Abstract

Translating from Chinese into another language or vice versa is becoming a widespread phenomenon. However, current neuroimaging studies are insufficient to reveal the neural mechanism underlying translation asymmetry during Chinese/English sight translation. In this study, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to extract the brain activation patterns associated with Chinese/English sight translation. Eleven unbalanced Chinese (L1)/English (L2) bilinguals participated in this study based on an intra-group experimental design, in which two translation and two reading aloud tasks were administered: forward translation (from L1 to L2), backward translation (from L2 to L1), L1 reading, and L2 reading. As predicted, our findings revealed that forward translation elicited more pronounced brain activation in Broca’s area, suggesting that neural correlates of translation vary according to the direction of translation. Additionally, significant brain activation in the left PFC was involved in backward translation, indicating the importance of this brain region during the translation process. The identical activation patterns could not be discovered in forward translation, indicating the cognitive processing of reading logographic languages (i.e. Chinese) might recruit incongruent brain regions.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2016 (1)

H. Liu and F. Cao, “L1 and L2 processing in the bilingual brain: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies,” Brain Lang. 159, 60–73 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (1)

A. Hervais-Adelman, B. Moser-Mercer, C. M. Michel, and N. Golestani, “fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control,” Cereb. Cortex 25(12), 4727–4739 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (1)

A. M. García, A. Ibáñez, D. Huepe, A. L. Houck, M. Michon, C. G. Lezama, S. Chadha, and A. Rivera-Rei, “Word reading and translation in bilinguals: the impact of formal and informal translation expertise,” Front. Psychol. 5, 1302 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (4)

Z. Yuan, “Spatiotemporal and time-frequency analysis of functional near infrared spectroscopy brain signals using independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106011 (2013).
[PubMed]

Z. Yuan, “Combining independent component analysis and Granger causality to investigate brain network dynamics with fNIRS measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2629–2643 (2013).
[PubMed]

Z. Yuan and J. Ye, “Fusion of fNIRS and fMRI data: identifying when and where hemodynamic signals are changing in human brains,” Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7, 676 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. Xia, J. Wang, and Y. He, “BrainNet Viewer: a network visualization tool for human brain connectomics,” PLoS One 8(7), e68910 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (1)

C.-Y. Wu, M.-H. R. Ho, and S.-H. A. Chen, “A meta-analysis of fMRI studies on Chinese orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing,” Neuroimage 63(1), 381–391 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (1)

T. Guo, H. Liu, M. Misra, and J. F. Kroll, “Local and global inhibition in bilingual word production: fMRI evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals,” Neuroimage 56(4), 2300–2309 (2011).
[PubMed]

2009 (3)

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[PubMed]

T. J. Huppert, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “HomER: a review of time-series analysis methods for near-infrared spectroscopy of the brain,” Appl. Opt. 48(10), D280–D298 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. F. Abdelnour and T. Huppert, “Real-time imaging of human brain function by near-infrared spectroscopy using an adaptive general linear model,” Neuroimage 46(1), 133–143 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

R. C. Chan, D. Shum, T. Toulopoulou, and E. Y. Chen, “Assessment of executive functions: Review of instruments and identification of critical issues,” Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol. 23(2), 201–216 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (2)

Y. Wang, G. Xue, C. Chen, F. Xue, and Q. Dong, “Neural bases of asymmetric language switching in second-language learners: An ER-fMRI study,” Neuroimage 35(2), 862–870 (2007).
[PubMed]

N. F. Dronkers, O. Plaisant, M.-T. Iba-Zizen, and E. A. Cabanis, “Paul Broca’s historic cases: high resolution MR imaging of the brains of Leborgne and Lelong,” Brain 130(Pt 5), 1432–1441 (2007).
[PubMed]

2005 (2)

L. H. Tan, A. R. Laird, K. Li, and P. T. Fox, “Neuroanatomical correlates of phonological processing of Chinese characters and alphabetic words: A meta-analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 25(1), 83–91 (2005).
[PubMed]

D. J. Bolger, C. A. Perfetti, and W. Schneider, “Cross-cultural effect on the brain revisited: Universal structures plus writing system variation,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 25(1), 92–104 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004 (1)

B. Malkiel, “Directionality and translational difficulty,” Perspectives: Studies in Translatology. 12(3), 208–219 (2004).

2003 (1)

S. Monsell, “Task switching,” Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.) 7(3), 134–140 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (2)

S. Yu, H. Duan, X. Zhu, and B. Sun, “The basic processing of contemporary Chinese corpus at Peking University,” J. Chin. Inf. Process. 16(5), 49–64 (2002).

V. Quaresima, M. Ferrari, M. C. van der Sluijs, J. Menssen, and W. N. Colier, “Lateral frontal cortex oxygenation changes during translation and language switching revealed by non-invasive near-infrared multi-point measurements,” Brain Res. Bull. 59(3), 235–243 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. O. Rinne, J. Tommola, M. Laine, B. J. Krause, D. Schmidt, V. Kaasinen, M. Teräs, H. Sipilä, and M. Sunnari, “The translating brain: cerebral activation patterns during simultaneous interpreting,” Neurosci. Lett. 294(2), 85–88 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (3)

C. J. Price, D. W. Green, and R. von Studnitz, “A functional imaging study of translation and language switching,” Brain 122(Pt 12), 2221–2235 (1999).
[PubMed]

M. Laine, J. O. Rinne, B. J. Krause, M. Teräs, and H. Sipilä, “Left hemisphere activation during processing of morphologically complex word forms in adults,” Neurosci. Lett. 271(2), 85–88 (1999).
[PubMed]

R. L. Buckner, W. M. Kelley, and S. E. Petersen, “Frontal cortex contributes to human memory formation,” Nat. Neurosci. 2(4), 311–314 (1999).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

R. Cabeza and L. Nyberg, “Imaging cognition: An empirical review of PET studies with normal subjects,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 9(1), 1–26 (1997).
[PubMed]

1995 (2)

D. Klein, B. Milner, R. J. Zatorre, E. Meyer, and A. C. Evans, “The neural substrates underlying word generation: a bilingual functional-imaging study,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(7), 2899–2903 (1995).
[PubMed]

I. Kurz, “Watching the brain at work-an exploratory study of EEG changes during Simultaneous Interpreting (SI),” The Interpreters’ Newsletter 6(2), 3–16 (1995).

1994 (3)

M. Paradis, “Toward a neurolinguistic theory of simultaneous translation: The framework,” Int. J. Psycholinguist. 10(3), 319–335 (1994).

J. F. Kroll and E. Stewart, “Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations,” J. Mem. Lang. 33(2), 149–174 (1994).

A. Groot, L. Dannenburg, and J. G. Van Hell, “Forward and backward word translation by bilinguals,” J. Mem. Lang. 33(5), 600–629 (1994).

1993 (1)

E. Paulesu, C. D. Frith, and R. S. Frackowiak, “The neural correlates of the verbal component of working memory,” Nature 362(6418), 342–345 (1993).
[PubMed]

Abdelnour, A. F.

A. F. Abdelnour and T. Huppert, “Real-time imaging of human brain function by near-infrared spectroscopy using an adaptive general linear model,” Neuroimage 46(1), 133–143 (2009).
[PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Bolger, D. J.

D. J. Bolger, C. A. Perfetti, and W. Schneider, “Cross-cultural effect on the brain revisited: Universal structures plus writing system variation,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 25(1), 92–104 (2005).
[PubMed]

Buckner, R. L.

R. L. Buckner, W. M. Kelley, and S. E. Petersen, “Frontal cortex contributes to human memory formation,” Nat. Neurosci. 2(4), 311–314 (1999).
[PubMed]

Cabanis, E. A.

N. F. Dronkers, O. Plaisant, M.-T. Iba-Zizen, and E. A. Cabanis, “Paul Broca’s historic cases: high resolution MR imaging of the brains of Leborgne and Lelong,” Brain 130(Pt 5), 1432–1441 (2007).
[PubMed]

Cabeza, R.

R. Cabeza and L. Nyberg, “Imaging cognition: An empirical review of PET studies with normal subjects,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 9(1), 1–26 (1997).
[PubMed]

Cao, F.

H. Liu and F. Cao, “L1 and L2 processing in the bilingual brain: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies,” Brain Lang. 159, 60–73 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chadha, S.

A. M. García, A. Ibáñez, D. Huepe, A. L. Houck, M. Michon, C. G. Lezama, S. Chadha, and A. Rivera-Rei, “Word reading and translation in bilinguals: the impact of formal and informal translation expertise,” Front. Psychol. 5, 1302 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chan, R. C.

R. C. Chan, D. Shum, T. Toulopoulou, and E. Y. Chen, “Assessment of executive functions: Review of instruments and identification of critical issues,” Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol. 23(2), 201–216 (2008).
[PubMed]

Chen, C.

Y. Wang, G. Xue, C. Chen, F. Xue, and Q. Dong, “Neural bases of asymmetric language switching in second-language learners: An ER-fMRI study,” Neuroimage 35(2), 862–870 (2007).
[PubMed]

Chen, E. Y.

R. C. Chan, D. Shum, T. Toulopoulou, and E. Y. Chen, “Assessment of executive functions: Review of instruments and identification of critical issues,” Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol. 23(2), 201–216 (2008).
[PubMed]

Chen, S.-H. A.

C.-Y. Wu, M.-H. R. Ho, and S.-H. A. Chen, “A meta-analysis of fMRI studies on Chinese orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing,” Neuroimage 63(1), 381–391 (2012).
[PubMed]

Colier, W. N.

V. Quaresima, M. Ferrari, M. C. van der Sluijs, J. Menssen, and W. N. Colier, “Lateral frontal cortex oxygenation changes during translation and language switching revealed by non-invasive near-infrared multi-point measurements,” Brain Res. Bull. 59(3), 235–243 (2002).
[PubMed]

Dannenburg, L.

A. Groot, L. Dannenburg, and J. G. Van Hell, “Forward and backward word translation by bilinguals,” J. Mem. Lang. 33(5), 600–629 (1994).

Diamond, S. G.

Dong, Q.

Y. Wang, G. Xue, C. Chen, F. Xue, and Q. Dong, “Neural bases of asymmetric language switching in second-language learners: An ER-fMRI study,” Neuroimage 35(2), 862–870 (2007).
[PubMed]

Dronkers, N. F.

N. F. Dronkers, O. Plaisant, M.-T. Iba-Zizen, and E. A. Cabanis, “Paul Broca’s historic cases: high resolution MR imaging of the brains of Leborgne and Lelong,” Brain 130(Pt 5), 1432–1441 (2007).
[PubMed]

Duan, H.

S. Yu, H. Duan, X. Zhu, and B. Sun, “The basic processing of contemporary Chinese corpus at Peking University,” J. Chin. Inf. Process. 16(5), 49–64 (2002).

Evans, A. C.

D. Klein, B. Milner, R. J. Zatorre, E. Meyer, and A. C. Evans, “The neural substrates underlying word generation: a bilingual functional-imaging study,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(7), 2899–2903 (1995).
[PubMed]

Ferrari, M.

V. Quaresima, M. Ferrari, M. C. van der Sluijs, J. Menssen, and W. N. Colier, “Lateral frontal cortex oxygenation changes during translation and language switching revealed by non-invasive near-infrared multi-point measurements,” Brain Res. Bull. 59(3), 235–243 (2002).
[PubMed]

Fox, P. T.

L. H. Tan, A. R. Laird, K. Li, and P. T. Fox, “Neuroanatomical correlates of phonological processing of Chinese characters and alphabetic words: A meta-analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 25(1), 83–91 (2005).
[PubMed]

Frackowiak, R. S.

E. Paulesu, C. D. Frith, and R. S. Frackowiak, “The neural correlates of the verbal component of working memory,” Nature 362(6418), 342–345 (1993).
[PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

Frith, C. D.

E. Paulesu, C. D. Frith, and R. S. Frackowiak, “The neural correlates of the verbal component of working memory,” Nature 362(6418), 342–345 (1993).
[PubMed]

García, A. M.

A. M. García, A. Ibáñez, D. Huepe, A. L. Houck, M. Michon, C. G. Lezama, S. Chadha, and A. Rivera-Rei, “Word reading and translation in bilinguals: the impact of formal and informal translation expertise,” Front. Psychol. 5, 1302 (2014).
[PubMed]

Golestani, N.

A. Hervais-Adelman, B. Moser-Mercer, C. M. Michel, and N. Golestani, “fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control,” Cereb. Cortex 25(12), 4727–4739 (2015).
[PubMed]

Green, D. W.

C. J. Price, D. W. Green, and R. von Studnitz, “A functional imaging study of translation and language switching,” Brain 122(Pt 12), 2221–2235 (1999).
[PubMed]

Groot, A.

A. Groot, L. Dannenburg, and J. G. Van Hell, “Forward and backward word translation by bilinguals,” J. Mem. Lang. 33(5), 600–629 (1994).

Guo, T.

T. Guo, H. Liu, M. Misra, and J. F. Kroll, “Local and global inhibition in bilingual word production: fMRI evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals,” Neuroimage 56(4), 2300–2309 (2011).
[PubMed]

He, Y.

M. Xia, J. Wang, and Y. He, “BrainNet Viewer: a network visualization tool for human brain connectomics,” PLoS One 8(7), e68910 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hervais-Adelman, A.

A. Hervais-Adelman, B. Moser-Mercer, C. M. Michel, and N. Golestani, “fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control,” Cereb. Cortex 25(12), 4727–4739 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ho, M.-H. R.

C.-Y. Wu, M.-H. R. Ho, and S.-H. A. Chen, “A meta-analysis of fMRI studies on Chinese orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing,” Neuroimage 63(1), 381–391 (2012).
[PubMed]

Houck, A. L.

A. M. García, A. Ibáñez, D. Huepe, A. L. Houck, M. Michon, C. G. Lezama, S. Chadha, and A. Rivera-Rei, “Word reading and translation in bilinguals: the impact of formal and informal translation expertise,” Front. Psychol. 5, 1302 (2014).
[PubMed]

Huepe, D.

A. M. García, A. Ibáñez, D. Huepe, A. L. Houck, M. Michon, C. G. Lezama, S. Chadha, and A. Rivera-Rei, “Word reading and translation in bilinguals: the impact of formal and informal translation expertise,” Front. Psychol. 5, 1302 (2014).
[PubMed]

Huppert, T.

A. F. Abdelnour and T. Huppert, “Real-time imaging of human brain function by near-infrared spectroscopy using an adaptive general linear model,” Neuroimage 46(1), 133–143 (2009).
[PubMed]

Huppert, T. J.

Ibáñez, A.

A. M. García, A. Ibáñez, D. Huepe, A. L. Houck, M. Michon, C. G. Lezama, S. Chadha, and A. Rivera-Rei, “Word reading and translation in bilinguals: the impact of formal and informal translation expertise,” Front. Psychol. 5, 1302 (2014).
[PubMed]

Iba-Zizen, M.-T.

N. F. Dronkers, O. Plaisant, M.-T. Iba-Zizen, and E. A. Cabanis, “Paul Broca’s historic cases: high resolution MR imaging of the brains of Leborgne and Lelong,” Brain 130(Pt 5), 1432–1441 (2007).
[PubMed]

Jang, J.

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[PubMed]

Jang, K. E.

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[PubMed]

Jung, J.

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[PubMed]

Kaasinen, V.

J. O. Rinne, J. Tommola, M. Laine, B. J. Krause, D. Schmidt, V. Kaasinen, M. Teräs, H. Sipilä, and M. Sunnari, “The translating brain: cerebral activation patterns during simultaneous interpreting,” Neurosci. Lett. 294(2), 85–88 (2000).
[PubMed]

Kelley, W. M.

R. L. Buckner, W. M. Kelley, and S. E. Petersen, “Frontal cortex contributes to human memory formation,” Nat. Neurosci. 2(4), 311–314 (1999).
[PubMed]

Klein, D.

D. Klein, B. Milner, R. J. Zatorre, E. Meyer, and A. C. Evans, “The neural substrates underlying word generation: a bilingual functional-imaging study,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(7), 2899–2903 (1995).
[PubMed]

Krause, B. J.

J. O. Rinne, J. Tommola, M. Laine, B. J. Krause, D. Schmidt, V. Kaasinen, M. Teräs, H. Sipilä, and M. Sunnari, “The translating brain: cerebral activation patterns during simultaneous interpreting,” Neurosci. Lett. 294(2), 85–88 (2000).
[PubMed]

M. Laine, J. O. Rinne, B. J. Krause, M. Teräs, and H. Sipilä, “Left hemisphere activation during processing of morphologically complex word forms in adults,” Neurosci. Lett. 271(2), 85–88 (1999).
[PubMed]

Kroll, J. F.

T. Guo, H. Liu, M. Misra, and J. F. Kroll, “Local and global inhibition in bilingual word production: fMRI evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals,” Neuroimage 56(4), 2300–2309 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. F. Kroll and E. Stewart, “Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations,” J. Mem. Lang. 33(2), 149–174 (1994).

Kurz, I.

I. Kurz, “Watching the brain at work-an exploratory study of EEG changes during Simultaneous Interpreting (SI),” The Interpreters’ Newsletter 6(2), 3–16 (1995).

Laine, M.

J. Tommola, M. Laine, M. Sunnari, and J. O. Rinne, “Images of shadowing and interpreting,” Interpreting 5(2), 147–167 (2000/2001).

J. O. Rinne, J. Tommola, M. Laine, B. J. Krause, D. Schmidt, V. Kaasinen, M. Teräs, H. Sipilä, and M. Sunnari, “The translating brain: cerebral activation patterns during simultaneous interpreting,” Neurosci. Lett. 294(2), 85–88 (2000).
[PubMed]

M. Laine, J. O. Rinne, B. J. Krause, M. Teräs, and H. Sipilä, “Left hemisphere activation during processing of morphologically complex word forms in adults,” Neurosci. Lett. 271(2), 85–88 (1999).
[PubMed]

Laird, A. R.

L. H. Tan, A. R. Laird, K. Li, and P. T. Fox, “Neuroanatomical correlates of phonological processing of Chinese characters and alphabetic words: A meta-analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 25(1), 83–91 (2005).
[PubMed]

Lezama, C. G.

A. M. García, A. Ibáñez, D. Huepe, A. L. Houck, M. Michon, C. G. Lezama, S. Chadha, and A. Rivera-Rei, “Word reading and translation in bilinguals: the impact of formal and informal translation expertise,” Front. Psychol. 5, 1302 (2014).
[PubMed]

Li, K.

L. H. Tan, A. R. Laird, K. Li, and P. T. Fox, “Neuroanatomical correlates of phonological processing of Chinese characters and alphabetic words: A meta-analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 25(1), 83–91 (2005).
[PubMed]

Liu, H.

H. Liu and F. Cao, “L1 and L2 processing in the bilingual brain: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies,” Brain Lang. 159, 60–73 (2016).
[PubMed]

T. Guo, H. Liu, M. Misra, and J. F. Kroll, “Local and global inhibition in bilingual word production: fMRI evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals,” Neuroimage 56(4), 2300–2309 (2011).
[PubMed]

Malkiel, B.

B. Malkiel, “Directionality and translational difficulty,” Perspectives: Studies in Translatology. 12(3), 208–219 (2004).

Menssen, J.

V. Quaresima, M. Ferrari, M. C. van der Sluijs, J. Menssen, and W. N. Colier, “Lateral frontal cortex oxygenation changes during translation and language switching revealed by non-invasive near-infrared multi-point measurements,” Brain Res. Bull. 59(3), 235–243 (2002).
[PubMed]

Meyer, E.

D. Klein, B. Milner, R. J. Zatorre, E. Meyer, and A. C. Evans, “The neural substrates underlying word generation: a bilingual functional-imaging study,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(7), 2899–2903 (1995).
[PubMed]

Michel, C. M.

A. Hervais-Adelman, B. Moser-Mercer, C. M. Michel, and N. Golestani, “fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control,” Cereb. Cortex 25(12), 4727–4739 (2015).
[PubMed]

Michon, M.

A. M. García, A. Ibáñez, D. Huepe, A. L. Houck, M. Michon, C. G. Lezama, S. Chadha, and A. Rivera-Rei, “Word reading and translation in bilinguals: the impact of formal and informal translation expertise,” Front. Psychol. 5, 1302 (2014).
[PubMed]

Milner, B.

D. Klein, B. Milner, R. J. Zatorre, E. Meyer, and A. C. Evans, “The neural substrates underlying word generation: a bilingual functional-imaging study,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(7), 2899–2903 (1995).
[PubMed]

Misra, M.

T. Guo, H. Liu, M. Misra, and J. F. Kroll, “Local and global inhibition in bilingual word production: fMRI evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals,” Neuroimage 56(4), 2300–2309 (2011).
[PubMed]

Monsell, S.

S. Monsell, “Task switching,” Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.) 7(3), 134–140 (2003).
[PubMed]

Moser-Mercer, B.

A. Hervais-Adelman, B. Moser-Mercer, C. M. Michel, and N. Golestani, “fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control,” Cereb. Cortex 25(12), 4727–4739 (2015).
[PubMed]

Nyberg, L.

R. Cabeza and L. Nyberg, “Imaging cognition: An empirical review of PET studies with normal subjects,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 9(1), 1–26 (1997).
[PubMed]

Paradis, M.

M. Paradis, “Toward a neurolinguistic theory of simultaneous translation: The framework,” Int. J. Psycholinguist. 10(3), 319–335 (1994).

Paulesu, E.

E. Paulesu, C. D. Frith, and R. S. Frackowiak, “The neural correlates of the verbal component of working memory,” Nature 362(6418), 342–345 (1993).
[PubMed]

Perfetti, C. A.

D. J. Bolger, C. A. Perfetti, and W. Schneider, “Cross-cultural effect on the brain revisited: Universal structures plus writing system variation,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 25(1), 92–104 (2005).
[PubMed]

Petersen, S. E.

R. L. Buckner, W. M. Kelley, and S. E. Petersen, “Frontal cortex contributes to human memory formation,” Nat. Neurosci. 2(4), 311–314 (1999).
[PubMed]

Plaisant, O.

N. F. Dronkers, O. Plaisant, M.-T. Iba-Zizen, and E. A. Cabanis, “Paul Broca’s historic cases: high resolution MR imaging of the brains of Leborgne and Lelong,” Brain 130(Pt 5), 1432–1441 (2007).
[PubMed]

Price, C. J.

C. J. Price, D. W. Green, and R. von Studnitz, “A functional imaging study of translation and language switching,” Brain 122(Pt 12), 2221–2235 (1999).
[PubMed]

Quaresima, V.

V. Quaresima, M. Ferrari, M. C. van der Sluijs, J. Menssen, and W. N. Colier, “Lateral frontal cortex oxygenation changes during translation and language switching revealed by non-invasive near-infrared multi-point measurements,” Brain Res. Bull. 59(3), 235–243 (2002).
[PubMed]

Rinne, J. O.

J. Tommola, M. Laine, M. Sunnari, and J. O. Rinne, “Images of shadowing and interpreting,” Interpreting 5(2), 147–167 (2000/2001).

J. O. Rinne, J. Tommola, M. Laine, B. J. Krause, D. Schmidt, V. Kaasinen, M. Teräs, H. Sipilä, and M. Sunnari, “The translating brain: cerebral activation patterns during simultaneous interpreting,” Neurosci. Lett. 294(2), 85–88 (2000).
[PubMed]

M. Laine, J. O. Rinne, B. J. Krause, M. Teräs, and H. Sipilä, “Left hemisphere activation during processing of morphologically complex word forms in adults,” Neurosci. Lett. 271(2), 85–88 (1999).
[PubMed]

Rivera-Rei, A.

A. M. García, A. Ibáñez, D. Huepe, A. L. Houck, M. Michon, C. G. Lezama, S. Chadha, and A. Rivera-Rei, “Word reading and translation in bilinguals: the impact of formal and informal translation expertise,” Front. Psychol. 5, 1302 (2014).
[PubMed]

Schmidt, D.

J. O. Rinne, J. Tommola, M. Laine, B. J. Krause, D. Schmidt, V. Kaasinen, M. Teräs, H. Sipilä, and M. Sunnari, “The translating brain: cerebral activation patterns during simultaneous interpreting,” Neurosci. Lett. 294(2), 85–88 (2000).
[PubMed]

Schneider, W.

D. J. Bolger, C. A. Perfetti, and W. Schneider, “Cross-cultural effect on the brain revisited: Universal structures plus writing system variation,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 25(1), 92–104 (2005).
[PubMed]

Shum, D.

R. C. Chan, D. Shum, T. Toulopoulou, and E. Y. Chen, “Assessment of executive functions: Review of instruments and identification of critical issues,” Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol. 23(2), 201–216 (2008).
[PubMed]

Sipilä, H.

J. O. Rinne, J. Tommola, M. Laine, B. J. Krause, D. Schmidt, V. Kaasinen, M. Teräs, H. Sipilä, and M. Sunnari, “The translating brain: cerebral activation patterns during simultaneous interpreting,” Neurosci. Lett. 294(2), 85–88 (2000).
[PubMed]

M. Laine, J. O. Rinne, B. J. Krause, M. Teräs, and H. Sipilä, “Left hemisphere activation during processing of morphologically complex word forms in adults,” Neurosci. Lett. 271(2), 85–88 (1999).
[PubMed]

Stewart, E.

J. F. Kroll and E. Stewart, “Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations,” J. Mem. Lang. 33(2), 149–174 (1994).

Sun, B.

S. Yu, H. Duan, X. Zhu, and B. Sun, “The basic processing of contemporary Chinese corpus at Peking University,” J. Chin. Inf. Process. 16(5), 49–64 (2002).

Sunnari, M.

J. Tommola, M. Laine, M. Sunnari, and J. O. Rinne, “Images of shadowing and interpreting,” Interpreting 5(2), 147–167 (2000/2001).

J. O. Rinne, J. Tommola, M. Laine, B. J. Krause, D. Schmidt, V. Kaasinen, M. Teräs, H. Sipilä, and M. Sunnari, “The translating brain: cerebral activation patterns during simultaneous interpreting,” Neurosci. Lett. 294(2), 85–88 (2000).
[PubMed]

Tak, S.

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[PubMed]

Tan, L. H.

L. H. Tan, A. R. Laird, K. Li, and P. T. Fox, “Neuroanatomical correlates of phonological processing of Chinese characters and alphabetic words: A meta-analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 25(1), 83–91 (2005).
[PubMed]

Teräs, M.

J. O. Rinne, J. Tommola, M. Laine, B. J. Krause, D. Schmidt, V. Kaasinen, M. Teräs, H. Sipilä, and M. Sunnari, “The translating brain: cerebral activation patterns during simultaneous interpreting,” Neurosci. Lett. 294(2), 85–88 (2000).
[PubMed]

M. Laine, J. O. Rinne, B. J. Krause, M. Teräs, and H. Sipilä, “Left hemisphere activation during processing of morphologically complex word forms in adults,” Neurosci. Lett. 271(2), 85–88 (1999).
[PubMed]

Tommola, J.

J. Tommola, M. Laine, M. Sunnari, and J. O. Rinne, “Images of shadowing and interpreting,” Interpreting 5(2), 147–167 (2000/2001).

J. O. Rinne, J. Tommola, M. Laine, B. J. Krause, D. Schmidt, V. Kaasinen, M. Teräs, H. Sipilä, and M. Sunnari, “The translating brain: cerebral activation patterns during simultaneous interpreting,” Neurosci. Lett. 294(2), 85–88 (2000).
[PubMed]

Toulopoulou, T.

R. C. Chan, D. Shum, T. Toulopoulou, and E. Y. Chen, “Assessment of executive functions: Review of instruments and identification of critical issues,” Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol. 23(2), 201–216 (2008).
[PubMed]

van der Sluijs, M. C.

V. Quaresima, M. Ferrari, M. C. van der Sluijs, J. Menssen, and W. N. Colier, “Lateral frontal cortex oxygenation changes during translation and language switching revealed by non-invasive near-infrared multi-point measurements,” Brain Res. Bull. 59(3), 235–243 (2002).
[PubMed]

Van Hell, J. G.

A. Groot, L. Dannenburg, and J. G. Van Hell, “Forward and backward word translation by bilinguals,” J. Mem. Lang. 33(5), 600–629 (1994).

von Studnitz, R.

C. J. Price, D. W. Green, and R. von Studnitz, “A functional imaging study of translation and language switching,” Brain 122(Pt 12), 2221–2235 (1999).
[PubMed]

Wang, J.

M. Xia, J. Wang, and Y. He, “BrainNet Viewer: a network visualization tool for human brain connectomics,” PLoS One 8(7), e68910 (2013).
[PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, G. Xue, C. Chen, F. Xue, and Q. Dong, “Neural bases of asymmetric language switching in second-language learners: An ER-fMRI study,” Neuroimage 35(2), 862–870 (2007).
[PubMed]

Wu, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Wu, M.-H. R. Ho, and S.-H. A. Chen, “A meta-analysis of fMRI studies on Chinese orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing,” Neuroimage 63(1), 381–391 (2012).
[PubMed]

Xia, M.

M. Xia, J. Wang, and Y. He, “BrainNet Viewer: a network visualization tool for human brain connectomics,” PLoS One 8(7), e68910 (2013).
[PubMed]

Xiong, D.

H. Zhang, H. Yu, and D. Xiong, “HHMM-based chinese lexical analyzer ICTCLAS”, in Proceedings of the second SIGHAN workshop on Chinese language processing-Volume 17, (Association for Computational Linguistics, 2003), pp. 184–187.

Xue, F.

Y. Wang, G. Xue, C. Chen, F. Xue, and Q. Dong, “Neural bases of asymmetric language switching in second-language learners: An ER-fMRI study,” Neuroimage 35(2), 862–870 (2007).
[PubMed]

Xue, G.

Y. Wang, G. Xue, C. Chen, F. Xue, and Q. Dong, “Neural bases of asymmetric language switching in second-language learners: An ER-fMRI study,” Neuroimage 35(2), 862–870 (2007).
[PubMed]

Ye, J.

Z. Yuan and J. Ye, “Fusion of fNIRS and fMRI data: identifying when and where hemodynamic signals are changing in human brains,” Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7, 676 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ye, J. C.

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[PubMed]

Yu, H.

H. Zhang, H. Yu, and D. Xiong, “HHMM-based chinese lexical analyzer ICTCLAS”, in Proceedings of the second SIGHAN workshop on Chinese language processing-Volume 17, (Association for Computational Linguistics, 2003), pp. 184–187.

Yu, S.

S. Yu, H. Duan, X. Zhu, and B. Sun, “The basic processing of contemporary Chinese corpus at Peking University,” J. Chin. Inf. Process. 16(5), 49–64 (2002).

Yuan, Z.

Z. Yuan, “Spatiotemporal and time-frequency analysis of functional near infrared spectroscopy brain signals using independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106011 (2013).
[PubMed]

Z. Yuan, “Combining independent component analysis and Granger causality to investigate brain network dynamics with fNIRS measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2629–2643 (2013).
[PubMed]

Z. Yuan and J. Ye, “Fusion of fNIRS and fMRI data: identifying when and where hemodynamic signals are changing in human brains,” Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7, 676 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zatorre, R. J.

D. Klein, B. Milner, R. J. Zatorre, E. Meyer, and A. C. Evans, “The neural substrates underlying word generation: a bilingual functional-imaging study,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(7), 2899–2903 (1995).
[PubMed]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, H. Yu, and D. Xiong, “HHMM-based chinese lexical analyzer ICTCLAS”, in Proceedings of the second SIGHAN workshop on Chinese language processing-Volume 17, (Association for Computational Linguistics, 2003), pp. 184–187.

Zhu, X.

S. Yu, H. Duan, X. Zhu, and B. Sun, “The basic processing of contemporary Chinese corpus at Peking University,” J. Chin. Inf. Process. 16(5), 49–64 (2002).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol. (1)

R. C. Chan, D. Shum, T. Toulopoulou, and E. Y. Chen, “Assessment of executive functions: Review of instruments and identification of critical issues,” Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol. 23(2), 201–216 (2008).
[PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Brain (2)

C. J. Price, D. W. Green, and R. von Studnitz, “A functional imaging study of translation and language switching,” Brain 122(Pt 12), 2221–2235 (1999).
[PubMed]

N. F. Dronkers, O. Plaisant, M.-T. Iba-Zizen, and E. A. Cabanis, “Paul Broca’s historic cases: high resolution MR imaging of the brains of Leborgne and Lelong,” Brain 130(Pt 5), 1432–1441 (2007).
[PubMed]

Brain Lang. (1)

H. Liu and F. Cao, “L1 and L2 processing in the bilingual brain: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies,” Brain Lang. 159, 60–73 (2016).
[PubMed]

Brain Res. Bull. (1)

V. Quaresima, M. Ferrari, M. C. van der Sluijs, J. Menssen, and W. N. Colier, “Lateral frontal cortex oxygenation changes during translation and language switching revealed by non-invasive near-infrared multi-point measurements,” Brain Res. Bull. 59(3), 235–243 (2002).
[PubMed]

Cereb. Cortex (1)

A. Hervais-Adelman, B. Moser-Mercer, C. M. Michel, and N. Golestani, “fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control,” Cereb. Cortex 25(12), 4727–4739 (2015).
[PubMed]

Front. Hum. Neurosci. (1)

Z. Yuan and J. Ye, “Fusion of fNIRS and fMRI data: identifying when and where hemodynamic signals are changing in human brains,” Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7, 676 (2013).
[PubMed]

Front. Psychol. (1)

A. M. García, A. Ibáñez, D. Huepe, A. L. Houck, M. Michon, C. G. Lezama, S. Chadha, and A. Rivera-Rei, “Word reading and translation in bilinguals: the impact of formal and informal translation expertise,” Front. Psychol. 5, 1302 (2014).
[PubMed]

Hum. Brain Mapp. (2)

D. J. Bolger, C. A. Perfetti, and W. Schneider, “Cross-cultural effect on the brain revisited: Universal structures plus writing system variation,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 25(1), 92–104 (2005).
[PubMed]

L. H. Tan, A. R. Laird, K. Li, and P. T. Fox, “Neuroanatomical correlates of phonological processing of Chinese characters and alphabetic words: A meta-analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 25(1), 83–91 (2005).
[PubMed]

Int. J. Psycholinguist. (1)

M. Paradis, “Toward a neurolinguistic theory of simultaneous translation: The framework,” Int. J. Psycholinguist. 10(3), 319–335 (1994).

Interpreting (1)

J. Tommola, M. Laine, M. Sunnari, and J. O. Rinne, “Images of shadowing and interpreting,” Interpreting 5(2), 147–167 (2000/2001).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Z. Yuan, “Spatiotemporal and time-frequency analysis of functional near infrared spectroscopy brain signals using independent component analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106011 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Chin. Inf. Process. (1)

S. Yu, H. Duan, X. Zhu, and B. Sun, “The basic processing of contemporary Chinese corpus at Peking University,” J. Chin. Inf. Process. 16(5), 49–64 (2002).

J. Cogn. Neurosci. (1)

R. Cabeza and L. Nyberg, “Imaging cognition: An empirical review of PET studies with normal subjects,” J. Cogn. Neurosci. 9(1), 1–26 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. Mem. Lang. (2)

J. F. Kroll and E. Stewart, “Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations,” J. Mem. Lang. 33(2), 149–174 (1994).

A. Groot, L. Dannenburg, and J. G. Van Hell, “Forward and backward word translation by bilinguals,” J. Mem. Lang. 33(5), 600–629 (1994).

Nat. Neurosci. (1)

R. L. Buckner, W. M. Kelley, and S. E. Petersen, “Frontal cortex contributes to human memory formation,” Nat. Neurosci. 2(4), 311–314 (1999).
[PubMed]

Nature (1)

E. Paulesu, C. D. Frith, and R. S. Frackowiak, “The neural correlates of the verbal component of working memory,” Nature 362(6418), 342–345 (1993).
[PubMed]

Neuroimage (5)

C.-Y. Wu, M.-H. R. Ho, and S.-H. A. Chen, “A meta-analysis of fMRI studies on Chinese orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing,” Neuroimage 63(1), 381–391 (2012).
[PubMed]

T. Guo, H. Liu, M. Misra, and J. F. Kroll, “Local and global inhibition in bilingual word production: fMRI evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals,” Neuroimage 56(4), 2300–2309 (2011).
[PubMed]

Y. Wang, G. Xue, C. Chen, F. Xue, and Q. Dong, “Neural bases of asymmetric language switching in second-language learners: An ER-fMRI study,” Neuroimage 35(2), 862–870 (2007).
[PubMed]

A. F. Abdelnour and T. Huppert, “Real-time imaging of human brain function by near-infrared spectroscopy using an adaptive general linear model,” Neuroimage 46(1), 133–143 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[PubMed]

Neurosci. Lett. (2)

M. Laine, J. O. Rinne, B. J. Krause, M. Teräs, and H. Sipilä, “Left hemisphere activation during processing of morphologically complex word forms in adults,” Neurosci. Lett. 271(2), 85–88 (1999).
[PubMed]

J. O. Rinne, J. Tommola, M. Laine, B. J. Krause, D. Schmidt, V. Kaasinen, M. Teräs, H. Sipilä, and M. Sunnari, “The translating brain: cerebral activation patterns during simultaneous interpreting,” Neurosci. Lett. 294(2), 85–88 (2000).
[PubMed]

Perspectives: Studies in Translatology. (1)

B. Malkiel, “Directionality and translational difficulty,” Perspectives: Studies in Translatology. 12(3), 208–219 (2004).

PLoS One (1)

M. Xia, J. Wang, and Y. He, “BrainNet Viewer: a network visualization tool for human brain connectomics,” PLoS One 8(7), e68910 (2013).
[PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

D. Klein, B. Milner, R. J. Zatorre, E. Meyer, and A. C. Evans, “The neural substrates underlying word generation: a bilingual functional-imaging study,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(7), 2899–2903 (1995).
[PubMed]

The Interpreters’ Newsletter (1)

I. Kurz, “Watching the brain at work-an exploratory study of EEG changes during Simultaneous Interpreting (SI),” The Interpreters’ Newsletter 6(2), 3–16 (1995).

Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.) (1)

S. Monsell, “Task switching,” Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.) 7(3), 134–140 (2003).
[PubMed]

Other (8)

N. Pavlović and K. Jensen, “Eye tracking translation directionality,” in Translation Research Projects 2, A. Pym and A. Perekrestenko, ed. (Intercultural Studies Group, 2009).

V. Chieh-Ying Chang, “Translation directionality and the revised hierarchical model: An eye-tracking study,” in Cognitive explorations of translation, S. O’Brien, ed. (Continuum, 2011).

A. L. Jakobsen, “Effects of think aloud on translation speed, revision, and segmentation,” in Triangulating Translation: Perspectives in Process Oriented Research, F. Alves, ed. (John Benjamins Publishing, 2003).

A. R. Luria, Basic problems of neurolinguistics (Walter de Gruyter, 1976).

B. L. Miller and J. L. Cummings, The human frontal lobes: Functions and disorders. (Guilford press, 2007).

D. August and D. R. Bear, Treasures: A Reading/Language Arts Program. Grade 2. (Macmillan/McGraw-Hill, 2011).

H. Zhang, H. Yu, and D. Xiong, “HHMM-based chinese lexical analyzer ICTCLAS”, in Proceedings of the second SIGHAN workshop on Chinese language processing-Volume 17, (Association for Computational Linguistics, 2003), pp. 184–187.

M. Davies, The corpus of contemporary American English. (Brigham Young University, 2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The hardware we used in the experiment. (A) The CW 6 fNIRS system. (B) The head patch that covered the PFC and Broca’s area of the left hemisphere. (C) The distribution of sources and detectors. The red dots are the detectors, the blue dots indicate the emitters, and the black lines represent the channels. (D) The 3D MNI coordinates of the 14 channels. The image was visualized with the BrainNet Viewer [26].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The flowchart of processing the fNIRS data by using HOMER2 software.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The mean response time during the four tasks. The mean reaction times in the four tasks were significantly different from each other (F (3, 8) = 74.36, p < 0.001).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The mean concentration change in HbO for all channels. The unit on the y-axis is micro-moles. The red line represents the C2E task, and the blue line indicates the E2C task.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The mean concentration change in HbO for all channels. The unit on the y-axis is micro-moles. The black line indicates the C task, and the gray line represents the E task.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (A) The t-map of the differences between the E2C and E tasks. (B) The t-map of the difference between the two directions (translating Chinese into English and translating English into Chinese).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The 3D MNI coordinates and associated brain regions of the 14 channels.

Metrics