Abstract

Optical clearing is emerging as a popular approach particularly for studies in neuroscience. However the use of corrosive clearing solutions typically requires sophisticated objectives or extreme care with optical components chosen for single- or multi-photon imaging. In contrast to the use of complex, custom-made microscope objectives, we show that the use of a corrected multimode fibre (MMF) offers a route that is resistant to corrosion, can be used in clearing media, is not constrained by the refractive index of the immersion medium and offers flexible working distances. Using a corrected MMF, we demonstrate fluorescence imaging of beads and stained neuroblastoma cells through optically cleared mouse brain tissue, as well as imaging in an extreme oxidative environment to show the versatility of our approach. Additionally, we perform Raman imaging of polystyrene beads in clearing media to demonstrate that this approach may be used for vibrational spectroscopy of optically cleared samples.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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2017 (2)

2016 (6)

2015 (9)

M. Plöschner, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Seeing through chaos in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photon. 9, 529–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Tomer, M. Lovett-Barron, I. Kauvar, A. Andalman, V. M. Burns, S. Sankaran, L. Grosenick, M. Broxton, S. Yang, and K. Deisseroth, “SPED Light Sheet Microscopy: Fast Mapping of Biological System Structure and Function,” Cell 163, 1796–1806 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Aoyagi, R. Kawakami, H. Osanai, T. Hibi, and T. Nemoto, “A Rapid Optical Clearing Protocol Using 2,2′-Thiodiethanol for Microscopic Observation of Fixed Mouse Brain,” PLoS ONE 10, e0116280 (2015).
[Crossref]

H.-U. Dodt, S. Saghafi, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. Hahn, M. Pende, M. Wanis, and A. Niendorf, “Ultramicroscopy: development and outlook,” Neurophotonics 2, 041407 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Richardson and J. W. Lichtman, “Clarifying Tissue Clearing,” Cell 162, 246–257 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Bouchard, V. Voleti, C. S. Mendes, C. Lacefield, W. B. Grueber, R. S. Mann, R. M. Bruno, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Swept confocally-aligned planar excitation (SCAPE) microscopy for high-speed volumetric imaging of behaving organisms,” Nat. Photonics 9, 113–119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Costantini, J.-P. Ghobril, A. P. Di Giovanna, A. L. A. Mascaro, L. Silvestri, M. C. Müllenbroich, L. Onofri, V. Conti, F. Vanzi, L. Sacconi, R. Guerrini, H. Markram, G. Iannello, and F. S. Pavone, “A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. E. Morales-Delgado, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Two-photon imaging through a multimode fiber,” Opt. Express 23, 32158–32170 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

R. Tomer, L. Ye, B. Hsueh, and K. Deisseroth, “Advanced CLARITY for rapid and high-resolution imaging of intact tissues,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1682–1697 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (4)

K. Becker, N. Jährling, S. Saghafi, R. Weiler, and H.-U. Dodt, “Chemical Clearing and Dehydration of GFP Expressing Mouse Brains,” PLoS ONE 7, e33916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ertürk, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, C. D. Hojer, J. G. Egen, F. Hellal, F. Bradke, M. Sheng, and H.-U. Dodt, “Three-dimensional imaging of solvent-cleared organs using 3DISCO,” Nat. Protoc. 7, 1983–1995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 1–5 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Exploiting multimode waveguides for pure fibre-based imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1027 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. L. Gottsch, S. M. Popa, J. K. Lawhorn, J. Qiu, K. J. Tonsfeldt, M. A. Bosch, M. J. Kelly, O. K. Rønnekleiv, E. Sanz, G. S. McKnight, D. K. Clifton, R. D. Palmiter, and R. A. Steiner, “Molecular Properties of Kiss1 Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Mouse,” Endocrinology 152, 4298–4309 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Shaping the light transmission through a multimode optical fibre: complex transformation analysis and applications in biophotonics,” Opt. Express 19, 18871–18884 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Lee and S. H. Yun, “Adaptive aberration correction of GRIN lenses for confocal endomicroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4608–4610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4, 388–394 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: An approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4, 331–336 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Helicobacter and Cancer Collaborative Group, “Gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori: A combined analysis of 12 case control studies nested within prospective cohorts,” Gut 49, 347–353 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory Effects in Propagation of Optical Waves through Disordered Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2328–2331 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, G.

Amitonova, L. V.

Andalman, A.

R. Tomer, M. Lovett-Barron, I. Kauvar, A. Andalman, V. M. Burns, S. Sankaran, L. Grosenick, M. Broxton, S. Yang, and K. Deisseroth, “SPED Light Sheet Microscopy: Fast Mapping of Biological System Structure and Function,” Cell 163, 1796–1806 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andresen, E. R.

Aoyagi, Y.

Y. Aoyagi, R. Kawakami, H. Osanai, T. Hibi, and T. Nemoto, “A Rapid Optical Clearing Protocol Using 2,2′-Thiodiethanol for Microscopic Observation of Fixed Mouse Brain,” PLoS ONE 10, e0116280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Babic, F.

Barton-Owen, T.

M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, K.

H.-U. Dodt, S. Saghafi, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. Hahn, M. Pende, M. Wanis, and A. Niendorf, “Ultramicroscopy: development and outlook,” Neurophotonics 2, 041407 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Becker, N. Jährling, S. Saghafi, R. Weiler, and H.-U. Dodt, “Chemical Clearing and Dehydration of GFP Expressing Mouse Brains,” PLoS ONE 7, e33916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ertürk, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, C. D. Hojer, J. G. Egen, F. Hellal, F. Bradke, M. Sheng, and H.-U. Dodt, “Three-dimensional imaging of solvent-cleared organs using 3DISCO,” Nat. Protoc. 7, 1983–1995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4, 331–336 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boccara, A. C.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: An approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bosch, M. A.

M. L. Gottsch, S. M. Popa, J. K. Lawhorn, J. Qiu, K. J. Tonsfeldt, M. A. Bosch, M. J. Kelly, O. K. Rønnekleiv, E. Sanz, G. S. McKnight, D. K. Clifton, R. D. Palmiter, and R. A. Steiner, “Molecular Properties of Kiss1 Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Mouse,” Endocrinology 152, 4298–4309 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bosworth, B. T.

Bouchard, M. B.

M. B. Bouchard, V. Voleti, C. S. Mendes, C. Lacefield, W. B. Grueber, R. S. Mann, R. M. Bruno, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Swept confocally-aligned planar excitation (SCAPE) microscopy for high-speed volumetric imaging of behaving organisms,” Nat. Photonics 9, 113–119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouwmans, G.

Bradke, F.

A. Ertürk, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, C. D. Hojer, J. G. Egen, F. Hellal, F. Bradke, M. Sheng, and H.-U. Dodt, “Three-dimensional imaging of solvent-cleared organs using 3DISCO,” Nat. Protoc. 7, 1983–1995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broxton, M.

R. Tomer, M. Lovett-Barron, I. Kauvar, A. Andalman, V. M. Burns, S. Sankaran, L. Grosenick, M. Broxton, S. Yang, and K. Deisseroth, “SPED Light Sheet Microscopy: Fast Mapping of Biological System Structure and Function,” Cell 163, 1796–1806 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruno, R. M.

M. B. Bouchard, V. Voleti, C. S. Mendes, C. Lacefield, W. B. Grueber, R. S. Mann, R. M. Bruno, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Swept confocally-aligned planar excitation (SCAPE) microscopy for high-speed volumetric imaging of behaving organisms,” Nat. Photonics 9, 113–119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burns, V. M.

R. Tomer, M. Lovett-Barron, I. Kauvar, A. Andalman, V. M. Burns, S. Sankaran, L. Grosenick, M. Broxton, S. Yang, and K. Deisseroth, “SPED Light Sheet Microscopy: Fast Mapping of Biological System Structure and Function,” Cell 163, 1796–1806 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caravaca-Aguirre, A. M.

Carminati, R.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: An approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

Chmelík, R.

M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 1–5 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 1–5 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cižmár, T.

K. J. Mitchell, S. Turtaev, M. J. Padgett, T. Čižmár, and D. B. Phillips, “High-speed spatial control of the intensity, phase and polarisation of vector beams using a digital micro-mirror device,” Opt. Express 24, 29269–29282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Plöschner, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Seeing through chaos in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photon. 9, 529–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Exploiting multimode waveguides for pure fibre-based imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1027 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Shaping the light transmission through a multimode optical fibre: complex transformation analysis and applications in biophotonics,” Opt. Express 19, 18871–18884 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4, 388–394 (2010).
[Crossref]

Clifton, D. K.

M. L. Gottsch, S. M. Popa, J. K. Lawhorn, J. Qiu, K. J. Tonsfeldt, M. A. Bosch, M. J. Kelly, O. K. Rønnekleiv, E. Sanz, G. S. McKnight, D. K. Clifton, R. D. Palmiter, and R. A. Steiner, “Molecular Properties of Kiss1 Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Mouse,” Endocrinology 152, 4298–4309 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conkey, D. B.

Conti, V.

I. Costantini, J.-P. Ghobril, A. P. Di Giovanna, A. L. A. Mascaro, L. Silvestri, M. C. Müllenbroich, L. Onofri, V. Conti, F. Vanzi, L. Sacconi, R. Guerrini, H. Markram, G. Iannello, and F. S. Pavone, “A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cossart, R.

Costantini, I.

L. Silvestri, I. Costantini, L. Sacconi, and F. S. Pavone, “Clearing of fixed tissue: a review from a microscopist’s perspective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 081205 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Costantini, J.-P. Ghobril, A. P. Di Giovanna, A. L. A. Mascaro, L. Silvestri, M. C. Müllenbroich, L. Onofri, V. Conti, F. Vanzi, L. Sacconi, R. Guerrini, H. Markram, G. Iannello, and F. S. Pavone, “A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 1–5 (2012).
[Crossref]

Deininger, K.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4, 331–336 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deisseroth, K.

R. Tomer, M. Lovett-Barron, I. Kauvar, A. Andalman, V. M. Burns, S. Sankaran, L. Grosenick, M. Broxton, S. Yang, and K. Deisseroth, “SPED Light Sheet Microscopy: Fast Mapping of Biological System Structure and Function,” Cell 163, 1796–1806 (2015).
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R. Tomer, L. Ye, B. Hsueh, and K. Deisseroth, “Advanced CLARITY for rapid and high-resolution imaging of intact tissues,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1682–1697 (2014).
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Descloux, A.

Deussing, J. M.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4, 331–336 (2007).
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I. Gusachenko, M. Chen, and K. Dholakia, “Raman imaging through a single multimode fibre,” Opt. Express 25, 13782–13798 (2017).
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M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18050 (2015).
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T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Exploiting multimode waveguides for pure fibre-based imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1027 (2012).
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T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Shaping the light transmission through a multimode optical fibre: complex transformation analysis and applications in biophotonics,” Opt. Express 19, 18871–18884 (2011).
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T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4, 388–394 (2010).
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Di Giovanna, A. P.

I. Costantini, J.-P. Ghobril, A. P. Di Giovanna, A. L. A. Mascaro, L. Silvestri, M. C. Müllenbroich, L. Onofri, V. Conti, F. Vanzi, L. Sacconi, R. Guerrini, H. Markram, G. Iannello, and F. S. Pavone, “A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dodt, H.-U.

H.-U. Dodt, S. Saghafi, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. Hahn, M. Pende, M. Wanis, and A. Niendorf, “Ultramicroscopy: development and outlook,” Neurophotonics 2, 041407 (2015).
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K. Becker, N. Jährling, S. Saghafi, R. Weiler, and H.-U. Dodt, “Chemical Clearing and Dehydration of GFP Expressing Mouse Brains,” PLoS ONE 7, e33916 (2012).
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A. Ertürk, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, C. D. Hojer, J. G. Egen, F. Hellal, F. Bradke, M. Sheng, and H.-U. Dodt, “Three-dimensional imaging of solvent-cleared organs using 3DISCO,” Nat. Protoc. 7, 1983–1995 (2012).
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M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18050 (2015).
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H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4, 331–336 (2007).
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A. Ertürk, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, C. D. Hojer, J. G. Egen, F. Hellal, F. Bradke, M. Sheng, and H.-U. Dodt, “Three-dimensional imaging of solvent-cleared organs using 3DISCO,” Nat. Protoc. 7, 1983–1995 (2012).
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M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18050 (2015).
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S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: An approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 1–4 (2010).
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Freund, I.

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory Effects in Propagation of Optical Waves through Disordered Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2328–2331 (1988).
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Ghobril, J.-P.

I. Costantini, J.-P. Ghobril, A. P. Di Giovanna, A. L. A. Mascaro, L. Silvestri, M. C. Müllenbroich, L. Onofri, V. Conti, F. Vanzi, L. Sacconi, R. Guerrini, H. Markram, G. Iannello, and F. S. Pavone, “A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9808 (2015).
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S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: An approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 1–4 (2010).
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M. L. Gottsch, S. M. Popa, J. K. Lawhorn, J. Qiu, K. J. Tonsfeldt, M. A. Bosch, M. J. Kelly, O. K. Rønnekleiv, E. Sanz, G. S. McKnight, D. K. Clifton, R. D. Palmiter, and R. A. Steiner, “Molecular Properties of Kiss1 Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Mouse,” Endocrinology 152, 4298–4309 (2011).
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Grosenick, L.

R. Tomer, M. Lovett-Barron, I. Kauvar, A. Andalman, V. M. Burns, S. Sankaran, L. Grosenick, M. Broxton, S. Yang, and K. Deisseroth, “SPED Light Sheet Microscopy: Fast Mapping of Biological System Structure and Function,” Cell 163, 1796–1806 (2015).
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M. B. Bouchard, V. Voleti, C. S. Mendes, C. Lacefield, W. B. Grueber, R. S. Mann, R. M. Bruno, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Swept confocally-aligned planar excitation (SCAPE) microscopy for high-speed volumetric imaging of behaving organisms,” Nat. Photonics 9, 113–119 (2015).
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Guerrini, R.

I. Costantini, J.-P. Ghobril, A. P. Di Giovanna, A. L. A. Mascaro, L. Silvestri, M. C. Müllenbroich, L. Onofri, V. Conti, F. Vanzi, L. Sacconi, R. Guerrini, H. Markram, G. Iannello, and F. S. Pavone, “A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gusachenko, I.

Hahn, C.

H.-U. Dodt, S. Saghafi, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. Hahn, M. Pende, M. Wanis, and A. Niendorf, “Ultramicroscopy: development and outlook,” Neurophotonics 2, 041407 (2015).
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Heintzmann, R.

W. Müller, M. Kielhorn, M. Schmitt, J. Popp, and R. Heintzmann, “Light sheet Raman micro-spectroscopy,” Optica 4, 452–457 (2016).
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A. Ertürk, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, C. D. Hojer, J. G. Egen, F. Hellal, F. Bradke, M. Sheng, and H.-U. Dodt, “Three-dimensional imaging of solvent-cleared organs using 3DISCO,” Nat. Protoc. 7, 1983–1995 (2012).
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Y. Aoyagi, R. Kawakami, H. Osanai, T. Hibi, and T. Nemoto, “A Rapid Optical Clearing Protocol Using 2,2′-Thiodiethanol for Microscopic Observation of Fixed Mouse Brain,” PLoS ONE 10, e0116280 (2015).
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M. B. Bouchard, V. Voleti, C. S. Mendes, C. Lacefield, W. B. Grueber, R. S. Mann, R. M. Bruno, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Swept confocally-aligned planar excitation (SCAPE) microscopy for high-speed volumetric imaging of behaving organisms,” Nat. Photonics 9, 113–119 (2015).
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A. Ertürk, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, C. D. Hojer, J. G. Egen, F. Hellal, F. Bradke, M. Sheng, and H.-U. Dodt, “Three-dimensional imaging of solvent-cleared organs using 3DISCO,” Nat. Protoc. 7, 1983–1995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. Tomer, L. Ye, B. Hsueh, and K. Deisseroth, “Advanced CLARITY for rapid and high-resolution imaging of intact tissues,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1682–1697 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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I. Costantini, J.-P. Ghobril, A. P. Di Giovanna, A. L. A. Mascaro, L. Silvestri, M. C. Müllenbroich, L. Onofri, V. Conti, F. Vanzi, L. Sacconi, R. Guerrini, H. Markram, G. Iannello, and F. S. Pavone, “A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jährling, N.

H.-U. Dodt, S. Saghafi, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. Hahn, M. Pende, M. Wanis, and A. Niendorf, “Ultramicroscopy: development and outlook,” Neurophotonics 2, 041407 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ertürk, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, C. D. Hojer, J. G. Egen, F. Hellal, F. Bradke, M. Sheng, and H.-U. Dodt, “Three-dimensional imaging of solvent-cleared organs using 3DISCO,” Nat. Protoc. 7, 1983–1995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Becker, N. Jährling, S. Saghafi, R. Weiler, and H.-U. Dodt, “Chemical Clearing and Dehydration of GFP Expressing Mouse Brains,” PLoS ONE 7, e33916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4, 331–336 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, X.

Kahn, J. M.

Kauvar, I.

R. Tomer, M. Lovett-Barron, I. Kauvar, A. Andalman, V. M. Burns, S. Sankaran, L. Grosenick, M. Broxton, S. Yang, and K. Deisseroth, “SPED Light Sheet Microscopy: Fast Mapping of Biological System Structure and Function,” Cell 163, 1796–1806 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawakami, R.

Y. Aoyagi, R. Kawakami, H. Osanai, T. Hibi, and T. Nemoto, “A Rapid Optical Clearing Protocol Using 2,2′-Thiodiethanol for Microscopic Observation of Fixed Mouse Brain,” PLoS ONE 10, e0116280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kelly, M. J.

M. L. Gottsch, S. M. Popa, J. K. Lawhorn, J. Qiu, K. J. Tonsfeldt, M. A. Bosch, M. J. Kelly, O. K. Rønnekleiv, E. Sanz, G. S. McKnight, D. K. Clifton, R. D. Palmiter, and R. A. Steiner, “Molecular Properties of Kiss1 Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Mouse,” Endocrinology 152, 4298–4309 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kielhorn, M.

W. Müller, M. Kielhorn, M. Schmitt, J. Popp, and R. Heintzmann, “Light sheet Raman micro-spectroscopy,” Optica 4, 452–457 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 1–5 (2012).
[Crossref]

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M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. B. Bouchard, V. Voleti, C. S. Mendes, C. Lacefield, W. B. Grueber, R. S. Mann, R. M. Bruno, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Swept confocally-aligned planar excitation (SCAPE) microscopy for high-speed volumetric imaging of behaving organisms,” Nat. Photonics 9, 113–119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lawhorn, J. K.

M. L. Gottsch, S. M. Popa, J. K. Lawhorn, J. Qiu, K. J. Tonsfeldt, M. A. Bosch, M. J. Kelly, O. K. Rønnekleiv, E. Sanz, G. S. McKnight, D. K. Clifton, R. D. Palmiter, and R. A. Steiner, “Molecular Properties of Kiss1 Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Mouse,” Endocrinology 152, 4298–4309 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. J.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 1–5 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, W. M.

Leischner, U.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4, 331–336 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lerosey, G.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: An approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 1–4 (2010).
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D. S. Richardson and J. W. Lichtman, “Clarifying Tissue Clearing,” Cell 162, 246–257 (2015).
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R. Tomer, M. Lovett-Barron, I. Kauvar, A. Andalman, V. M. Burns, S. Sankaran, L. Grosenick, M. Broxton, S. Yang, and K. Deisseroth, “SPED Light Sheet Microscopy: Fast Mapping of Biological System Structure and Function,” Cell 163, 1796–1806 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahalati, R. N.

Mann, R. S.

M. B. Bouchard, V. Voleti, C. S. Mendes, C. Lacefield, W. B. Grueber, R. S. Mann, R. M. Bruno, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Swept confocally-aligned planar excitation (SCAPE) microscopy for high-speed volumetric imaging of behaving organisms,” Nat. Photonics 9, 113–119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markram, H.

I. Costantini, J.-P. Ghobril, A. P. Di Giovanna, A. L. A. Mascaro, L. Silvestri, M. C. Müllenbroich, L. Onofri, V. Conti, F. Vanzi, L. Sacconi, R. Guerrini, H. Markram, G. Iannello, and F. S. Pavone, “A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mascaro, A. L. A.

I. Costantini, J.-P. Ghobril, A. P. Di Giovanna, A. L. A. Mascaro, L. Silvestri, M. C. Müllenbroich, L. Onofri, V. Conti, F. Vanzi, L. Sacconi, R. Guerrini, H. Markram, G. Iannello, and F. S. Pavone, “A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mauch, C. P.

A. Ertürk, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, C. D. Hojer, J. G. Egen, F. Hellal, F. Bradke, M. Sheng, and H.-U. Dodt, “Three-dimensional imaging of solvent-cleared organs using 3DISCO,” Nat. Protoc. 7, 1983–1995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4, 331–336 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazilu, M.

T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4, 388–394 (2010).
[Crossref]

McKnight, G. S.

M. L. Gottsch, S. M. Popa, J. K. Lawhorn, J. Qiu, K. J. Tonsfeldt, M. A. Bosch, M. J. Kelly, O. K. Rønnekleiv, E. Sanz, G. S. McKnight, D. K. Clifton, R. D. Palmiter, and R. A. Steiner, “Molecular Properties of Kiss1 Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Mouse,” Endocrinology 152, 4298–4309 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mendes, C. S.

M. B. Bouchard, V. Voleti, C. S. Mendes, C. Lacefield, W. B. Grueber, R. S. Mann, R. M. Bruno, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Swept confocally-aligned planar excitation (SCAPE) microscopy for high-speed volumetric imaging of behaving organisms,” Nat. Photonics 9, 113–119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitchell, K. J.

Monneret, S.

Morales-Delgado, E. E.

Moser, C.

Mosk, A. P.

Müllenbroich, M. C.

I. Costantini, J.-P. Ghobril, A. P. Di Giovanna, A. L. A. Mascaro, L. Silvestri, M. C. Müllenbroich, L. Onofri, V. Conti, F. Vanzi, L. Sacconi, R. Guerrini, H. Markram, G. Iannello, and F. S. Pavone, “A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, W.

W. Müller, M. Kielhorn, M. Schmitt, J. Popp, and R. Heintzmann, “Light sheet Raman micro-spectroscopy,” Optica 4, 452–457 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nemoto, T.

Y. Aoyagi, R. Kawakami, H. Osanai, T. Hibi, and T. Nemoto, “A Rapid Optical Clearing Protocol Using 2,2′-Thiodiethanol for Microscopic Observation of Fixed Mouse Brain,” PLoS ONE 10, e0116280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Niendorf, A.

H.-U. Dodt, S. Saghafi, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. Hahn, M. Pende, M. Wanis, and A. Niendorf, “Ultramicroscopy: development and outlook,” Neurophotonics 2, 041407 (2015).
[Crossref]

Niv, E.

Nylk, J.

M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onofri, L.

I. Costantini, J.-P. Ghobril, A. P. Di Giovanna, A. L. A. Mascaro, L. Silvestri, M. C. Müllenbroich, L. Onofri, V. Conti, F. Vanzi, L. Sacconi, R. Guerrini, H. Markram, G. Iannello, and F. S. Pavone, “A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osanai, H.

Y. Aoyagi, R. Kawakami, H. Osanai, T. Hibi, and T. Nemoto, “A Rapid Optical Clearing Protocol Using 2,2′-Thiodiethanol for Microscopic Observation of Fixed Mouse Brain,” PLoS ONE 10, e0116280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M. J.

Palmiter, R. D.

M. L. Gottsch, S. M. Popa, J. K. Lawhorn, J. Qiu, K. J. Tonsfeldt, M. A. Bosch, M. J. Kelly, O. K. Rønnekleiv, E. Sanz, G. S. McKnight, D. K. Clifton, R. D. Palmiter, and R. A. Steiner, “Molecular Properties of Kiss1 Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Mouse,” Endocrinology 152, 4298–4309 (2011).
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Papadopoulos, I. N.

Pavone, F. S.

L. Silvestri, I. Costantini, L. Sacconi, and F. S. Pavone, “Clearing of fixed tissue: a review from a microscopist’s perspective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 081205 (2016).
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I. Costantini, J.-P. Ghobril, A. P. Di Giovanna, A. L. A. Mascaro, L. Silvestri, M. C. Müllenbroich, L. Onofri, V. Conti, F. Vanzi, L. Sacconi, R. Guerrini, H. Markram, G. Iannello, and F. S. Pavone, “A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9808 (2015).
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Pende, M.

H.-U. Dodt, S. Saghafi, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. Hahn, M. Pende, M. Wanis, and A. Niendorf, “Ultramicroscopy: development and outlook,” Neurophotonics 2, 041407 (2015).
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Petschulat, J.

Phillips, D. B.

Piestun, R.

Pinkse, P. W. H.

Plöschner, M.

M. Plöschner, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Seeing through chaos in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photon. 9, 529–535 (2015).
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M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popa, S. M.

M. L. Gottsch, S. M. Popa, J. K. Lawhorn, J. Qiu, K. J. Tonsfeldt, M. A. Bosch, M. J. Kelly, O. K. Rønnekleiv, E. Sanz, G. S. McKnight, D. K. Clifton, R. D. Palmiter, and R. A. Steiner, “Molecular Properties of Kiss1 Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Mouse,” Endocrinology 152, 4298–4309 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popoff, S. M.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: An approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Popp, J.

W. Müller, M. Kielhorn, M. Schmitt, J. Popp, and R. Heintzmann, “Light sheet Raman micro-spectroscopy,” Optica 4, 452–457 (2016).
[Crossref]

Psaltis, D.

Qiu, J.

M. L. Gottsch, S. M. Popa, J. K. Lawhorn, J. Qiu, K. J. Tonsfeldt, M. A. Bosch, M. J. Kelly, O. K. Rønnekleiv, E. Sanz, G. S. McKnight, D. K. Clifton, R. D. Palmiter, and R. A. Steiner, “Molecular Properties of Kiss1 Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Mouse,” Endocrinology 152, 4298–4309 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. S.

D. S. Richardson and J. W. Lichtman, “Clarifying Tissue Clearing,” Cell 162, 246–257 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rigneault, H.

Rønnekleiv, O. K.

M. L. Gottsch, S. M. Popa, J. K. Lawhorn, J. Qiu, K. J. Tonsfeldt, M. A. Bosch, M. J. Kelly, O. K. Rønnekleiv, E. Sanz, G. S. McKnight, D. K. Clifton, R. D. Palmiter, and R. A. Steiner, “Molecular Properties of Kiss1 Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Mouse,” Endocrinology 152, 4298–4309 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenbluh, M.

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory Effects in Propagation of Optical Waves through Disordered Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2328–2331 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S.

Sacconi, L.

L. Silvestri, I. Costantini, L. Sacconi, and F. S. Pavone, “Clearing of fixed tissue: a review from a microscopist’s perspective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 081205 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Costantini, J.-P. Ghobril, A. P. Di Giovanna, A. L. A. Mascaro, L. Silvestri, M. C. Müllenbroich, L. Onofri, V. Conti, F. Vanzi, L. Sacconi, R. Guerrini, H. Markram, G. Iannello, and F. S. Pavone, “A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saghafi, S.

H.-U. Dodt, S. Saghafi, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. Hahn, M. Pende, M. Wanis, and A. Niendorf, “Ultramicroscopy: development and outlook,” Neurophotonics 2, 041407 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Becker, N. Jährling, S. Saghafi, R. Weiler, and H.-U. Dodt, “Chemical Clearing and Dehydration of GFP Expressing Mouse Brains,” PLoS ONE 7, e33916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sankaran, S.

R. Tomer, M. Lovett-Barron, I. Kauvar, A. Andalman, V. M. Burns, S. Sankaran, L. Grosenick, M. Broxton, S. Yang, and K. Deisseroth, “SPED Light Sheet Microscopy: Fast Mapping of Biological System Structure and Function,” Cell 163, 1796–1806 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanz, E.

M. L. Gottsch, S. M. Popa, J. K. Lawhorn, J. Qiu, K. J. Tonsfeldt, M. A. Bosch, M. J. Kelly, O. K. Rønnekleiv, E. Sanz, G. S. McKnight, D. K. Clifton, R. D. Palmiter, and R. A. Steiner, “Molecular Properties of Kiss1 Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Mouse,” Endocrinology 152, 4298–4309 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schierloh, A.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4, 331–336 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, M.

W. Müller, M. Kielhorn, M. Schmitt, J. Popp, and R. Heintzmann, “Light sheet Raman micro-spectroscopy,” Optica 4, 452–457 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sheng, M.

A. Ertürk, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, C. D. Hojer, J. G. Egen, F. Hellal, F. Bradke, M. Sheng, and H.-U. Dodt, “Three-dimensional imaging of solvent-cleared organs using 3DISCO,” Nat. Protoc. 7, 1983–1995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, J.

Silvestri, L.

L. Silvestri, I. Costantini, L. Sacconi, and F. S. Pavone, “Clearing of fixed tissue: a review from a microscopist’s perspective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 081205 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Costantini, J.-P. Ghobril, A. P. Di Giovanna, A. L. A. Mascaro, L. Silvestri, M. C. Müllenbroich, L. Onofri, V. Conti, F. Vanzi, L. Sacconi, R. Guerrini, H. Markram, G. Iannello, and F. S. Pavone, “A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivankutty, S.

Steiner, R. A.

M. L. Gottsch, S. M. Popa, J. K. Lawhorn, J. Qiu, K. J. Tonsfeldt, M. A. Bosch, M. J. Kelly, O. K. Rønnekleiv, E. Sanz, G. S. McKnight, D. K. Clifton, R. D. Palmiter, and R. A. Steiner, “Molecular Properties of Kiss1 Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Mouse,” Endocrinology 152, 4298–4309 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomer, R.

R. Tomer, M. Lovett-Barron, I. Kauvar, A. Andalman, V. M. Burns, S. Sankaran, L. Grosenick, M. Broxton, S. Yang, and K. Deisseroth, “SPED Light Sheet Microscopy: Fast Mapping of Biological System Structure and Function,” Cell 163, 1796–1806 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Tomer, L. Ye, B. Hsueh, and K. Deisseroth, “Advanced CLARITY for rapid and high-resolution imaging of intact tissues,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1682–1697 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonsfeldt, K. J.

M. L. Gottsch, S. M. Popa, J. K. Lawhorn, J. Qiu, K. J. Tonsfeldt, M. A. Bosch, M. J. Kelly, O. K. Rønnekleiv, E. Sanz, G. S. McKnight, D. K. Clifton, R. D. Palmiter, and R. A. Steiner, “Molecular Properties of Kiss1 Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Mouse,” Endocrinology 152, 4298–4309 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turtaev, S.

Tyc, T.

M. Plöschner, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Seeing through chaos in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photon. 9, 529–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vanzi, F.

I. Costantini, J.-P. Ghobril, A. P. Di Giovanna, A. L. A. Mascaro, L. Silvestri, M. C. Müllenbroich, L. Onofri, V. Conti, F. Vanzi, L. Sacconi, R. Guerrini, H. Markram, G. Iannello, and F. S. Pavone, “A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Voleti, V.

M. B. Bouchard, V. Voleti, C. S. Mendes, C. Lacefield, W. B. Grueber, R. S. Mann, R. M. Bruno, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Swept confocally-aligned planar excitation (SCAPE) microscopy for high-speed volumetric imaging of behaving organisms,” Nat. Photonics 9, 113–119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wanis, M.

H.-U. Dodt, S. Saghafi, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. Hahn, M. Pende, M. Wanis, and A. Niendorf, “Ultramicroscopy: development and outlook,” Neurophotonics 2, 041407 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weiler, R.

K. Becker, N. Jährling, S. Saghafi, R. Weiler, and H.-U. Dodt, “Chemical Clearing and Dehydration of GFP Expressing Mouse Brains,” PLoS ONE 7, e33916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

R. Tomer, M. Lovett-Barron, I. Kauvar, A. Andalman, V. M. Burns, S. Sankaran, L. Grosenick, M. Broxton, S. Yang, and K. Deisseroth, “SPED Light Sheet Microscopy: Fast Mapping of Biological System Structure and Function,” Cell 163, 1796–1806 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, T. D.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 1–5 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ye, L.

R. Tomer, L. Ye, B. Hsueh, and K. Deisseroth, “Advanced CLARITY for rapid and high-resolution imaging of intact tissues,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1682–1697 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, C.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 1–5 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yun, S. H.

Zieglgänsberger, W.

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4, 331–336 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Cell (2)

R. Tomer, M. Lovett-Barron, I. Kauvar, A. Andalman, V. M. Burns, S. Sankaran, L. Grosenick, M. Broxton, S. Yang, and K. Deisseroth, “SPED Light Sheet Microscopy: Fast Mapping of Biological System Structure and Function,” Cell 163, 1796–1806 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Richardson and J. W. Lichtman, “Clarifying Tissue Clearing,” Cell 162, 246–257 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endocrinology (1)

M. L. Gottsch, S. M. Popa, J. K. Lawhorn, J. Qiu, K. J. Tonsfeldt, M. A. Bosch, M. J. Kelly, O. K. Rønnekleiv, E. Sanz, G. S. McKnight, D. K. Clifton, R. D. Palmiter, and R. A. Steiner, “Molecular Properties of Kiss1 Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Mouse,” Endocrinology 152, 4298–4309 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gut (1)

Helicobacter and Cancer Collaborative Group, “Gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori: A combined analysis of 12 case control studies nested within prospective cohorts,” Gut 49, 347–353 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

L. Silvestri, I. Costantini, L. Sacconi, and F. S. Pavone, “Clearing of fixed tissue: a review from a microscopist’s perspective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21, 081205 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Exploiting multimode waveguides for pure fibre-based imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1027 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

H.-U. Dodt, U. Leischner, A. Schierloh, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, K. Deininger, J. M. Deussing, M. Eder, W. Zieglgänsberger, and K. Becker, “Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 4, 331–336 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (1)

M. Plöschner, T. Tyc, and T. Čižmár, “Seeing through chaos in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photon. 9, 529–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. B. Bouchard, V. Voleti, C. S. Mendes, C. Lacefield, W. B. Grueber, R. S. Mann, R. M. Bruno, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Swept confocally-aligned planar excitation (SCAPE) microscopy for high-speed volumetric imaging of behaving organisms,” Nat. Photonics 9, 113–119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Čižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4, 388–394 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Protoc. (2)

A. Ertürk, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. P. Mauch, C. D. Hojer, J. G. Egen, F. Hellal, F. Bradke, M. Sheng, and H.-U. Dodt, “Three-dimensional imaging of solvent-cleared organs using 3DISCO,” Nat. Protoc. 7, 1983–1995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Tomer, L. Ye, B. Hsueh, and K. Deisseroth, “Advanced CLARITY for rapid and high-resolution imaging of intact tissues,” Nat. Protoc. 9, 1682–1697 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neurophotonics (1)

H.-U. Dodt, S. Saghafi, K. Becker, N. Jährling, C. Hahn, M. Pende, M. Wanis, and A. Niendorf, “Ultramicroscopy: development and outlook,” Neurophotonics 2, 041407 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, “Shaping the light transmission through a multimode optical fibre: complex transformation analysis and applications in biophotonics,” Opt. Express 19, 18871–18884 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, E. Niv, D. B. Conkey, and R. Piestun, “Real-time resilient focusing through a bending multimode fiber,” Opt. Express 21, 12881–12887 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. E. Morales-Delgado, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Two-photon imaging through a multimode fiber,” Opt. Express 23, 32158–32170 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sivankutty, E. R. Andresen, R. Cossart, G. Bouwmans, S. Monneret, and H. Rigneault, “Ultra-thin rigid endoscope: two-photon imaging through a graded-index multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 24, 825–841 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Gusachenko, M. Chen, and K. Dholakia, “Raman imaging through a single multimode fibre,” Opt. Express 25, 13782–13798 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Mitchell, S. Turtaev, M. J. Padgett, T. Čižmár, and D. B. Phillips, “High-speed spatial control of the intensity, phase and polarisation of vector beams using a digital micro-mirror device,” Opt. Express 24, 29269–29282 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. N. Mahalati, R. Y. Gu, and J. M. Kahn, “Resolution limits for imaging through multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 21, 1656–1668 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Descloux, L. V. Amitonova, and P. W. H. Pinkse, “Aberrations of the point spread function of a multimode fiber due to partial mode excitation,” Opt. Express 24, 18501–18512 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (1)

W. Müller, M. Kielhorn, M. Schmitt, J. Popp, and R. Heintzmann, “Light sheet Raman micro-spectroscopy,” Optica 4, 452–457 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory Effects in Propagation of Optical Waves through Disordered Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2328–2331 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 1–5 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: An approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

PLoS ONE (2)

K. Becker, N. Jährling, S. Saghafi, R. Weiler, and H.-U. Dodt, “Chemical Clearing and Dehydration of GFP Expressing Mouse Brains,” PLoS ONE 7, e33916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Aoyagi, R. Kawakami, H. Osanai, T. Hibi, and T. Nemoto, “A Rapid Optical Clearing Protocol Using 2,2′-Thiodiethanol for Microscopic Observation of Fixed Mouse Brain,” PLoS ONE 10, e0116280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

I. Costantini, J.-P. Ghobril, A. P. Di Giovanna, A. L. A. Mascaro, L. Silvestri, M. C. Müllenbroich, L. Onofri, V. Conti, F. Vanzi, L. Sacconi, R. Guerrini, H. Markram, G. Iannello, and F. S. Pavone, “A versatile clearing agent for multi-modal brain imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Plöschner, V. Kollárová, Z. Dostál, J. Nylk, T. Barton-Owen, D. E. K. Ferrier, R. Chmelík, K. Dholakia, and T. Čižmár, “Multimode fibre: Light-sheet microscopy at the tip of a needle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the experimental setup. Lx - lenses, Mx - mirrors, IR - iris, DM - dichroic mirror, FM - flip mirror, NF - notch filter, BS - 50:50 beamsplitter, PDx - photodiodes. (b) Schematic of the sample chamber, showing fluorescent beads covered with a TDE-cleared brain tissue and immersed in TDE. (c) Representative emission spectra of Alexa Fluor 555 and the tissue autofluorescence, when excited at 532 nm. The plots are normalized to have identical areas under each curve.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM images of freshly cleaved fibre (a, d), and fibres after 24h immersion in TDE (b, e) and sulfuric acid (c, f). (a–c) show the entire facet, while (d–e) are close-up images of the central part of the core.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fluorescence images of fluorescent beads (a, b, e, f) and labelled neuroblastoma cells (c, d, g, h). Reference images recorded with the camera (a–d) and through the MMF (e–h). The samples were imaged directly (a, e, c, g) and through a slice of a tissue cleared with 100% TDE (b,d,f,h). The inset in (e) shows a zoomed-in image of a single bead, used to determine its radial (σρ ≈ 4.2 μm) and azimuthal (σϕ ≈ 4.9 μm) FWHM width. Scale bars are 50 μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Fluorescence images of 2 μm fluorescent beads immersed in concentrated sulfuric acid. (a–c) camera (reference) images, (d–f) MMF images. The white circle on (e) shows the FWHM σ ≈ 2.0 μm of a bead image intensity. Scale bars are 10 μm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Raman imaging of polystyrene beads in TDE. (a) A typical raw Raman spectrum dominated by the fibre background (yellow dashed), and extracted Raman spectra of polystyrene beads (blue solid) and TDE immersion (red dotted). (b) Bright field (reference) image of polystyrene beads. (c) Raman image of polystyrene beads, as shown by the intensity of the correspondent spectral component from (a). Scale bars are 10 μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Numerical aperture and resolution for different refractive index compounds, for λ = 532 nm.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

FOV = 2 | WD / tan θ R | , with NA e f f = { NA , if WD R tan θ R tan θ WD NA , otherwise
C * = C T , S * = T 1 S , A = C S = C * S *

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