Abstract

Fluorescence microscopy is an important technique for cellular and microbiological investigations. Translating this technique onto a smartphone can enable particularly powerful applications such as on-site analysis, on-demand monitoring, and point-of-care diagnostics. Current fluorescence smartphone microscope setups require precise illumination and imaging alignment which altogether limit its broad adoption. We report a multi-color fluorescence smartphone microscope with a single contact lens-like add-on lens and slide-launched total-internal-reflection guided illumination for three common tasks in investigative fluorescence microscopy: autofluorescence, fluorescent stains, and immunofluorescence. The open-source, simple and cost-effective design has the potential for do-it-yourself fluorescence smartphone microscopy.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2017 (1)

2015 (4)

X. Xu, A. Akay, H. Wei, S. Wang, B. Pingguan-Murphy, B. E. Erlandsson, X. Li, W. Lee, J. Hu, and L. Wang, “Advances in smartphone-based point-of-care diagnostics,” Proc. IEEE 103, 236–247 (2015).

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
[PubMed]

Z. F. Phillips, M. V. D’Ambrosio, L. Tian, J. J. Rulison, H. S. Patel, N. Sadras, A. V. Gande, N. A. Switz, D. A. Fletcher, and L. Waller, “Multi-contrast imaging and digital refocusing on a mobile microscope with a domed led array,” PLoS One 10(5), e0124938 (2015).
[PubMed]

Y. L. Sung, J. Jeang, C. H. Lee, and W. C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047005 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (2)

F. Snik, J. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, and J. M. Smit, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).

P. J. De Temmerman, E. Verleysen, J. Lammertyn, and J. Mast, “Semi-automatic size measurement of primary particles in aggregated nanomaterials by transmission electron microscopy,” Powder Technol. 261, 191–200 (2014).

2013 (2)

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T. T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent imaging of single nanoparticles and viruses on a smart phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[PubMed]

C. Gurrin, Z. Qiu, M. Hughes, N. Caprani, A. R. Doherty, S. E. Hodges, and A. F. Smeaton, “The smartphone as a platform for wearable cameras in health research,” Am. J. Prev. Med. 44(3), 308–313 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (1)

L. Shen, J. A. Hagen, and I. Papautsky, “Point-of-care colorimetric detection with a smartphone,” Lab Chip 12(21), 4240–4243 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (3)

P. Mandal, A. Biswas, K. Choi, and U. Pal, “Methods for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens: an overview,” Am. J. Food Technol. 6, 87–102 (2011).

K. K. Ghosh, L. D. Burns, E. D. Cocker, A. Nimmerjahn, Y. Ziv, A. E. Gamal, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope,” Nat. Methods 8(10), 871–878 (2011).
[PubMed]

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11(2), 315–322 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS One 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS One 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[PubMed]

2006 (1)

B. N. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, “The fluorescent toolbox for assessing protein location and function,” Science 312(5771), 217–224 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (3)

R. Yuste, “Fluorescence microscopy today,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 902–904 (2005).
[PubMed]

J. W. Lichtman and J. A. Conchello, “Fluorescence microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 910–919 (2005).
[PubMed]

K. Doi, “Current status and future potential of computer-aided diagnosis in medical imaging,” Br. J. Radiol. 78, s3–s19 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004 (1)

H. B. Glasgow, J. M. Burkholder, R. E. Reed, A. J. Lewitus, and J. E. Kleinman, “Real-time remote monitoring of water quality: a review of current applications, and advancements in sensor, telemetry, and computing technologies,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 300, 409–448 (2004).

2002 (1)

C. L. DiGiorgio, D. A. Gonzalez, and C. C. Huitt, “Cryptosporidium and Giardia recoveries in natural waters by using environmental protection agency method 1623,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(12), 5952–5955 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (2)

J. C. Tiller, C. J. Liao, K. Lewis, and A. M. Klibanov, “Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(11), 5981–5985 (2001).
[PubMed]

R. D. Adam, “Biology of Giardia lamblia,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14(3), 447–475 (2001).
[PubMed]

1999 (2)

D. Pittet, S. Dharan, S. Touveneau, V. Sauvan, and T. V. Perneger, “Bacterial contamination of the hands of hospital staff during routine patient care,” Arch. Intern. Med. 159(8), 821–826 (1999).
[PubMed]

L. Boulos, M. Prévost, B. Barbeau, J. Coallier, and R. Desjardins, “LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ : application of a new rapid staining method for direct enumeration of viable and total bacteria in drinking water,” J. Microbiol. Methods 37(1), 77–86 (1999).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

F. Kawamoto, “Rapid diagnosis of malaria by fluorescence microscopy with light microscope and interference filter,” Lancet 337(8735), 200–202 (1991).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

R. Porra, W. Thompson, and P. Kriedemann, “Determination of accurate extinction coefficients and simultaneous equations for assaying chlorophylls a and b extracted with four different solvents: verification of the concentration of chlorophyll standards by atomic absorption spectroscopy,” BBA 975, 384–394 (1989).

1978 (1)

W. W. Franke, E. Schmid, M. Osborn, and K. Weber, “Different intermediate-sized filaments distinguished by immunofluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75(10), 5034–5038 (1978).
[PubMed]

1967 (1)

J. S. Ploem, “The use of a vertical illuminator with interchangeable dichroic mirrors for fluorescence microscopy with incidental light,” Z. Wiss. Mikrosk. 68(3), 129–142 (1967).
[PubMed]

1965 (1)

G. Leedale, B. Meeuse, and E. Pringsheim, “Structure and physiology of Euglena spirogyra. I and II,” Arch. Microbiol. 50, 68–102 (1965).

Abdolrahimi, F.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS One 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[PubMed]

Adam, R. D.

R. D. Adam, “Biology of Giardia lamblia,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14(3), 447–475 (2001).
[PubMed]

Adams, S. R.

B. N. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, “The fluorescent toolbox for assessing protein location and function,” Science 312(5771), 217–224 (2006).
[PubMed]

Agrawal, P.

S. Kulkarni and P. Agrawal, “Smartphone driven healthcare system for rural communities in developing countries,” in Proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on systems and networking support for health care and assisted living environments(ACM2008), p. 8.

Akay, A.

X. Xu, A. Akay, H. Wei, S. Wang, B. Pingguan-Murphy, B. E. Erlandsson, X. Li, W. Lee, J. Hu, and L. Wang, “Advances in smartphone-based point-of-care diagnostics,” Proc. IEEE 103, 236–247 (2015).

Apituley, A.

F. Snik, J. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, and J. M. Smit, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).

Bahrmand, A. R.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS One 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[PubMed]

Barbeau, B.

L. Boulos, M. Prévost, B. Barbeau, J. Coallier, and R. Desjardins, “LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ : application of a new rapid staining method for direct enumeration of viable and total bacteria in drinking water,” J. Microbiol. Methods 37(1), 77–86 (1999).
[PubMed]

Bentolila, L. A.

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T. T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent imaging of single nanoparticles and viruses on a smart phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[PubMed]

Biswas, A.

P. Mandal, A. Biswas, K. Choi, and U. Pal, “Methods for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens: an overview,” Am. J. Food Technol. 6, 87–102 (2011).

Boulos, L.

L. Boulos, M. Prévost, B. Barbeau, J. Coallier, and R. Desjardins, “LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ : application of a new rapid staining method for direct enumeration of viable and total bacteria in drinking water,” J. Microbiol. Methods 37(1), 77–86 (1999).
[PubMed]

Breslauer, D. N.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS One 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[PubMed]

Burbano, J.

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
[PubMed]

Burkholder, J. M.

H. B. Glasgow, J. M. Burkholder, R. E. Reed, A. J. Lewitus, and J. E. Kleinman, “Real-time remote monitoring of water quality: a review of current applications, and advancements in sensor, telemetry, and computing technologies,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 300, 409–448 (2004).

Burns, L. D.

K. K. Ghosh, L. D. Burns, E. D. Cocker, A. Nimmerjahn, Y. Ziv, A. E. Gamal, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope,” Nat. Methods 8(10), 871–878 (2011).
[PubMed]

Caprani, N.

C. Gurrin, Z. Qiu, M. Hughes, N. Caprani, A. R. Doherty, S. E. Hodges, and A. F. Smeaton, “The smartphone as a platform for wearable cameras in health research,” Am. J. Prev. Med. 44(3), 308–313 (2013).
[PubMed]

Chan, R. Y. L.

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
[PubMed]

Choi, K.

P. Mandal, A. Biswas, K. Choi, and U. Pal, “Methods for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens: an overview,” Am. J. Food Technol. 6, 87–102 (2011).

Coallier, J.

L. Boulos, M. Prévost, B. Barbeau, J. Coallier, and R. Desjardins, “LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ : application of a new rapid staining method for direct enumeration of viable and total bacteria in drinking water,” J. Microbiol. Methods 37(1), 77–86 (1999).
[PubMed]

Cocker, E. D.

K. K. Ghosh, L. D. Burns, E. D. Cocker, A. Nimmerjahn, Y. Ziv, A. E. Gamal, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope,” Nat. Methods 8(10), 871–878 (2011).
[PubMed]

Conchello, J. A.

J. W. Lichtman and J. A. Conchello, “Fluorescence microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 910–919 (2005).
[PubMed]

Cortazar, B.

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
[PubMed]

D’Ambrosio, M. V.

Z. F. Phillips, M. V. D’Ambrosio, L. Tian, J. J. Rulison, H. S. Patel, N. Sadras, A. V. Gande, N. A. Switz, D. A. Fletcher, and L. Waller, “Multi-contrast imaging and digital refocusing on a mobile microscope with a domed led array,” PLoS One 10(5), e0124938 (2015).
[PubMed]

Davis, G. L.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS One 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[PubMed]

De Temmerman, P. J.

P. J. De Temmerman, E. Verleysen, J. Lammertyn, and J. Mast, “Semi-automatic size measurement of primary particles in aggregated nanomaterials by transmission electron microscopy,” Powder Technol. 261, 191–200 (2014).

Desjardins, R.

L. Boulos, M. Prévost, B. Barbeau, J. Coallier, and R. Desjardins, “LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ : application of a new rapid staining method for direct enumeration of viable and total bacteria in drinking water,” J. Microbiol. Methods 37(1), 77–86 (1999).
[PubMed]

Dharan, S.

D. Pittet, S. Dharan, S. Touveneau, V. Sauvan, and T. V. Perneger, “Bacterial contamination of the hands of hospital staff during routine patient care,” Arch. Intern. Med. 159(8), 821–826 (1999).
[PubMed]

Di Noia, A.

F. Snik, J. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, and J. M. Smit, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).

DiGiorgio, C. L.

C. L. DiGiorgio, D. A. Gonzalez, and C. C. Huitt, “Cryptosporidium and Giardia recoveries in natural waters by using environmental protection agency method 1623,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(12), 5952–5955 (2002).
[PubMed]

Doherty, A. R.

C. Gurrin, Z. Qiu, M. Hughes, N. Caprani, A. R. Doherty, S. E. Hodges, and A. F. Smeaton, “The smartphone as a platform for wearable cameras in health research,” Am. J. Prev. Med. 44(3), 308–313 (2013).
[PubMed]

Doi, K.

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K. K. Ghosh, L. D. Burns, E. D. Cocker, A. Nimmerjahn, Y. Ziv, A. E. Gamal, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope,” Nat. Methods 8(10), 871–878 (2011).
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I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
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C. L. DiGiorgio, D. A. Gonzalez, and C. C. Huitt, “Cryptosporidium and Giardia recoveries in natural waters by using environmental protection agency method 1623,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(12), 5952–5955 (2002).
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H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
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Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T. T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent imaging of single nanoparticles and viruses on a smart phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
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A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS One 5(8), e11890 (2010).
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F. Snik, J. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, and J. M. Smit, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).

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F. Snik, J. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, and J. M. Smit, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).

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C. Gurrin, Z. Qiu, M. Hughes, N. Caprani, A. R. Doherty, S. E. Hodges, and A. F. Smeaton, “The smartphone as a platform for wearable cameras in health research,” Am. J. Prev. Med. 44(3), 308–313 (2013).
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Hu, Z.

Hughes, M.

C. Gurrin, Z. Qiu, M. Hughes, N. Caprani, A. R. Doherty, S. E. Hodges, and A. F. Smeaton, “The smartphone as a platform for wearable cameras in health research,” Am. J. Prev. Med. 44(3), 308–313 (2013).
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C. L. DiGiorgio, D. A. Gonzalez, and C. C. Huitt, “Cryptosporidium and Giardia recoveries in natural waters by using environmental protection agency method 1623,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(12), 5952–5955 (2002).
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R. Porra, W. Thompson, and P. Kriedemann, “Determination of accurate extinction coefficients and simultaneous equations for assaying chlorophylls a and b extracted with four different solvents: verification of the concentration of chlorophyll standards by atomic absorption spectroscopy,” BBA 975, 384–394 (1989).

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D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS One 4(7), e6320 (2009).
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Y. L. Sung, J. Jeang, C. H. Lee, and W. C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047005 (2015).
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X. Xu, A. Akay, H. Wei, S. Wang, B. Pingguan-Murphy, B. E. Erlandsson, X. Li, W. Lee, J. Hu, and L. Wang, “Advances in smartphone-based point-of-care diagnostics,” Proc. IEEE 103, 236–247 (2015).

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J. C. Tiller, C. J. Liao, K. Lewis, and A. M. Klibanov, “Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(11), 5981–5985 (2001).
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H. B. Glasgow, J. M. Burkholder, R. E. Reed, A. J. Lewitus, and J. E. Kleinman, “Real-time remote monitoring of water quality: a review of current applications, and advancements in sensor, telemetry, and computing technologies,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 300, 409–448 (2004).

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X. Xu, A. Akay, H. Wei, S. Wang, B. Pingguan-Murphy, B. E. Erlandsson, X. Li, W. Lee, J. Hu, and L. Wang, “Advances in smartphone-based point-of-care diagnostics,” Proc. IEEE 103, 236–247 (2015).

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J. C. Tiller, C. J. Liao, K. Lewis, and A. M. Klibanov, “Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(11), 5981–5985 (2001).
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D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS One 4(7), e6320 (2009).
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P. Mandal, A. Biswas, K. Choi, and U. Pal, “Methods for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens: an overview,” Am. J. Food Technol. 6, 87–102 (2011).

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P. J. De Temmerman, E. Verleysen, J. Lammertyn, and J. Mast, “Semi-automatic size measurement of primary particles in aggregated nanomaterials by transmission electron microscopy,” Powder Technol. 261, 191–200 (2014).

McLeod, E.

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
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G. Leedale, B. Meeuse, and E. Pringsheim, “Structure and physiology of Euglena spirogyra. I and II,” Arch. Microbiol. 50, 68–102 (1965).

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F. Snik, J. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, and J. M. Smit, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).

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A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS One 5(8), e11890 (2010).
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Nimmerjahn, A.

K. K. Ghosh, L. D. Burns, E. D. Cocker, A. Nimmerjahn, Y. Ziv, A. E. Gamal, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope,” Nat. Methods 8(10), 871–878 (2011).
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A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS One 5(8), e11890 (2010).
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A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS One 5(8), e11890 (2010).
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W. W. Franke, E. Schmid, M. Osborn, and K. Weber, “Different intermediate-sized filaments distinguished by immunofluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75(10), 5034–5038 (1978).
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H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
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Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T. T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent imaging of single nanoparticles and viruses on a smart phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
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P. Mandal, A. Biswas, K. Choi, and U. Pal, “Methods for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens: an overview,” Am. J. Food Technol. 6, 87–102 (2011).

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L. Shen, J. A. Hagen, and I. Papautsky, “Point-of-care colorimetric detection with a smartphone,” Lab Chip 12(21), 4240–4243 (2012).
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Z. F. Phillips, M. V. D’Ambrosio, L. Tian, J. J. Rulison, H. S. Patel, N. Sadras, A. V. Gande, N. A. Switz, D. A. Fletcher, and L. Waller, “Multi-contrast imaging and digital refocusing on a mobile microscope with a domed led array,” PLoS One 10(5), e0124938 (2015).
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I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
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D. Pittet, S. Dharan, S. Touveneau, V. Sauvan, and T. V. Perneger, “Bacterial contamination of the hands of hospital staff during routine patient care,” Arch. Intern. Med. 159(8), 821–826 (1999).
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Z. F. Phillips, M. V. D’Ambrosio, L. Tian, J. J. Rulison, H. S. Patel, N. Sadras, A. V. Gande, N. A. Switz, D. A. Fletcher, and L. Waller, “Multi-contrast imaging and digital refocusing on a mobile microscope with a domed led array,” PLoS One 10(5), e0124938 (2015).
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Pierce, M. C.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS One 5(8), e11890 (2010).
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X. Xu, A. Akay, H. Wei, S. Wang, B. Pingguan-Murphy, B. E. Erlandsson, X. Li, W. Lee, J. Hu, and L. Wang, “Advances in smartphone-based point-of-care diagnostics,” Proc. IEEE 103, 236–247 (2015).

Pittet, D.

D. Pittet, S. Dharan, S. Touveneau, V. Sauvan, and T. V. Perneger, “Bacterial contamination of the hands of hospital staff during routine patient care,” Arch. Intern. Med. 159(8), 821–826 (1999).
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R. Porra, W. Thompson, and P. Kriedemann, “Determination of accurate extinction coefficients and simultaneous equations for assaying chlorophylls a and b extracted with four different solvents: verification of the concentration of chlorophyll standards by atomic absorption spectroscopy,” BBA 975, 384–394 (1989).

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G. Leedale, B. Meeuse, and E. Pringsheim, “Structure and physiology of Euglena spirogyra. I and II,” Arch. Microbiol. 50, 68–102 (1965).

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Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T. T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent imaging of single nanoparticles and viruses on a smart phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[PubMed]

Qiu, Z.

C. Gurrin, Z. Qiu, M. Hughes, N. Caprani, A. R. Doherty, S. E. Hodges, and A. F. Smeaton, “The smartphone as a platform for wearable cameras in health research,” Am. J. Prev. Med. 44(3), 308–313 (2013).
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Razavi, M. R.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS One 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[PubMed]

Reed, R. E.

H. B. Glasgow, J. M. Burkholder, R. E. Reed, A. J. Lewitus, and J. E. Kleinman, “Real-time remote monitoring of water quality: a review of current applications, and advancements in sensor, telemetry, and computing technologies,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 300, 409–448 (2004).

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS One 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[PubMed]

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
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Rietjens, J. H.

F. Snik, J. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, and J. M. Smit, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).

Rulison, J. J.

Z. F. Phillips, M. V. D’Ambrosio, L. Tian, J. J. Rulison, H. S. Patel, N. Sadras, A. V. Gande, N. A. Switz, D. A. Fletcher, and L. Waller, “Multi-contrast imaging and digital refocusing on a mobile microscope with a domed led array,” PLoS One 10(5), e0124938 (2015).
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Sadras, N.

Z. F. Phillips, M. V. D’Ambrosio, L. Tian, J. J. Rulison, H. S. Patel, N. Sadras, A. V. Gande, N. A. Switz, D. A. Fletcher, and L. Waller, “Multi-contrast imaging and digital refocusing on a mobile microscope with a domed led array,” PLoS One 10(5), e0124938 (2015).
[PubMed]

Sakhaie, F.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS One 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[PubMed]

Sauvan, V.

D. Pittet, S. Dharan, S. Touveneau, V. Sauvan, and T. V. Perneger, “Bacterial contamination of the hands of hospital staff during routine patient care,” Arch. Intern. Med. 159(8), 821–826 (1999).
[PubMed]

Schmid, E.

W. W. Franke, E. Schmid, M. Osborn, and K. Weber, “Different intermediate-sized filaments distinguished by immunofluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75(10), 5034–5038 (1978).
[PubMed]

Schnitzer, M. J.

K. K. Ghosh, L. D. Burns, E. D. Cocker, A. Nimmerjahn, Y. Ziv, A. E. Gamal, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope,” Nat. Methods 8(10), 871–878 (2011).
[PubMed]

Shen, L.

L. Shen, J. A. Hagen, and I. Papautsky, “Point-of-care colorimetric detection with a smartphone,” Lab Chip 12(21), 4240–4243 (2012).
[PubMed]

Shih, W. C.

Y. L. Sung, J. Jeang, C. H. Lee, and W. C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047005 (2015).
[PubMed]

Shih, W.-C.

Smeaton, A. F.

C. Gurrin, Z. Qiu, M. Hughes, N. Caprani, A. R. Doherty, S. E. Hodges, and A. F. Smeaton, “The smartphone as a platform for wearable cameras in health research,” Am. J. Prev. Med. 44(3), 308–313 (2013).
[PubMed]

Smit, J. M.

F. Snik, J. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, and J. M. Smit, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).

Snik, F.

F. Snik, J. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, and J. M. Smit, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).

Su, T. W.

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11(2), 315–322 (2011).
[PubMed]

Sun, R.

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T. T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent imaging of single nanoparticles and viruses on a smart phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[PubMed]

Sung, Y. L.

Y. L. Sung, J. Garan, H. Nguyen, Z. Hu, and W.-C. Shih, “Automated batch characterization of inkjet-printed elastomer lenses using a LEGO platform,” Appl. Opt. 56, 7346–7350 (2017).

Y. L. Sung, J. Jeang, C. H. Lee, and W. C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047005 (2015).
[PubMed]

Switz, N. A.

Z. F. Phillips, M. V. D’Ambrosio, L. Tian, J. J. Rulison, H. S. Patel, N. Sadras, A. V. Gande, N. A. Switz, D. A. Fletcher, and L. Waller, “Multi-contrast imaging and digital refocusing on a mobile microscope with a domed led array,” PLoS One 10(5), e0124938 (2015).
[PubMed]

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS One 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[PubMed]

Thompson, W.

R. Porra, W. Thompson, and P. Kriedemann, “Determination of accurate extinction coefficients and simultaneous equations for assaying chlorophylls a and b extracted with four different solvents: verification of the concentration of chlorophyll standards by atomic absorption spectroscopy,” BBA 975, 384–394 (1989).

Tian, L.

Z. F. Phillips, M. V. D’Ambrosio, L. Tian, J. J. Rulison, H. S. Patel, N. Sadras, A. V. Gande, N. A. Switz, D. A. Fletcher, and L. Waller, “Multi-contrast imaging and digital refocusing on a mobile microscope with a domed led array,” PLoS One 10(5), e0124938 (2015).
[PubMed]

Tiller, J. C.

J. C. Tiller, C. J. Liao, K. Lewis, and A. M. Klibanov, “Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(11), 5981–5985 (2001).
[PubMed]

Touveneau, S.

D. Pittet, S. Dharan, S. Touveneau, V. Sauvan, and T. V. Perneger, “Bacterial contamination of the hands of hospital staff during routine patient care,” Arch. Intern. Med. 159(8), 821–826 (1999).
[PubMed]

Tseng, D.

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
[PubMed]

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T. T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent imaging of single nanoparticles and viruses on a smart phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[PubMed]

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11(2), 315–322 (2011).
[PubMed]

Tsien, R. Y.

B. N. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, “The fluorescent toolbox for assessing protein location and function,” Science 312(5771), 217–224 (2006).
[PubMed]

Verleysen, E.

P. J. De Temmerman, E. Verleysen, J. Lammertyn, and J. Mast, “Semi-automatic size measurement of primary particles in aggregated nanomaterials by transmission electron microscopy,” Powder Technol. 261, 191–200 (2014).

Volten, H.

F. Snik, J. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, and J. M. Smit, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).

Waller, L.

Z. F. Phillips, M. V. D’Ambrosio, L. Tian, J. J. Rulison, H. S. Patel, N. Sadras, A. V. Gande, N. A. Switz, D. A. Fletcher, and L. Waller, “Multi-contrast imaging and digital refocusing on a mobile microscope with a domed led array,” PLoS One 10(5), e0124938 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wan, Z.

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T. T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent imaging of single nanoparticles and viruses on a smart phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[PubMed]

Wang, L.

X. Xu, A. Akay, H. Wei, S. Wang, B. Pingguan-Murphy, B. E. Erlandsson, X. Li, W. Lee, J. Hu, and L. Wang, “Advances in smartphone-based point-of-care diagnostics,” Proc. IEEE 103, 236–247 (2015).

Wang, S.

X. Xu, A. Akay, H. Wei, S. Wang, B. Pingguan-Murphy, B. E. Erlandsson, X. Li, W. Lee, J. Hu, and L. Wang, “Advances in smartphone-based point-of-care diagnostics,” Proc. IEEE 103, 236–247 (2015).

Weber, K.

W. W. Franke, E. Schmid, M. Osborn, and K. Weber, “Different intermediate-sized filaments distinguished by immunofluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75(10), 5034–5038 (1978).
[PubMed]

Wei, H.

X. Xu, A. Akay, H. Wei, S. Wang, B. Pingguan-Murphy, B. E. Erlandsson, X. Li, W. Lee, J. Hu, and L. Wang, “Advances in smartphone-based point-of-care diagnostics,” Proc. IEEE 103, 236–247 (2015).

Wei, Q.

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T. T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent imaging of single nanoparticles and viruses on a smart phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[PubMed]

Williams, M.

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[PubMed]

Wu, T. T.

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T. T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent imaging of single nanoparticles and viruses on a smart phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[PubMed]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, A. Akay, H. Wei, S. Wang, B. Pingguan-Murphy, B. E. Erlandsson, X. Li, W. Lee, J. Hu, and L. Wang, “Advances in smartphone-based point-of-care diagnostics,” Proc. IEEE 103, 236–247 (2015).

Yaglidere, O.

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11(2), 315–322 (2011).
[PubMed]

Yuste, R.

R. Yuste, “Fluorescence microscopy today,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 902–904 (2005).
[PubMed]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11(2), 315–322 (2011).
[PubMed]

Ziv, Y.

K. K. Ghosh, L. D. Burns, E. D. Cocker, A. Nimmerjahn, Y. Ziv, A. E. Gamal, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope,” Nat. Methods 8(10), 871–878 (2011).
[PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

Q. Wei, H. Qi, W. Luo, D. Tseng, S. J. Ki, Z. Wan, Z. Göröcs, L. A. Bentolila, T. T. Wu, R. Sun, and A. Ozcan, “Fluorescent imaging of single nanoparticles and viruses on a smart phone,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9147–9155 (2013).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Food Technol. (1)

P. Mandal, A. Biswas, K. Choi, and U. Pal, “Methods for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens: an overview,” Am. J. Food Technol. 6, 87–102 (2011).

Am. J. Prev. Med. (1)

C. Gurrin, Z. Qiu, M. Hughes, N. Caprani, A. R. Doherty, S. E. Hodges, and A. F. Smeaton, “The smartphone as a platform for wearable cameras in health research,” Am. J. Prev. Med. 44(3), 308–313 (2013).
[PubMed]

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1)

C. L. DiGiorgio, D. A. Gonzalez, and C. C. Huitt, “Cryptosporidium and Giardia recoveries in natural waters by using environmental protection agency method 1623,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(12), 5952–5955 (2002).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Intern. Med. (1)

D. Pittet, S. Dharan, S. Touveneau, V. Sauvan, and T. V. Perneger, “Bacterial contamination of the hands of hospital staff during routine patient care,” Arch. Intern. Med. 159(8), 821–826 (1999).
[PubMed]

Arch. Microbiol. (1)

G. Leedale, B. Meeuse, and E. Pringsheim, “Structure and physiology of Euglena spirogyra. I and II,” Arch. Microbiol. 50, 68–102 (1965).

BBA (1)

R. Porra, W. Thompson, and P. Kriedemann, “Determination of accurate extinction coefficients and simultaneous equations for assaying chlorophylls a and b extracted with four different solvents: verification of the concentration of chlorophyll standards by atomic absorption spectroscopy,” BBA 975, 384–394 (1989).

Br. J. Radiol. (1)

K. Doi, “Current status and future potential of computer-aided diagnosis in medical imaging,” Br. J. Radiol. 78, s3–s19 (2005).
[PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res. (1)

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[PubMed]

Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (1)

R. D. Adam, “Biology of Giardia lamblia,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14(3), 447–475 (2001).
[PubMed]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

F. Snik, J. H. Rietjens, A. Apituley, H. Volten, B. Mijling, A. Di Noia, S. Heikamp, R. C. Heinsbroek, O. P. Hasekamp, and J. M. Smit, “Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 7351–7358 (2014).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Y. L. Sung, J. Jeang, C. H. Lee, and W. C. Shih, “Fabricating optical lenses by inkjet printing and heat-assisted in situ curing of polydimethylsiloxane for smartphone microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 047005 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. (1)

H. B. Glasgow, J. M. Burkholder, R. E. Reed, A. J. Lewitus, and J. E. Kleinman, “Real-time remote monitoring of water quality: a review of current applications, and advancements in sensor, telemetry, and computing technologies,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 300, 409–448 (2004).

J. Microbiol. Methods (1)

L. Boulos, M. Prévost, B. Barbeau, J. Coallier, and R. Desjardins, “LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ : application of a new rapid staining method for direct enumeration of viable and total bacteria in drinking water,” J. Microbiol. Methods 37(1), 77–86 (1999).
[PubMed]

Lab Chip (3)

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11(2), 315–322 (2011).
[PubMed]

H. C. Koydemir, Z. Gorocs, D. Tseng, B. Cortazar, S. Feng, R. Y. L. Chan, J. Burbano, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning,” Lab Chip 15(5), 1284–1293 (2015).
[PubMed]

L. Shen, J. A. Hagen, and I. Papautsky, “Point-of-care colorimetric detection with a smartphone,” Lab Chip 12(21), 4240–4243 (2012).
[PubMed]

Lancet (1)

F. Kawamoto, “Rapid diagnosis of malaria by fluorescence microscopy with light microscope and interference filter,” Lancet 337(8735), 200–202 (1991).
[PubMed]

Nat. Methods (3)

R. Yuste, “Fluorescence microscopy today,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 902–904 (2005).
[PubMed]

J. W. Lichtman and J. A. Conchello, “Fluorescence microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 910–919 (2005).
[PubMed]

K. K. Ghosh, L. D. Burns, E. D. Cocker, A. Nimmerjahn, Y. Ziv, A. E. Gamal, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope,” Nat. Methods 8(10), 871–878 (2011).
[PubMed]

PLoS One (3)

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS One 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[PubMed]

Z. F. Phillips, M. V. D’Ambrosio, L. Tian, J. J. Rulison, H. S. Patel, N. Sadras, A. V. Gande, N. A. Switz, D. A. Fletcher, and L. Waller, “Multi-contrast imaging and digital refocusing on a mobile microscope with a domed led array,” PLoS One 10(5), e0124938 (2015).
[PubMed]

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS One 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[PubMed]

Powder Technol. (1)

P. J. De Temmerman, E. Verleysen, J. Lammertyn, and J. Mast, “Semi-automatic size measurement of primary particles in aggregated nanomaterials by transmission electron microscopy,” Powder Technol. 261, 191–200 (2014).

Proc. IEEE (1)

X. Xu, A. Akay, H. Wei, S. Wang, B. Pingguan-Murphy, B. E. Erlandsson, X. Li, W. Lee, J. Hu, and L. Wang, “Advances in smartphone-based point-of-care diagnostics,” Proc. IEEE 103, 236–247 (2015).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

J. C. Tiller, C. J. Liao, K. Lewis, and A. M. Klibanov, “Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(11), 5981–5985 (2001).
[PubMed]

W. W. Franke, E. Schmid, M. Osborn, and K. Weber, “Different intermediate-sized filaments distinguished by immunofluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75(10), 5034–5038 (1978).
[PubMed]

Science (1)

B. N. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, “The fluorescent toolbox for assessing protein location and function,” Science 312(5771), 217–224 (2006).
[PubMed]

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J. S. Ploem, “The use of a vertical illuminator with interchangeable dichroic mirrors for fluorescence microscopy with incidental light,” Z. Wiss. Mikrosk. 68(3), 129–142 (1967).
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B. N. Kim, J. A. Diaz, S. G. Hong, S. H. Lee, and L. P. Lee, “Dark-field smartphone microscope with nanoscale resolution for molecular diagnostics,” in MicroTAS(2014), pp. 2247–2249.

Y. L. Sung, F. Campa, and W. C. Shih, “3D design files for smartphone fluorescence microscopy,” https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5313643 figshare (2017).

S. Rahman and J. Lipert, “Exploration of simple analytical approaches for rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria,” Iowa State University (2005).

S. Battiato and M. Moltisanti, “The future of consumer cameras,” Proceedings of the SPIE, 93990C (2015).

S. Kulkarni and P. Agrawal, “Smartphone driven healthcare system for rural communities in developing countries,” in Proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on systems and networking support for health care and assisted living environments(ACM2008), p. 8.

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Dataset 1       3D design file for printing

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Slide-launched TIR-guided illumination: elastically scattered photons are blocked by the filter, while fluorescent photons can reach the smartphone camera. (b) Photorealistic cut-out rendering (c) Assembly procedure: inkjet-printed lens attached onto smartphone camera, smartphone adapter (1) fitted on smartphone, adhesive ring (2) attached to remove stray light, color filter attached on adhesive ring for fluorescence imaging, base ring (3) attached to adapter, threaded barrel (4) with slot enabled z-axis focusing and sample insertion, lid (5) attached to block ambient light, LED module (6) provided illumination. (d) System attached to smartphone.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally measured LED emission response show broad but well-defined peaks. Green laser from frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser for comparison of spectral width.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dyes used in this study and their respective fluorescence excitation / emission wavelength (solid lines), LED illumination response (patch) and color-filter cut-on wavelength (dotted line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Multi-color fluorescent beads imaged with: (top row) 100x desktop microscope, (middle row) smartphone microscope, and (bottom row) deconvoluted smartphone images.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spirogyra algae imaged on-site with fluorescence smartphone microscope under (a) dark-field white light scattering, and (b) blue light excitation with red fluorescence emission modes. (i–viii). Selected regions for comparison.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Bacteria dried on glass seen under (left) green fluorescence, (center) red fluorescence, and (right) multi-color overlaid image. The multi-color full FOV image is shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Full FOV of multi-color fluorescence live/dead bacteria image. Selected regions of interest shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum mixed with 6 µm polystyrene beads seen under (left) bright-field smartphone microscope and (right) green fluorescence. G. lamblia and C. parvum are respectively marked. The multi-color full FOV image is shown in Fig. 9.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Full FOV color-inverted bright-field image of parasites mixed with polystyrene beads with selected regions of interest shown in Fig. 8.

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