

Figueiredo, M. A. T.

B. Krishnapuram, L. Carin, M. A. T. Figueiredo, and A. J. Hartemink, “Sparse multinomial logistic regression: fast algorithms and generalization bounds,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 27(6), 957–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, D. A.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foley, K.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fonkalsrud, L.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gansler, T. S.

Gemmen, E.

R. S. Sandler, J. E. Everhart, M. Donowitz, E. Adams, K. Cronin, C. Goodman, E. Gemmen, S. Shah, A. Avdic, and R. Rubin, “The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States,” Gastroenterology 122(5), 1500–1511 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gharbi, A.

C. Bielecki, T. W. Bocklitz, M. Schmitt, C. Krafft, C. Marquardt, A. Gharbi, T. Knösel, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “Classification of inflammatory bowel diseases by means of Raman spectroscopic imaging of epithelium cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 0760301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gladkova, N.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goodman, C.

R. S. Sandler, J. E. Everhart, M. Donowitz, E. Adams, K. Cronin, C. Goodman, E. Gemmen, S. Shah, A. Avdic, and R. Rubin, “The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States,” Gastroenterology 122(5), 1500–1511 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gramlich, T. L.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grimbergen, M.

Gunnarsson, C.

C. Gunnarsson, J. Chen, J. A. Rizzo, J. A. Ladapo, and J. H. Lofland, “Direct Health Care Insurer And Out-of-Pocket Expenditures of inflammatory Bowel Disease: Evidence from a US National Survey,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 57(12), 3080–3091 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanauer, S. B.

G. R. Lichtenstein, S. B. Hanauer, W. J. Sandborn, and Practice Parameters Committee of American College of Gastroenterology, “Management of Crohn’s disease in adults,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 104(2), 465–484 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartemink, A. J.

B. Krishnapuram, L. Carin, M. A. T. Figueiredo, and A. J. Hartemink, “Sparse multinomial logistic regression: fast algorithms and generalization bounds,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 27(6), 957–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herline, A.

X. Bi, A. Walsh, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. Herline, “Development of spectral markers for the discrimination of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease using Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Colon Rectum 54(1), 48–53 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, K. Y.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, J. Wang, H. Xu, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability of in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal colorectal tissue towards cancer diagnosis at colonoscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 960–966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 037003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C. S.

E. Rodriguez-Diaz, C. Atkinson, L. I. Jepeal, A. Berg, C. S. Huang, S. R. Cerda, M. J. O’Brien, I. J. Bigio, F. A. Farraye, and S. K. Singh, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as an optical marker of inflammatory bowel disease activity and subtypes,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 20(6), 1029–1036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Huang, Z.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, J. Wang, H. Xu, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability of in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal colorectal tissue towards cancer diagnosis at colonoscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 960–966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 037003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, J. H.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jepeal, L. I.

E. Rodriguez-Diaz, C. Atkinson, L. I. Jepeal, A. Berg, C. S. Huang, S. R. Cerda, M. J. O’Brien, I. J. Bigio, F. A. Farraye, and S. K. Singh, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as an optical marker of inflammatory bowel disease activity and subtypes,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 20(6), 1029–1036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Jha, A.

Jue, T. L.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kareta, M.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kartha, V. B.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khashab, M. A.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knösel, T.

C. Bielecki, T. W. Bocklitz, M. Schmitt, C. Krafft, C. Marquardt, A. Gharbi, T. Knösel, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “Classification of inflammatory bowel diseases by means of Raman spectroscopic imaging of epithelium cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 0760301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kornbluth, A.

A. Kornbluth, D. B. Sachar, and Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology, “Ulcerative Colitis Practice Guidelines in Adults: American College Of Gastroenterology, Practice Parameters Committee,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 105(3), 501–524 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krafft, C.

C. Bielecki, T. W. Bocklitz, M. Schmitt, C. Krafft, C. Marquardt, A. Gharbi, T. Knösel, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “Classification of inflammatory bowel diseases by means of Raman spectroscopic imaging of epithelium cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 0760301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krishna, C. M.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krishnapuram, B.

B. Krishnapuram, L. Carin, M. A. T. Figueiredo, and A. J. Hartemink, “Sparse multinomial logistic regression: fast algorithms and generalization bounds,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 27(6), 957–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurien, J.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ladapo, J. A.

C. Gunnarsson, J. Chen, J. A. Rizzo, J. A. Ladapo, and J. H. Lofland, “Direct Health Care Insurer And Out-of-Pocket Expenditures of inflammatory Bowel Disease: Evidence from a US National Survey,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 57(12), 3080–3091 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lashner, B. A.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lichtenstein, G. R.

G. R. Lichtenstein, S. B. Hanauer, W. J. Sandborn, and Practice Parameters Committee of American College of Gastroenterology, “Management of Crohn’s disease in adults,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 104(2), 465–484 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lieber, C. A.

Lightdale, J. R.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, K.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, J. Wang, H. Xu, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability of in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal colorectal tissue towards cancer diagnosis at colonoscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 960–966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 037003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lofland, J. H.

C. Gunnarsson, J. Chen, J. A. Rizzo, J. A. Ladapo, and J. H. Lofland, “Direct Health Care Insurer And Out-of-Pocket Expenditures of inflammatory Bowel Disease: Evidence from a US National Survey,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 57(12), 3080–3091 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loftus, E. V.

D. H. Bruining and E. V. Loftus., “Technology Insight: new techniques for imaging the gut in patients with IBD,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(3), 154–161 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacKalski, B. A.

B. A. MacKalski and C. N. Bernstein, “New diagnostic imaging tools for inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 55(5), 733–741 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magee, D.

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

Malini, R.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

R. Manoharan, Y. Wang, and M. S. Feld, “Histochemical analysis of biological tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrochimica Acta Part a-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 52(2), 215–249 (1996).
[Crossref]

Marple, E.

Marquardt, C.

C. Bielecki, T. W. Bocklitz, M. Schmitt, C. Krafft, C. Marquardt, A. Gharbi, T. Knösel, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “Classification of inflammatory bowel diseases by means of Raman spectroscopic imaging of epithelium cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 0760301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martland, G. T.

G. T. Martland and N. A. Shepherd, “Indeterminate colitis: definition, diagnosis, implications and a plea for nosological sanity,” Histopathology 50(1), 83–96 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohammed, N.

Muthusamy, V. R.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Brien, M. J.

E. Rodriguez-Diaz, C. Atkinson, L. I. Jepeal, A. Berg, C. S. Huang, S. R. Cerda, M. J. O’Brien, I. J. Bigio, F. A. Farraye, and S. K. Singh, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as an optical marker of inflammatory bowel disease activity and subtypes,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 20(6), 1029–1036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Pai, K. M.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pasha, S. F.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patil, C. A.

Pence, I.

I. Pence and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Clinical instrumentation and applications of Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(7), 1958–1979 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pence, I. J.

Piccoli, D. A.

R. N. Baldassano and D. A. Piccoli, “Inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric and adolescent patients,” Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 28(2), 445–458 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popp, J.

C. Bielecki, T. W. Bocklitz, M. Schmitt, C. Krafft, C. Marquardt, A. Gharbi, T. Knösel, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “Classification of inflammatory bowel diseases by means of Raman spectroscopic imaging of epithelium cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 0760301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, L.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Redd, D. C. B.

Remzi, F. H.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, J. L.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, J. Wang, H. Xu, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability of in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal colorectal tissue towards cancer diagnosis at colonoscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 960–966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rizzo, J. A.

C. Gunnarsson, J. Chen, J. A. Rizzo, J. A. Ladapo, and J. H. Lofland, “Direct Health Care Insurer And Out-of-Pocket Expenditures of inflammatory Bowel Disease: Evidence from a US National Survey,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 57(12), 3080–3091 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez-Diaz, E.

E. Rodriguez-Diaz, C. Atkinson, L. I. Jepeal, A. Berg, C. S. Huang, S. R. Cerda, M. J. O’Brien, I. J. Bigio, F. A. Farraye, and S. K. Singh, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as an optical marker of inflammatory bowel disease activity and subtypes,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 20(6), 1029–1036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Rotimi, O.

Rubin, R.

R. S. Sandler, J. E. Everhart, M. Donowitz, E. Adams, K. Cronin, C. Goodman, E. Gemmen, S. Shah, A. Avdic, and R. Rubin, “The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States,” Gastroenterology 122(5), 1500–1511 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sachar, D. B.

A. Kornbluth, D. B. Sachar, and Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology, “Ulcerative Colitis Practice Guidelines in Adults: American College Of Gastroenterology, Practice Parameters Committee,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 105(3), 501–524 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saltzman, J. R.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandborn, W. J.

G. R. Lichtenstein, S. B. Hanauer, W. J. Sandborn, and Practice Parameters Committee of American College of Gastroenterology, “Management of Crohn’s disease in adults,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 104(2), 465–484 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandler, R. S.

R. S. Sandler, J. E. Everhart, M. Donowitz, E. Adams, K. Cronin, C. Goodman, E. Gemmen, S. Shah, A. Avdic, and R. Rubin, “The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States,” Gastroenterology 122(5), 1500–1511 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, M.

C. Bielecki, T. W. Bocklitz, M. Schmitt, C. Krafft, C. Marquardt, A. Gharbi, T. Knösel, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “Classification of inflammatory bowel diseases by means of Raman spectroscopic imaging of epithelium cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 0760301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, S.

R. S. Sandler, J. E. Everhart, M. Donowitz, E. Adams, K. Cronin, C. Goodman, E. Gemmen, S. Shah, A. Avdic, and R. Rubin, “The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States,” Gastroenterology 122(5), 1500–1511 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharaf, R.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, B.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shepherd, N. A.

G. T. Martland and N. A. Shepherd, “Indeterminate colitis: definition, diagnosis, implications and a plea for nosological sanity,” Histopathology 50(1), 83–96 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shergill, A. K.

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, S. K.

E. Rodriguez-Diaz, C. Atkinson, L. I. Jepeal, A. Berg, C. S. Huang, S. R. Cerda, M. J. O’Brien, I. J. Bigio, F. A. Farraye, and S. K. Singh, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as an optical marker of inflammatory bowel disease activity and subtypes,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 20(6), 1029–1036 (2014).
[PubMed]

Sinha, R.

R. Sinha, “Recent advances in intestinal imaging,” Indian J. Radiol. Imaging 21(3), 170–175 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

So, J. B. Y.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 037003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stallmach, A.

C. Bielecki, T. W. Bocklitz, M. Schmitt, C. Krafft, C. Marquardt, A. Gharbi, T. Knösel, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “Classification of inflammatory bowel diseases by means of Raman spectroscopic imaging of epithelium cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 0760301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, C. D.

C. D. Stone, “The economic burden of inflammatory bowel disease: clear problem, unclear solution,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 57(12), 3042–3044 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subramanian, V.

Teh, M.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, J. Wang, H. Xu, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability of in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal colorectal tissue towards cancer diagnosis at colonoscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 960–966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 037003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trolli, P.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Swol, C.

Vargis, E.

Venkatakrishna, K.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, A.

X. Bi, A. Walsh, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. Herline, “Development of spectral markers for the discrimination of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease using Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Colon Rectum 54(1), 48–53 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, J. Wang, H. Xu, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability of in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal colorectal tissue towards cancer diagnosis at colonoscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 960–966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

R. Manoharan, Y. Wang, and M. S. Feld, “Histochemical analysis of biological tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrochimica Acta Part a-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 52(2), 215–249 (1996).
[Crossref]

Williams, A. C.

B. W. Barry, H. G. M. Edwards, and A. C. Williams, “Fourier-Transform Raman and Infrared Vibrational Study of Human Skin - Assignment of Spectral Bands,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23(11), 641–645 (1992).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, J. Wang, H. Xu, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability of in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal colorectal tissue towards cancer diagnosis at colonoscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 960–966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeoh, K. G.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, J. Wang, H. Xu, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability of in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal colorectal tissue towards cancer diagnosis at colonoscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 960–966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 037003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yue, K. T.

Zheng, W.

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, J. Wang, H. Xu, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability of in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal colorectal tissue towards cancer diagnosis at colonoscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 960–966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 037003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuccaro, G.

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2)

A. Kornbluth, D. B. Sachar, and Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology, “Ulcerative Colitis Practice Guidelines in Adults: American College Of Gastroenterology, Practice Parameters Committee,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 105(3), 501–524 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. R. Lichtenstein, S. B. Hanauer, W. J. Sandborn, and Practice Parameters Committee of American College of Gastroenterology, “Management of Crohn’s disease in adults,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 104(2), 465–484 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, J. Wang, H. Xu, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability of in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of different anatomical sites of normal colorectal tissue towards cancer diagnosis at colonoscopy,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 960–966 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (3)

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Biopolymers (1)

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

I. Pence and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Clinical instrumentation and applications of Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(7), 1958–1979 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

B. Shen, G. Zuccaro, T. L. Gramlich, N. Gladkova, P. Trolli, M. Kareta, C. P. Delaney, J. T. Connor, B. A. Lashner, C. L. Bevins, F. Feldchtein, F. H. Remzi, M. L. Bambrick, and V. W. Fazio, “In vivo colonoscopic optical coherence tomography for transmural inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(12), 1080–1087 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dig. Dis. Sci. (2)

C. Gunnarsson, J. Chen, J. A. Rizzo, J. A. Ladapo, and J. H. Lofland, “Direct Health Care Insurer And Out-of-Pocket Expenditures of inflammatory Bowel Disease: Evidence from a US National Survey,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 57(12), 3080–3091 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Stone, “The economic burden of inflammatory bowel disease: clear problem, unclear solution,” Dig. Dis. Sci. 57(12), 3042–3044 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dis. Colon Rectum (1)

X. Bi, A. Walsh, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and A. Herline, “Development of spectral markers for the discrimination of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease using Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Colon Rectum 54(1), 48–53 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. (1)

D. C. Baumgart, “The diagnosis and treatment of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis,” Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 106(8), 123–133 (2009).
[PubMed]

Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. (1)

R. N. Baldassano and D. A. Piccoli, “Inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric and adolescent patients,” Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 28(2), 445–458 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

R. S. Sandler, J. E. Everhart, M. Donowitz, E. Adams, K. Cronin, C. Goodman, E. Gemmen, S. Shah, A. Avdic, and R. Rubin, “The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States,” Gastroenterology 122(5), 1500–1511 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

A. K. Shergill, J. R. Lightdale, D. H. Bruining, R. D. Acosta, V. Chandrasekhara, K. V. Chathadi, G. A. Decker, D. S. Early, J. A. Evans, R. D. Fanelli, D. A. Fisher, L. Fonkalsrud, K. Foley, J. H. Hwang, T. L. Jue, M. A. Khashab, V. R. Muthusamy, S. F. Pasha, J. R. Saltzman, R. Sharaf, B. D. Cash, J. M. DeWitt, and American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee, “The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 81(5), 1101–1121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gut (1)

B. A. MacKalski and C. N. Bernstein, “New diagnostic imaging tools for inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 55(5), 733–741 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Histopathology (1)

G. T. Martland and N. A. Shepherd, “Indeterminate colitis: definition, diagnosis, implications and a plea for nosological sanity,” Histopathology 50(1), 83–96 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

B. Krishnapuram, L. Carin, M. A. T. Figueiredo, and A. J. Hartemink, “Sparse multinomial logistic regression: fast algorithms and generalization bounds,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 27(6), 957–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Indian J. Radiol. Imaging (1)

R. Sinha, “Recent advances in intestinal imaging,” Indian J. Radiol. Imaging 21(3), 170–175 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inflamm. Bowel Dis. (1)

E. Rodriguez-Diaz, C. Atkinson, L. I. Jepeal, A. Berg, C. S. Huang, S. R. Cerda, M. J. O’Brien, I. J. Bigio, F. A. Farraye, and S. K. Singh, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as an optical marker of inflammatory bowel disease activity and subtypes,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 20(6), 1029–1036 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

C. Bielecki, T. W. Bocklitz, M. Schmitt, C. Krafft, C. Marquardt, A. Gharbi, T. Knösel, A. Stallmach, and J. Popp, “Classification of inflammatory bowel diseases by means of Raman spectroscopic imaging of epithelium cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 0760301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, W. Zheng, K. Lin, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, J. B. Y. So, and Z. Huang, “Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 037003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

B. W. Barry, H. G. M. Edwards, and A. C. Williams, “Fourier-Transform Raman and Infrared Vibrational Study of Human Skin - Assignment of Spectral Bands,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 23(11), 641–645 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nat. Clin. Pract. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

D. H. Bruining and E. V. Loftus., “Technology Insight: new techniques for imaging the gut in patients with IBD,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(3), 154–161 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

A. N. Ananthakrishnan, “Epidemiology and risk factors for IBD,” Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 12(4), 205–217 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spectrochimica Acta Part a-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy (1)

R. Manoharan, Y. Wang, and M. S. Feld, “Histochemical analysis of biological tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrochimica Acta Part a-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 52(2), 215–249 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

D. N. Granger, J. A. Barrowman, and P. R. Kvietys, Clinical Gastrointestinal Physiology (Saunders, 1985).

M. H. Ross and W. Pawlina, Histology (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006).

B. Young, Wheater's Functional Histology: A Text and Colour Atlas (Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier, Edinburgh, 2006).

R. L. McCreery, Raman Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (New York: John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000).

M. L. Corman, Colon and Rectal Surgery (Lippincott, 1989).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of integrated Raman and endoscope instrumentation for in vivo subject measurement. Components are not drawn to scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized mean in vivo Raman spectra obtained from subjects within each disease class.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Left) Prediction performance describing the probability of group membership for in vivo spectra obtained from normal control and IBD subjects. (Right) Mean ± standard deviation spectra and 26 features utilized for discrimination are depicted.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Impact of active inflammation: Mean Raman spectra from all disease classes when no activity is present (left) and from IBD subtypes when active disease is present (center). Integrated Raman spectra for all data by level of activity (right) indicates significant differences between disease presentation and the potential for the development of an objective metric to characterize inflammatory disease activity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mean spectra from colon segments obtained from normal control subjects. Shaded regions along spectra indicate standard deviations. Variations can be seen across the spectral lineshapes between segment and significant features have been identified as a function of wavenumber (vertical gray bands).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Description of study participants

Tables Icon

Table 2 Classification performance for in vivo comparisons.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Classification performance for in vivo spectra from subjects with active IBD stratified by colon segment

Metrics