Abstract

The choriocapillaris plays an important role in supporting the metabolic demands of the retina. Studies of the choriocapillaris in disease states with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) have proven insightful. However, image artifacts complicate the identification and quantification of the choriocapillaris in degenerative diseases such as choroideremia. Here, we demonstrate a supervised machine learning approach to detect intact choriocapillaris based on training with results from an expert grader. We trained a random forest classifier to evaluate en face structural OCT and OCTA information along with spatial image features. Evaluation of the trained classifier using previously unseen data showed good agreement with manual grading.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography angiography for morphometric analysis of choriocapillaris [Invited]

Kazuhiro Kurokawa, Zhuolin Liu, and Donald T. Miller
Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3) 1803-1822 (2017)

Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography

Li Liu, Simon S. Gao, Steven T. Bailey, David Huang, Dengwang Li, and Yali Jia
Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9) 3564-3576 (2015)

Megahertz-rate optical coherence tomography angiography improves the contrast of the choriocapillaris and choroid in human retinal imaging

Justin V. Migacz, Iwona Gorczynska, Mehdi Azimipour, Ravi Jonnal, Robert J. Zawadzki, and John S. Werner
Biomed. Opt. Express 10(1) 50-65 (2019)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Choroideremia: Correlating Choriocapillaris Loss With Overlying Degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image Artifacts in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 27–36 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Type 1 Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. E. A. Boese, N. Jain, Y. Jia, C. L. Schlechter, C. O. Harding, S. S. Gao, R. C. Patel, D. Huang, R. G. Weleber, M. B. Gillingham, and M. E. Pennesi, “Characterization of Chorioretinopathy Associated with Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein Disorders: Long-Term Follow-up of 21 Cases,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2183–2195 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. L. Breiman, “Random Forests,” Mach. Learn. 45(1), 5–32 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. V. Soares, J. J. Leandro, R. M. Cesar Júnior, H. F. Jelinek, and M. J. Cree, “Retinal vessel segmentation using the 2-D Gabor wavelet and supervised classification,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 25(9), 1214–1222 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. Haghighat, S. Zonouz, and M. Abdel-Mottaleb, “CloudID: Trustworthy cloud-based and cross-enterprise biometric identification,” Expert Syst. Appl. 42(21), 7905–7916 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, J. Schottenhamml, C. L. Chen, A. Budai, L. Branchini, T. Ko, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. Hornegger, “Quantitative 3D-OCT motion correction with tilt and illumination correction, robust similarity measure and regularization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2591–2613 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. Huang, and Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, L. Liu, M. Zhang, H. L. Takusagawa, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Compensation for Reflectance Variation in Vessel Density Quantification by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(10), 4485–4492 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. M. E. Nongpiur, B. A. Haaland, D. S. Friedman, S. A. Perera, M. He, L. L. Foo, M. Baskaran, L. M. Sakata, T. Y. Wong, and T. Aung, “Classification algorithms based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements for detection of angle closure,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 48–54 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. A. Lang, A. Carass, E. K. Swingle, O. Al-Louzi, P. Bhargava, S. Saidha, H. S. Ying, P. A. Calabresi, and J. L. Prince, “Automatic segmentation of microcystic macular edema in OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(1), 155–169 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. L. Breiman, J. Friedman, R. Olshen, and C. Stone, Classification and Regression Trees (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1984).
  19. L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. S. S. Gao, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Quantification of choroidal neovascularization vessel length using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(7), 076010 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (6)

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Choroideremia: Correlating Choriocapillaris Loss With Overlying Degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. A. Boese, N. Jain, Y. Jia, C. L. Schlechter, C. O. Harding, S. S. Gao, R. C. Patel, D. Huang, R. G. Weleber, M. B. Gillingham, and M. E. Pennesi, “Characterization of Chorioretinopathy Associated with Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein Disorders: Long-Term Follow-up of 21 Cases,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2183–2195 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, L. Liu, M. Zhang, H. L. Takusagawa, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Compensation for Reflectance Variation in Vessel Density Quantification by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(10), 4485–4492 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Quantification of choroidal neovascularization vessel length using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(7), 076010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (8)

A. Lang, A. Carass, E. K. Swingle, O. Al-Louzi, P. Bhargava, S. Saidha, H. S. Ying, P. A. Calabresi, and J. L. Prince, “Automatic segmentation of microcystic macular edema in OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(1), 155–169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Haghighat, S. Zonouz, and M. Abdel-Mottaleb, “CloudID: Trustworthy cloud-based and cross-enterprise biometric identification,” Expert Syst. Appl. 42(21), 7905–7916 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Type 1 Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image Artifacts in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

M. E. Nongpiur, B. A. Haaland, D. S. Friedman, S. A. Perera, M. He, L. L. Foo, M. Baskaran, L. M. Sakata, T. Y. Wong, and T. Aung, “Classification algorithms based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements for detection of angle closure,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 48–54 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2008 (1)

O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. Huang, and Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. V. Soares, J. J. Leandro, R. M. Cesar Júnior, H. F. Jelinek, and M. J. Cree, “Retinal vessel segmentation using the 2-D Gabor wavelet and supervised classification,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 25(9), 1214–1222 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. Breiman, “Random Forests,” Mach. Learn. 45(1), 5–32 (2001).
[Crossref]

Abdel-Mottaleb, M.

M. Haghighat, S. Zonouz, and M. Abdel-Mottaleb, “CloudID: Trustworthy cloud-based and cross-enterprise biometric identification,” Expert Syst. Appl. 42(21), 7905–7916 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adhi, M.

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Louzi, O.

Aung, T.

M. E. Nongpiur, B. A. Haaland, D. S. Friedman, S. A. Perera, M. He, L. L. Foo, M. Baskaran, L. M. Sakata, T. Y. Wong, and T. Aung, “Classification algorithms based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements for detection of angle closure,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 48–54 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. T.

Bansal, M.

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Type 1 Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baskaran, M.

M. E. Nongpiur, B. A. Haaland, D. S. Friedman, S. A. Perera, M. He, L. L. Foo, M. Baskaran, L. M. Sakata, T. Y. Wong, and T. Aung, “Classification algorithms based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements for detection of angle closure,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 48–54 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumal, C. R.

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhargava, P.

Boese, E. A.

E. A. Boese, N. Jain, Y. Jia, C. L. Schlechter, C. O. Harding, S. S. Gao, R. C. Patel, D. Huang, R. G. Weleber, M. B. Gillingham, and M. E. Pennesi, “Characterization of Chorioretinopathy Associated with Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein Disorders: Long-Term Follow-up of 21 Cases,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2183–2195 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonini Filho, M. A.

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Type 1 Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Branchini, L.

Breiman, L.

L. Breiman, “Random Forests,” Mach. Learn. 45(1), 5–32 (2001).
[Crossref]

Budai, A.

Calabresi, P. A.

Campbell, J. P.

Carass, A.

Cesar Júnior, R. M.

J. V. Soares, J. J. Leandro, R. M. Cesar Júnior, H. F. Jelinek, and M. J. Cree, “Retinal vessel segmentation using the 2-D Gabor wavelet and supervised classification,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 25(9), 1214–1222 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. L.

Chin, A. T.

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cree, M. J.

J. V. Soares, J. J. Leandro, R. M. Cesar Júnior, H. F. Jelinek, and M. J. Cree, “Retinal vessel segmentation using the 2-D Gabor wavelet and supervised classification,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 25(9), 1214–1222 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Carlo, T. E.

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Type 1 Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Type 1 Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, J. Schottenhamml, C. L. Chen, A. Budai, L. Branchini, T. Ko, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, J. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. Hornegger, “Quantitative 3D-OCT motion correction with tilt and illumination correction, robust similarity measure and regularization,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2591–2613 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrara, D.

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flaxel, C. J.

S. S. Gao, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Quantification of choroidal neovascularization vessel length using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(7), 076010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foo, L. L.

M. E. Nongpiur, B. A. Haaland, D. S. Friedman, S. A. Perera, M. He, L. L. Foo, M. Baskaran, L. M. Sakata, T. Y. Wong, and T. Aung, “Classification algorithms based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements for detection of angle closure,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 48–54 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, D. S.

M. E. Nongpiur, B. A. Haaland, D. S. Friedman, S. A. Perera, M. He, L. L. Foo, M. Baskaran, L. M. Sakata, T. Y. Wong, and T. Aung, “Classification algorithms based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements for detection of angle closure,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 48–54 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gao, S. S.

S. S. Gao, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Quantification of choroidal neovascularization vessel length using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(7), 076010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Choroideremia: Correlating Choriocapillaris Loss With Overlying Degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. A. Boese, N. Jain, Y. Jia, C. L. Schlechter, C. O. Harding, S. S. Gao, R. C. Patel, D. Huang, R. G. Weleber, M. B. Gillingham, and M. E. Pennesi, “Characterization of Chorioretinopathy Associated with Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein Disorders: Long-Term Follow-up of 21 Cases,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2183–2195 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, L. Liu, M. Zhang, H. L. Takusagawa, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Compensation for Reflectance Variation in Vessel Density Quantification by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(10), 4485–4492 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gillingham, M. B.

E. A. Boese, N. Jain, Y. Jia, C. L. Schlechter, C. O. Harding, S. S. Gao, R. C. Patel, D. Huang, R. G. Weleber, M. B. Gillingham, and M. E. Pennesi, “Characterization of Chorioretinopathy Associated with Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein Disorders: Long-Term Follow-up of 21 Cases,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2183–2195 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haaland, B. A.

M. E. Nongpiur, B. A. Haaland, D. S. Friedman, S. A. Perera, M. He, L. L. Foo, M. Baskaran, L. M. Sakata, T. Y. Wong, and T. Aung, “Classification algorithms based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements for detection of angle closure,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 48–54 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haghighat, M.

M. Haghighat, S. Zonouz, and M. Abdel-Mottaleb, “CloudID: Trustworthy cloud-based and cross-enterprise biometric identification,” Expert Syst. Appl. 42(21), 7905–7916 (2015).
[Crossref]

Harding, C. O.

E. A. Boese, N. Jain, Y. Jia, C. L. Schlechter, C. O. Harding, S. S. Gao, R. C. Patel, D. Huang, R. G. Weleber, M. B. Gillingham, and M. E. Pennesi, “Characterization of Chorioretinopathy Associated with Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein Disorders: Long-Term Follow-up of 21 Cases,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2183–2195 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, M.

M. E. Nongpiur, B. A. Haaland, D. S. Friedman, S. A. Perera, M. He, L. L. Foo, M. Baskaran, L. M. Sakata, T. Y. Wong, and T. Aung, “Classification algorithms based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements for detection of angle closure,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 48–54 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, L. Liu, M. Zhang, H. L. Takusagawa, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Compensation for Reflectance Variation in Vessel Density Quantification by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(10), 4485–4492 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Quantification of choroidal neovascularization vessel length using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(7), 076010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Boese, N. Jain, Y. Jia, C. L. Schlechter, C. O. Harding, S. S. Gao, R. C. Patel, D. Huang, R. G. Weleber, M. B. Gillingham, and M. E. Pennesi, “Characterization of Chorioretinopathy Associated with Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein Disorders: Long-Term Follow-up of 21 Cases,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2183–2195 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Choroideremia: Correlating Choriocapillaris Loss With Overlying Degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. Huang, and Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, T. S.

Iafe, N. A.

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Type 1 Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

Jain, N.

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Choroideremia: Correlating Choriocapillaris Loss With Overlying Degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Boese, N. Jain, Y. Jia, C. L. Schlechter, C. O. Harding, S. S. Gao, R. C. Patel, D. Huang, R. G. Weleber, M. B. Gillingham, and M. E. Pennesi, “Characterization of Chorioretinopathy Associated with Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein Disorders: Long-Term Follow-up of 21 Cases,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2183–2195 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jelinek, H. F.

J. V. Soares, J. J. Leandro, R. M. Cesar Júnior, H. F. Jelinek, and M. J. Cree, “Retinal vessel segmentation using the 2-D Gabor wavelet and supervised classification,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 25(9), 1214–1222 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, L. Liu, M. Zhang, H. L. Takusagawa, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Compensation for Reflectance Variation in Vessel Density Quantification by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(10), 4485–4492 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Boese, N. Jain, Y. Jia, C. L. Schlechter, C. O. Harding, S. S. Gao, R. C. Patel, D. Huang, R. G. Weleber, M. B. Gillingham, and M. E. Pennesi, “Characterization of Chorioretinopathy Associated with Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein Disorders: Long-Term Follow-up of 21 Cases,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2183–2195 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Choroideremia: Correlating Choriocapillaris Loss With Overlying Degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. S. Gao, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Quantification of choroidal neovascularization vessel length using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(7), 076010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

Kraus, M. F.

Kuehlewein, L.

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Type 1 Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lang, A.

Leandro, J. J.

J. V. Soares, J. J. Leandro, R. M. Cesar Júnior, H. F. Jelinek, and M. J. Cree, “Retinal vessel segmentation using the 2-D Gabor wavelet and supervised classification,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 25(9), 1214–1222 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lenis, T. L.

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Type 1 Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D.

S. S. Gao, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Quantification of choroidal neovascularization vessel length using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(7), 076010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, G.

O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. Huang, and Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

Lu, A. T.

O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. Huang, and Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morrison, J. C.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, L. Liu, M. Zhang, H. L. Takusagawa, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Compensation for Reflectance Variation in Vessel Density Quantification by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(10), 4485–4492 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nongpiur, M. E.

M. E. Nongpiur, B. A. Haaland, D. S. Friedman, S. A. Perera, M. He, L. L. Foo, M. Baskaran, L. M. Sakata, T. Y. Wong, and T. Aung, “Classification algorithms based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements for detection of angle closure,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 48–54 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, R. C.

E. A. Boese, N. Jain, Y. Jia, C. L. Schlechter, C. O. Harding, S. S. Gao, R. C. Patel, D. Huang, R. G. Weleber, M. B. Gillingham, and M. E. Pennesi, “Characterization of Chorioretinopathy Associated with Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein Disorders: Long-Term Follow-up of 21 Cases,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2183–2195 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pechauer, A. D.

Pennesi, M. E.

E. A. Boese, N. Jain, Y. Jia, C. L. Schlechter, C. O. Harding, S. S. Gao, R. C. Patel, D. Huang, R. G. Weleber, M. B. Gillingham, and M. E. Pennesi, “Characterization of Chorioretinopathy Associated with Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein Disorders: Long-Term Follow-up of 21 Cases,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2183–2195 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Choroideremia: Correlating Choriocapillaris Loss With Overlying Degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perera, S. A.

M. E. Nongpiur, B. A. Haaland, D. S. Friedman, S. A. Perera, M. He, L. L. Foo, M. Baskaran, L. M. Sakata, T. Y. Wong, and T. Aung, “Classification algorithms based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements for detection of angle closure,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 48–54 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Prince, J. L.

Reichel, E.

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadda, S. R.

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Type 1 Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saidha, S.

Sakata, L. M.

M. E. Nongpiur, B. A. Haaland, D. S. Friedman, S. A. Perera, M. He, L. L. Foo, M. Baskaran, L. M. Sakata, T. Y. Wong, and T. Aung, “Classification algorithms based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements for detection of angle closure,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 48–54 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarraf, D.

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Type 1 Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlechter, C. L.

E. A. Boese, N. Jain, Y. Jia, C. L. Schlechter, C. O. Harding, S. S. Gao, R. C. Patel, D. Huang, R. G. Weleber, M. B. Gillingham, and M. E. Pennesi, “Characterization of Chorioretinopathy Associated with Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein Disorders: Long-Term Follow-up of 21 Cases,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2183–2195 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schottenhamml, J.

Schuman, J.

Soares, J. V.

J. V. Soares, J. J. Leandro, R. M. Cesar Júnior, H. F. Jelinek, and M. J. Cree, “Retinal vessel segmentation using the 2-D Gabor wavelet and supervised classification,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 25(9), 1214–1222 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spaide, R. F.

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image Artifacts in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J. P.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

Subhash, H.

Swingle, E. K.

Takusagawa, H. L.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, L. Liu, M. Zhang, H. L. Takusagawa, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Compensation for Reflectance Variation in Vessel Density Quantification by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(10), 4485–4492 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. Huang, and Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tokayer, J.

Varma, R.

O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. Huang, and Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waheed, N. K.

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image Artifacts in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Type 1 Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, Y.

Weleber, R. G.

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Choroideremia: Correlating Choriocapillaris Loss With Overlying Degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Boese, N. Jain, Y. Jia, C. L. Schlechter, C. O. Harding, S. S. Gao, R. C. Patel, D. Huang, R. G. Weleber, M. B. Gillingham, and M. E. Pennesi, “Characterization of Chorioretinopathy Associated with Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein Disorders: Long-Term Follow-up of 21 Cases,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2183–2195 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. J.

Witkin, A. J.

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wollstein, G.

Wong, T. Y.

M. E. Nongpiur, B. A. Haaland, D. S. Friedman, S. A. Perera, M. He, L. L. Foo, M. Baskaran, L. M. Sakata, T. Y. Wong, and T. Aung, “Classification algorithms based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements for detection of angle closure,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 48–54 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ying, H. S.

Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, J. P. Campbell, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 816–828 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, L. Liu, M. Zhang, H. L. Takusagawa, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Compensation for Reflectance Variation in Vessel Density Quantification by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(10), 4485–4492 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Choroideremia: Correlating Choriocapillaris Loss With Overlying Degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zonouz, S.

M. Haghighat, S. Zonouz, and M. Abdel-Mottaleb, “CloudID: Trustworthy cloud-based and cross-enterprise biometric identification,” Expert Syst. Appl. 42(21), 7905–7916 (2015).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Type 1 Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (5)

Expert Syst. Appl. (1)

M. Haghighat, S. Zonouz, and M. Abdel-Mottaleb, “CloudID: Trustworthy cloud-based and cross-enterprise biometric identification,” Expert Syst. Appl. 42(21), 7905–7916 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

J. V. Soares, J. J. Leandro, R. M. Cesar Júnior, H. F. Jelinek, and M. J. Cree, “Retinal vessel segmentation using the 2-D Gabor wavelet and supervised classification,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 25(9), 1214–1222 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), 27–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, L. Liu, M. Zhang, H. L. Takusagawa, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Compensation for Reflectance Variation in Vessel Density Quantification by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(10), 4485–4492 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. S. Gao, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Quantification of choroidal neovascularization vessel length using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(7), 076010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JAMA Ophthalmol. (1)

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Choroideremia: Correlating Choriocapillaris Loss With Overlying Degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mach. Learn. (1)

L. Breiman, “Random Forests,” Mach. Learn. 45(1), 5–32 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmology (4)

E. A. Boese, N. Jain, Y. Jia, C. L. Schlechter, C. O. Harding, S. S. Gao, R. C. Patel, D. Huang, R. G. Weleber, M. B. Gillingham, and M. E. Pennesi, “Characterization of Chorioretinopathy Associated with Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein Disorders: Long-Term Follow-up of 21 Cases,” Ophthalmology 123(10), 2183–2195 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. de Carlo, M. A. Bonini Filho, A. T. Chin, M. Adhi, D. Ferrara, C. R. Baumal, A. J. Witkin, E. Reichel, J. S. Duker, and N. K. Waheed, “Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 122(6), 1228–1238 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Nongpiur, B. A. Haaland, D. S. Friedman, S. A. Perera, M. He, L. L. Foo, M. Baskaran, L. M. Sakata, T. Y. Wong, and T. Aung, “Classification algorithms based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements for detection of angle closure,” Ophthalmology 120(1), 48–54 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. Huang, and Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Retina (1)

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image Artifacts in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

L. Breiman, J. Friedman, R. Olshen, and C. Stone, Classification and Regression Trees (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1984).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The 12 features for the random forest classifier. (A) Inner retinal angiogram. (B) En face structural OCT of the inner retina. (C) Choroidal angiogram with a V-shaped island of intact choriocapillaris. (D) Reflectance values of the voxel projected for the choroidal angiogram. (E-H) The choroidal angiogram after standard deviation filters of 180 × 180 µm (E), 300 × 300 µm (F), 380 × 380 µm (G), and 500 × 500 µm (H). Note the difference in appearance of a larger choroidal vessel after standard deviation filters of different sizes (green arrows). (I-L) The choroidal angiogram after Gabor directional filters of 200 × 200 µm (I), 320 × 320 µm (J), 400 × 400 µm (K), and 520 × 520 µm (L).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Flowchart of the training (A) and testing (B) process.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The choroidal angiogram (top) and corresponding manual grading (bottom) of intact choriocapillaris in 4 (A to D) of the 10 training cases. In the graded images, white represents the selected intact choriocapillaris. All four choroidal angiograms are displayed on the same scale.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The choroidal angiogram (top), corresponding manual grading (middle), and random forest classifier output of intact choriocapillaris in 4 (A to D) of the 20 test cases. All four of the choroidal angiograms are displayed on the same scale.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (A) The choroidal angiogram. (B) Evaluation of the classifier output after binarization with a threshold of 0.5. The areas in white are where the classifier and grader agreed on what was intact choriocapillaris. The areas in grey show disagreement. The Jaccard for this example was 0.86. (C) The Jaccard (mean ± standard deviation) for the 20 test eyes across different binarization thresholds.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Example of the classifier output without select features. (A) Classifier output with all features. (B) Classifier output without standard deviation information. (C) Classifier output without Gabor information.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Example of the classifier output with less training cases. (A) The choroidal angiogram. (B) Classifier output if all 10 of the training cases were used. (C) Classifier output if only 7 of the 10 training cases were used, excluding the cases shown in Figs. 3(C) and 3(D) as well as another similar case.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G(n)=1p (n) 2 (1p(n)) 2
I=G(P)qG(L)(1q)G(R)
J= | C RF C M | | C RF C M |

Metrics