Abstract

Accurate and early prediction of tissue viability is the most significant determinant of tissue flap survival in reconstructive surgery. Perturbation in tissue water content (TWC) is a generic component of the tissue response to such surgeries, and, therefore, may be an important diagnostic target for assessing the extent of flap viability in vivo. We have previously shown that reflective terahertz (THz) imaging, a non-ionizing technique, can generate spatially resolved maps of TWC in superficial soft tissues, such as cornea and wounds, on the order of minutes. Herein, we report the first in vivo pilot study to investigate the utility of reflective THz TWC imaging for early assessment of skin flap viability. We obtained longitudinal visible and reflective THz imagery comparing 3 bipedicled flaps (i.e. survival model) and 3 fully excised flaps (i.e. failure model) in the dorsal skin of rats over a postoperative period of 7 days. While visual differences between both models manifested 48 hr after surgery, statistically significant (p < 0.05, independent t-test) local differences in TWC contrast were evident in THz flap image sets as early as 24 hr. Excised flaps, histologically confirmed as necrotic, demonstrated a significant, yet localized, reduction in TWC in the flap region compared to non-traumatized skin. In contrast, bipedicled flaps, histologically verified as viable, displayed mostly uniform, unperturbed TWC across the flap tissue. These results indicate the practical potential of THz TWC sensing to accurately predict flap failure 24 hours earlier than clinical examination.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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  2. M. Bergkvist, J. Henricson, F. Iredahl, E. Tesselaar, F. Sjöberg, and S. Farnebo, “Assessment of microcirculation of the skin using Tissue Viability Imaging: A promising technique for detecting venous stasis in the skin,” Microvasc. Res. 101, 20–25 (2015).
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2016 (1)

L. Di Sieno, G. Bettega, M. Berger, C. Hamou, M. Aribert, A. D. Mora, A. Puszka, H. Grateau, D. Contini, L. Hervé, J.-L. Coll, J.-M. Dinten, A. Pifferi, and A. Planat-Chrétien, “Toward noninvasive assessment of flap viability with time-resolved diffuse optical tomography: a preclinical test on rats,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 025004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

M. Bergkvist, J. Henricson, F. Iredahl, E. Tesselaar, F. Sjöberg, and S. Farnebo, “Assessment of microcirculation of the skin using Tissue Viability Imaging: A promising technique for detecting venous stasis in the skin,” Microvasc. Res. 101, 20–25 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

Q. Yang, Z. H. Ren, D. Chickooree, H. J. Wu, H. Y. Tan, K. Wang, Z. J. He, C. J. Gong, V. Ram, and S. Zhang, “The effect of early detection of anterolateral thigh free flap crisis on the salvage success rate, based on 10 years of experience and 1072 flaps,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(9), 1059–1063 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, D. B. Bennett, N. Bajwa, K. S. Barnett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

I. A. Pestana, B. Coan, D. Erdmann, J. Marcus, L. S. Levin, and M. R. Zenn, “Early Experience with Fluorescent Angiography in Free-Tissue Transfer Reconstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 123(4), 1239–1244 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of Skin Flaps Using Optically Based Methods for Measuring Blood Flow and Oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 115(2), 539–546 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

W. A. Dorsett-Martin, “Rat models of skin wound healing: a review,” Wound Repair Regen. 12(6), 591–599 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. M. Gordillo and C. K. Sen, “Revisiting the essential role of oxygen in wound healing,” Am. J. Surg. 186(3), 259–263 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. Holm, M. Mayr, E. Höfter, A. Becker, U. J. Pfeiffer, and W. Mühlbauer, “Intraoperative evaluation of skin-flap viability using laser-induced fluorescence of indocyanine green,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 55(8), 635–644 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Attas, M. Hewko, J. Payette, T. Posthumus, M. Sowa, and H. Mantsch, “Visualization of cutaneous hemoglobin oxygenation and skin hydration using near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(4), 238–245 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. G. Sowa, J. R. Payette, and H. H. Mantsch, “Near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of tissue hydration following surgery,” J. Surg. Res. 86(1), 62–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

M. F. Stranc, M. G. Sowa, B. Abdulrauf, and H. H. Mantsch, “Assessment of tissue viability using near-infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 51(3), 210–217 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

F. Arnold, C. F. He, C. Y. Jia, and G. W. Cherry, “Perfusion imaging of skin island flap blood flow by a scanning laser-Doppler technique,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 48(5), 280–287 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20(16), 1716 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

W. Eichhorn, T. Auer, E.-D. Voy, and K. Hoffmann, “Laser Doppler imaging of axial and random pattern flaps in the maxillo-facial area. A preliminary report,” J. Craniomaxillofac. Surg. 22(5), 301–306 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Lazarus, D. M. Cooper, D. R. Knighton, R. E. Percoraro, G. Rodeheaver, and M. C. Robson, “Definitions and guidelines for assessment of wounds and evaluation of healing,” Wound Repair Regen. 2(3), 165–170 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

S. Richard, B. Querleux, J. Bittoun, O. Jolivet, I. Idy-Peretti, O. de Lacharriere, and J.-L. Leveque, “Characterization of the Skin In Vivo by High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Water Behavior and Age-Related Effects,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100(5), 705–709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

P. N. Manson, R. M. Anthenelli, M. J. Im, G. B. Bulkley, and J. E. Hoopes, “The role of oxygen-free radicals in ischemic tissue injury in island skin flaps,” Ann. Surg. 198(1), 87–90 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

J. M. Converse, J. Smahel, D. L. Ballantyne, and A. D. Harper, “Inosculation of vessels of skin graft and host bed: A fortuitous encounter,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 28(4), 274–282 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

G. Deyoung, R. A. Henry, and R. M. McFarlane, “The design of a pedicle flap in the rat to study necrosis and its prevention,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 35(2), 177–182 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdulrauf, B.

M. F. Stranc, M. G. Sowa, B. Abdulrauf, and H. H. Mantsch, “Assessment of tissue viability using near-infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 51(3), 210–217 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anthenelli, R. M.

P. N. Manson, R. M. Anthenelli, M. J. Im, G. B. Bulkley, and J. E. Hoopes, “The role of oxygen-free radicals in ischemic tissue injury in island skin flaps,” Ann. Surg. 198(1), 87–90 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aribert, M.

L. Di Sieno, G. Bettega, M. Berger, C. Hamou, M. Aribert, A. D. Mora, A. Puszka, H. Grateau, D. Contini, L. Hervé, J.-L. Coll, J.-M. Dinten, A. Pifferi, and A. Planat-Chrétien, “Toward noninvasive assessment of flap viability with time-resolved diffuse optical tomography: a preclinical test on rats,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 025004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, F.

F. Arnold, C. F. He, C. Y. Jia, and G. W. Cherry, “Perfusion imaging of skin island flap blood flow by a scanning laser-Doppler technique,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 48(5), 280–287 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Attas, M.

M. Attas, M. Hewko, J. Payette, T. Posthumus, M. Sowa, and H. Mantsch, “Visualization of cutaneous hemoglobin oxygenation and skin hydration using near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(4), 238–245 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auer, T.

W. Eichhorn, T. Auer, E.-D. Voy, and K. Hoffmann, “Laser Doppler imaging of axial and random pattern flaps in the maxillo-facial area. A preliminary report,” J. Craniomaxillofac. Surg. 22(5), 301–306 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajwa, N.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, D. B. Bennett, N. Bajwa, K. S. Barnett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ballantyne, D. L.

J. M. Converse, J. Smahel, D. L. Ballantyne, and A. D. Harper, “Inosculation of vessels of skin graft and host bed: A fortuitous encounter,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 28(4), 274–282 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnett, K. S.

P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, D. B. Bennett, N. Bajwa, K. S. Barnett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

C. Holm, M. Mayr, E. Höfter, A. Becker, U. J. Pfeiffer, and W. Mühlbauer, “Intraoperative evaluation of skin-flap viability using laser-induced fluorescence of indocyanine green,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 55(8), 635–644 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, D. B.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, D. B. Bennett, N. Bajwa, K. S. Barnett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berger, M.

L. Di Sieno, G. Bettega, M. Berger, C. Hamou, M. Aribert, A. D. Mora, A. Puszka, H. Grateau, D. Contini, L. Hervé, J.-L. Coll, J.-M. Dinten, A. Pifferi, and A. Planat-Chrétien, “Toward noninvasive assessment of flap viability with time-resolved diffuse optical tomography: a preclinical test on rats,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 025004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergkvist, M.

M. Bergkvist, J. Henricson, F. Iredahl, E. Tesselaar, F. Sjöberg, and S. Farnebo, “Assessment of microcirculation of the skin using Tissue Viability Imaging: A promising technique for detecting venous stasis in the skin,” Microvasc. Res. 101, 20–25 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bettega, G.

L. Di Sieno, G. Bettega, M. Berger, C. Hamou, M. Aribert, A. D. Mora, A. Puszka, H. Grateau, D. Contini, L. Hervé, J.-L. Coll, J.-M. Dinten, A. Pifferi, and A. Planat-Chrétien, “Toward noninvasive assessment of flap viability with time-resolved diffuse optical tomography: a preclinical test on rats,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 025004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bittoun, J.

S. Richard, B. Querleux, J. Bittoun, O. Jolivet, I. Idy-Peretti, O. de Lacharriere, and J.-L. Leveque, “Characterization of the Skin In Vivo by High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Water Behavior and Age-Related Effects,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100(5), 705–709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, E. R.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bulkley, G. B.

P. N. Manson, R. M. Anthenelli, M. J. Im, G. B. Bulkley, and J. E. Hoopes, “The role of oxygen-free radicals in ischemic tissue injury in island skin flaps,” Ann. Surg. 198(1), 87–90 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.-T.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, M.-H.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cherry, G. W.

F. Arnold, C. F. He, C. Y. Jia, and G. W. Cherry, “Perfusion imaging of skin island flap blood flow by a scanning laser-Doppler technique,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 48(5), 280–287 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chickooree, D.

Q. Yang, Z. H. Ren, D. Chickooree, H. J. Wu, H. Y. Tan, K. Wang, Z. J. He, C. J. Gong, V. Ram, and S. Zhang, “The effect of early detection of anterolateral thigh free flap crisis on the salvage success rate, based on 10 years of experience and 1072 flaps,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(9), 1059–1063 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuang, D. C.-C.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coan, B.

I. A. Pestana, B. Coan, D. Erdmann, J. Marcus, L. S. Levin, and M. R. Zenn, “Early Experience with Fluorescent Angiography in Free-Tissue Transfer Reconstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 123(4), 1239–1244 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coll, J.-L.

L. Di Sieno, G. Bettega, M. Berger, C. Hamou, M. Aribert, A. D. Mora, A. Puszka, H. Grateau, D. Contini, L. Hervé, J.-L. Coll, J.-M. Dinten, A. Pifferi, and A. Planat-Chrétien, “Toward noninvasive assessment of flap viability with time-resolved diffuse optical tomography: a preclinical test on rats,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 025004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Contini, D.

L. Di Sieno, G. Bettega, M. Berger, C. Hamou, M. Aribert, A. D. Mora, A. Puszka, H. Grateau, D. Contini, L. Hervé, J.-L. Coll, J.-M. Dinten, A. Pifferi, and A. Planat-Chrétien, “Toward noninvasive assessment of flap viability with time-resolved diffuse optical tomography: a preclinical test on rats,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 025004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Converse, J. M.

J. M. Converse, J. Smahel, D. L. Ballantyne, and A. D. Harper, “Inosculation of vessels of skin graft and host bed: A fortuitous encounter,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 28(4), 274–282 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooper, D. M.

G. S. Lazarus, D. M. Cooper, D. R. Knighton, R. E. Percoraro, G. Rodeheaver, and M. C. Robson, “Definitions and guidelines for assessment of wounds and evaluation of healing,” Wound Repair Regen. 2(3), 165–170 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Culjat, M. O.

P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, D. B. Bennett, N. Bajwa, K. S. Barnett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Lacharriere, O.

S. Richard, B. Querleux, J. Bittoun, O. Jolivet, I. Idy-Peretti, O. de Lacharriere, and J.-L. Leveque, “Characterization of the Skin In Vivo by High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Water Behavior and Age-Related Effects,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100(5), 705–709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, S.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deyoung, G.

G. Deyoung, R. A. Henry, and R. M. McFarlane, “The design of a pedicle flap in the rat to study necrosis and its prevention,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 35(2), 177–182 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Sieno, L.

L. Di Sieno, G. Bettega, M. Berger, C. Hamou, M. Aribert, A. D. Mora, A. Puszka, H. Grateau, D. Contini, L. Hervé, J.-L. Coll, J.-M. Dinten, A. Pifferi, and A. Planat-Chrétien, “Toward noninvasive assessment of flap viability with time-resolved diffuse optical tomography: a preclinical test on rats,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 025004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinten, J.-M.

L. Di Sieno, G. Bettega, M. Berger, C. Hamou, M. Aribert, A. D. Mora, A. Puszka, H. Grateau, D. Contini, L. Hervé, J.-L. Coll, J.-M. Dinten, A. Pifferi, and A. Planat-Chrétien, “Toward noninvasive assessment of flap viability with time-resolved diffuse optical tomography: a preclinical test on rats,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 025004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorsett-Martin, W. A.

W. A. Dorsett-Martin, “Rat models of skin wound healing: a review,” Wound Repair Regen. 12(6), 591–599 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eichhorn, W.

W. Eichhorn, T. Auer, E.-D. Voy, and K. Hoffmann, “Laser Doppler imaging of axial and random pattern flaps in the maxillo-facial area. A preliminary report,” J. Craniomaxillofac. Surg. 22(5), 301–306 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erdmann, D.

I. A. Pestana, B. Coan, D. Erdmann, J. Marcus, L. S. Levin, and M. R. Zenn, “Early Experience with Fluorescent Angiography in Free-Tissue Transfer Reconstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 123(4), 1239–1244 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farnebo, S.

M. Bergkvist, J. Henricson, F. Iredahl, E. Tesselaar, F. Sjöberg, and S. Farnebo, “Assessment of microcirculation of the skin using Tissue Viability Imaging: A promising technique for detecting venous stasis in the skin,” Microvasc. Res. 101, 20–25 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garritano, J.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, C. J.

Q. Yang, Z. H. Ren, D. Chickooree, H. J. Wu, H. Y. Tan, K. Wang, Z. J. He, C. J. Gong, V. Ram, and S. Zhang, “The effect of early detection of anterolateral thigh free flap crisis on the salvage success rate, based on 10 years of experience and 1072 flaps,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(9), 1059–1063 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordillo, G. M.

G. M. Gordillo and C. K. Sen, “Revisiting the essential role of oxygen in wound healing,” Am. J. Surg. 186(3), 259–263 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grateau, H.

L. Di Sieno, G. Bettega, M. Berger, C. Hamou, M. Aribert, A. D. Mora, A. Puszka, H. Grateau, D. Contini, L. Hervé, J.-L. Coll, J.-M. Dinten, A. Pifferi, and A. Planat-Chrétien, “Toward noninvasive assessment of flap viability with time-resolved diffuse optical tomography: a preclinical test on rats,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 025004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grundfest, W. S.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, D. B. Bennett, N. Bajwa, K. S. Barnett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamou, C.

L. Di Sieno, G. Bettega, M. Berger, C. Hamou, M. Aribert, A. D. Mora, A. Puszka, H. Grateau, D. Contini, L. Hervé, J.-L. Coll, J.-M. Dinten, A. Pifferi, and A. Planat-Chrétien, “Toward noninvasive assessment of flap viability with time-resolved diffuse optical tomography: a preclinical test on rats,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 025004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harper, A. D.

J. M. Converse, J. Smahel, D. L. Ballantyne, and A. D. Harper, “Inosculation of vessels of skin graft and host bed: A fortuitous encounter,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 28(4), 274–282 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, C. F.

F. Arnold, C. F. He, C. Y. Jia, and G. W. Cherry, “Perfusion imaging of skin island flap blood flow by a scanning laser-Doppler technique,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 48(5), 280–287 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Z. J.

Q. Yang, Z. H. Ren, D. Chickooree, H. J. Wu, H. Y. Tan, K. Wang, Z. J. He, C. J. Gong, V. Ram, and S. Zhang, “The effect of early detection of anterolateral thigh free flap crisis on the salvage success rate, based on 10 years of experience and 1072 flaps,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(9), 1059–1063 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henricson, J.

M. Bergkvist, J. Henricson, F. Iredahl, E. Tesselaar, F. Sjöberg, and S. Farnebo, “Assessment of microcirculation of the skin using Tissue Viability Imaging: A promising technique for detecting venous stasis in the skin,” Microvasc. Res. 101, 20–25 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henry, R. A.

G. Deyoung, R. A. Henry, and R. M. McFarlane, “The design of a pedicle flap in the rat to study necrosis and its prevention,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 35(2), 177–182 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hervé, L.

L. Di Sieno, G. Bettega, M. Berger, C. Hamou, M. Aribert, A. D. Mora, A. Puszka, H. Grateau, D. Contini, L. Hervé, J.-L. Coll, J.-M. Dinten, A. Pifferi, and A. Planat-Chrétien, “Toward noninvasive assessment of flap viability with time-resolved diffuse optical tomography: a preclinical test on rats,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 025004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hewko, M.

M. Attas, M. Hewko, J. Payette, T. Posthumus, M. Sowa, and H. Mantsch, “Visualization of cutaneous hemoglobin oxygenation and skin hydration using near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(4), 238–245 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, K.

W. Eichhorn, T. Auer, E.-D. Voy, and K. Hoffmann, “Laser Doppler imaging of axial and random pattern flaps in the maxillo-facial area. A preliminary report,” J. Craniomaxillofac. Surg. 22(5), 301–306 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Höfter, E.

C. Holm, M. Mayr, E. Höfter, A. Becker, U. J. Pfeiffer, and W. Mühlbauer, “Intraoperative evaluation of skin-flap viability using laser-induced fluorescence of indocyanine green,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 55(8), 635–644 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holm, C.

C. Holm, M. Mayr, E. Höfter, A. Becker, U. J. Pfeiffer, and W. Mühlbauer, “Intraoperative evaluation of skin-flap viability using laser-induced fluorescence of indocyanine green,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 55(8), 635–644 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoopes, J. E.

P. N. Manson, R. M. Anthenelli, M. J. Im, G. B. Bulkley, and J. E. Hoopes, “The role of oxygen-free radicals in ischemic tissue injury in island skin flaps,” Ann. Surg. 198(1), 87–90 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, B. B.

Huang, W.-C.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hubschman, J.-P.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Idy-Peretti, I.

S. Richard, B. Querleux, J. Bittoun, O. Jolivet, I. Idy-Peretti, O. de Lacharriere, and J.-L. Leveque, “Characterization of the Skin In Vivo by High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Water Behavior and Age-Related Effects,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100(5), 705–709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Im, M. J.

P. N. Manson, R. M. Anthenelli, M. J. Im, G. B. Bulkley, and J. E. Hoopes, “The role of oxygen-free radicals in ischemic tissue injury in island skin flaps,” Ann. Surg. 198(1), 87–90 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iredahl, F.

M. Bergkvist, J. Henricson, F. Iredahl, E. Tesselaar, F. Sjöberg, and S. Farnebo, “Assessment of microcirculation of the skin using Tissue Viability Imaging: A promising technique for detecting venous stasis in the skin,” Microvasc. Res. 101, 20–25 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, S.-G.

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” (2006).

Jia, C. Y.

F. Arnold, C. F. He, C. Y. Jia, and G. W. Cherry, “Perfusion imaging of skin island flap blood flow by a scanning laser-Doppler technique,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 48(5), 280–287 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” (2006).

Jolivet, O.

S. Richard, B. Querleux, J. Bittoun, O. Jolivet, I. Idy-Peretti, O. de Lacharriere, and J.-L. Leveque, “Characterization of the Skin In Vivo by High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Water Behavior and Age-Related Effects,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100(5), 705–709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kealey, C. P.

P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, D. B. Bennett, N. Bajwa, K. S. Barnett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kerr, P.

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of Skin Flaps Using Optically Based Methods for Measuring Blood Flow and Oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 115(2), 539–546 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, G.-J.

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” (2006).

Knighton, D. R.

G. S. Lazarus, D. M. Cooper, D. R. Knighton, R. E. Percoraro, G. Rodeheaver, and M. C. Robson, “Definitions and guidelines for assessment of wounds and evaluation of healing,” Wound Repair Regen. 2(3), 165–170 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohlenberg, E.

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of Skin Flaps Using Optically Based Methods for Measuring Blood Flow and Oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 115(2), 539–546 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lazarus, G. S.

G. S. Lazarus, D. M. Cooper, D. R. Knighton, R. E. Percoraro, G. Rodeheaver, and M. C. Robson, “Definitions and guidelines for assessment of wounds and evaluation of healing,” Wound Repair Regen. 2(3), 165–170 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leonardi, L.

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of Skin Flaps Using Optically Based Methods for Measuring Blood Flow and Oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 115(2), 539–546 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leveque, J.-L.

S. Richard, B. Querleux, J. Bittoun, O. Jolivet, I. Idy-Peretti, O. de Lacharriere, and J.-L. Leveque, “Characterization of the Skin In Vivo by High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Water Behavior and Age-Related Effects,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100(5), 705–709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levin, L. S.

I. A. Pestana, B. Coan, D. Erdmann, J. Marcus, L. S. Levin, and M. R. Zenn, “Early Experience with Fluorescent Angiography in Free-Tissue Transfer Reconstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 123(4), 1239–1244 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-H.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.-T.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, K.-Z.

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of Skin Flaps Using Optically Based Methods for Measuring Blood Flow and Oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 115(2), 539–546 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manson, P. N.

P. N. Manson, R. M. Anthenelli, M. J. Im, G. B. Bulkley, and J. E. Hoopes, “The role of oxygen-free radicals in ischemic tissue injury in island skin flaps,” Ann. Surg. 198(1), 87–90 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mantsch, H.

M. Attas, M. Hewko, J. Payette, T. Posthumus, M. Sowa, and H. Mantsch, “Visualization of cutaneous hemoglobin oxygenation and skin hydration using near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(4), 238–245 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mantsch, H. H.

M. G. Sowa, J. R. Payette, and H. H. Mantsch, “Near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of tissue hydration following surgery,” J. Surg. Res. 86(1), 62–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Stranc, M. G. Sowa, B. Abdulrauf, and H. H. Mantsch, “Assessment of tissue viability using near-infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 51(3), 210–217 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcus, J.

I. A. Pestana, B. Coan, D. Erdmann, J. Marcus, L. S. Levin, and M. R. Zenn, “Early Experience with Fluorescent Angiography in Free-Tissue Transfer Reconstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 123(4), 1239–1244 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mardini, S.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mayr, M.

C. Holm, M. Mayr, E. Höfter, A. Becker, U. J. Pfeiffer, and W. Mühlbauer, “Intraoperative evaluation of skin-flap viability using laser-induced fluorescence of indocyanine green,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 55(8), 635–644 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McFarlane, R. M.

G. Deyoung, R. A. Henry, and R. M. McFarlane, “The design of a pedicle flap in the rat to study necrosis and its prevention,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 35(2), 177–182 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mora, A. D.

L. Di Sieno, G. Bettega, M. Berger, C. Hamou, M. Aribert, A. D. Mora, A. Puszka, H. Grateau, D. Contini, L. Hervé, J.-L. Coll, J.-M. Dinten, A. Pifferi, and A. Planat-Chrétien, “Toward noninvasive assessment of flap viability with time-resolved diffuse optical tomography: a preclinical test on rats,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 025004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mühlbauer, W.

C. Holm, M. Mayr, E. Höfter, A. Becker, U. J. Pfeiffer, and W. Mühlbauer, “Intraoperative evaluation of skin-flap viability using laser-induced fluorescence of indocyanine green,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 55(8), 635–644 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nowroozi, B.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nuss, M. C.

Pabbies, A.

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of Skin Flaps Using Optically Based Methods for Measuring Blood Flow and Oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 115(2), 539–546 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Payette, J.

M. Attas, M. Hewko, J. Payette, T. Posthumus, M. Sowa, and H. Mantsch, “Visualization of cutaneous hemoglobin oxygenation and skin hydration using near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(4), 238–245 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Payette, J. R.

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of Skin Flaps Using Optically Based Methods for Measuring Blood Flow and Oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 115(2), 539–546 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Sowa, J. R. Payette, and H. H. Mantsch, “Near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of tissue hydration following surgery,” J. Surg. Res. 86(1), 62–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Percoraro, R. E.

G. S. Lazarus, D. M. Cooper, D. R. Knighton, R. E. Percoraro, G. Rodeheaver, and M. C. Robson, “Definitions and guidelines for assessment of wounds and evaluation of healing,” Wound Repair Regen. 2(3), 165–170 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pestana, I. A.

I. A. Pestana, B. Coan, D. Erdmann, J. Marcus, L. S. Levin, and M. R. Zenn, “Early Experience with Fluorescent Angiography in Free-Tissue Transfer Reconstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 123(4), 1239–1244 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, U. J.

C. Holm, M. Mayr, E. Höfter, A. Becker, U. J. Pfeiffer, and W. Mühlbauer, “Intraoperative evaluation of skin-flap viability using laser-induced fluorescence of indocyanine green,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 55(8), 635–644 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

L. Di Sieno, G. Bettega, M. Berger, C. Hamou, M. Aribert, A. D. Mora, A. Puszka, H. Grateau, D. Contini, L. Hervé, J.-L. Coll, J.-M. Dinten, A. Pifferi, and A. Planat-Chrétien, “Toward noninvasive assessment of flap viability with time-resolved diffuse optical tomography: a preclinical test on rats,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 025004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Planat-Chrétien, A.

L. Di Sieno, G. Bettega, M. Berger, C. Hamou, M. Aribert, A. D. Mora, A. Puszka, H. Grateau, D. Contini, L. Hervé, J.-L. Coll, J.-M. Dinten, A. Pifferi, and A. Planat-Chrétien, “Toward noninvasive assessment of flap viability with time-resolved diffuse optical tomography: a preclinical test on rats,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 025004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Posthumus, T.

M. Attas, M. Hewko, J. Payette, T. Posthumus, M. Sowa, and H. Mantsch, “Visualization of cutaneous hemoglobin oxygenation and skin hydration using near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(4), 238–245 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puszka, A.

L. Di Sieno, G. Bettega, M. Berger, C. Hamou, M. Aribert, A. D. Mora, A. Puszka, H. Grateau, D. Contini, L. Hervé, J.-L. Coll, J.-M. Dinten, A. Pifferi, and A. Planat-Chrétien, “Toward noninvasive assessment of flap viability with time-resolved diffuse optical tomography: a preclinical test on rats,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 025004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Querleux, B.

S. Richard, B. Querleux, J. Bittoun, O. Jolivet, I. Idy-Peretti, O. de Lacharriere, and J.-L. Leveque, “Characterization of the Skin In Vivo by High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Water Behavior and Age-Related Effects,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100(5), 705–709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ram, V.

Q. Yang, Z. H. Ren, D. Chickooree, H. J. Wu, H. Y. Tan, K. Wang, Z. J. He, C. J. Gong, V. Ram, and S. Zhang, “The effect of early detection of anterolateral thigh free flap crisis on the salvage success rate, based on 10 years of experience and 1072 flaps,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(9), 1059–1063 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, Z. H.

Q. Yang, Z. H. Ren, D. Chickooree, H. J. Wu, H. Y. Tan, K. Wang, Z. J. He, C. J. Gong, V. Ram, and S. Zhang, “The effect of early detection of anterolateral thigh free flap crisis on the salvage success rate, based on 10 years of experience and 1072 flaps,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(9), 1059–1063 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richard, S.

S. Richard, B. Querleux, J. Bittoun, O. Jolivet, I. Idy-Peretti, O. de Lacharriere, and J.-L. Leveque, “Characterization of the Skin In Vivo by High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Water Behavior and Age-Related Effects,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100(5), 705–709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robson, M. C.

G. S. Lazarus, D. M. Cooper, D. R. Knighton, R. E. Percoraro, G. Rodeheaver, and M. C. Robson, “Definitions and guidelines for assessment of wounds and evaluation of healing,” Wound Repair Regen. 2(3), 165–170 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodeheaver, G.

G. S. Lazarus, D. M. Cooper, D. R. Knighton, R. E. Percoraro, G. Rodeheaver, and M. C. Robson, “Definitions and guidelines for assessment of wounds and evaluation of healing,” Wound Repair Regen. 2(3), 165–170 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sayre, J.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sen, C. K.

G. M. Gordillo and C. K. Sen, “Revisiting the essential role of oxygen in wound healing,” Am. J. Surg. 186(3), 259–263 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” in Microwave Symposium Digest, 2004 IEEE MTT-S International (2004), 3, 1575–1578.
[Crossref]

Singh, R. S.

P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, D. B. Bennett, N. Bajwa, K. S. Barnett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sjöberg, F.

M. Bergkvist, J. Henricson, F. Iredahl, E. Tesselaar, F. Sjöberg, and S. Farnebo, “Assessment of microcirculation of the skin using Tissue Viability Imaging: A promising technique for detecting venous stasis in the skin,” Microvasc. Res. 101, 20–25 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smahel, J.

J. M. Converse, J. Smahel, D. L. Ballantyne, and A. D. Harper, “Inosculation of vessels of skin graft and host bed: A fortuitous encounter,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 28(4), 274–282 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sowa, M.

M. Attas, M. Hewko, J. Payette, T. Posthumus, M. Sowa, and H. Mantsch, “Visualization of cutaneous hemoglobin oxygenation and skin hydration using near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(4), 238–245 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sowa, M. G.

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of Skin Flaps Using Optically Based Methods for Measuring Blood Flow and Oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 115(2), 539–546 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Sowa, J. R. Payette, and H. H. Mantsch, “Near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of tissue hydration following surgery,” J. Surg. Res. 86(1), 62–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Stranc, M. G. Sowa, B. Abdulrauf, and H. H. Mantsch, “Assessment of tissue viability using near-infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 51(3), 210–217 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stojadinovic, A.

P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, D. B. Bennett, N. Bajwa, K. S. Barnett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stranc, M. F.

M. F. Stranc, M. G. Sowa, B. Abdulrauf, and H. H. Mantsch, “Assessment of tissue viability using near-infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 51(3), 210–217 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, S.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, H. Y.

Q. Yang, Z. H. Ren, D. Chickooree, H. J. Wu, H. Y. Tan, K. Wang, Z. J. He, C. J. Gong, V. Ram, and S. Zhang, “The effect of early detection of anterolateral thigh free flap crisis on the salvage success rate, based on 10 years of experience and 1072 flaps,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(9), 1059–1063 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, Z. D.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, D. B. Bennett, N. Bajwa, K. S. Barnett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tesselaar, E.

M. Bergkvist, J. Henricson, F. Iredahl, E. Tesselaar, F. Sjöberg, and S. Farnebo, “Assessment of microcirculation of the skin using Tissue Viability Imaging: A promising technique for detecting venous stasis in the skin,” Microvasc. Res. 101, 20–25 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tewari, P.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, D. B. Bennett, N. Bajwa, K. S. Barnett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsao, C.-K.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Voy, E.-D.

W. Eichhorn, T. Auer, E.-D. Voy, and K. Hoffmann, “Laser Doppler imaging of axial and random pattern flaps in the maxillo-facial area. A preliminary report,” J. Craniomaxillofac. Surg. 22(5), 301–306 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

Q. Yang, Z. H. Ren, D. Chickooree, H. J. Wu, H. Y. Tan, K. Wang, Z. J. He, C. J. Gong, V. Ram, and S. Zhang, “The effect of early detection of anterolateral thigh free flap crisis on the salvage success rate, based on 10 years of experience and 1072 flaps,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(9), 1059–1063 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, F.-C.

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H. J.

Q. Yang, Z. H. Ren, D. Chickooree, H. J. Wu, H. Y. Tan, K. Wang, Z. J. He, C. J. Gong, V. Ram, and S. Zhang, “The effect of early detection of anterolateral thigh free flap crisis on the salvage success rate, based on 10 years of experience and 1072 flaps,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(9), 1059–1063 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

Q. Yang, Z. H. Ren, D. Chickooree, H. J. Wu, H. Y. Tan, K. Wang, Z. J. He, C. J. Gong, V. Ram, and S. Zhang, “The effect of early detection of anterolateral thigh free flap crisis on the salvage success rate, based on 10 years of experience and 1072 flaps,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(9), 1059–1063 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zenn, M. R.

I. A. Pestana, B. Coan, D. Erdmann, J. Marcus, L. S. Levin, and M. R. Zenn, “Early Experience with Fluorescent Angiography in Free-Tissue Transfer Reconstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 123(4), 1239–1244 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

Q. Yang, Z. H. Ren, D. Chickooree, H. J. Wu, H. Y. Tan, K. Wang, Z. J. He, C. J. Gong, V. Ram, and S. Zhang, “The effect of early detection of anterolateral thigh free flap crisis on the salvage success rate, based on 10 years of experience and 1072 flaps,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(9), 1059–1063 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Surg. (1)

G. M. Gordillo and C. K. Sen, “Revisiting the essential role of oxygen in wound healing,” Am. J. Surg. 186(3), 259–263 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. (1)

P. N. Manson, R. M. Anthenelli, M. J. Im, G. B. Bulkley, and J. E. Hoopes, “The role of oxygen-free radicals in ischemic tissue injury in island skin flaps,” Ann. Surg. 198(1), 87–90 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Plast. Surg. (4)

J. M. Converse, J. Smahel, D. L. Ballantyne, and A. D. Harper, “Inosculation of vessels of skin graft and host bed: A fortuitous encounter,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 28(4), 274–282 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Holm, M. Mayr, E. Höfter, A. Becker, U. J. Pfeiffer, and W. Mühlbauer, “Intraoperative evaluation of skin-flap viability using laser-induced fluorescence of indocyanine green,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 55(8), 635–644 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Stranc, M. G. Sowa, B. Abdulrauf, and H. H. Mantsch, “Assessment of tissue viability using near-infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 51(3), 210–217 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Arnold, C. F. He, C. Y. Jia, and G. W. Cherry, “Perfusion imaging of skin island flap blood flow by a scanning laser-Doppler technique,” Br. J. Plast. Surg. 48(5), 280–287 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (2)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 170–183 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. (1)

Q. Yang, Z. H. Ren, D. Chickooree, H. J. Wu, H. Y. Tan, K. Wang, Z. J. He, C. J. Gong, V. Ram, and S. Zhang, “The effect of early detection of anterolateral thigh free flap crisis on the salvage success rate, based on 10 years of experience and 1072 flaps,” Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(9), 1059–1063 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, D. B. Bennett, N. Bajwa, K. S. Barnett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 040503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Di Sieno, G. Bettega, M. Berger, C. Hamou, M. Aribert, A. D. Mora, A. Puszka, H. Grateau, D. Contini, L. Hervé, J.-L. Coll, J.-M. Dinten, A. Pifferi, and A. Planat-Chrétien, “Toward noninvasive assessment of flap viability with time-resolved diffuse optical tomography: a preclinical test on rats,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 025004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Craniomaxillofac. Surg. (1)

W. Eichhorn, T. Auer, E.-D. Voy, and K. Hoffmann, “Laser Doppler imaging of axial and random pattern flaps in the maxillo-facial area. A preliminary report,” J. Craniomaxillofac. Surg. 22(5), 301–306 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

S. Richard, B. Querleux, J. Bittoun, O. Jolivet, I. Idy-Peretti, O. de Lacharriere, and J.-L. Leveque, “Characterization of the Skin In Vivo by High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Water Behavior and Age-Related Effects,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100(5), 705–709 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Surg. Res. (1)

M. G. Sowa, J. R. Payette, and H. H. Mantsch, “Near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of tissue hydration following surgery,” J. Surg. Res. 86(1), 62–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Microvasc. Res. (1)

M. Bergkvist, J. Henricson, F. Iredahl, E. Tesselaar, F. Sjöberg, and S. Farnebo, “Assessment of microcirculation of the skin using Tissue Viability Imaging: A promising technique for detecting venous stasis in the skin,” Microvasc. Res. 101, 20–25 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (4)

G. Deyoung, R. A. Henry, and R. M. McFarlane, “The design of a pedicle flap in the rat to study necrosis and its prevention,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 35(2), 177–182 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Payette, E. Kohlenberg, L. Leonardi, A. Pabbies, P. Kerr, K.-Z. Liu, and M. G. Sowa, “Assessment of Skin Flaps Using Optically Based Methods for Measuring Blood Flow and Oxygenation,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 115(2), 539–546 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-T. Chen, S. Mardini, D. C.-C. Chuang, C.-H. Lin, M.-H. Cheng, Y.-T. Lin, W.-C. Huang, C.-K. Tsao, and F.-C. Wei, “Timing of presentation of the first signs of vascular compromise dictates the salvage outcome of free flap transfers,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 120(1), 187–195 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Pestana, B. Coan, D. Erdmann, J. Marcus, L. S. Levin, and M. R. Zenn, “Early Experience with Fluorescent Angiography in Free-Tissue Transfer Reconstruction,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 123(4), 1239–1244 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skin Res. Technol. (1)

M. Attas, M. Hewko, J. Payette, T. Posthumus, M. Sowa, and H. Mantsch, “Visualization of cutaneous hemoglobin oxygenation and skin hydration using near-infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(4), 238–245 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wound Repair Regen. (2)

W. A. Dorsett-Martin, “Rat models of skin wound healing: a review,” Wound Repair Regen. 12(6), 591–599 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Lazarus, D. M. Cooper, D. R. Knighton, R. E. Percoraro, G. Rodeheaver, and M. C. Robson, “Definitions and guidelines for assessment of wounds and evaluation of healing,” Wound Repair Regen. 2(3), 165–170 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (6)

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, and others, “THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. IEEE Trans. On 5, 184–196 (2015).

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” (2006).

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” in Microwave Symposium Digest, 2004 IEEE MTT-S International (2004), 3, 1575–1578.
[Crossref]

N. Bajwa, B. Nowroozi, S. Sung, J. Garritano, A. Maccabi, P. Tewari, M. Culjat, R. Singh, J. Alger, W. Grundfest, and Z. Taylor, “Reflective THz and MR imaging of burn wounds: a potential clinical validation of THz contrast mechanisms,” in (2012), Vol. 8496, p. 84960X–84960X–7.

“Skin graft survival on avascular defects.:  Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery,” http://journals.lww.com/plasreconsurg/Fulltext/1975/01000/SKIN_GRAFT_SURVIVAL_ON_AVASCULAR_DEFECTS_.10.aspx .

J. Burge, “Essentials of Plastic Surgery – Second Edition. Edited by J. E. Janis. St. Louis, MO/Boca Raton, FL: PB - QMP/CRC Press, 2014. 1336 pages. Paperback. ISBN: 978-1-57626-385-3. Price: $AUD132.00.,” ANZ J. Surg. 84, 981–982 (2014).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 In vivo THz imaging system. (a) Visible image of the reflective THz system. Dorsal flaps of anesthetized rats are raster scanned on x- and y-stepper motors beneath the imager. The encirlcled optics correspond to (b) off-axis parabolic (OAP) mirrors used to focus the THz beam onto a thin-film Mylar window that serves to mitigate surface contours of the underlying flap.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Myocutaneous flap design. (a) An axially-based bipedicled flap (i.e. survival model), measuring 2.5 x 2.5 cm2 in area with cephalic and caudal incisions, that is elevated deep to the panniculus carnosous and then (b) surgically secured in its anatomical position. (c) Completely excised myocutaneous skin flap (i.e. failure model), measuring 2.5 x 2.5 cm2 in area with circumferential flap excision, that is elevated deep to the panniculus carnosous and (d) sutured back in anatomic position. “L,” “D,” and “C” correspond to lateral, dorsal, and cephalic anatomical directions of the rat.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Histology design. Histological evaluation of tissue viability for (a) an excised flap and (b) a bipedicled flap in a rat imaged under a Mylar window (denoted by the solid black circle). A zoom-in diagram shows the field of view (FOV) of the window, which captures the flap tissue (hatched red region), incisions (solid red lines), and non-traumatized tissue (surrounding tan region. Sagittal histological slices of 5 µm thickness were taken from 2 cm x 2 mm tissue sections (dotted green rectangle) harvested from the cephalic incision site (solid red arrow) on day 7. Dotted red arrow denotes the lateral incision. A suture in each slice (black loop) served as an intradermal fiducial marker for image registration of histology to the same region in the FOV captured by THz-time series imagery. “L,” “D,” and “C” correspond to anatomical directions detailed in Fig. 2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 In vivo visible and THz time-series flap imagery. (a) Excised flaps and (b) bipedicled flaps in the dorsum of anesthetized rats were imaged under a 12.7 µm Mylar window over a 7-day period. Uninjured tissue and flap tissue are labeled in yellow and gray fields, respectively, in visible images acquired at 15min following surgery. The hot color map of THz imagery transforms black to the global minimum THz reflectivity and white to the global maximum THz reflectivity. “L,” “D,” and “C” in the 3D axis denote directions detailed in Fig. 2. Black scale bars represent ~1 cm in the FOV. ~1.5 cm long contours, indicated by solid white horizontal lines, segment the cephalic incision, flap region, and non-traumatized tissue. Solid white arrows locate the leakage of blood, indicated by high THz reflectivity, from the incision site.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spatial THz reflectivity profiles for THz flap image sets. (a) Profiles of %∆ THz reflectivity in excised flaps and (b) bipedicled flaps with respect to pre-surgery values were generated for white contours that segment THz images in Fig. 4. These THz profiles captured the cephalic incision (i.e. dashed vertical lines), flap region (i.e. left of incision), and non-traumatized tissue (i.e. right of incision) of tissue flaps at 15min, 24hr, and 48hr post-operation. All red arrows denote increased THz reflectivity due to the presence of blood immediately following surgery, a confounder to THz contrast. (c) Pixel-by-pixel differences in THz reflectivity between both flap models at 24hr following surgery were confirmed to be statistically significant (p <0.05, the solid red line) across the entire length of the white contour (i.e. x-axis) using an independent student t-test.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Clinical and histological assessment of flap viability. Post-operative visual surveillance of (a) excised flaps and (b) bipedicled flaps over 7 days. “L,” “D,” and “C” correspond to directions in Fig. 2. (c) 1X and 2X representative hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining for tissue flap margins spatially map to the cephalic incision at day 7, demarcated by white horizontal lines in the visible imagery. In the H&E image, flap tissue and non-traumatized tissue lie to the left and right of the incision site (denoted by a black arrow), respectively. Necrotic tissue appears dark magenta in the H&E stain. The black scale bar and red scale bar represent ~1 mm and ~450 µm, respectively.

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