Abstract

Inflammation involves a cascade of cellular and molecular mediators that ultimately lead to the infiltration of immune cells into the affected area. This inflammatory process in skin is common to many diseases including acne, infection, and psoriasis, with the presence or absence of immune cells a potential diagnostic marker. Here we show that skin inflammation can be non-invasively measured and mapped using a paint-on oxygen sensing bandage in an in vivo porcine inflammation model. After injection of a known inflammatory agent, the bandage could track the increase, plateau, and decrease in oxygen consumption at the injury site over 7 weeks, as well as discern inflammation resultant from injection at various depths beneath the surface of the skin. Both the initial rate of pO2 change and the change in bandage pO2 at equilibration (CBP20) were found to be directly related to the metabolic oxygen consumption rate of the tissue in contact. Healthy skin demonstrated an initial pO2 decrease rate of 6.5 mmHgmin1, and CBP20 of 84 mmHg. Inflamed skin had a significantly higher initial consumption rate of 55 mmHgmin1, and a larger CBP20 of 140 mmHg. The change in the bandage pO2 before and after equilibration with tissue was found to correlate well with histological evidence of skin inflammation in the animals.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Roussakis, Z. Li, N. H. Nowell, A. J. Nichols, and C. L. Evans, “Bright, “Clickable” Porphyrins for the Visualization of Oxygenation under Ambient Light,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(49), 14728–14731 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

M. Pasparakis, I. Haase, and F. O. Nestle, “Mechanisms regulating skin immunity and inflammation,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 14(5), 289–301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Lowes, M. Suárez-Fariñas, and J. G. Krueger, “Immunology of psoriasis,” Annu. Rev. Immunol. 32(1), 227–255 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Nichols, E. Roussakis, O. J. Klein, and C. L. Evans, “Click-Assembled, Oxygen-Sensing Nanoconjugates for Depth-Resolved, Near-Infrared Imaging in a 3D Cancer Model,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(14), 3671–3674 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, E. Roussakis, P. G. Koolen, A. M. Ibrahim, K. Kim, L. F. Rose, J. Wu, A. J. Nichols, Y. Baek, R. Birngruber, G. Apiou-Sbirlea, R. Matyal, T. Huang, R. Chan, S. J. Lin, and C. L. Evans, “Non-invasive transdermal two-dimensional mapping of cutaneous oxygenation with a rapid-drying liquid bandage,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 3748–3764 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

H. Z. Imtiyaz and M. C. Simon, “Hypoxia-inducible factors as essential regulators of inflammation,” Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 345, 105–120 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Kominsky, E. L. Campbell, and S. P. Colgan, “Metabolic shifts in immunity and inflammation,” J. Immunol. 184(8), 4062–4068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Niedermair, S. M. Borisov, G. Zenkl, O. T. Hofmann, H. Weber, R. Saf, and I. Klimant, “Tunable phosphorescent NIR oxygen indicators based on mixed benzo- and naphthoporphyrin complexes,” Inorg. Chem. 49(20), 9333–9342 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Borisov, G. Zenkl, and I. Klimant, “Phosphorescent platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes with azatetrabenzoporphyrins-new red laser diode-compatible indicators for optical oxygen sensing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(2), 366–374 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Chu, Y. L. Lo, and T. W. Sung, “Enhanced oxygen sensing properties of Pt(II) complex and dye entrapped core-shell silica nanoparticles embedded in sol-gel matrix,” Talanta 82(3), 1044–1051 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Winter, E. J. McLaurin, S. Y. Reece, C. Olea, D. G. Nocera, and M. A. Marletta, “Ru-porphyrin protein scaffolds for sensing O2.,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(16), 5582–5583 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

C. Wu, B. Bull, K. Christensen, and J. McNeill, “Ratiometric single-nanoparticle oxygen sensors for biological imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(15), 2741–2745 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. Lebedev, A. V. Cheprakov, S. Sakadzić, D. A. Boas, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, “Dendritic phosphorescent probes for oxygen imaging in biological systems,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(6), 1292–1304 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sina, G. F. Kao, A. C. Deng, and A. A. Gaspari, “Skin biopsy for inflammatory and common neoplastic skin diseases: optimum time, best location and preferred techniques. A critical review,” J. Cutan. Pathol. 36(5), 505–510 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. Frede, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, and J. Fandrey, “Regulation of hypoxia-inducible factors during inflammation,” Methods Enzymol. 435, 403–419 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. Amao, “Probes and Polymers for Optical Sensing of Oxygen,” Mikrochim. Acta 143(1), 1–12 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

I. Dunphy, S. A. Vinogradov, and D. F. Wilson, “Oxyphor R2 and G2: phosphors for measuring oxygen by oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence,” Anal. Biochem. 310(2), 191–198 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. L. Buchman, “Side effects of corticosteroid therapy,” J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 33(4), 289–294 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

Y. Yoshinaga, M. Higaki, S. Terajima, E. Ohkubo, T. Nogita, N. Miyasaka, and M. Kawashima, “Detection of inflammatory cytokines in psoriatic skin,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 287(2), 158–164 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

D. H. Sachs, G. Leight, J. Cone, S. Schwarz, L. Stuart, and S. Rosenberg, “Transplantation in miniature swine. I. Fixation of the major histocompatibility complex,” Transplantation 22(6), 559–567 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahad, J.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amao, Y.

Y. Amao, “Probes and Polymers for Optical Sensing of Oxygen,” Mikrochim. Acta 143(1), 1–12 (2003).
[Crossref]

Apiou-Sbirlea, G.

Ayers, J.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, Y.

Berchner-Pfannschmidt, U.

S. Frede, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, and J. Fandrey, “Regulation of hypoxia-inducible factors during inflammation,” Methods Enzymol. 435, 403–419 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birngruber, R.

Boas, D. A.

A. Y. Lebedev, A. V. Cheprakov, S. Sakadzić, D. A. Boas, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, “Dendritic phosphorescent probes for oxygen imaging in biological systems,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(6), 1292–1304 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borisov, S. M.

F. Niedermair, S. M. Borisov, G. Zenkl, O. T. Hofmann, H. Weber, R. Saf, and I. Klimant, “Tunable phosphorescent NIR oxygen indicators based on mixed benzo- and naphthoporphyrin complexes,” Inorg. Chem. 49(20), 9333–9342 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Borisov, G. Zenkl, and I. Klimant, “Phosphorescent platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes with azatetrabenzoporphyrins-new red laser diode-compatible indicators for optical oxygen sensing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(2), 366–374 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buchman, A. L.

A. L. Buchman, “Side effects of corticosteroid therapy,” J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 33(4), 289–294 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bull, B.

C. Wu, B. Bull, K. Christensen, and J. McNeill, “Ratiometric single-nanoparticle oxygen sensors for biological imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(15), 2741–2745 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, E. L.

D. J. Kominsky, E. L. Campbell, and S. P. Colgan, “Metabolic shifts in immunity and inflammation,” J. Immunol. 184(8), 4062–4068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, R.

Chang, K.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheprakov, A. V.

A. Y. Lebedev, A. V. Cheprakov, S. Sakadzić, D. A. Boas, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, “Dendritic phosphorescent probes for oxygen imaging in biological systems,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(6), 1292–1304 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, N. H.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christensen, K.

C. Wu, B. Bull, K. Christensen, and J. McNeill, “Ratiometric single-nanoparticle oxygen sensors for biological imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(15), 2741–2745 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, C. S.

C. S. Chu, Y. L. Lo, and T. W. Sung, “Enhanced oxygen sensing properties of Pt(II) complex and dye entrapped core-shell silica nanoparticles embedded in sol-gel matrix,” Talanta 82(3), 1044–1051 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colgan, S. P.

D. J. Kominsky, E. L. Campbell, and S. P. Colgan, “Metabolic shifts in immunity and inflammation,” J. Immunol. 184(8), 4062–4068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cone, J.

D. H. Sachs, G. Leight, J. Cone, S. Schwarz, L. Stuart, and S. Rosenberg, “Transplantation in miniature swine. I. Fixation of the major histocompatibility complex,” Transplantation 22(6), 559–567 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Darlington, T.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, A. C.

B. Sina, G. F. Kao, A. C. Deng, and A. A. Gaspari, “Skin biopsy for inflammatory and common neoplastic skin diseases: optimum time, best location and preferred techniques. A critical review,” J. Cutan. Pathol. 36(5), 505–510 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunphy, I.

I. Dunphy, S. A. Vinogradov, and D. F. Wilson, “Oxyphor R2 and G2: phosphors for measuring oxygen by oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence,” Anal. Biochem. 310(2), 191–198 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, C. L.

E. Roussakis, Z. Li, N. H. Nowell, A. J. Nichols, and C. L. Evans, “Bright, “Clickable” Porphyrins for the Visualization of Oxygenation under Ambient Light,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(49), 14728–14731 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Nichols, E. Roussakis, O. J. Klein, and C. L. Evans, “Click-Assembled, Oxygen-Sensing Nanoconjugates for Depth-Resolved, Near-Infrared Imaging in a 3D Cancer Model,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(14), 3671–3674 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, E. Roussakis, P. G. Koolen, A. M. Ibrahim, K. Kim, L. F. Rose, J. Wu, A. J. Nichols, Y. Baek, R. Birngruber, G. Apiou-Sbirlea, R. Matyal, T. Huang, R. Chan, S. J. Lin, and C. L. Evans, “Non-invasive transdermal two-dimensional mapping of cutaneous oxygenation with a rapid-drying liquid bandage,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 3748–3764 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fandrey, J.

S. Frede, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, and J. Fandrey, “Regulation of hypoxia-inducible factors during inflammation,” Methods Enzymol. 435, 403–419 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, X.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frede, S.

S. Frede, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, and J. Fandrey, “Regulation of hypoxia-inducible factors during inflammation,” Methods Enzymol. 435, 403–419 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaspari, A. A.

B. Sina, G. F. Kao, A. C. Deng, and A. A. Gaspari, “Skin biopsy for inflammatory and common neoplastic skin diseases: optimum time, best location and preferred techniques. A critical review,” J. Cutan. Pathol. 36(5), 505–510 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorbach, A. M.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gruebele, A.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, X.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haase, I.

M. Pasparakis, I. Haase, and F. O. Nestle, “Mechanisms regulating skin immunity and inflammation,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 14(5), 289–301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Higaki, M.

Y. Yoshinaga, M. Higaki, S. Terajima, E. Ohkubo, T. Nogita, N. Miyasaka, and M. Kawashima, “Detection of inflammatory cytokines in psoriatic skin,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 287(2), 158–164 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofmann, O. T.

F. Niedermair, S. M. Borisov, G. Zenkl, O. T. Hofmann, H. Weber, R. Saf, and I. Klimant, “Tunable phosphorescent NIR oxygen indicators based on mixed benzo- and naphthoporphyrin complexes,” Inorg. Chem. 49(20), 9333–9342 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, T.

Huang, W.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, A. M.

Imtiyaz, H. Z.

H. Z. Imtiyaz and M. C. Simon, “Hypoxia-inducible factors as essential regulators of inflammation,” Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 345, 105–120 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kao, G. F.

B. Sina, G. F. Kao, A. C. Deng, and A. A. Gaspari, “Skin biopsy for inflammatory and common neoplastic skin diseases: optimum time, best location and preferred techniques. A critical review,” J. Cutan. Pathol. 36(5), 505–510 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawashima, M.

Y. Yoshinaga, M. Higaki, S. Terajima, E. Ohkubo, T. Nogita, N. Miyasaka, and M. Kawashima, “Detection of inflammatory cytokines in psoriatic skin,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 287(2), 158–164 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

Klein, O. J.

A. J. Nichols, E. Roussakis, O. J. Klein, and C. L. Evans, “Click-Assembled, Oxygen-Sensing Nanoconjugates for Depth-Resolved, Near-Infrared Imaging in a 3D Cancer Model,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(14), 3671–3674 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klimant, I.

F. Niedermair, S. M. Borisov, G. Zenkl, O. T. Hofmann, H. Weber, R. Saf, and I. Klimant, “Tunable phosphorescent NIR oxygen indicators based on mixed benzo- and naphthoporphyrin complexes,” Inorg. Chem. 49(20), 9333–9342 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Borisov, G. Zenkl, and I. Klimant, “Phosphorescent platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes with azatetrabenzoporphyrins-new red laser diode-compatible indicators for optical oxygen sensing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(2), 366–374 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kominsky, D. J.

D. J. Kominsky, E. L. Campbell, and S. P. Colgan, “Metabolic shifts in immunity and inflammation,” J. Immunol. 184(8), 4062–4068 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koolen, P. G.

Krishnan, S.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krueger, J. G.

M. A. Lowes, M. Suárez-Fariñas, and J. G. Krueger, “Immunology of psoriasis,” Annu. Rev. Immunol. 32(1), 227–255 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurniawan, J.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lebedev, A. Y.

A. Y. Lebedev, A. V. Cheprakov, S. Sakadzić, D. A. Boas, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, “Dendritic phosphorescent probes for oxygen imaging in biological systems,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(6), 1292–1304 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leight, G.

D. H. Sachs, G. Leight, J. Cone, S. Schwarz, L. Stuart, and S. Rosenberg, “Transplantation in miniature swine. I. Fixation of the major histocompatibility complex,” Transplantation 22(6), 559–567 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Lin, S. J.

Lo, Y. L.

C. S. Chu, Y. L. Lo, and T. W. Sung, “Enhanced oxygen sensing properties of Pt(II) complex and dye entrapped core-shell silica nanoparticles embedded in sol-gel matrix,” Talanta 82(3), 1044–1051 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lowes, M. A.

M. A. Lowes, M. Suárez-Fariñas, and J. G. Krueger, “Immunology of psoriasis,” Annu. Rev. Immunol. 32(1), 227–255 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marletta, M. A.

M. B. Winter, E. J. McLaurin, S. Y. Reece, C. Olea, D. G. Nocera, and M. A. Marletta, “Ru-porphyrin protein scaffolds for sensing O2.,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(16), 5582–5583 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matyal, R.

McLaurin, E. J.

M. B. Winter, E. J. McLaurin, S. Y. Reece, C. Olea, D. G. Nocera, and M. A. Marletta, “Ru-porphyrin protein scaffolds for sensing O2.,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(16), 5582–5583 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McNeill, J.

C. Wu, B. Bull, K. Christensen, and J. McNeill, “Ratiometric single-nanoparticle oxygen sensors for biological imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(15), 2741–2745 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyasaka, N.

Y. Yoshinaga, M. Higaki, S. Terajima, E. Ohkubo, T. Nogita, N. Miyasaka, and M. Kawashima, “Detection of inflammatory cytokines in psoriatic skin,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 287(2), 158–164 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nestle, F. O.

M. Pasparakis, I. Haase, and F. O. Nestle, “Mechanisms regulating skin immunity and inflammation,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 14(5), 289–301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nichols, A. J.

E. Roussakis, Z. Li, N. H. Nowell, A. J. Nichols, and C. L. Evans, “Bright, “Clickable” Porphyrins for the Visualization of Oxygenation under Ambient Light,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(49), 14728–14731 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Nichols, E. Roussakis, O. J. Klein, and C. L. Evans, “Click-Assembled, Oxygen-Sensing Nanoconjugates for Depth-Resolved, Near-Infrared Imaging in a 3D Cancer Model,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(14), 3671–3674 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, E. Roussakis, P. G. Koolen, A. M. Ibrahim, K. Kim, L. F. Rose, J. Wu, A. J. Nichols, Y. Baek, R. Birngruber, G. Apiou-Sbirlea, R. Matyal, T. Huang, R. Chan, S. J. Lin, and C. L. Evans, “Non-invasive transdermal two-dimensional mapping of cutaneous oxygenation with a rapid-drying liquid bandage,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 3748–3764 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niedermair, F.

F. Niedermair, S. M. Borisov, G. Zenkl, O. T. Hofmann, H. Weber, R. Saf, and I. Klimant, “Tunable phosphorescent NIR oxygen indicators based on mixed benzo- and naphthoporphyrin complexes,” Inorg. Chem. 49(20), 9333–9342 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nocera, D. G.

M. B. Winter, E. J. McLaurin, S. Y. Reece, C. Olea, D. G. Nocera, and M. A. Marletta, “Ru-porphyrin protein scaffolds for sensing O2.,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(16), 5582–5583 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nogita, T.

Y. Yoshinaga, M. Higaki, S. Terajima, E. Ohkubo, T. Nogita, N. Miyasaka, and M. Kawashima, “Detection of inflammatory cytokines in psoriatic skin,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 287(2), 158–164 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nowell, N. H.

E. Roussakis, Z. Li, N. H. Nowell, A. J. Nichols, and C. L. Evans, “Bright, “Clickable” Porphyrins for the Visualization of Oxygenation under Ambient Light,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(49), 14728–14731 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohkubo, E.

Y. Yoshinaga, M. Higaki, S. Terajima, E. Ohkubo, T. Nogita, N. Miyasaka, and M. Kawashima, “Detection of inflammatory cytokines in psoriatic skin,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 287(2), 158–164 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olea, C.

M. B. Winter, E. J. McLaurin, S. Y. Reece, C. Olea, D. G. Nocera, and M. A. Marletta, “Ru-porphyrin protein scaffolds for sensing O2.,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(16), 5582–5583 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pasparakis, M.

M. Pasparakis, I. Haase, and F. O. Nestle, “Mechanisms regulating skin immunity and inflammation,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 14(5), 289–301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pielak, R. M.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reece, S. Y.

M. B. Winter, E. J. McLaurin, S. Y. Reece, C. Olea, D. G. Nocera, and M. A. Marletta, “Ru-porphyrin protein scaffolds for sensing O2.,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(16), 5582–5583 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. A.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rose, L. F.

Rosenberg, S.

D. H. Sachs, G. Leight, J. Cone, S. Schwarz, L. Stuart, and S. Rosenberg, “Transplantation in miniature swine. I. Fixation of the major histocompatibility complex,” Transplantation 22(6), 559–567 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roussakis, E.

E. Roussakis, Z. Li, N. H. Nowell, A. J. Nichols, and C. L. Evans, “Bright, “Clickable” Porphyrins for the Visualization of Oxygenation under Ambient Light,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(49), 14728–14731 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, E. Roussakis, P. G. Koolen, A. M. Ibrahim, K. Kim, L. F. Rose, J. Wu, A. J. Nichols, Y. Baek, R. Birngruber, G. Apiou-Sbirlea, R. Matyal, T. Huang, R. Chan, S. J. Lin, and C. L. Evans, “Non-invasive transdermal two-dimensional mapping of cutaneous oxygenation with a rapid-drying liquid bandage,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 3748–3764 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Nichols, E. Roussakis, O. J. Klein, and C. L. Evans, “Click-Assembled, Oxygen-Sensing Nanoconjugates for Depth-Resolved, Near-Infrared Imaging in a 3D Cancer Model,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(14), 3671–3674 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sachs, D. H.

D. H. Sachs, G. Leight, J. Cone, S. Schwarz, L. Stuart, and S. Rosenberg, “Transplantation in miniature swine. I. Fixation of the major histocompatibility complex,” Transplantation 22(6), 559–567 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saf, R.

F. Niedermair, S. M. Borisov, G. Zenkl, O. T. Hofmann, H. Weber, R. Saf, and I. Klimant, “Tunable phosphorescent NIR oxygen indicators based on mixed benzo- and naphthoporphyrin complexes,” Inorg. Chem. 49(20), 9333–9342 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakadzic, S.

A. Y. Lebedev, A. V. Cheprakov, S. Sakadzić, D. A. Boas, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, “Dendritic phosphorescent probes for oxygen imaging in biological systems,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(6), 1292–1304 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwarz, S.

D. H. Sachs, G. Leight, J. Cone, S. Schwarz, L. Stuart, and S. Rosenberg, “Transplantation in miniature swine. I. Fixation of the major histocompatibility complex,” Transplantation 22(6), 559–567 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seidel, M.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheth, N.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, Y.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simon, M. C.

H. Z. Imtiyaz and M. C. Simon, “Hypoxia-inducible factors as essential regulators of inflammation,” Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 345, 105–120 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sina, B.

B. Sina, G. F. Kao, A. C. Deng, and A. A. Gaspari, “Skin biopsy for inflammatory and common neoplastic skin diseases: optimum time, best location and preferred techniques. A critical review,” J. Cutan. Pathol. 36(5), 505–510 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slepian, M. J.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stuart, L.

D. H. Sachs, G. Leight, J. Cone, S. Schwarz, L. Stuart, and S. Rosenberg, “Transplantation in miniature swine. I. Fixation of the major histocompatibility complex,” Transplantation 22(6), 559–567 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suárez-Fariñas, M.

M. A. Lowes, M. Suárez-Fariñas, and J. G. Krueger, “Immunology of psoriasis,” Annu. Rev. Immunol. 32(1), 227–255 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, T. W.

C. S. Chu, Y. L. Lo, and T. W. Sung, “Enhanced oxygen sensing properties of Pt(II) complex and dye entrapped core-shell silica nanoparticles embedded in sol-gel matrix,” Talanta 82(3), 1044–1051 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, J. G.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terajima, S.

Y. Yoshinaga, M. Higaki, S. Terajima, E. Ohkubo, T. Nogita, N. Miyasaka, and M. Kawashima, “Detection of inflammatory cytokines in psoriatic skin,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 287(2), 158–164 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vinogradov, S. A.

A. Y. Lebedev, A. V. Cheprakov, S. Sakadzić, D. A. Boas, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, “Dendritic phosphorescent probes for oxygen imaging in biological systems,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(6), 1292–1304 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Dunphy, S. A. Vinogradov, and D. F. Wilson, “Oxyphor R2 and G2: phosphors for measuring oxygen by oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence,” Anal. Biochem. 310(2), 191–198 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, R. C.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, H.

F. Niedermair, S. M. Borisov, G. Zenkl, O. T. Hofmann, H. Weber, R. Saf, and I. Klimant, “Tunable phosphorescent NIR oxygen indicators based on mixed benzo- and naphthoporphyrin complexes,” Inorg. Chem. 49(20), 9333–9342 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. F.

A. Y. Lebedev, A. V. Cheprakov, S. Sakadzić, D. A. Boas, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, “Dendritic phosphorescent probes for oxygen imaging in biological systems,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(6), 1292–1304 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Dunphy, S. A. Vinogradov, and D. F. Wilson, “Oxyphor R2 and G2: phosphors for measuring oxygen by oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence,” Anal. Biochem. 310(2), 191–198 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winter, M. B.

M. B. Winter, E. J. McLaurin, S. Y. Reece, C. Olea, D. G. Nocera, and M. A. Marletta, “Ru-porphyrin protein scaffolds for sensing O2.,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(16), 5582–5583 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, B. Bull, K. Christensen, and J. McNeill, “Ratiometric single-nanoparticle oxygen sensors for biological imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(15), 2741–2745 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

Yoon, S.

R. C. Webb, Y. Ma, S. Krishnan, Y. Li, S. Yoon, X. Guo, X. Feng, Y. Shi, M. Seidel, N. H. Cho, J. Kurniawan, J. Ahad, N. Sheth, J. Kim, J. G. Taylor, T. Darlington, K. Chang, W. Huang, J. Ayers, A. Gruebele, R. M. Pielak, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, A. M. Gorbach, and J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500701 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshinaga, Y.

Y. Yoshinaga, M. Higaki, S. Terajima, E. Ohkubo, T. Nogita, N. Miyasaka, and M. Kawashima, “Detection of inflammatory cytokines in psoriatic skin,” Arch. Dermatol. Res. 287(2), 158–164 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zenkl, G.

S. M. Borisov, G. Zenkl, and I. Klimant, “Phosphorescent platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes with azatetrabenzoporphyrins-new red laser diode-compatible indicators for optical oxygen sensing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(2), 366–374 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. M. Borisov, G. Zenkl, and I. Klimant, “Phosphorescent platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes with azatetrabenzoporphyrins-new red laser diode-compatible indicators for optical oxygen sensing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(2), 366–374 (2010).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A) Illustration of the oxygen-sensing paint-on bandage applied to skin as a liquid, drying into a solid thin film, and the application of the barrier layer. B) Top: bandage applied to healthy skin; bottom: bandage applied to inflamed skin with perivascular infiltrating lymphocytes actively consuming oxygen. C) Upon application, bandage pO2 equilibrates with the tissue underneath: higher equilibrium pO2 and a slower initial equilibration rate when applied to healthy skin; lower equilibrium pO2 and a faster initial equilibration rate when applied to inflamed skin.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Tracking the progression of tissue inflammation in skin following intradermal CFA injection using the oxygen-sensing paint-on bandage. A) initial equilibration rate, calculated as the average pO2 change in the bandage within the first 4 minutes of bandage application, changes over the course of 7 weeks after CFA injection. B) CBP20 calculated as the difference between the initial and equilibrium oxygen partial pressure within the sensing bandage, tracked over 7 weeks post-injection. C) Correlating bandage equilibrium pO2 with the degree of tissue inflammation assessed by histological analyses. Top: equilibrium pO2 map captured by the oxygen-sensing bandage for skin with no CFA injection, 2nd week and 4th week after CFA injection. Equilibrium pO2 drops significantly after 2 weeks of injection, and returns after 4 weeks. Arrows pointing to outer square of the injection area marked by ink (also seen in the regular photograph); injection site is 0.5 inch to the right side of the line. Middle: regular photographs of skin with no CFA injection, 2nd week and 4th week after CFA injection. Bottom: histology of skin no CFA injection, 2nd week and 4th week after CFA injection. Focal epidermal and dermal inflammation was observed after 2 weeks of injection, which subsides after 4 weeks. Arrows pointing to perivascular inflammatory infiltrate.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A) Illustration of the different subcutaneous injection depths used in the experiment. B) CBP20 measured by the oxygen-sensing bandage on day 9 after CFA injection at the different injection depths. C) Confirming the degree of tissue inflammation by histological analysis. From top to bottom: regular photographs, histology (epiderm/derm), histology (derm/subcutaneous) at injection sites I, II, III and IV.

Equations (9)

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I 0 I =1+ K sv p O 2  
Initial quilibration Rate= p O 2 (t=0) p O 2 (t=4 min) 4 min  
Change in Bandage p O 2  (CBP)= p O 2 ( air ) p O 2 ( equil. )
[ O 2 ] t  =K 2 p O 2 x 2  = V O 2 ·
p O 2 t (initial) = V O 2 · /C 
tc J O 2 | x=0 =K p O 2 x = V O 2 · d
p O 2 ( x ) | x=0 = p O 2 (air)
p O 2 ( x )=( V O 2 · 2K ) x 2 V O 2 · d K x+p O 2 (air)
p O 2 ( equil. )= p O 2 ( air ) V O 2 · d 2 K

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