Abstract

Sensitive and accurate assessment of dermatologic inflammatory hyperemia in otherwise grossly normal-appearing skin conditions is beneficial to laypeople for monitoring their own skin health on a regular basis, to patients for looking for timely clinical examination, and to primary care physicians or dermatologists for delivering effective treatments. We propose that mathematical hyperspectral reconstruction from RGB images in a simple imaging setup can provide reliable visualization of hemoglobin content in a large skin area. Without relying on a complicated, expensive, and slow hyperspectral imaging system, we demonstrate the feasibility of determining heterogeneous or multifocal areas of inflammatory hyperemia associated with experimental photocarcinogenesis in mice. We envision that RGB-based reconstructed hyperspectral imaging of subclinical inflammatory hyperemic foci could potentially be integrated with the built-in camera (RGB sensor) of a smartphone to develop a simple imaging device that could offer affordable monitoring of dermatologic health.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [PubMed]

2017 (2)

J. B. Travers, C. Poon, D. J. Rohrbach, N. M. Weir, E. Cates, F. Hager, and U. Sunar, “Noninvasive mesoscopic imaging of actinic skin damage using spatial frequency domain imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 3045–3052 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Spigulis, I. Oshina, A. Berzina, and A. Bykov, “Smartphone snapshot mapping of skin chromophores under triple-wavelength laser illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 91508 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (5)

K. Xiao, Y. Zhu, C. Li, D. Connah, J. M. Yates, and S. Wuerger, “Improved method for skin reflectance reconstruction from camera images,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14934–14950 (2016).
[PubMed]

T. Kim, S. H. Choi, N. Lambert-Cheatham, Z. Xu, J. E. Kritchevsky, F. R. Bertin, and Y. L. Kim, “Toward laboratory blood test-comparable photometric assessments for anemia in veterinary hematology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 107001 (2016).
[PubMed]

T. Kim, J.-I. Kim, M. A. Visbal-Onufrak, C. Chapple, and Y. L. Kim, “Nonspectroscopic imaging for quantitative chlorophyll sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 16008 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Deglint, F. Kazemzadeh, D. Cho, D. A. Clausi, and A. Wong, “Numerical demultiplexing of color image sensor measurements via non-linear random forest modeling,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28665 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. A. Visbal Onufrak, R. L. Konger, and Y. L. Kim, “Telecentric suppression of diffuse light in imaging of highly anisotropic scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 41(1), 143–146 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (4)

R. P. McNabb, P. Challa, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Complete 360° circumferential gonioscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of the iridocorneal angle,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1376–1391 (2015).
[PubMed]

S. Chen, Y. H. Ong, X. Lin, and Q. Liu, “Optimization of advanced Wiener estimation methods for Raman reconstruction from narrow-band measurements in the presence of fluorescence background,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2633–2648 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. Yoshida, I. Nishidate, T. Ishizuka, S. Kawauchi, S. Sato, and M. Sato, “Multispectral imaging of absorption and scattering properties of in vivo exposed rat brain using a digital red-green-blue camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051026 (2015).
[PubMed]

G. P. Guy, S. R. Machlin, D. U. Ekwueme, and K. R. Yabroff, “Prevalence and costs of skin cancer treatment in the U.S., 2002-2006 and 2007-2011,” Am. J. Prev. Med. 48(2), 183–187 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (2)

A. Doblas, E. Sánchez-Ortiga, M. Martínez-Corral, G. Saavedra, and J. Garcia-Sucerquia, “Accurate single-shot quantitative phase imaging of biological specimens with telecentric digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(4), 046022 (2014).
[PubMed]

P. A. Cheremkhin, V. V. Lesnichii, and N. V. Petrov, “Use of spectral characteristics of DSLR cameras with Bayer filter sensors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 536(1), 012021 (2014).

2013 (4)

A. Tao, Y. Shao, J. Zhong, H. Jiang, M. Shen, and J. Wang, “Versatile optical coherence tomography for imaging the human eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1031–1044 (2013).
[PubMed]

L. M. Richards, S. M. Kazmi, J. L. Davis, K. E. Olin, and A. K. Dunn, “Low-cost laser speckle contrast imaging of blood flow using a webcam,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 2269–2283 (2013).
[PubMed]

I. Nishidate, T. Maeda, K. Niizeki, and Y. Aizu, “Estimation of melanin and hemoglobin using spectral reflectance images reconstructed from a digital RGB image by the Wiener estimation method,” Sensors (Basel) 13(6), 7902–7915 (2013).
[PubMed]

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73(1), 150–159 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (2)

B. Hu, E. Castillo, L. Harewood, P. Ostano, A. Reymond, R. Dummer, W. Raffoul, W. Hoetzenecker, G. F. Hofbauer, and G. P. Dotto, “Multifocal epithelial tumors and field cancerization from loss of mesenchymal CSL signaling,” Cell 149(6), 1207–1220 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Xu, A. K. Somani, and Y. L. Kim, “Scattering anisotropy-weighted mesoscopic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 090501 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (6)

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. De La Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306(2), 205–213 (2011).
[PubMed]

D. Hanahan and R. A. Weinberg, “Hallmarks of cancer: The next generation,” Cell 144(5), 646–674 (2011).
[PubMed]

I. Nishidate, N. Tanaka, T. Kawase, T. Maeda, T. Yuasa, Y. Aizu, T. Yuasa, and K. Niizeki, “Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 086012 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. Jemal, “Recent trends in cutaneous melanoma incidence and death rates in the United States, 1992-2006,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 65(5), e1–e11 (2011).

A. Thomas, J. Newton, and M. Oldham, “A method to correct for stray light in telecentric optical-CT imaging of radiochromic dosimeters,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4433–4451 (2011).
[PubMed]

N. E. McKenzie, K. Saboda, L. D. Duckett, R. Goldman, C. Hu, and C. N. Curiel-Lewandrowski, “Development of a photographic scale for consistency and guidance in dermatologic assessment of forearm sun damage,” Arch. Dermatol. 147(1), 31–36 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (1)

Z. Xu, “Back-directional gated spectroscopic imaging for diffuse light suppression in high anisotropic media and its preclinical applications for microvascular imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 16(4), 815–823 (2010).

2009 (3)

S.-H. Tseng, P. Bargo, A. Durkin, and N. Kollias, “Chromophore concentrations, absorption and scattering properties of human skin in-vivo,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14599–14617 (2009).
[PubMed]

F. Benavides, T. M. Oberyszyn, A. M. VanBuskirk, V. E. Reeve, and D. F. Kusewitt, “The hairless mouse in skin research,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 53(1), 10–18 (2009).
[PubMed]

Z. Xu, J. Liu, and Y. L. Kim, “Diffuse light suppression of back-directional gating imaging in high anisotropic media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030510 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

P. Anand, A. B. Kunnumakkara, C. Sundaram, K. B. Harikumar, S. T. Tharakan, O. S. Lai, B. Sung, and B. B. Aggarwal, “Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes,” Pharm. Res. 25(9), 2097–2116 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

P. A. Khavari, “Modelling cancer in human skin tissue,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 6(4), 270–280 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (2)

A. Albini, F. Tosetti, R. Benelli, and D. M. Noonan, “Tumor inflammatory angiogenesis and its chemoprevention,” Cancer Res. 65(23), 10637–10641 (2005).
[PubMed]

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004 (1)

B. Choi, N. M. Kang, and J. S. Nelson, “Laser speckle imaging for monitoring blood flow dynamics in the in vivo rodent dorsal skin fold model,” Microvasc. Res. 68(2), 143–146 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. L. Kim, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

A. P. Pentland, J. W. Schoggins, G. A. Scott, K. N. M. Khan, and R. Han, “Reduction of UV-induced skin tumors in hairless mice by selective COX-2 inhibition,” Carcinogenesis 20(10), 1939–1944 (1999).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

M. Watanabe and S. K. Nayar, “Telecentric optics for focus analysis,” IEEE Trans. Pattern. Anal. 19(12), 1360–1365 (1997).

1996 (1)

D. Hanahan and J. Folkman, “Patterns and emerging mechanisms of the angiogenic switch during tumorigenesis,” Cell 86(3), 353–364 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

L. A. Drake, R. I. Ceilley, R. L. Cornelison, W. L. Dobes, W. Dorner, R. W. Goltz, G. F. Graham, C. W. Lewis, S. J. Salasche, and M. L. Turner, “Guidelines of care for actinic keratoses,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 32(1), 95–98 (1995).
[PubMed]

1983 (1)

C. A. Cole, R. E. Davies, P. D. Forbes, and L. C. D’Aloisio, “Comparison of action spectra for acute cutaneous responses to ultraviolet radiation: man and albino hairless mouse,” Photochem. Photobiol. 37(6), 623–631 (1983).
[PubMed]

Aggarwal, B. B.

P. Anand, A. B. Kunnumakkara, C. Sundaram, K. B. Harikumar, S. T. Tharakan, O. S. Lai, B. Sung, and B. B. Aggarwal, “Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes,” Pharm. Res. 25(9), 2097–2116 (2008).
[PubMed]

Aizu, Y.

I. Nishidate, T. Maeda, K. Niizeki, and Y. Aizu, “Estimation of melanin and hemoglobin using spectral reflectance images reconstructed from a digital RGB image by the Wiener estimation method,” Sensors (Basel) 13(6), 7902–7915 (2013).
[PubMed]

I. Nishidate, N. Tanaka, T. Kawase, T. Maeda, T. Yuasa, Y. Aizu, T. Yuasa, and K. Niizeki, “Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 086012 (2011).
[PubMed]

Albini, A.

A. Albini, F. Tosetti, R. Benelli, and D. M. Noonan, “Tumor inflammatory angiogenesis and its chemoprevention,” Cancer Res. 65(23), 10637–10641 (2005).
[PubMed]

Anand, P.

P. Anand, A. B. Kunnumakkara, C. Sundaram, K. B. Harikumar, S. T. Tharakan, O. S. Lai, B. Sung, and B. B. Aggarwal, “Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes,” Pharm. Res. 25(9), 2097–2116 (2008).
[PubMed]

Backman, V.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. De La Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306(2), 205–213 (2011).
[PubMed]

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[PubMed]

Bargo, P.

Benavides, F.

F. Benavides, T. M. Oberyszyn, A. M. VanBuskirk, V. E. Reeve, and D. F. Kusewitt, “The hairless mouse in skin research,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 53(1), 10–18 (2009).
[PubMed]

Benelli, R.

A. Albini, F. Tosetti, R. Benelli, and D. M. Noonan, “Tumor inflammatory angiogenesis and its chemoprevention,” Cancer Res. 65(23), 10637–10641 (2005).
[PubMed]

Bertin, F. R.

T. Kim, S. H. Choi, N. Lambert-Cheatham, Z. Xu, J. E. Kritchevsky, F. R. Bertin, and Y. L. Kim, “Toward laboratory blood test-comparable photometric assessments for anemia in veterinary hematology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 107001 (2016).
[PubMed]

Berzina, A.

J. Spigulis, I. Oshina, A. Berzina, and A. Bykov, “Smartphone snapshot mapping of skin chromophores under triple-wavelength laser illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 91508 (2017).
[PubMed]

Bradish, J. R.

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73(1), 150–159 (2013).
[PubMed]

Brasky, J.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. De La Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306(2), 205–213 (2011).
[PubMed]

Bykov, A.

J. Spigulis, I. Oshina, A. Berzina, and A. Bykov, “Smartphone snapshot mapping of skin chromophores under triple-wavelength laser illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 91508 (2017).
[PubMed]

Castillo, E.

B. Hu, E. Castillo, L. Harewood, P. Ostano, A. Reymond, R. Dummer, W. Raffoul, W. Hoetzenecker, G. F. Hofbauer, and G. P. Dotto, “Multifocal epithelial tumors and field cancerization from loss of mesenchymal CSL signaling,” Cell 149(6), 1207–1220 (2012).
[PubMed]

Cates, E.

Ceilley, R. I.

L. A. Drake, R. I. Ceilley, R. L. Cornelison, W. L. Dobes, W. Dorner, R. W. Goltz, G. F. Graham, C. W. Lewis, S. J. Salasche, and M. L. Turner, “Guidelines of care for actinic keratoses,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 32(1), 95–98 (1995).
[PubMed]

Challa, P.

Chapple, C.

T. Kim, J.-I. Kim, M. A. Visbal-Onufrak, C. Chapple, and Y. L. Kim, “Nonspectroscopic imaging for quantitative chlorophyll sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 16008 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chen, S.

Cheremkhin, P. A.

P. A. Cheremkhin, V. V. Lesnichii, and N. V. Petrov, “Use of spectral characteristics of DSLR cameras with Bayer filter sensors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 536(1), 012021 (2014).

Cho, D.

J. Deglint, F. Kazemzadeh, D. Cho, D. A. Clausi, and A. Wong, “Numerical demultiplexing of color image sensor measurements via non-linear random forest modeling,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28665 (2016).
[PubMed]

Choi, B.

B. Choi, N. M. Kang, and J. S. Nelson, “Laser speckle imaging for monitoring blood flow dynamics in the in vivo rodent dorsal skin fold model,” Microvasc. Res. 68(2), 143–146 (2004).
[PubMed]

Choi, S. H.

T. Kim, S. H. Choi, N. Lambert-Cheatham, Z. Xu, J. E. Kritchevsky, F. R. Bertin, and Y. L. Kim, “Toward laboratory blood test-comparable photometric assessments for anemia in veterinary hematology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 107001 (2016).
[PubMed]

Clausi, D. A.

J. Deglint, F. Kazemzadeh, D. Cho, D. A. Clausi, and A. Wong, “Numerical demultiplexing of color image sensor measurements via non-linear random forest modeling,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28665 (2016).
[PubMed]

Cole, C. A.

C. A. Cole, R. E. Davies, P. D. Forbes, and L. C. D’Aloisio, “Comparison of action spectra for acute cutaneous responses to ultraviolet radiation: man and albino hairless mouse,” Photochem. Photobiol. 37(6), 623–631 (1983).
[PubMed]

Connah, D.

Cornelison, R. L.

L. A. Drake, R. I. Ceilley, R. L. Cornelison, W. L. Dobes, W. Dorner, R. W. Goltz, G. F. Graham, C. W. Lewis, S. J. Salasche, and M. L. Turner, “Guidelines of care for actinic keratoses,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 32(1), 95–98 (1995).
[PubMed]

Cornwell, M. L.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. De La Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306(2), 205–213 (2011).
[PubMed]

Crawford, S. E.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. De La Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306(2), 205–213 (2011).
[PubMed]

Curiel-Lewandrowski, C. N.

N. E. McKenzie, K. Saboda, L. D. Duckett, R. Goldman, C. Hu, and C. N. Curiel-Lewandrowski, “Development of a photographic scale for consistency and guidance in dermatologic assessment of forearm sun damage,” Arch. Dermatol. 147(1), 31–36 (2011).
[PubMed]

D’Aloisio, L. C.

C. A. Cole, R. E. Davies, P. D. Forbes, and L. C. D’Aloisio, “Comparison of action spectra for acute cutaneous responses to ultraviolet radiation: man and albino hairless mouse,” Photochem. Photobiol. 37(6), 623–631 (1983).
[PubMed]

DaSilva-Arnold, S. C.

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73(1), 150–159 (2013).
[PubMed]

Davies, R. E.

C. A. Cole, R. E. Davies, P. D. Forbes, and L. C. D’Aloisio, “Comparison of action spectra for acute cutaneous responses to ultraviolet radiation: man and albino hairless mouse,” Photochem. Photobiol. 37(6), 623–631 (1983).
[PubMed]

Davis, J. L.

De La Cruz, M.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. De La Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306(2), 205–213 (2011).
[PubMed]

Deglint, J.

J. Deglint, F. Kazemzadeh, D. Cho, D. A. Clausi, and A. Wong, “Numerical demultiplexing of color image sensor measurements via non-linear random forest modeling,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28665 (2016).
[PubMed]

Dobes, W. L.

L. A. Drake, R. I. Ceilley, R. L. Cornelison, W. L. Dobes, W. Dorner, R. W. Goltz, G. F. Graham, C. W. Lewis, S. J. Salasche, and M. L. Turner, “Guidelines of care for actinic keratoses,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 32(1), 95–98 (1995).
[PubMed]

Doblas, A.

A. Doblas, E. Sánchez-Ortiga, M. Martínez-Corral, G. Saavedra, and J. Garcia-Sucerquia, “Accurate single-shot quantitative phase imaging of biological specimens with telecentric digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(4), 046022 (2014).
[PubMed]

Dorner, W.

L. A. Drake, R. I. Ceilley, R. L. Cornelison, W. L. Dobes, W. Dorner, R. W. Goltz, G. F. Graham, C. W. Lewis, S. J. Salasche, and M. L. Turner, “Guidelines of care for actinic keratoses,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 32(1), 95–98 (1995).
[PubMed]

Dotto, G. P.

B. Hu, E. Castillo, L. Harewood, P. Ostano, A. Reymond, R. Dummer, W. Raffoul, W. Hoetzenecker, G. F. Hofbauer, and G. P. Dotto, “Multifocal epithelial tumors and field cancerization from loss of mesenchymal CSL signaling,” Cell 149(6), 1207–1220 (2012).
[PubMed]

Drake, L. A.

L. A. Drake, R. I. Ceilley, R. L. Cornelison, W. L. Dobes, W. Dorner, R. W. Goltz, G. F. Graham, C. W. Lewis, S. J. Salasche, and M. L. Turner, “Guidelines of care for actinic keratoses,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 32(1), 95–98 (1995).
[PubMed]

Duckett, L. D.

N. E. McKenzie, K. Saboda, L. D. Duckett, R. Goldman, C. Hu, and C. N. Curiel-Lewandrowski, “Development of a photographic scale for consistency and guidance in dermatologic assessment of forearm sun damage,” Arch. Dermatol. 147(1), 31–36 (2011).
[PubMed]

Dummer, R.

B. Hu, E. Castillo, L. Harewood, P. Ostano, A. Reymond, R. Dummer, W. Raffoul, W. Hoetzenecker, G. F. Hofbauer, and G. P. Dotto, “Multifocal epithelial tumors and field cancerization from loss of mesenchymal CSL signaling,” Cell 149(6), 1207–1220 (2012).
[PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

Durkin, A.

Ekwueme, D. U.

G. P. Guy, S. R. Machlin, D. U. Ekwueme, and K. R. Yabroff, “Prevalence and costs of skin cancer treatment in the U.S., 2002-2006 and 2007-2011,” Am. J. Prev. Med. 48(2), 183–187 (2015).
[PubMed]

Folkman, J.

D. Hanahan and J. Folkman, “Patterns and emerging mechanisms of the angiogenic switch during tumorigenesis,” Cell 86(3), 353–364 (1996).
[PubMed]

Forbes, P. D.

C. A. Cole, R. E. Davies, P. D. Forbes, and L. C. D’Aloisio, “Comparison of action spectra for acute cutaneous responses to ultraviolet radiation: man and albino hairless mouse,” Photochem. Photobiol. 37(6), 623–631 (1983).
[PubMed]

Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

A. Doblas, E. Sánchez-Ortiga, M. Martínez-Corral, G. Saavedra, and J. Garcia-Sucerquia, “Accurate single-shot quantitative phase imaging of biological specimens with telecentric digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(4), 046022 (2014).
[PubMed]

Gebhart, S. C.

Gibson, T. P.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. De La Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306(2), 205–213 (2011).
[PubMed]

Goldberg, M. J.

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[PubMed]

Goldman, R.

N. E. McKenzie, K. Saboda, L. D. Duckett, R. Goldman, C. Hu, and C. N. Curiel-Lewandrowski, “Development of a photographic scale for consistency and guidance in dermatologic assessment of forearm sun damage,” Arch. Dermatol. 147(1), 31–36 (2011).
[PubMed]

Goltz, R. W.

L. A. Drake, R. I. Ceilley, R. L. Cornelison, W. L. Dobes, W. Dorner, R. W. Goltz, G. F. Graham, C. W. Lewis, S. J. Salasche, and M. L. Turner, “Guidelines of care for actinic keratoses,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 32(1), 95–98 (1995).
[PubMed]

Gomes, A.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. De La Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306(2), 205–213 (2011).
[PubMed]

Graham, G. F.

L. A. Drake, R. I. Ceilley, R. L. Cornelison, W. L. Dobes, W. Dorner, R. W. Goltz, G. F. Graham, C. W. Lewis, S. J. Salasche, and M. L. Turner, “Guidelines of care for actinic keratoses,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 32(1), 95–98 (1995).
[PubMed]

Guy, G. P.

G. P. Guy, S. R. Machlin, D. U. Ekwueme, and K. R. Yabroff, “Prevalence and costs of skin cancer treatment in the U.S., 2002-2006 and 2007-2011,” Am. J. Prev. Med. 48(2), 183–187 (2015).
[PubMed]

Hager, F.

Han, R.

A. P. Pentland, J. W. Schoggins, G. A. Scott, K. N. M. Khan, and R. Han, “Reduction of UV-induced skin tumors in hairless mice by selective COX-2 inhibition,” Carcinogenesis 20(10), 1939–1944 (1999).
[PubMed]

Hanahan, D.

D. Hanahan and R. A. Weinberg, “Hallmarks of cancer: The next generation,” Cell 144(5), 646–674 (2011).
[PubMed]

D. Hanahan and J. Folkman, “Patterns and emerging mechanisms of the angiogenic switch during tumorigenesis,” Cell 86(3), 353–364 (1996).
[PubMed]

Haneishi, H.

Harewood, L.

B. Hu, E. Castillo, L. Harewood, P. Ostano, A. Reymond, R. Dummer, W. Raffoul, W. Hoetzenecker, G. F. Hofbauer, and G. P. Dotto, “Multifocal epithelial tumors and field cancerization from loss of mesenchymal CSL signaling,” Cell 149(6), 1207–1220 (2012).
[PubMed]

Harikumar, K. B.

P. Anand, A. B. Kunnumakkara, C. Sundaram, K. B. Harikumar, S. T. Tharakan, O. S. Lai, B. Sung, and B. B. Aggarwal, “Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes,” Pharm. Res. 25(9), 2097–2116 (2008).
[PubMed]

Hasegawa, T.

Hironaga, M.

Hoetzenecker, W.

B. Hu, E. Castillo, L. Harewood, P. Ostano, A. Reymond, R. Dummer, W. Raffoul, W. Hoetzenecker, G. F. Hofbauer, and G. P. Dotto, “Multifocal epithelial tumors and field cancerization from loss of mesenchymal CSL signaling,” Cell 149(6), 1207–1220 (2012).
[PubMed]

Hofbauer, G. F.

B. Hu, E. Castillo, L. Harewood, P. Ostano, A. Reymond, R. Dummer, W. Raffoul, W. Hoetzenecker, G. F. Hofbauer, and G. P. Dotto, “Multifocal epithelial tumors and field cancerization from loss of mesenchymal CSL signaling,” Cell 149(6), 1207–1220 (2012).
[PubMed]

Hosoi, A.

Hu, B.

B. Hu, E. Castillo, L. Harewood, P. Ostano, A. Reymond, R. Dummer, W. Raffoul, W. Hoetzenecker, G. F. Hofbauer, and G. P. Dotto, “Multifocal epithelial tumors and field cancerization from loss of mesenchymal CSL signaling,” Cell 149(6), 1207–1220 (2012).
[PubMed]

Hu, C.

N. E. McKenzie, K. Saboda, L. D. Duckett, R. Goldman, C. Hu, and C. N. Curiel-Lewandrowski, “Development of a photographic scale for consistency and guidance in dermatologic assessment of forearm sun damage,” Arch. Dermatol. 147(1), 31–36 (2011).
[PubMed]

Ishizuka, T.

K. Yoshida, I. Nishidate, T. Ishizuka, S. Kawauchi, S. Sato, and M. Sato, “Multispectral imaging of absorption and scattering properties of in vivo exposed rat brain using a digital red-green-blue camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051026 (2015).
[PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jemal, A.

A. Jemal, “Recent trends in cutaneous melanoma incidence and death rates in the United States, 1992-2006,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 65(5), e1–e11 (2011).

Jiang, H.

Kang, N. M.

B. Choi, N. M. Kang, and J. S. Nelson, “Laser speckle imaging for monitoring blood flow dynamics in the in vivo rodent dorsal skin fold model,” Microvasc. Res. 68(2), 143–146 (2004).
[PubMed]

Kawase, T.

I. Nishidate, N. Tanaka, T. Kawase, T. Maeda, T. Yuasa, Y. Aizu, T. Yuasa, and K. Niizeki, “Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 086012 (2011).
[PubMed]

Kawauchi, S.

K. Yoshida, I. Nishidate, T. Ishizuka, S. Kawauchi, S. Sato, and M. Sato, “Multispectral imaging of absorption and scattering properties of in vivo exposed rat brain using a digital red-green-blue camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051026 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kazemzadeh, F.

J. Deglint, F. Kazemzadeh, D. Cho, D. A. Clausi, and A. Wong, “Numerical demultiplexing of color image sensor measurements via non-linear random forest modeling,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28665 (2016).
[PubMed]

Kazmi, S. M.

Khan, K. N. M.

A. P. Pentland, J. W. Schoggins, G. A. Scott, K. N. M. Khan, and R. Han, “Reduction of UV-induced skin tumors in hairless mice by selective COX-2 inhibition,” Carcinogenesis 20(10), 1939–1944 (1999).
[PubMed]

Khavari, P. A.

P. A. Khavari, “Modelling cancer in human skin tissue,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 6(4), 270–280 (2006).
[PubMed]

Kim, J.-I.

T. Kim, J.-I. Kim, M. A. Visbal-Onufrak, C. Chapple, and Y. L. Kim, “Nonspectroscopic imaging for quantitative chlorophyll sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 16008 (2016).
[PubMed]

Kim, T.

T. Kim, J.-I. Kim, M. A. Visbal-Onufrak, C. Chapple, and Y. L. Kim, “Nonspectroscopic imaging for quantitative chlorophyll sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 16008 (2016).
[PubMed]

T. Kim, S. H. Choi, N. Lambert-Cheatham, Z. Xu, J. E. Kritchevsky, F. R. Bertin, and Y. L. Kim, “Toward laboratory blood test-comparable photometric assessments for anemia in veterinary hematology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 107001 (2016).
[PubMed]

Kim, Y. L.

T. Kim, S. H. Choi, N. Lambert-Cheatham, Z. Xu, J. E. Kritchevsky, F. R. Bertin, and Y. L. Kim, “Toward laboratory blood test-comparable photometric assessments for anemia in veterinary hematology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 107001 (2016).
[PubMed]

T. Kim, J.-I. Kim, M. A. Visbal-Onufrak, C. Chapple, and Y. L. Kim, “Nonspectroscopic imaging for quantitative chlorophyll sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 16008 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. A. Visbal Onufrak, R. L. Konger, and Y. L. Kim, “Telecentric suppression of diffuse light in imaging of highly anisotropic scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 41(1), 143–146 (2016).
[PubMed]

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73(1), 150–159 (2013).
[PubMed]

Z. Xu, A. K. Somani, and Y. L. Kim, “Scattering anisotropy-weighted mesoscopic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 090501 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Xu, J. Liu, and Y. L. Kim, “Diffuse light suppression of back-directional gating imaging in high anisotropic media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030510 (2009).
[PubMed]

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).

Koetsier, J. L.

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[PubMed]

Kollias, N.

Konger, R. L.

M. A. Visbal Onufrak, R. L. Konger, and Y. L. Kim, “Telecentric suppression of diffuse light in imaging of highly anisotropic scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 41(1), 143–146 (2016).
[PubMed]

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73(1), 150–159 (2013).
[PubMed]

Kritchevsky, J. E.

T. Kim, S. H. Choi, N. Lambert-Cheatham, Z. Xu, J. E. Kritchevsky, F. R. Bertin, and Y. L. Kim, “Toward laboratory blood test-comparable photometric assessments for anemia in veterinary hematology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 107001 (2016).
[PubMed]

Kunnumakkara, A. B.

P. Anand, A. B. Kunnumakkara, C. Sundaram, K. B. Harikumar, S. T. Tharakan, O. S. Lai, B. Sung, and B. B. Aggarwal, “Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes,” Pharm. Res. 25(9), 2097–2116 (2008).
[PubMed]

Kunte, D. P.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. De La Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306(2), 205–213 (2011).
[PubMed]

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[PubMed]

Kuo, A. N.

Kusewitt, D. F.

F. Benavides, T. M. Oberyszyn, A. M. VanBuskirk, V. E. Reeve, and D. F. Kusewitt, “The hairless mouse in skin research,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 53(1), 10–18 (2009).
[PubMed]

Lai, O. S.

P. Anand, A. B. Kunnumakkara, C. Sundaram, K. B. Harikumar, S. T. Tharakan, O. S. Lai, B. Sung, and B. B. Aggarwal, “Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes,” Pharm. Res. 25(9), 2097–2116 (2008).
[PubMed]

Lambert-Cheatham, N.

T. Kim, S. H. Choi, N. Lambert-Cheatham, Z. Xu, J. E. Kritchevsky, F. R. Bertin, and Y. L. Kim, “Toward laboratory blood test-comparable photometric assessments for anemia in veterinary hematology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 107001 (2016).
[PubMed]

Lesnichii, V. V.

P. A. Cheremkhin, V. V. Lesnichii, and N. V. Petrov, “Use of spectral characteristics of DSLR cameras with Bayer filter sensors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 536(1), 012021 (2014).

Lewis, C. W.

L. A. Drake, R. I. Ceilley, R. L. Cornelison, W. L. Dobes, W. Dorner, R. W. Goltz, G. F. Graham, C. W. Lewis, S. J. Salasche, and M. L. Turner, “Guidelines of care for actinic keratoses,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 32(1), 95–98 (1995).
[PubMed]

Li, C.

Lin, X.

Liu, J.

Z. Xu, J. Liu, and Y. L. Kim, “Diffuse light suppression of back-directional gating imaging in high anisotropic media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030510 (2009).
[PubMed]

Liu, Q.

Liu, Y.

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[PubMed]

Machlin, S. R.

G. P. Guy, S. R. Machlin, D. U. Ekwueme, and K. R. Yabroff, “Prevalence and costs of skin cancer treatment in the U.S., 2002-2006 and 2007-2011,” Am. J. Prev. Med. 48(2), 183–187 (2015).
[PubMed]

Maeda, T.

I. Nishidate, T. Maeda, K. Niizeki, and Y. Aizu, “Estimation of melanin and hemoglobin using spectral reflectance images reconstructed from a digital RGB image by the Wiener estimation method,” Sensors (Basel) 13(6), 7902–7915 (2013).
[PubMed]

I. Nishidate, N. Tanaka, T. Kawase, T. Maeda, T. Yuasa, Y. Aizu, T. Yuasa, and K. Niizeki, “Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 086012 (2011).
[PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

Majumder, S. K.

Martínez-Corral, M.

A. Doblas, E. Sánchez-Ortiga, M. Martínez-Corral, G. Saavedra, and J. Garcia-Sucerquia, “Accurate single-shot quantitative phase imaging of biological specimens with telecentric digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(4), 046022 (2014).
[PubMed]

McKenzie, N. E.

N. E. McKenzie, K. Saboda, L. D. Duckett, R. Goldman, C. Hu, and C. N. Curiel-Lewandrowski, “Development of a photographic scale for consistency and guidance in dermatologic assessment of forearm sun damage,” Arch. Dermatol. 147(1), 31–36 (2011).
[PubMed]

McNabb, R. P.

Mehta, S. R.

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73(1), 150–159 (2013).
[PubMed]

Miyake, Y.

Mohamed, D. R.

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73(1), 150–159 (2013).
[PubMed]

Mutyal, N.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. De La Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306(2), 205–213 (2011).
[PubMed]

Nayar, S. K.

M. Watanabe and S. K. Nayar, “Telecentric optics for focus analysis,” IEEE Trans. Pattern. Anal. 19(12), 1360–1365 (1997).

Nelson, J. S.

B. Choi, N. M. Kang, and J. S. Nelson, “Laser speckle imaging for monitoring blood flow dynamics in the in vivo rodent dorsal skin fold model,” Microvasc. Res. 68(2), 143–146 (2004).
[PubMed]

Newton, J.

A. Thomas, J. Newton, and M. Oldham, “A method to correct for stray light in telecentric optical-CT imaging of radiochromic dosimeters,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4433–4451 (2011).
[PubMed]

Niizeki, K.

I. Nishidate, T. Maeda, K. Niizeki, and Y. Aizu, “Estimation of melanin and hemoglobin using spectral reflectance images reconstructed from a digital RGB image by the Wiener estimation method,” Sensors (Basel) 13(6), 7902–7915 (2013).
[PubMed]

I. Nishidate, N. Tanaka, T. Kawase, T. Maeda, T. Yuasa, Y. Aizu, T. Yuasa, and K. Niizeki, “Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 086012 (2011).
[PubMed]

Nishidate, I.

K. Yoshida, I. Nishidate, T. Ishizuka, S. Kawauchi, S. Sato, and M. Sato, “Multispectral imaging of absorption and scattering properties of in vivo exposed rat brain using a digital red-green-blue camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051026 (2015).
[PubMed]

I. Nishidate, T. Maeda, K. Niizeki, and Y. Aizu, “Estimation of melanin and hemoglobin using spectral reflectance images reconstructed from a digital RGB image by the Wiener estimation method,” Sensors (Basel) 13(6), 7902–7915 (2013).
[PubMed]

I. Nishidate, N. Tanaka, T. Kawase, T. Maeda, T. Yuasa, Y. Aizu, T. Yuasa, and K. Niizeki, “Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 086012 (2011).
[PubMed]

Noonan, D. M.

A. Albini, F. Tosetti, R. Benelli, and D. M. Noonan, “Tumor inflammatory angiogenesis and its chemoprevention,” Cancer Res. 65(23), 10637–10641 (2005).
[PubMed]

Oberyszyn, T. M.

F. Benavides, T. M. Oberyszyn, A. M. VanBuskirk, V. E. Reeve, and D. F. Kusewitt, “The hairless mouse in skin research,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 53(1), 10–18 (2009).
[PubMed]

Oldham, M.

A. Thomas, J. Newton, and M. Oldham, “A method to correct for stray light in telecentric optical-CT imaging of radiochromic dosimeters,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4433–4451 (2011).
[PubMed]

Olin, K. E.

Ong, Y. H.

Oshina, I.

J. Spigulis, I. Oshina, A. Berzina, and A. Bykov, “Smartphone snapshot mapping of skin chromophores under triple-wavelength laser illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 91508 (2017).
[PubMed]

Ostano, P.

B. Hu, E. Castillo, L. Harewood, P. Ostano, A. Reymond, R. Dummer, W. Raffoul, W. Hoetzenecker, G. F. Hofbauer, and G. P. Dotto, “Multifocal epithelial tumors and field cancerization from loss of mesenchymal CSL signaling,” Cell 149(6), 1207–1220 (2012).
[PubMed]

Pentland, A. P.

A. P. Pentland, J. W. Schoggins, G. A. Scott, K. N. M. Khan, and R. Han, “Reduction of UV-induced skin tumors in hairless mice by selective COX-2 inhibition,” Carcinogenesis 20(10), 1939–1944 (1999).
[PubMed]

Petrov, N. V.

P. A. Cheremkhin, V. V. Lesnichii, and N. V. Petrov, “Use of spectral characteristics of DSLR cameras with Bayer filter sensors,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 536(1), 012021 (2014).

Poon, C.

Radosevich, A.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. De La Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306(2), 205–213 (2011).
[PubMed]

Raffoul, W.

B. Hu, E. Castillo, L. Harewood, P. Ostano, A. Reymond, R. Dummer, W. Raffoul, W. Hoetzenecker, G. F. Hofbauer, and G. P. Dotto, “Multifocal epithelial tumors and field cancerization from loss of mesenchymal CSL signaling,” Cell 149(6), 1207–1220 (2012).
[PubMed]

Rashid, B. M.

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73(1), 150–159 (2013).
[PubMed]

Reeve, V. E.

F. Benavides, T. M. Oberyszyn, A. M. VanBuskirk, V. E. Reeve, and D. F. Kusewitt, “The hairless mouse in skin research,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 53(1), 10–18 (2009).
[PubMed]

Reymond, A.

B. Hu, E. Castillo, L. Harewood, P. Ostano, A. Reymond, R. Dummer, W. Raffoul, W. Hoetzenecker, G. F. Hofbauer, and G. P. Dotto, “Multifocal epithelial tumors and field cancerization from loss of mesenchymal CSL signaling,” Cell 149(6), 1207–1220 (2012).
[PubMed]

Richards, L. M.

Rohrbach, D. J.

Roy, H. K.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. De La Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306(2), 205–213 (2011).
[PubMed]

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[PubMed]

Ruderman, S.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. De La Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306(2), 205–213 (2011).
[PubMed]

Saavedra, G.

A. Doblas, E. Sánchez-Ortiga, M. Martínez-Corral, G. Saavedra, and J. Garcia-Sucerquia, “Accurate single-shot quantitative phase imaging of biological specimens with telecentric digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(4), 046022 (2014).
[PubMed]

Saboda, K.

N. E. McKenzie, K. Saboda, L. D. Duckett, R. Goldman, C. Hu, and C. N. Curiel-Lewandrowski, “Development of a photographic scale for consistency and guidance in dermatologic assessment of forearm sun damage,” Arch. Dermatol. 147(1), 31–36 (2011).
[PubMed]

Sahu, R. P.

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73(1), 150–159 (2013).
[PubMed]

Salasche, S. J.

L. A. Drake, R. I. Ceilley, R. L. Cornelison, W. L. Dobes, W. Dorner, R. W. Goltz, G. F. Graham, C. W. Lewis, S. J. Salasche, and M. L. Turner, “Guidelines of care for actinic keratoses,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 32(1), 95–98 (1995).
[PubMed]

Sánchez-Ortiga, E.

A. Doblas, E. Sánchez-Ortiga, M. Martínez-Corral, G. Saavedra, and J. Garcia-Sucerquia, “Accurate single-shot quantitative phase imaging of biological specimens with telecentric digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(4), 046022 (2014).
[PubMed]

Sato, M.

K. Yoshida, I. Nishidate, T. Ishizuka, S. Kawauchi, S. Sato, and M. Sato, “Multispectral imaging of absorption and scattering properties of in vivo exposed rat brain using a digital red-green-blue camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051026 (2015).
[PubMed]

Sato, S.

K. Yoshida, I. Nishidate, T. Ishizuka, S. Kawauchi, S. Sato, and M. Sato, “Multispectral imaging of absorption and scattering properties of in vivo exposed rat brain using a digital red-green-blue camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051026 (2015).
[PubMed]

Schoggins, J. W.

A. P. Pentland, J. W. Schoggins, G. A. Scott, K. N. M. Khan, and R. Han, “Reduction of UV-induced skin tumors in hairless mice by selective COX-2 inhibition,” Carcinogenesis 20(10), 1939–1944 (1999).
[PubMed]

Scott, G. A.

A. P. Pentland, J. W. Schoggins, G. A. Scott, K. N. M. Khan, and R. Han, “Reduction of UV-induced skin tumors in hairless mice by selective COX-2 inhibition,” Carcinogenesis 20(10), 1939–1944 (1999).
[PubMed]

Shao, S.-J.

Shao, Y.

Shen, H. L.

Shen, H.-L.

Shen, M.

Shimano, N.

Somani, A. K.

Z. Xu, A. K. Somani, and Y. L. Kim, “Scattering anisotropy-weighted mesoscopic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 090501 (2012).
[PubMed]

Spigulis, J.

J. Spigulis, I. Oshina, A. Berzina, and A. Bykov, “Smartphone snapshot mapping of skin chromophores under triple-wavelength laser illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 91508 (2017).
[PubMed]

Stypula, Y.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. De La Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306(2), 205–213 (2011).
[PubMed]

Sunar, U.

Sundaram, C.

P. Anand, A. B. Kunnumakkara, C. Sundaram, K. B. Harikumar, S. T. Tharakan, O. S. Lai, B. Sung, and B. B. Aggarwal, “Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes,” Pharm. Res. 25(9), 2097–2116 (2008).
[PubMed]

Sung, B.

P. Anand, A. B. Kunnumakkara, C. Sundaram, K. B. Harikumar, S. T. Tharakan, O. S. Lai, B. Sung, and B. B. Aggarwal, “Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes,” Pharm. Res. 25(9), 2097–2116 (2008).
[PubMed]

Tanaka, N.

I. Nishidate, N. Tanaka, T. Kawase, T. Maeda, T. Yuasa, Y. Aizu, T. Yuasa, and K. Niizeki, “Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 086012 (2011).
[PubMed]

Tao, A.

Terai, K.

Tharakan, S. T.

P. Anand, A. B. Kunnumakkara, C. Sundaram, K. B. Harikumar, S. T. Tharakan, O. S. Lai, B. Sung, and B. B. Aggarwal, “Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes,” Pharm. Res. 25(9), 2097–2116 (2008).
[PubMed]

Thomas, A.

A. Thomas, J. Newton, and M. Oldham, “A method to correct for stray light in telecentric optical-CT imaging of radiochromic dosimeters,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4433–4451 (2011).
[PubMed]

Tiwari, A. K.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. De La Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306(2), 205–213 (2011).
[PubMed]

Tosetti, F.

A. Albini, F. Tosetti, R. Benelli, and D. M. Noonan, “Tumor inflammatory angiogenesis and its chemoprevention,” Cancer Res. 65(23), 10637–10641 (2005).
[PubMed]

Travers, J. B.

Tseng, S.-H.

Tsumura, N.

Turner, M. L.

L. A. Drake, R. I. Ceilley, R. L. Cornelison, W. L. Dobes, W. Dorner, R. W. Goltz, G. F. Graham, C. W. Lewis, S. J. Salasche, and M. L. Turner, “Guidelines of care for actinic keratoses,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 32(1), 95–98 (1995).
[PubMed]

Turzhitsky, V.

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[PubMed]

VanBuskirk, A. M.

F. Benavides, T. M. Oberyszyn, A. M. VanBuskirk, V. E. Reeve, and D. F. Kusewitt, “The hairless mouse in skin research,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 53(1), 10–18 (2009).
[PubMed]

Visbal Onufrak, M. A.

Visbal-Onufrak, M. A.

T. Kim, J.-I. Kim, M. A. Visbal-Onufrak, C. Chapple, and Y. L. Kim, “Nonspectroscopic imaging for quantitative chlorophyll sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 16008 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wali, R. K.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. De La Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306(2), 205–213 (2011).
[PubMed]

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[PubMed]

Wang, J.

Warren, S. J.

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73(1), 150–159 (2013).
[PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

M. Watanabe and S. K. Nayar, “Telecentric optics for focus analysis,” IEEE Trans. Pattern. Anal. 19(12), 1360–1365 (1997).

Weinberg, R. A.

D. Hanahan and R. A. Weinberg, “Hallmarks of cancer: The next generation,” Cell 144(5), 646–674 (2011).
[PubMed]

Weir, N. M.

Wong, A.

J. Deglint, F. Kazemzadeh, D. Cho, D. A. Clausi, and A. Wong, “Numerical demultiplexing of color image sensor measurements via non-linear random forest modeling,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28665 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wuerger, S.

Xiao, K.

Xin, J. H.

Xu, Z.

T. Kim, S. H. Choi, N. Lambert-Cheatham, Z. Xu, J. E. Kritchevsky, F. R. Bertin, and Y. L. Kim, “Toward laboratory blood test-comparable photometric assessments for anemia in veterinary hematology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(10), 107001 (2016).
[PubMed]

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73(1), 150–159 (2013).
[PubMed]

Z. Xu, A. K. Somani, and Y. L. Kim, “Scattering anisotropy-weighted mesoscopic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 090501 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Xu, “Back-directional gated spectroscopic imaging for diffuse light suppression in high anisotropic media and its preclinical applications for microvascular imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 16(4), 815–823 (2010).

Z. Xu, J. Liu, and Y. L. Kim, “Diffuse light suppression of back-directional gating imaging in high anisotropic media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030510 (2009).
[PubMed]

Yabroff, K. R.

G. P. Guy, S. R. Machlin, D. U. Ekwueme, and K. R. Yabroff, “Prevalence and costs of skin cancer treatment in the U.S., 2002-2006 and 2007-2011,” Am. J. Prev. Med. 48(2), 183–187 (2015).
[PubMed]

Yates, J. M.

Yokoyama, Y.

Yoshida, K.

K. Yoshida, I. Nishidate, T. Ishizuka, S. Kawauchi, S. Sato, and M. Sato, “Multispectral imaging of absorption and scattering properties of in vivo exposed rat brain using a digital red-green-blue camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051026 (2015).
[PubMed]

Yuasa, T.

I. Nishidate, N. Tanaka, T. Kawase, T. Maeda, T. Yuasa, Y. Aizu, T. Yuasa, and K. Niizeki, “Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 086012 (2011).
[PubMed]

I. Nishidate, N. Tanaka, T. Kawase, T. Maeda, T. Yuasa, Y. Aizu, T. Yuasa, and K. Niizeki, “Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 086012 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zhong, J.

Zhu, Y.

Am. J. Prev. Med. (1)

G. P. Guy, S. R. Machlin, D. U. Ekwueme, and K. R. Yabroff, “Prevalence and costs of skin cancer treatment in the U.S., 2002-2006 and 2007-2011,” Am. J. Prev. Med. 48(2), 183–187 (2015).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Arch. Dermatol. (1)

N. E. McKenzie, K. Saboda, L. D. Duckett, R. Goldman, C. Hu, and C. N. Curiel-Lewandrowski, “Development of a photographic scale for consistency and guidance in dermatologic assessment of forearm sun damage,” Arch. Dermatol. 147(1), 31–36 (2011).
[PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (5)

Cancer Lett. (1)

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. De La Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306(2), 205–213 (2011).
[PubMed]

Cancer Res. (2)

R. L. Konger, Z. Xu, R. P. Sahu, B. M. Rashid, S. R. Mehta, D. R. Mohamed, S. C. DaSilva-Arnold, J. R. Bradish, S. J. Warren, and Y. L. Kim, “Spatiotemporal assessments of dermal hyperemia enable accurate prediction of experimental cutaneous carcinogenesis as well as chemopreventive activity,” Cancer Res. 73(1), 150–159 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. Albini, F. Tosetti, R. Benelli, and D. M. Noonan, “Tumor inflammatory angiogenesis and its chemoprevention,” Cancer Res. 65(23), 10637–10641 (2005).
[PubMed]

Carcinogenesis (1)

A. P. Pentland, J. W. Schoggins, G. A. Scott, K. N. M. Khan, and R. Han, “Reduction of UV-induced skin tumors in hairless mice by selective COX-2 inhibition,” Carcinogenesis 20(10), 1939–1944 (1999).
[PubMed]

Cell (3)

D. Hanahan and J. Folkman, “Patterns and emerging mechanisms of the angiogenic switch during tumorigenesis,” Cell 86(3), 353–364 (1996).
[PubMed]

B. Hu, E. Castillo, L. Harewood, P. Ostano, A. Reymond, R. Dummer, W. Raffoul, W. Hoetzenecker, G. F. Hofbauer, and G. P. Dotto, “Multifocal epithelial tumors and field cancerization from loss of mesenchymal CSL signaling,” Cell 149(6), 1207–1220 (2012).
[PubMed]

D. Hanahan and R. A. Weinberg, “Hallmarks of cancer: The next generation,” Cell 144(5), 646–674 (2011).
[PubMed]

Gut (1)

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (2)

Z. Xu, “Back-directional gated spectroscopic imaging for diffuse light suppression in high anisotropic media and its preclinical applications for microvascular imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 16(4), 815–823 (2010).

Y. L. Kim, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 9(2), 243–256 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Pattern. Anal. (1)

M. Watanabe and S. K. Nayar, “Telecentric optics for focus analysis,” IEEE Trans. Pattern. Anal. 19(12), 1360–1365 (1997).

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2)

A. Jemal, “Recent trends in cutaneous melanoma incidence and death rates in the United States, 1992-2006,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 65(5), e1–e11 (2011).

L. A. Drake, R. I. Ceilley, R. L. Cornelison, W. L. Dobes, W. Dorner, R. W. Goltz, G. F. Graham, C. W. Lewis, S. J. Salasche, and M. L. Turner, “Guidelines of care for actinic keratoses,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 32(1), 95–98 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (8)

J. Spigulis, I. Oshina, A. Berzina, and A. Bykov, “Smartphone snapshot mapping of skin chromophores under triple-wavelength laser illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 91508 (2017).
[PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics of the dual imaging setup to acquire hyperspectral and RGB image data under the identical illumination and detection configurations, consisting of a telecentric lens. The illumination beam is coupled with a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) to generate hyperspectral imaging data of the light reflected from the dorsal surface of a mouse. For RGB imaging, LCTF is temporally removed and a 3-color CCD camera is used. Inset: Spectral response of the 3-color CCD (Sony ICX625) used in this imaging setup. Although the telecentric lens system is not required, this offers back-directional angular gating for anisotropic scattering media (i.e., biological tissue), in part discarding unwanted scattered or diffusive light in biological tissue [20,42,43].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) and (b) Representative 3-dimensional data structures ( x,y,λ ) of hyperspectral reflectance images for a UVB-irradiated mouse skin at 17 weeks after the cessation of UVB irradiation and a non-irradiated (control) mouse skin, respectively. (c) and (d) Corresponding reflectance spectra originally measured (red solid line) and numerically reconstructed from RGB signals (blue circle) averaged from the UVB-irradiated and control mouse skin, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Performance characteristics of hyperspectral reconstruction from RGB data. (a) 95% confidence intervals of mean differences (dark blue line) between the original reflectance spectra and the reconstructed spectra at each wavelength. (b) Goodness-of-fit metrics of R2 and RMSE from 94 mouse skin image data taken over time from 12 mice used as a testing data set.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) White-light image of a representative mouse skin. Four small dots (forming a square shape) are tattoo marks for sequential imaging. (b) and (c) Hgb content maps are computed from the hyperspectral image data and the RGB image data using the hyperspectral reconstruction method, respectively. (d) Histogram of 2D correlation coefficients between Hgb content maps using the original hyperspectral image data and the reconstructed hyperspectral image data from RGB data for 94 mouse skin images from 12 mice that are used as a separate testing data set.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Visible tumor multiplicity in UVB-irradiated mice counted as average numbers of microscopically observed tumors per mouse as a function of weeks after the cessation of UVB irradiation. (b) Microscopy images (200 × ) of H&E stain of hyperemic foci at approximately 20 weeks after the cessation of UVB irradiation. Areas of high Hgb content have epidermal hyperplasia and exhibit inflammatory infiltrate and dermal expansion.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Spatiotemporal extent in Hgb content maps of UVB-induced hyperemic foci following different weeks after the cessation of carcinogenic UVB irradiation from the same mouse in a sequential manner. (a) Photographs obtained using a digital camera. During early photocarcinogenesis (i.e., 4 – 9 weeks after the cessation of UVB irradiation), the conventional photographs are not sensitive to the changes of hyperemia. (b) Hgb maps computed using the hyperspectral image data from the UVB-irradiated mouse skin. (c) Hgb maps computed using the reconstructed hyperspectral image data from the RGB data. (b) and (c) show the significant similarity due to the reliable hyperspectral reconstruction. In both cases, focal areas of intense hyperemia precede tumor formation, indicating sites at high risk for tumor occurrence; the hyperemic areas not only persist, but also suggest a link between dermal hyperemia and ongoing epidermal tumor development.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Hgb content maps from a representative non-irradiated mouse skin from the same mice in a sequential manner. (a) Photographs obtained using a digital camera from the control mouse. (b) Hgb maps computed using the hyperspectral image data. (c) Hgb maps computed using the reconstructed hyperspectral data from RGB data for the same mouse. The significant similarity between (b) and (c) in the case of low Hgb content also supports the reliability of hyperspectral reconstruction.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Analyses of Hgb content maps computed from the hyperspectral reflectance image data. After thresholding hotspot areas with Hgb content more than 2.0 mg/mL, mean areas of hyperemic foci are calculated. The areas of high Hgb content expand after the cessation of UVB irradiation in UVB-irradiated mice but not in control mice (i.e., non UVB-irradiated). The difference of multifocal hyperemic areas between the UVB-irradiated and control groups is statistically significant with p-value = 0.007. Average Hgb content within the hotspots is determined for each mouse at each time-point. (b) Corresponding analyses of Hgb content maps computed from the RGB image data, using the hyperspectral reconstruction method. The Hgb content analyses using the RGB-based hyperspectral reconstruction significantly resemble the Hgb analyses using the original hyperspectral data. All of the error bars are standard deviations.

Equations (3)

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I( x,y,λ or RGB )= I raw ( x,y,λ or RGB ) I background ( x,y,λ or RGB ) I reference ( x, y, λ or RGB ) I background ( x,y,λ, or RGB ) .
x 3×1 = S 3×N r N×1 + e 3×1 ,
R ^ m×N = X m×3 T 3×N ,

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