Abstract

We present an analytical technique for designing integrated polarized light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and polarization-sensitive photodiodes (PD) based on hyperbolic metasurfaces (HMS) for the detection of optical activity. Leveraging effective medium theory and the scattering matrix method, we first derive the conditions for optimizing the transmission efficiency of an LED-integrated HMS and the absorption efficiency of a PD-integrated HMS. We then propose using a differential detection technique with orthogonally oriented PD-integrated HMS to measure optical activity in an extremely compact volume. Finally, we perform an estimation of system performance and find that, relative to state-of-the-art polarimeters, a reduction of complexity can be achieved without sacrificing resolution. The results hold merit for reducing the size and cost of polarimeters and associated polarimetric sensing systems, which play vital roles in the pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2017 (2)

J. S. T. Smalley, F. Vallini, S. A. Montoya, L. Ferrari, S. Shahin, C. T. Riley, B. Kanté, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, and Y. Fainman, “Luminescent hyperbolic metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13793 (2017).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhao, A. N. Askarpour, L. Sun, J. Shi, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14180 (2017).
[PubMed]

2015 (7)

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: Rules and recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S. C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

W. Li, Z. J. Coppens, L. V. Besteiro, W. Wang, A. O. Govorov, and J. Valentine, “Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8379 (2015).
[PubMed]

E. E. Narimanov and A. V. Kildishev, “Metamaterials: Naturally hyperbolic,” Nat. Photonics 9, 214–216 (2015).

L. Ferrari, C. Wu, D. Lepage, X. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “Hyperbolic metamaterials and their applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 40, 1–40 (2015).

A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Sun, M. I. Shalaev, and N. M. Litchinitser, “Experimental demonstration of a non-resonant hyperlens in the visible spectral range,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7201 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (1)

Y.-L. Liao and Y. Zhao, “Design of wire-grid polarizer with effective medium theory,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 46, 641–647 (2014).

2010 (1)

F. Krayzel, R. Polles, A. Moreau, M. Mihailovic, and G. Granet, “Simulation and analysis of exotic non-specular phenomena,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 5, 10025 (2010).

2008 (1)

M. A. Green, “Self-consistent optical parameters of intrinsic silicon at 300 K including temperature coefficients,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92, 1305–1310 (2008).

2006 (1)

G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature 442(7101), 368–373 (2006).
[PubMed]

1973 (1)

1956 (1)

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 2, 466 (1956).

Afshinmanesh, F.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S. C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

Alù, A.

Y. Zhao, A. N. Askarpour, L. Sun, J. Shi, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14180 (2017).
[PubMed]

Askarpour, A. N.

Y. Zhao, A. N. Askarpour, L. Sun, J. Shi, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14180 (2017).
[PubMed]

Besteiro, L. V.

W. Li, Z. J. Coppens, L. V. Besteiro, W. Wang, A. O. Govorov, and J. Valentine, “Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8379 (2015).
[PubMed]

Brongersma, M.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S. C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

Chen, X.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S. C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

Coppens, Z. J.

W. Li, Z. J. Coppens, L. V. Besteiro, W. Wang, A. O. Govorov, and J. Valentine, “Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8379 (2015).
[PubMed]

Cui, Y.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S. C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

Curto, A. G.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S. C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

de Leon, N. P.

A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
[PubMed]

Devlin, R. C.

A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
[PubMed]

Dibos, A.

A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
[PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

J. S. T. Smalley, F. Vallini, S. A. Montoya, L. Ferrari, S. Shahin, C. T. Riley, B. Kanté, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, and Y. Fainman, “Luminescent hyperbolic metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13793 (2017).
[PubMed]

Ferrari, L.

J. S. T. Smalley, F. Vallini, S. A. Montoya, L. Ferrari, S. Shahin, C. T. Riley, B. Kanté, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, and Y. Fainman, “Luminescent hyperbolic metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13793 (2017).
[PubMed]

L. Ferrari, C. Wu, D. Lepage, X. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “Hyperbolic metamaterials and their applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 40, 1–40 (2015).

Fullerton, E. E.

J. S. T. Smalley, F. Vallini, S. A. Montoya, L. Ferrari, S. Shahin, C. T. Riley, B. Kanté, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, and Y. Fainman, “Luminescent hyperbolic metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13793 (2017).
[PubMed]

Govorov, A. O.

W. Li, Z. J. Coppens, L. V. Besteiro, W. Wang, A. O. Govorov, and J. Valentine, “Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8379 (2015).
[PubMed]

Granet, G.

F. Krayzel, R. Polles, A. Moreau, M. Mihailovic, and G. Granet, “Simulation and analysis of exotic non-specular phenomena,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 5, 10025 (2010).

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, “Self-consistent optical parameters of intrinsic silicon at 300 K including temperature coefficients,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92, 1305–1310 (2008).

Hale, G. M.

High, A. A.

A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
[PubMed]

Hikita, Y.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S. C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

Hwang, H. Y.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S. C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

Iotti, S.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: Rules and recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
[PubMed]

Jayanti, S. V.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: Rules and recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kanté, B.

J. S. T. Smalley, F. Vallini, S. A. Montoya, L. Ferrari, S. Shahin, C. T. Riley, B. Kanté, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, and Y. Fainman, “Luminescent hyperbolic metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13793 (2017).
[PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

E. E. Narimanov and A. V. Kildishev, “Metamaterials: Naturally hyperbolic,” Nat. Photonics 9, 214–216 (2015).

Krayzel, F.

F. Krayzel, R. Polles, A. Moreau, M. Mihailovic, and G. Granet, “Simulation and analysis of exotic non-specular phenomena,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 5, 10025 (2010).

Kress, S. J. P.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: Rules and recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lepage, D.

L. Ferrari, C. Wu, D. Lepage, X. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “Hyperbolic metamaterials and their applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 40, 1–40 (2015).

Li, W.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S. C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

W. Li, Z. J. Coppens, L. V. Besteiro, W. Wang, A. O. Govorov, and J. Valentine, “Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8379 (2015).
[PubMed]

Li, X.

Y. Zhao, A. N. Askarpour, L. Sun, J. Shi, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14180 (2017).
[PubMed]

Lian, B.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S. C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

Liao, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Liao and Y. Zhao, “Design of wire-grid polarizer with effective medium theory,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 46, 641–647 (2014).

Litchinitser, N. M.

J. Sun, M. I. Shalaev, and N. M. Litchinitser, “Experimental demonstration of a non-resonant hyperlens in the visible spectral range,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7201 (2015).
[PubMed]

Liu, X.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S. C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

Liu, Z.

J. S. T. Smalley, F. Vallini, S. A. Montoya, L. Ferrari, S. Shahin, C. T. Riley, B. Kanté, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, and Y. Fainman, “Luminescent hyperbolic metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13793 (2017).
[PubMed]

L. Ferrari, C. Wu, D. Lepage, X. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “Hyperbolic metamaterials and their applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 40, 1–40 (2015).

Lukin, M. D.

A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
[PubMed]

McPeak, K. M.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: Rules and recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
[PubMed]

Meyer, S.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: Rules and recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
[PubMed]

Mihailovic, M.

F. Krayzel, R. Polles, A. Moreau, M. Mihailovic, and G. Granet, “Simulation and analysis of exotic non-specular phenomena,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 5, 10025 (2010).

Montoya, S. A.

J. S. T. Smalley, F. Vallini, S. A. Montoya, L. Ferrari, S. Shahin, C. T. Riley, B. Kanté, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, and Y. Fainman, “Luminescent hyperbolic metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13793 (2017).
[PubMed]

Moreau, A.

F. Krayzel, R. Polles, A. Moreau, M. Mihailovic, and G. Granet, “Simulation and analysis of exotic non-specular phenomena,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 5, 10025 (2010).

Narimanov, E. E.

E. E. Narimanov and A. V. Kildishev, “Metamaterials: Naturally hyperbolic,” Nat. Photonics 9, 214–216 (2015).

Norris, D. J.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: Rules and recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
[PubMed]

Park, H.

A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
[PubMed]

Perczel, J.

A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
[PubMed]

Polking, M.

A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, A. Dibos, M. Polking, D. S. Wild, J. Perczel, N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface,” Nature 522(7555), 192–196 (2015).
[PubMed]

Polles, R.

F. Krayzel, R. Polles, A. Moreau, M. Mihailovic, and G. Granet, “Simulation and analysis of exotic non-specular phenomena,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 5, 10025 (2010).

Querry, M. R.

Riley, C. T.

J. S. T. Smalley, F. Vallini, S. A. Montoya, L. Ferrari, S. Shahin, C. T. Riley, B. Kanté, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, and Y. Fainman, “Luminescent hyperbolic metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13793 (2017).
[PubMed]

Rossinelli, A.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: Rules and recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
[PubMed]

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 2, 466 (1956).

Shahin, S.

J. S. T. Smalley, F. Vallini, S. A. Montoya, L. Ferrari, S. Shahin, C. T. Riley, B. Kanté, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, and Y. Fainman, “Luminescent hyperbolic metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13793 (2017).
[PubMed]

Shalaev, M. I.

J. Sun, M. I. Shalaev, and N. M. Litchinitser, “Experimental demonstration of a non-resonant hyperlens in the visible spectral range,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7201 (2015).
[PubMed]

Shen, Z.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S. C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

Shi, J.

Y. Zhao, A. N. Askarpour, L. Sun, J. Shi, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14180 (2017).
[PubMed]

Smalley, J. S. T.

J. S. T. Smalley, F. Vallini, S. A. Montoya, L. Ferrari, S. Shahin, C. T. Riley, B. Kanté, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, and Y. Fainman, “Luminescent hyperbolic metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13793 (2017).
[PubMed]

Sun, J.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S. C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

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W. Li, Z. J. Coppens, L. V. Besteiro, W. Wang, A. O. Govorov, and J. Valentine, “Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8379 (2015).
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L. Ferrari, C. Wu, D. Lepage, X. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “Hyperbolic metamaterials and their applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 40, 1–40 (2015).

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H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S. C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
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[PubMed]

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H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S. C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
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L. Ferrari, C. Wu, D. Lepage, X. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “Hyperbolic metamaterials and their applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 40, 1–40 (2015).

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Y. Zhao, A. N. Askarpour, L. Sun, J. Shi, X. Li, and A. Alù, “Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14180 (2017).
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Y.-L. Liao and Y. Zhao, “Design of wire-grid polarizer with effective medium theory,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 46, 641–647 (2014).

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[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

J. Sun, M. I. Shalaev, and N. M. Litchinitser, “Experimental demonstration of a non-resonant hyperlens in the visible spectral range,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7201 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. S. T. Smalley, F. Vallini, S. A. Montoya, L. Ferrari, S. Shahin, C. T. Riley, B. Kanté, E. E. Fullerton, Z. Liu, and Y. Fainman, “Luminescent hyperbolic metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13793 (2017).
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H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S. C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of integrated polarized LED, microfluidic channel and orthogonally-oriented polarization-sensitive photodiodes for detection of optical activity. The optical axis of the upper HMS corresponds to the x unit vector. For the lower HMS, the optical axes are (left lower) x2-1/2 + y2-1/2 and (right lower) x2-1/2 - y2-1/2. The thickness of the upper and lower HMS, t1 and t2, respectively, are design parameters, along with the metal-to-air ratio in the HMS. The black regions between the HMS and solution in the cross-section indicate physical separation between the HMS and solution. Dimensions not to scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Parallel (TM) effective index as a function of Ag fraction in HMS and values of the optimal index calculated from Eq. (10) for reference. (b) Quarter wave index as a function of thickness. (c) Transmission, reflection, and absorption of TM and TE waves and (d) degree of linear transmission as functions of the HMS thickness for the AlGaInP/HMS/solution system. (e) Transmission, reflection, and absorption of TM and TE waves and (f) degree of linear transmission as functions of the HMS thickness for the solution/HMS/Si system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Split-anode photodiode with orthogonally oriented HMS and op-amp circuit for differential detection. The output voltage, VO, of OΔ is proportional to the difference in photocurrents generated underneath the orthogonal HMS (c = contact, p = p-doped region, n = n-doped region, i = intrinsic region, O = op amp).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Cross-sectional schematic of polarimeter. (b) Definition of θrot and electric field vector after passing upper HMS and chiral solution. (c-d) Differential current, ΔIP = IP,1 - IP,2 as a function of θrot with |max(θrot)| = (b) 45° and (c) 0.001°.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ α T λ 0 ]= θ rot cd
ε=[ ε || ,0;0, ε ]
ε || = ε || +i ε || = ε M ε D /[ ρ ε D +( 1ρ ) ε M ]
ε = ε +i ε =ρ ε M +( 1ρ ) ε D
n || = | ε || | cos[ tan 1 ( ε || ε || ) 1 2 ]
n || = | ε || | sin[ tan 1 ( ε || ε || ) 1 2 ]
n = | ε | sin[ tan 1 ( ε ε ) 1 2 ]
n = | ε | cos[ tan 1 ( ε ε ) 1 2 ]
t=m λ 0 4 n || , m=1,3,5,...
n || = n 1 n 2
DOLT| T(TM)T(TE) T(TM)+T(TE) |,
DOLA| A(TM)A(TE) A(TM)+A(TE) |,